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Sample records for administered neuropsychological tests

  1. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  2. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  3. Social facilitation effect of examiner attention or inattention to computer-administered neuropsychological tests: first sign that the examiner may affect results.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christinex J; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that third-party observation impairs performance on some types of neuropsychological tests. The current study was designed to determine if the examiner's attention or inattention during computerized tests would have similar effects on performance as third-party presence or absence. This study examined the effects of the test administrator's attention or inattention on the performance of 74 undergraduates on computerized versions of the Word Memory Test, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The results from independent samples t-tests showed that there were significantly more total errors on the TOMM in the unobserved group than the observed group. This is the first indication that computerized symptom validity tests may be affected by examiner's attention to the examinee's performance.

  4. Social facilitation effect of examiner attention or inattention to computer-administered neuropsychological tests: first sign that the examiner may affect results.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christinex J; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that third-party observation impairs performance on some types of neuropsychological tests. The current study was designed to determine if the examiner's attention or inattention during computerized tests would have similar effects on performance as third-party presence or absence. This study examined the effects of the test administrator's attention or inattention on the performance of 74 undergraduates on computerized versions of the Word Memory Test, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The results from independent samples t-tests showed that there were significantly more total errors on the TOMM in the unobserved group than the observed group. This is the first indication that computerized symptom validity tests may be affected by examiner's attention to the examinee's performance. PMID:17613984

  5. [Neuropsychological testing in medicolegal cases].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Because the assessment of cognitive function is among the most important diagnostic evaluations in medicolegal cases, neuropsychological testing, the optimal scientific method available to determine the manifestation of brain dysfunction, is a potentially very strong tool in those cases. However, the use of neuropsychological testing in a medicolegal setting should be done with caution. Firstly, the nature of any neuropsychological testing is complex, and cannot be simplified as "Test A measures Function A' ". Oversimplified explanation of a test is misleading, resulting in serious misjudgment in the legal procedure. Secondly, the result of the test shows someone's cognitive function at the time of the test, not the time of the act in question (i. e., a crime). Finally and most importantly, the cognitive function measured by neuropsychological testing does not directly correspond to the legal questions being asked, even when the terms used in the fields of law and neuroscience are similar. In determining whether an individual meets a specified legal standard (e. g., criminal responsibility), the results of neuropsychological testing are far from sufficient and substantial additional information is required. With these caveats in mind, an expert witness should carefully choose the neuropsychological testing battery in each case, which may greatly help to understand the individual's mental state at the time of the act in question. PMID:24341071

  6. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  7. [Computer assisted neuropsychological testing of children].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, U; Dahl, R; White, R F; Grandjean, P

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of a computer-assisted neuro-psychological test program, the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), in six to seven year-old children. We administered three NES tests, Finger Tapping (FT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Hand-Eye Coordination (HEC) to Faroese and Danish children. The FT and CPT were of appropriate difficulty, while the HE was too difficult for the majority of the children. Boys obtained better scores than the girls, and children who were familiar with computers and video games performed better than those without such experience. Older children also obtained better scores than younger ones, especially in the Faroese group. The Danish children performed better than the Faroese in FT and CPT. In HE there was no difference. The NES tests are feasible for children at this age, but appropriate comparison groups must be secured. PMID:9641043

  8. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau. PMID:14590626

  9. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  10. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  11. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  12. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  13. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  14. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed.

  15. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed. PMID:21846219

  16. Contributions of the Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) for the diagnosis of MCI in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Memória, Cláudia M; Yassuda, Mônica S; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments. Results: The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p < 0.001). A moderate level of concurrent validity was attained relative to the screening test for MCI (MoCA test, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of the original test, i.e., memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness of fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.09). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses suggested high sensitivity and specificity (81% and 73% respectively) to screen for possible MCI cases. Conclusions: The CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required.

  17. The Boder Test: Neuropsychological and Demographic Features of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of 30 children in reading categories defined by performance on the Boder Test. Provided evidence that the Boder Test may be a nonbiased valid screening test for the identification of dyslexia and dyslexic subtypes. (JAC)

  18. Conducting research with non-clinical healthy undergraduates: does effort play a role in neuropsychological test performance?

    PubMed

    An, Kelly Y; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Joordens, Steve

    2012-12-01

    Poor effort by examinees during neuropsychological testing has a profound effect on test performance. Although neuropsychological experiments often utilize healthy undergraduate students, the test-taking effort of this population has not been investigated previously. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether undergraduate students exercise variable effort in neuropsychological testing. During two testing sessions, participants (N = 36) were administered three Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs), the Test of Memory Malingering, the Dot Counting Test, and the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), along with various neuropsychological tests. Analyses revealed 55.6% of participants in Session 1 and 30.8% of participants in Session 2 exerted poor effort on at least one SVT. Poor effort on the SVTs was significantly correlated with poor performance on various neuropsychological tests and there was support for the temporal stability of effort. These preliminary results suggest that the base rate of suboptimal effort in a healthy undergraduate population is quite high. Accordingly, effort may serve as a source of variance in neuropsychological research when using undergraduate students.

  19. Effects of Anxiety and Sex on Neuropsychological Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Glen D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studied effects of anxiety and sex on neuropsychological test performance. Right-handed subjects responded to the Finger Tapping (FT), Form Board (FB), and State-Trait Anxiety tests. Females performed significantly slower on the FT than males, and for females, trait anxiety was negatively correlated with FT performance and positively correlated…

  20. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  1. Can neuropsychological testing produce unequivocal evidence of brain damage? II. Testing for right vs. left differences.

    PubMed

    Reitan, Ralph M; Wolfson, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Sensation and perception, as well as motor functions, have played an important role in the history of psychology. Although tests of these abilities are sometimes included in neuropsychological assessments, comparisons of intraindividual performances on the two sides of the body (as a basis for drawing conclusions and comparisons about the functional status of the two cerebral hemispheres) are in many instances neglected or considered only casually. This study, utilizing several motor and sensory-perceptual tests, compared intraindividual differences on the two sides of the body in a group of controls and a group of persons with brain damage. The results indicated that the sensory-perceptual tests were particularly effective in differentiating the groups. More than 60% of the group with brain damage had greater differences on the two sides of the body than did any of the controls. These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of persons with cerebral disease or damage may be subject to unequivocal identification using sensory-perceptual tests that take only about 20 minutes to administer. These tests may serve a valuable role as an adjunct to comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and should be further evaluated in this respect.

  2. Neuropsychological Testing in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What to Do When Baseline Testing Is Not Available.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Peter; Meyer, Jessica; Merritt, Victoria; Guty, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Barth and colleagues' seminal study using baseline neuropsychological testing as a model for sports concussion management serves as the template for many collegiate sports medicine programs. However, there remains a significant need for an evidence-based strategy in cases where no baseline testing has been conducted. In this article, we further articulate such a model based on work with athletes at our Division I university. The foundation of the model involves base rates of impairment in a typical neurocognitive sports concussion battery, with decision rules that differ slightly for males and females. There is flexibility in the model such that its application can start during an acute period postconcussion when athletes are still potentially symptomatic, as well as after athletes self-report being symptom free. We use our population of collegiate athletes and the tests we administer as a framework to provide concrete values to the proposed algorithm based on specific tests, but the logic of our evidence-based model could easily be applied to other sports concussion populations and neurocognitive test batteries. Our proposed neuropsychological concussion management guidelines are evidence based, but also allow for accommodating trends in the literature which suggest that increasingly individualistic clinical concussion management approaches are most prudent. PMID:27482777

  3. Predictors of Neuropsychological Test Performance After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus; Nesbit-Greene, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The influence of neurological and demographic variables on neuropsychological test performance was examined in 100 9- to 16-year-old children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of coma, neuroimaging findings, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender to variance in…

  4. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  5. Predicting neuropsychological test performance on the basis of temporal orientation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M; Bergner, CariAnn M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2009-05-01

    Temporal orientation is often disrupted in the context of psychiatric or neurological disease; tests assessing this function are included in most mental status examinations. The present study examined the relationship between scores on the Temporal Orientation Scale (TOS) and performance on a battery of tests that assess memory, language, and cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (N = 55). Pearson-product moment correlations showed that, in all but two instances, the TOS was significantly correlated with each neuropsychological measure, p values < or = .05. Also, severely disoriented (i.e., TOS score < or = -8) patients were consistently 'impaired' on memory tests but not on tests of language and general cognitive functioning.

  6. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  7. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  8. Neuropsychologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Palta, P; Snitz, B; Carlson, M C

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the use of neuropsychologic assessment in epidemiologic studies. First, we provide a brief introduction to the history of clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychologic assessment. We expand on the principal components of a neuropsychologic assessment and cognitive domains most commonly examined. This chapter also seeks to highlight specific domains and tests with validated psychometric properties that are widely accepted in clinical practice, as well as how data from a neuropsychologic test should be interpreted. Additionally, the important roles that neuropsychologic assessments play in tracking normative changes, patient diagnoses, care, and research will be discussed. Factors to consider when deciding on the inclusion of test instruments for a research study will also be reviewed. Lastly, we shed light on the contributions that neuropsychology has played in epidemiologic studies, as well as some challenges frequently faced when participating in this field of research. PMID:27637955

  9. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  10. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  12. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  13. A brief neuropsychological testing battery for evaluating patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert M; Jackson, Warren T; Sourathathone, Choun M

    2003-06-01

    Current conceptualizations of schizophrenia include neurocognitive impairment, particularly in aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. Evaluation of these cognitive abilities typically involves use of comprehensive batteries which may take up to six hours to complete. The current study examined the effectiveness of a briefer battery to detect cognitive impairments usually seen in schizophrenia as established by previous studies using more lengthy and labor intensive protocols. The current study involved 61 outpatients with schizophrenia who were separated into three subgroups: paranoid type (n = 20), undifferentiated type (n = 21), and schizoaffective (n = 20). The majority of the patients were male (61%), African-American (52%), and of low socio-economic status. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD = 8.8), and the mean years of education was 11.7 (SD = 6.8). For the overall sample, results revealed mild to moderate impairments in memory, construction, concept formation, response set maintenance, psychomotor speed, and visual speed of information processing. Post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between subgroups on Similarities and psychomotor speed, with the undifferentiated group performing more poorly than the paranoid or schizoaffective groups. In conclusion, the current brief battery minimized respondent burden in terms of both time demands and level of task complexity. However, it was also sensitive enough to capture many of the same cognitive weaknesses as those reported when using more labor-intensive neuropsychological test protocols.

  14. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances.

  15. An interdisciplinary approach to neuropsychological test construction: perspectives from translation studies.

    PubMed

    Bender, H Allison; Martín García, Adolfo; Barr, William B

    2010-03-01

    Few neuropsychological tests have been developed specifically for non-English speakers. Rather, assessment measures are often derived from English source texts (STs) and translated into foreign language target texts (TTs). An abundant literature describes the potential for translation error occurring in test construction. While the neuropsychology community has striven to correct these inadequacies, interdisciplinary approaches to test translation have been largely ignored. Translation studies, which has roots in linguistics, semiotics, computer science, anthropology, and philosophy, may provide a much-needed framework for test development. We aim to apply specific aspects of Descriptive Translation Studies to present unique and heretofore unapplied frameworks to the socio-cultural conceptualizations of translated tests. In doing so, a more theoretical basis for test construction will be explored. To this end, translation theory can provide valuable insights toward the development of linguistically and culturally relevant neuropsychological test measures suitable for an increasingly diverse patient base.

  16. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population?

    PubMed

    Hestad, Knut A; Menon, J Anitha; Serpell, Robert; Kalungwana, Lisa; Mwaba, Sidney O C; Kabuba, Norma; Franklin, Donald R; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Zambian adults (N = 324) were evaluated to determine to what degree a Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery, with African American norms adjusted for age, gender, and education could be used in healthy Zambians, including 157 men (48.46%) and 167 women (51.54%) with an average age of 38.48 (SD = 12.80) years and an average education level of 11.02 (SD = 2.58) years. The NP battery included tests of attention/working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. The Zambian Achievement Test (ZAT) and the U.S. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) reading subtest also were administered to assess literacy and quality of education. Similar to findings in Western countries, the Zambian results show substantial age and education effects on most tests and smaller, less consistent effects of gender. Beyond the basic demographic effects, urban/rural background had small effects on some cognitive variables, and the ZAT (but not WRAT-4) reading level was a robust predictor of performance on many NP tests, even when other background characteristics were controlled. Women in the United States tend to outperform men on tests of processing speed and episodic memory. However, Zambian women showed modest but statistically significant disadvantages versus their male counterparts. The results show that tests developed in the United States may be used in Zambia. Nevertheless, development and use of local cultural norms remains very important and is a must. New demographically corrected norms were developed for the cohort that was examined. PMID:26146950

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  18. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico. PMID:21264515

  19. Relationship of Temporal Lobe Volumes to Neuropsychological Test Performance in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy…

  20. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  1. Beyond localization: the role of traditional neuropsychological tests in an age of imaging.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Thompson, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present two significant challenges to the rationale and role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates today. The first is a direct challenge to the model of material-specific memory that has underpinned much clinical practice over the last 50 years. The second, more fundamental, challenge goes to the very heart of the lateralizing/localizing approach that has been the cornerstone of clinical neuropsychology practice in epilepsy surgery centers to date. This review examines these challenges and suggests some ways in which the profession might respond and adapt. We conclude that noninvasive neuropsychological assessment remains a critical investigation in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery patients. Its value stretches beyond the localization of a surgically remediable seizure focus. Once a vital test, other investigations are now superior in this respect in many cases. However, new technologies have enhanced the role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment, which is now able to provide unparalleled insights and predictions into the way in which the underlying pathology, seizures, and proposed surgery shape an individual's profile of cognitive abilities. Detailed neuropsychological feedback enables the patient to make an informed decision, and forms the basis of the tailor made preemptive rehabilitation programs that can be implemented preoperatively, minimizing the most significant morbidity associated with epilepsy surgery today.

  2. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  3. Intraindividual neuropsychological test variability in healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Holster, Jessica L; Golden, Charles J

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of patterns of neuropsychological performance among normal, healthy individuals is integral to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, because clinicians may not always account for intraindividual variability (IIV) before coming to diagnostic conclusions. The IIV was assessed among a sample of 46 healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment, utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). The data indicated substantial variability in neurocognitive abilities. All participants were found to demonstrate scores considered impaired by at least 2 standard deviations (SDs). Despite adjusting for outliers, no participant produced a "normal" testing profile with an intraindividual maximum discrepancy (MD) of less than 1 SD in either direction. When WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was considered, participants generally demonstrated cognitive test scores ranging from 2 SDs less than to 1.5 SDs greater than their FSIQ. Furthermore, after demographic corrections, the majority (59%) of participants demonstrated at least 1 impaired cognitive test score, as defined by being 1 to 1.5 SDs below the mean. Overall, results substantiate the need for clinicians to consider FSIQ and educational attainment in interpretation of neuropsychological testing results, given the relevant commonality of "abnormal" test scores within this population. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of making false-positive conclusions of impairment when educational attainment and intelligence are high, thus improving diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  5. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  6. Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychological Tests Validate Positron Emission Topography (PET) Brain Metabolism in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Damle, Uma J.; Kerner, Mallory; Dushaj, Kristina; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Topography (PET) brain hypometabolism (HM) correlates with diminished cognitive capacity and risk of developing dementia. However, because clinical utility of PET is limited by cost, we sought to determine whether a less costly electrophysiological measure, the P300 evoked potential, in combination with neuropsychological test performance, would validate PET HM in neuropsychiatric patients. We found that patients with amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairment and HM (n = 43) evidenced significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, delayed latencies, and neuropsychological deficits, compared to patients with normal brain metabolism (NM; n = 187). Data from patients with missing cognitive test scores (n = 57) were removed from the final sample, and logistic regression modeling was performed on the modified sample (n = 173, p = .000004). The logistic regression modeling, based on P300 and neuropsychological measures, was used to validate membership in the HM vs. NM groups. It showed classification validation in 13/25 HM subjects (52.0%) and in 125/148 NM subjects (84.5%), correlating with total classification accuracy of 79.8%. In this paper, abnormal P300 evoked potentials coupled with cognitive test impairment validates brain metabolism and mild/moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). To this end, we cautiously propose incorporating electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessments as cost-effective brain metabolism and MCI indicators in primary care. Final interpretation of these results must await required additional studies confirming these interesting results. PMID:23526928

  7. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  8. Influence of negative stereotypes and beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a traumatic brain injury population.

    PubMed

    Kit, Karen A; Mateer, Catherine A; Tuokko, Holly A; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The impact of stereotype threat and self-efficacy beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) population was investigated. A total of 42 individuals with mild-to-moderate TBI and 42 (age-, gender-, educationally matched) healthy adults were recruited. The study consisted of a 2 (Type of injury: control, TBI) × 2 (Threat Condition: reduced threat, heightened threat) between-participants design. The purpose of the reduced threat condition was to reduce negative stereotyped beliefs regarding cognitive effects of TBI and to emphasize personal control over cognition. The heightened threat condition consisted of an opposing view. Main effects included greater anxiety, motivation, and dejection but reduced memory self-efficacy for head-injured-groups, compared to control groups. On neuropsychological testing, the TBI-heightened-threat-group displayed lower scores on Initial Encoding (initial recall) and trended toward displaying lower scores on Attention (working memory) compared to the TBI-reduced-threat-group. No effect was found for Delayed Recall measures. Memory self-efficacy mediated the relation between threat condition and neuropsychological performance, indicating a potential mechanism for the threat effect. The findings highlight the impact of stereotype threat and self-referent beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical TBI population. PMID:24352047

  9. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r = 0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r = 0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n = 26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  10. The effect of acute stress on subsequent neuropsychological test performance (2003).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Al'Absi, Mustafa

    2004-06-01

    Acute mental stressors have been implicated as variables that may deleteriously affect neuropsychological test performance by increasing distractibility and decreasing working memory function. This study examined 25 subjects with no known neurological or psychiatric impairment on a brief battery of neuropsychological measures on alternate days following either rest or induced mental stress in a counterbalanced design. The test battery consisted of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the Rey Complex Figure, and three Wechsler Memory Scale-III subtests (Logical Memory, Digit Span, and Visual Memory Span). The Ss average age was 24.8 years (S.D. = 10.1) and average education was 15.0 years (S.D. = 1.6). The mental stressor employed was a videotaped public-speaking exercise that has been shown in previous work to induce negative mood, cardiovascular reactivity, and perceived mental stress. Ss demonstrated statistically significant (P < .05) increases in negative mood, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure as well as elevated cortisol concentration following induced stress, suggesting substantially increased adrenocortical reactivity and cardiovascular stress response. There were, however, no statistically significant differences in any of the neuropsychological measures when stress versus rest days were compared. The results suggest that acute mental stressors may have no measurable effect on subsequent performance on selected neuropsychological tests in a normal population. Further work is suggested to determine whether pre-existing anxiety-related psychopathology or pre-existing neurological compromise might interact with induced mental stress to cause decrements in neuropsychological test performance.

  11. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  12. Unawareness of illness in chronic schizophrenia and its relationship to structural brain measures and neuropsychological tests.

    PubMed

    Larøi, F; Fannemel, M; Rønneberg, U; Flekkøy, K; Opjordsmoen, S; Dullerud, R; Haakonsen, M

    2000-11-20

    The present study seeks to elucidate the relationship between unawareness of illness in schizophrenia and frontal lobe dysfunction, in addition to investigating the relationship between lack of insight and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Twenty-one medicated schizophrenic patients, recruited from in- and out-patient wards at Ullevâl Hospital, underwent the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), neuropsychological testing, psychiatric symptom ratings and neuroimaging procedures (CT). Also, 21 matched normal controls were neuropsychologically tested. CT data were assessed blindly by two experienced neuroradiologists, according to the degree of ventricular enlargement and/or sulcal widening, and an assessment of localisation of atrophy was made. Unawareness of illness was correlated with neuropsychological measures related to executive functioning, but not with other neuropsychological measures. Five patients showed slight frontal atrophy, while two showed moderate frontal atrophy. The remaining 13 patients did not show signs of frontal lobe atrophy. Frontal lobe atrophy documented by structural brain measures was associated with poor insight in schizophrenia. Furthermore, Anergia (BPRS), GAF score and 'undifferentiated' sub-diagnosis correlated with SUMD scores. Unawareness of illness in schizophrenia may be related to frontal lobe deficit. Also, awareness of illness may not be related to general psychopathology, but rather to specific aspects.

  13. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, M. Angelyn; Price, Hermione C.; Sourij, Harald; White, Sarah; Coleman, Ruth L.; Ring, Arne; Kennedy, Irene E.C.; Tucker, Lynne; Holman, Rury R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a disposable, self-administered, capillary blood sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) device in a community setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen healthy and 12 type 2 diabetic volunteers underwent six 75-g OGTTs using a prototype device in the following three settings: unaided at home (twice); unaided but observed in clinic (twice); and performed by a nurse with simultaneous laboratory glucose assays of 0- and 120-min venous plasma samples (twice). The device displayed no results. A detachable data recorder returned to the clinic provided plasma-equivalent 0- and 120-min glucose values and key parameters, including test date, start and end times, and time taken to consume the glucose drink. RESULTS The device was universally popular with participants and was perceived as easy to use, and the ability to test at home was well liked. Device failures meant that 0- and 120-min glucose values were obtained for only 141 (78%) of the 180 OGTTs performed, independent of setting. Device glucose measurements showed a mean bias compared with laboratory-measured values of +0.9 at 5.0 mmol/L increasing to +4.4 at 15.0 mmol/L. Paired device glucose values were equally reproducible across settings, with repeat testing showing no training effect regardless of setting order. CONCLUSIONS Self-administered OGTTs can be performed successfully by untrained individuals in a community setting. With improved device reliability and appropriate calibration, this novel technology could be used in routine practice to screen people who might need a formal OGTT to confirm the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. PMID:23321216

  14. Neuropsychological Testing of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Problems and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nancy W.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1979-01-01

    The study involving 13 developmentally delayed children (36-66 months old) was conducted to determine the applicability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Motor Impersistence Test, Graphesthesia Test, and Stereognosis-Tactile Test with developmentally delayed infants and preschoolers. (SBH)

  15. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  16. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  17. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms. PMID:26883764

  18. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological testing for neuronal connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianhui; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Ekholm, Sven; Kavcic, Voyko

    2004-04-01

    We have used MR DTI to identify relevant brain structures involved in visuospatial processing, in an attempt to link perceptual and attentional impairments to WM changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Correlation of DTI measured parameters with results of several neuropsychological tests will be reported here. Several issues related to quantitation of DTI parameters in ROI analysis are addressed. In spite of only a small number of subjects were studied so far, we found not only that AD patients showed significant decrease of white matter (WM) integrity in corpus callosum (CC), most prominent at the posterior portion, but also found significant correlations between the DTI parameters and scores from several neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary results suggest that DTI help to improve the overall accuracy rate in distinguishing between early AD onset and age-related functional decline, and potentially may improve efficiency in differentiating between different types of dementia.

  19. Do Laboratory Tests Predict Everyday Memory? A Neuropsychological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between memory performance in everyday life and performance on laboratory tests was investigated with normal-memory and previously severely head-injured subjects. Correlation of the two test types was found in normal-memory and long-term head-injured, but not with the recently-injured. Highest correlations were with prose recall…

  20. Cortical brain atrophy and intra-individual variability in neuropsychological test performance in HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsay J; Miller, Eric N; Hinkin, Charles H; Alger, Jeffery R; Barker, Peter; Goodkin, Karl; Martin, Eileen M; Maruca, Victoria; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Sanders, Joanne; Selnes, Ola; Becker, James T

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:26303224

  1. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Aguiar, Wagner; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; de Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Methods A neuropsychological assessment was made in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia, aged over 65 years, literate, with no history of psychiatric or neurological problems and score on the Mini Mental State Examination at or above the cutoff point for the Brazilian population (>18 or >23) according to the schooling level of the subject. Eighty patients were evaluated by a trained team of neuropsychologists up to 24 hours before elective surgery. Results Among the patients evaluated, one was excluded due to score below the cutoff point in the Mini Mental State Examination and two did not complete the test battery, thus remaining 77 patients in the study. The mean age was 69±7.5 years, and 62.34% of the subjects had ±4 years of study. The subjects had significantly lower averages than expected (p<0.001) for normative tables on neuropsychological tests. Conclusion The study demonstrated the applicability of the instruments in the Brazilian elderly and low schooling level population, but suggested the need to determine cutoff points appropriate for these individuals, ensuring the correct interpretation of results. This battery is relevant to postoperative follow-up evaluations, favoring the diagnosis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing different types of surgery and anesthetic techniques. PMID:25993064

  2. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. Methods The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. Results The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:27171377

  3. Neuropsychological assessment with the Visual Gestalt Test: psychometric properties and differential diagnostic probabilities.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter; Andersen, Ruth

    2006-02-01

    The Visual Gestalt Test is a neuropsychological instrument developed for evaluation of learning and memory of visuo-spatial material. A revised strategy of scoring has motivated the present study, where data from 153 normal persons, 99 epilepsy patients, and 24 depressed patients are presented and compared. The Visual Gestalt Test is observed to discriminate between normal and diagnosed groups in several ways. Additionally it is found to discriminate between depressed and brain damage subgroups of patients. Data are presented in order to supplement previously published ways of scoring and norms. Practical guidelines for the clinical applications of the test are suggested as perspectives. PMID:16433657

  4. The impact of education and acculturation on nonverbal neuropsychological test performance among Latino/a patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saez, Pedro A; Bender, Heidi Allison; Barr, William B; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Morrison, Chris E; Hassenstab, Jason; Rodriguez, Marivelisse; Vazquez, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between various sociocultural factors (e.g., acculturation, education), neurological variables (e.g., epilepsy duration and seizure frequency) and nonverbal neuropsychological (NP) test performance in a sample of 305 Latino/a and Non-Latino/a White adults with and without epilepsy. All participants completed nonverbal NP measures of visuospatial skills, memory, executive functioning, and psychomotor speed. An acculturation scale was administered to Spanish-speaking epilepsy patients and controls. Education was strongly correlated with performance on all but one of the nonverbal measures across the entire sample. Among Spanish-speaking Latino/a patients with epilepsy, level of acculturation to U.S. culture was associated with a measure of behavioral inflexibility (p < .05) and with a composite measure of nonverbal NP test performance (p < .05). Finally, the results of hierarchical regression models showed that sociocultural factors accounted for a greater proportion of variance in nonverbal NP test performance than did neurological factors. These results provide further evidence that sociocultural factors are strong predictors of NP test performance in clinical populations, even on nonverbal tests. Assessment of acculturation may be as critical as assessment of disease factors in interpreting cognitive performance in Latino/a individuals.

  5. Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations. PMID:12126285

  6. Effects of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on neuropsychological test performance: complicating an already complicated story.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Jelinek, Lena; Brooks, Amanda M; Scheurich, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result in secondary test impairment and mimic manifestations of neural dysfunction. A total of 60 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls were tested with a multi-functional neuropsychological battery. At the end of the testing participants were asked about their effort and the severity of OCD symptoms during task execution. Up to one fourth of the OCD patients affirmed OCD-related worries and motivational problems during task execution. Poor motivation and checking were significantly associated with enhanced objective performance deficits. Whereas the present study does not negate a role of neurocognitive deficits in the formation of OCD, in our view the reverse relationship should be contemplated as well. We advise researchers to pay closer attention to possible confounds that may mediate the relationship between OCD and neurocognition. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:22166079

  7. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurnani, Ashita S.; Saurman, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kimberly R.; Steinberg, Eric G.; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed—but not the immediate—recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants—but not participants with AD—improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects—especially on the delayed recall condition—suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  8. A Preliminary Validity Study of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery for the Assessment of Executive Function in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Methods Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. Results The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. Conclusion This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings. PMID:25395970

  9. Normative data for a brief neuropsychologic test battery in a cohort of injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Concha, M; Selnes, O A; McArthur, J C; Nance-Sproson, T; Updike, M L; Royal, W; Solomon, L; Vlahov, D

    1995-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies of the cognitive performance of injecting drug users have demonstrated the need to establish appropriate test norms for this population. This report provides normative data from a group of 150 injecting drug users on a battery of standardized tests of cognitive performance stratified by age group (range 20 to 49 years) and educational level (mean 11.6, standard deviation 2.0). The analysis also includes estimation of partial correlations between neuropsychologic test scores and age and education. The analysis demonstrates that age and education are important determinants of performance for several of these tests, and provides norms that may be of use as a reference for clinical evaluation and research in drug user populations. PMID:7558472

  10. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:10439587

  11. A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome examined with SPECT and neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Landtblom, A-M; Dige, N; Schwerdt, K; Säfström, P; Granérus, G

    2002-04-01

    A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome with typical periodic hypersomnia and bulimia was diagnosed. On examination with single photo emission tomography (SPECT) (CERETEC) during a relapse period and 2 weeks later there was marked cortical hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes, especially on the left side as well as in the right parietal lobe. Neuropsychological testing performed 1 week after a relapse showed a reduction in encoding to memory function of verbal learning indicating neocortical damage of the left fronto-temporal region. A follow-up 2 months later after the patient had spontaneously recovered showed only a slight left fronto-temporal disturbance. CT and MRI of the brain were normal although the MRI showed a large and asymmetric mamillary body. Neuropsychological testing 6 years after recovery showed pronounced reduction in short-time verbal and visual memory. Seven years after recovery SPECT demonstrated a normalized frontal perfusion but still a slight hypoperfusion in the left temporal lobe. Our results correlate to autopsy findings in two cases described previously.

  12. Aging reduces veridical remembering but increases false remembering: neuropsychological test correlates of remember-know judgments.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A; Balota, David A

    2009-09-01

    In 1985 Tulving introduced the remember-know procedure, whereby subjects are asked to distinguish between memories that involve retrieval of contextual details (remembering) and memories that do not (knowing). Several studies have been reported showing age-related declines in remember hits, which has typically been interpreted as supporting dual-process theories of cognitive aging that align remembering with a recollection process and knowing with a familiarity process. Less attention has been paid to remember false alarms, or their relation to age. We reviewed the literature examining aging and remember/know judgments and show that age-related increases in remember false alarms, i.e., false remembering, are as reliable as age-related decreases in remember hits, i.e., veridical remembering. Moreover, a meta-analysis showed that the age effect size for remember hits and false alarms are similar, and larger than age effects on know hits and false alarms. We also show that the neuropsychological correlates of remember hits and false alarms differ. Neuropsychological tests of medial-temporal lobe functioning were related to remember hits, but tests of frontal-lobe functioning and age were not. By contrast, age and frontal-lobe functioning predicted unique variance in remember false alarms, but MTL functioning did not. We discuss various explanations for these findings and conclude that any comprehensive explanation of recollective experience will need to account for the processes underlying both remember hits and false alarms.

  13. Estimating the Impacts of Educational Interventions Using State Tests or Study-Administered Tests. NCEE 2012-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Price, Cristofer; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the differences in impact estimates and standard errors that arise when these are derived using state achievement tests only (as pre-tests and post-tests), study-administered tests only, or some combination of state- and study-administered tests. State tests may yield different evaluation results relative to a test that is…

  14. Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment.

  15. Testing Adult Basic Education Students for Reading Ability and Progress: How Many Tests to Administer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Levy, Susan R.; Rasher, Sue; Kim, Yoonsang; Carter, Sarah Deardorff; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between TABE-R performance and performance on selected, more focused reading component tests after 42 hours of adult education classroom instruction. Specifically, measures of expressive vocabulary, reading fluency, sight word reading, and decoding were administered to 98 participants along with the TABE-R.…

  16. Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marta Matos; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests has been widely studied, but their reliability has not. This study aimed to estimate the test-retest reliability of these tests in a sample of 34 older adults, aged 69 to 90 years old, without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and living in retirement homes in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The battery was administered twice, with a 4-week interval between sessions. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Rapid Visual Information Processing, and Reaction Time tests revealed measures with high-to-adequate test-retest correlations (.71-.89), although several PAL and SWM measures showed susceptibility to practice effects. Two estimated standardized regression-based methods were found to be more efficient at correcting for practice effects than a method of fixed correction. We also found weak test-retest correlations (.56-.68) for several measures. These results suggest that some, but not all, measures are suitable for cognitive assessment and monitoring in this population.

  17. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness.

  18. Two baselines are better than one: Improving the reliability of computerized testing in sports neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Tangeman, Lindy; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael; Aubry, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests are frequently used to assist in return-to-play decisions following sports concussion. However, due to concerns about test reliability, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends yearly baseline testing. The standard practice that has developed in baseline/postinjury comparisons is to examine the difference between the most recent baseline test and postconcussion performance. Drawing from classical test theory, the present study investigated whether temporal stability could be improved by taking an alternate approach that uses the aggregate of 2 baselines to more accurately estimate baseline cognitive ability. One hundred fifteen English-speaking professional hockey players with 3 consecutive Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Testing (ImPACT) baseline tests were extracted from a clinical program evaluation database overseen by the National Hockey League and National Hockey League Players' Association. The temporal stability of ImPACT composite scores was significantly increased by aggregating test performance during Sessions 1 and 2 to predict performance during Session 3. Using this approach, the 2-factor Memory (r = .72) and Speed (r = .79) composites of ImPACT showed acceptable long-term reliability. Using the aggregate of 2 baseline scores significantly improves temporal stability and allows for more accurate predictions of cognitive change following concussion. Clinicians are encouraged to estimate baseline abilities by taking into account all of an athlete's previous baseline scores.

  19. Neurocysticercosis and performance on neuropsychologic tests: a family study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Levav, M; Mirsky, A F; Cruz, M E; Cruz, I

    1995-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common neurologic disorder in developing countries, where it may pose a major public health challenge. Recently, the disorder has become more commonly diagnosed in developed countries as a result of the influx of migrants from countries where the disease is endemic. The clinical syndrome associated with NCC includes neurologic, physical, and functional problems. Since the locus of the infection is mainly the central nervous system, there is a risk of neuropsychologic dysfunction. This study was conducted in Ecuador in a group of 123 subjects (49 males and 74 females, 9-62 years of age) from a community sample that was part of a larger neuroepidemiologic inquiry. A discriminant function procedure was used to select the tests that would be most sensitive at distinguishing between affected and nonaffected individuals. The results suggest that behavioral functions that include aspects of inhibitory control, motor, and visual-motor output are impaired in adolescent and adult subjects with NCC.

  20. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  1. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  2. Using Technology to Create and Administer Accessible Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Technology is transforming many aspects of society including the ways teachers teach and students learn. Although technology has been firmly established as a teaching tool across a range of content areas, educators are realizing that technology also offers innovative ways to help their students take standardized tests that comply with the mandates…

  3. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Glenn E.; Simone, Christa M.; Ng, Nicole F.; Hardy, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings. PMID:26579035

  4. Predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease using neuropsychological tests and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert M; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W; Gardner, Margaret N; Porsteinsson, Anton; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Guillily, Maria D; Degrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A

    2011-02-01

    Behavioral markers measured through neuropsychological testing in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were analyzed and combined in multivariate ways to predict conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a longitudinal study of 43 MCI patients. The test measures taken at a baseline evaluation were first reduced to underlying components (principal component analysis, PCA), and then the component scores were used in discriminant analysis to classify MCI individuals as likely to convert or not. When empirically weighted and combined, episodic memory, speeded executive functioning, recognition memory (false and true positives), visuospatial memory processing speed, and visuospatial episodic memory were together strong predictors of conversion to AD. These multivariate combinations of the test measures achieved through the PCA were good, statistically significant predictors of MCI conversion to AD (84% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 83% specificity). Importantly, the posterior probabilities of group membership that accompanied the binary prediction for each participant indicated the confidence of the prediction. Most of the participants (81%) were in the highly confident probability bins (.70-1.00), where the obtained prediction accuracy was more than 90%. The strength and reliability of this multivariate prediction method were tested by cross-validation and randomized resampling.

  5. Dynamic feature analysis of vector-based images for neuropsychological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Cervantes, Basilio R.

    1998-07-01

    The dynamic properties of human motor activities, such as those observed in the course of drawing simple geometric shapes, are considerably more complex and often more informative than the goal to be achieved; in this case a static line drawing. This paper demonstrates how these dynamic properties may be used to provide a means of assessing a patient's visuo-spatial ability -- an important component of neuropsychological testing. The work described here provides a quantitative assessment of visuo-spatial ability, whilst preserving the conventional test environment. Results will be presented for a clinical population of long-term haemodialysis patients and test population comprises three groups of children (1) 7-8 years, (2) 9-10 years and (3) 11-12 years, all of which have no known neurological dysfunction. Ten new dynamic measurements extracted from patient responses in conjunction with one static feature deduced from earlier work describe a patient's visuo-spatial ability in a quantitative manner with sensitivity not previously attainable. The dynamic feature measurements in isolation provide a unique means of tracking a patient's approach to motor activities and could prove useful in monitoring a child' visuo-motor development.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing in the spectrum of normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Maria Paula; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Formigheri, Paulo; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Speciali, José Geraldo; Santos, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationships between brain structures and function (behavior and cognition) in healthy aging. METHOD: The study group was composed of 56 healthy elderly subjects who underwent neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Cluster analysis classified the cohort into two groups, one (cluster 1) in which the magnetic resonance imaging metrics were more preserved (mean age: 66.4 years) and another (cluster 2) with less preserved markers of healthy brain tissue (mean age: 75.4 years). RESULTS: The subjects in cluster 2 (older group) had worse indices of interference in the Stroop test compared with the subjects in cluster 1 (younger group). Therefore, a simple test such as the Stroop test could differentiate groups of younger and older subjects based on magnetic resonance imaging metrics. CONCLUSION: These results are in agreement with the inhibitory control hypotheses regarding cognitive aging and may also be important in the interpretation of studies with other clinical groups, such as patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24141834

  7. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  8. Effects of parental presence and child characteristics on children's neuropsychological test performance: third party observer effect confirmed.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christine L; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    An observer's presence during neuropsychological testing can impair task performance in adults, but this phenomenon has yet to be examined as it pertains to neuropsychological testing of children. The current study focused on parental presence effects on nonverbal intelligence and verbal learning performance of children aged 6 to 8 years. Each of 53 children completed one form of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3rd Edition (TONI-3) and the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) with his/her parent in the room and an alternate form of each with only the experimenter with the child in the testing room. Of several possible covariates, only the child's age was significant and included in final analyses. Using a doubly multivariate MANCOVA it was discovered that parent's observation status significantly interacted with the order of observation to impact task performance. This significant effect can mainly be attributed to a steeper positive slope (i.e., children's greater improvement over time) for TONI-3 T scores in children whose parent observed first; children whose parents were absent for the first half of testing improved to a lesser extent over time. No significant relationship was found between observation and SRT scores. These results lend some support to the assertion of previous studies that the presence of third party observers may affect the validity of neuropsychological test results. PMID:18609333

  9. Prediction of long-term (5 years) conversion to dementia using neuropsychological tests in a memory clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dina; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; Rodrigues, Ana; Cardoso, Sandra; Maroco, João; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The use of neuropsychological tests to detect cognitive decline in the initial phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has faced significant limitations, namely the fact that most cohort studies of conversion to dementia had relatively short follow-up periods. The aim of the present study is to assess the predictive value for future conversion to dementia of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery applied to a cohort of non-demented patients followed-up for 5 years. Participants (n = 250) were selected from the Cognitive Complaints Cohort (CCC) having cognitive complaints, assessment with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and a follow-up period of 5 years (unless patients have converted to dementia earlier). During the follow-up period (2.6 ± 1.8 years for converters and 6.1 ± 2.1 years for non-converters), 162 patients (64.8%) progressed to dementia (mostly AD), and 88 (35.2%) did not. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model constituted by Digit Span backward, Semantic Fluency, Logical Memory (immediate recall), and Forgetting Index significantly discriminated converters from non-converters (λ Wilks = 0.64; χ(2) (4) = 81.95; p < 0.001; RCanonical = 0.60). Logical Memory (immediate recall) was the strongest predictor with a standardized canonical discriminant function coefficient of 0.70. The LDA classificatory model showed good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values (78.8%, 79.9% and 78.6%, respectively) of the neuropsychological tests to predict long-term conversion to dementia. The present results show that it is possible to predict, on the basis of the initial clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, whether non-demented patients with cognitive complaints will probably convert to dementia, or remain stable, at a reasonably long and clinically relevant term. PMID:23263232

  10. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  11. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  12. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  13. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? MMS or...

  14. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors.

  15. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  16. Neuropsychological characteristics of right hemisphere damage: investigation by attention tests, concept formation and change test, and self-evaluation task.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    1991-12-01

    Neuropsychological characteristics of right (non-dominant) hemisphere damage were investigated by attention tests, a concept formation and change test, and a self-evaluation task on a total of 126 brain damaged subjects (66 right hemisphere damaged and 60 left hemisphere damaged). Common response patterns specific to subjects with right hemisphere lesions were studied by three attention tests (audio-motor method, cancellation test, and set dependent activity test). Those with right hemisphere lesions showed a large number of responses (excessive response) and low proportion of correct responses (low hit rate, qualitative deterioration of response), indicating a tendency toward randomness. A concept formation and change test, the new modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, was performed to investigate the handling of higher concepts. Only the frequency of difficulty of maintaining set (DMS) was significantly higher in those with right hemisphere lesions. Problems concerning attention and attitude toward the tests, i.e. random attitude were thought to exist in those with right hemisphere damage. Self-evaluation and corrective ability were studied on the self-evaluation task using the audio-motor method. Feedback was less effective in subjects with right hemisphere lesions, and they tended to underestimate their errors. These results were consistent with personality characteristics such as the lack of a serious attitude and poor volition for treatment, which are frequently observed in clinical settings. The above are considered basic, common characteristics of right hemisphere damage. These findings may partially explain the phenomenological characteristics of right hemisphere damage described by various investigators.

  17. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  18. Quantitative I-123-IMP brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing in AIDS dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; Rhame, F.S.; Meier, M.J.; Foehse, M.C.; Loewenson, R.B.; Lee, B.C.; Boudreau, R.J.; duCret, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    We performed I-123-IMP SPECT brain imaging on seven mildly demented AIDS patients and seven normal subjects. In an attempt to detect and quantitate regions of decreased I-123-IMP uptake, pixel intensity histograms of normalized SPECT images at the basal ganglia level were analyzed for the fraction of pixels in the lowest quartile of the intensity range. This fraction (F) averaged 17.5% (S.D. = 4.6) in the AIDS group and 12.6% (S.D. = 5.1) in the normal group (p less than .05). Six of the AIDS patients underwent neuropsychological testing (NPT). NPT showed the patients to have a variety of mild abnormalities. Regression analysis of NPT scores versus F yielded a correlation coefficient of .80 (p less than .05). We conclude that analysis of I-123-IMP SPECT image pixel intensity distribution is potentially sensitive in detecting abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia and may correlate with the severity of dementia as measured by NPT.

  19. Comparability of neuropsychological test profiles in patients with chronic substance abuse and mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Franzen, Michael D

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 104 patients with acute uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) to a sample of 104 patients from an inpatient substance abuse program to determine whether these patients could be differentiated by their pattern of relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Patients were matched on age, education, and gender. Eight cognitive measures were used that included tests of attention, memory, and processing speed. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on any of the cognitive measures. Using a two-step cluster analysis procedure (i.e., hierarchical and k-means analyses), seven common profiles were identified. There was no significant difference in the proportions of patients from the MTBI or substance abuse group in each of the seven profiles. These results show that patients with uncomplicated MTBIs could not be reliably differentiated from patients with substance abuse problems on these cognitive measures. This is of particular concern for clinicians evaluating the neuropsychological effects of MTBI in individuals with a comorbid history of substance abuse. PMID:17853134

  20. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were generally small to medium. The most pronounced differences between patients and controls were seen on tests of prospective memory, speed and complex working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  1. Test Takers' Experiences with Computer-Administered Listening Comprehension Tests: Interviewing for Qualitative Explorations of Test Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta

    2004-01-01

    In this study, retrospective interviews were used to investigate reliability (and thus validity) threats to a computerized ESL listening comprehension test administered at a university in the US. The participants in the investigation, six international graduate students, were asked to respond to semi- and open-ended questions during individual…

  2. Neuropsychological evaluation of higher functioning homeless persons: a comparison of an abbreviated test battery to the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E A; Dieter, J N; Natale, R A; Tanner, S L

    2001-03-01

    This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a heterogeneous population of persons who were homeless (N = 60) and compared the value of the Abbreviated Halstead-Reitan Test Battery with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). A high incidence of neuropsychological dysfunction was evident with 80% of patients showing impaired test battery performance and 35% showing an impaired MMSE. Performance on the Trail Making Test, Part B was especially impaired. Patients impaired on Trails B more often showed impaired test battery performance, suggesting it may be a better screening tool than the MMSE. Neuropsychological performance was not significantly affected by the patients' gender, age, diagnosis, or past psychiatric and medical history. Regression analysis suggested that 29% of the variance in test battery performance was accounted for by the patients' education. Results support previous findings that large numbers of people who are homeless are neuropsychologically impaired; this should be considered when planning treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:11277354

  3. [Memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease: in relation to neuropsychological tests and cerebral blood flow].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, N; Tachibana, H; Kawabata, K; Sugita, M

    2001-03-01

    We conducted a neuropsychological comparison between Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 12) using Rey's auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (RCFT) assessing memory function. In addition, to determine the function of cortical and subcortical areas, we measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using N-isopropyl-p[123I]-iodoamhetamine (123I-IMP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and analyzed the relationships between brain regions and memory function. On the RAVLT, significant group differences in recall words were found on all learning trials between patients with PD and control subjects, whereas recognition, learning rate and forgetting rate were basically the same. In addition, the primacy/recency effect was statistically equal for both groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms in PD, whereas encoding and retention procesess did not prove to be affected. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the prefrontal and parietal cortices and total number of free recall in five trials. On the RCFT, recalls after 30 sec and 30 min were impaired in patients with PD although no significant difference in accuracy scores obtained in copy was noted. A percent recall score calculated using the formula 100 x [1 - (copy-recall)/copy] was also decreased in patients with PD. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the occipital and parietal cortices and percent recall score. Our data suggest that auditory memory deficits based on the RAVLT in PD may be mainly related to frontal and parietal cortical dysfunction, while visual recall deficits based on the RCFT may be related to the parieto-occipital cortical dysfunction.

  4. Optimizing cross-sectional prediction of social functioning in youth referred for neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Potthoff, Lauren M; Hunter, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 - 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or "odd" behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social functioning

  5. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  6. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Stakeholder Accounts of Testing Experience with a Computer-Administered Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing…

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrene C.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive batteries for neuropsychological assessment of children with learning problems,such as the Reitan-Indiana and Luria-Nebraska Children's Batteries, have demonstrated diagnostic validity. Guidelines are proposed for the neuropsychological interpretation of assessment instruments commonly used by school psychologists and educational…

  8. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  9. A Comparative Neuropsychological Test Battery Differentiates Cognitive Signatures of Fragile X and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, C. S.; Boutet, I.; Cornish, K.; Graham, G. E.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Drouin, A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standardised neuropsychological and cognitive measures present some limitations in their applicability and generalisability to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Alternative approaches to defining the cognitive signatures of various forms of ID are needed to advance our understanding of the profiles of strengths and…

  10. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  11. [Neuropsychology of dementia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    As cognitive dysfunction is the core symptom of dementia, the assessment of it is essential for the clinical practice. The role of "neuropsychology" is none other than analysis and interpretation of the central symptoms of brain damaged including dementing illnesses. "Neuropsychology" in this sense does not refer only to the neuropsychological tests that psychologists employ, but certainly implies mental status examination as a part of the neurological examination, which enables us to make focal diagnosis and differential diagnosis, to evaluate the disability, to predict the problems in living, and to measure disease severity, rate of progression, and response to treatment are essential. This paper, citing aphasia due to degenerative diseases, behavioral neurological signs, and the relationship between visuoperceptive impairments and visual hallucinations as examples, discussed the clinical roles and scientific potentials of neuropsychology in dementia. PMID:25672718

  12. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  13. Predicting arithmetical achievement from neuro-psychological performance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fayol, M; Barrouillet, P; Marinthe, C

    1998-08-01

    In this article, we show that the performances of 5- to 6-year-old children in arithmetic tests can be predicted from their performances in neuro-psychological tests administered a number of months in advance, independently of their level of development. PMID:9818514

  14. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as soon as possible thereafter; (2) Administer the pre-test to students at a uniform time, according to its State's assessment policy; and (3) Administer pre-tests to students in the skill areas... post-test to measure a student's educational functioning level after a set time period or number...

  15. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    In self-adapted testing (SAT), examinees select the difficulty level of items administered. This study investigated three variations of prior information provided when taking an SAT: (1) no information (examinees selected item difficulty levels without prior information); (2) view (examinees inspected a typical item from each difficulty level…

  16. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  17. Comparability of Computer- and Paper-Administered Multiple-Choice Tests for K-12 Populations: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies of the comparability of computer-administered and paper-administered tests. Not surprisingly (given the variety of measurement and statistical sampling issues that can affect any one study) the results of such studies have not always been consistent. Moreover, the quality of computer-based test administration systems…

  18. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  19. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  20. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  1. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  2. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  3. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test's final version Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  4. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test’s final version Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  5. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  6. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  7. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  8. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  9. Neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D

    1992-06-01

    The aging population of the United States and many other countries guarantees that disorders common in elderly persons will continue to become more prevalent. In the past decade or so, we already have witnessed the beginning of this trend, with the rapid rise in the number of patients with degenerative dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. On another track, sophisticated and timely medical and surgical interventions have produced a growing number of patients who survive serious head injury. These patients are typically young, and may live for many decades after their brain injury. In both examples, a core feature of the condition is impaired cognition and behavior; that is, defects in higher-level capacities such as memory, intellectual function, language, and decision-making. Neuropsychological assessment cannot be viewed as a luxury in cases such as these but rather, as a vital component of the neurodiagnostic evaluation. The neuropsychologist uses a set of standardized instruments to measure cognition and behavior in a comprehensive and precise manner, yielding rich information that may assist in accurate diagnosis, prudent management, and optimal rehabilitation. The neuropsychological examination may provide the only means with which to detect alterations in brain function, as in cases of mild head injury or low-level toxic exposure, which may not be revealed through other procedures. Finally, neuropsychological assessment will continue to play a key role in the scientific programs that are dedicated to advancing our understanding of the neural substrates of complex behavior.

  10. Neuropsychological prediction of dementia in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, F.; Fenelon, G.; Flahault, A.; Manifacier, M.; Michelet, D.; Boller, F.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify neuropsychological characteristics predictive of later dementia in Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to a cohort of 89 initially non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease consecutively enrolled at a specialised Parkinson's disease clinic. They were reassessed after a mean of 3.5 years for the diagnosis of dementia. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify baseline characteristics predictive of dementia.
RESULTS—Only four of the baseline clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease and neuropsychological variables remained independently linked to subsequent development of dementia: the age of onset of Parkinson's disease (>60 years; relative risk (RR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8-24.0, p<0.03), the picture completion subtest of the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (score<10; RR 4.9, 95% CI 1.0-24.1, p<0.02), the interference section of the Stroop test (score<21; RR 3.8, p=0.08), and a verbal fluency task (score<9; RR 2.7, 95% CI 0.8-9.1, p=0.09). Depressive symptoms and the severity of motor impairment were not predictive of dementia.
CONCLUSION—These features are different from the neuropsychological characteristics predictive of Alzheimer's dementia in healthy elderly people (mainly memory and language performance). They are in keeping with the well known specificity of the impairments in Parkinson's disease for visuospatial abilities and difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. It is postulated that the composite nature of the picture completion subtest, involving several cognitive abilities impaired in Parkinson's disease, explains its sensitivity.

 PMID:9489527

  11. Neuropsychological Language Tests in Dementia Diagnosis in English-Speaking Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological language tests have limitations (e.g., unrepresentative norms) when applied to "Hispanics" and clinicians are likely aware that these tests may lead to inaccurate dementia diagnoses. Therefore, it was hypothesized that language tests would be weaker diagnostic predictors in Hispanics versus "Non-Hispanic Whites." Participants included 436 English-speaking Hispanic and 436 Non-Hispanic White (randomly selected from 10,937) outpatients classified as having dementia or normal cognition at initial evaluation. When covarying for age, sex, education, and functional abilities, vegetable fluency significantly predicted diagnosis among Non-Hispanic Whites (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [0.69, 0.94], p < .01). Animal fluency and an abbreviated (30-item) Boston Naming Test (BNT) comparably predicted diagnosis across groups. Results remained similar when covarying for primary language among Hispanics. Findings suggest that vegetable fluency, but not animal fluency, was relatively unimportant in diagnosis for the English-speaking Hispanics in this study possibly because of cultural influences on the familiarity, salience, and relevance of this category's items. Additionally, clinicians may have informally adjusted Hispanics' 30-item BNT and animal fluency scores and discounted vegetable fluency to account for their limitations. Animal fluency and BNT may be preferable language tests when assessing dementia in English across groups, as they comparably predicted diagnosis in both groups.

  12. Neuropsychological Language Tests in Dementia Diagnosis in English-Speaking Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological language tests have limitations (e.g., unrepresentative norms) when applied to “Hispanics” of which clinicians are likely aware that may lead to inaccurate dementia diagnoses. Therefore, it was hypothesized that language tests would be weaker diagnostic predictors in Hispanics versus “non-Hispanic Whites.” Participants included 436 English-speaking Hispanic and 436 non-Hispanic White (randomly selected from 10,937) outpatients classified as dementia or normal cognition at initial evaluation. When covarying for age, sex, education, and functional abilities, vegetable fluency significantly predicted diagnosis among non-Hispanic Whites, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [0.69, 0.94], p < .01. Animal fluency and an abbreviated (30-item) Boston Naming Test (BNT) comparably predicted diagnosis across groups. Results remained similar when covarying for primary language among Hispanics. Findings suggest that vegetable but not animal fluency was relatively unimportant in diagnosis for the English-speaking Hispanics in this study possibly because of cultural influences on the familiarity, salience, and relevance of this category’s items. Additionally, clinicians may have informally adjusted Hispanics’ 30-item BNT and animal fluency scores and discounted vegetable fluency to account for their limitations. Animal fluency and BNT may be preferable language tests when assessing dementia in English across groups, as they comparably predicted diagnosis in both groups. PMID:25909144

  13. Investigating Administered Essay and Multiple-Choice Tests in the English Department of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Lotfollah; Mehrdad, Ali Gholami

    2012-01-01

    This study has attempted to investigate the administered written tests in the language department of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan, Iran from validity, practicality and reliability points of view. To this end two steps were taken. First, examining 112 tests, we knew that the face validity of 50 tests had been threatened, 9 tests lacked…

  14. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

  15. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

  16. Neuropsychological and MMPI correlates of patients' future employment characteristics.

    PubMed

    Newnan, O S; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A

    1978-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that patients' neuropsychological test scores correlate not only with neurologic status but also with their success in coping with some of the demands of daily living. This study investigated the utility of such laboratory test scores in predicting several vocational variables. Patients who had recieved neuropsychological evaluations were recontacted and questioned about their employment over the previous 6 mo. Of the 78 individuals who participated, 25 had been chronically unemployed. The remaining 53 were asked about job stability, hours worked, and wages earned, and were administered the Minnsota Job Requirements Questionnaire. Patients' scores on the Halstead-Reitan Battery, the WAIS and the MMPI were highly correlated with employment status (employed or chronically unemployed), income, and skills required on the jobs held. The results suggest that these tests may have clinical utility in assessing patients' employability, as well as the types of jobs for which they are suited.

  17. Evaluating constructs represented by symptom validity tests in forensic neuropsychological assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is

  18. Finding regional models of the Alzheimer disease by fusing information from neuropsychological tests and structural MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsy-chological tests. This work presents an automatic strategy that uses Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to learn brain models for different stages of the disease using information from clinical assessments. Then, a comparison of the discriminant power of the models in different anatomical areas is made by using the brain region of the models as a reference frame for the classification problem, by using the projection into the AD model a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is constructed. Validation was performed using a leave- one-out scheme with 86 subjects (20 AD and 60 NC) from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database. The region with the best classification performance was the left amygdala where it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 85% at the same time. The regions with the best performance, in terms of the AUC, are in strong agreement with those described as important for the diagnosis of AD in clinical practice.

  19. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  20. Teleneuropsychology: Evidence for Video Teleconference-Based Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, C. Munro; Hynan, L.S.; Grosch, M.; Parikh, M.; Weiner, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of videoconference technology to deliver health care diagnostics and treatment continues to grow at a rapid pace. Telepsychiatry and telepsychology applications are well-accepted by patients and providers, and both diagnostic and treatment outcomes have generally been similar to traditional face-to-face interactions. Preliminary applications of videoconference-based neuropsychological assessment (teleneuropsychology) have yielded promising results in the feasibility and reliability of several standard tests, although large-scale studies are lacking. This investigation was conducted to determine the reliability of video teleconference (VTC) - based neuropsychological assessment using a brief battery of standard neuropsychological tests commonly used in the evaluation of known or suspected dementia. Tests included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Digit Span forward and backward, short form Boston Naming Test, Letter and Category Fluency, and Clock Drawing. Tests were administered via VTC and in-person to subjects, counterbalanced using alternate test forms and standard instructions. Two hundred two adult subjects were tested in both rural and urban settings, including 83 with cognitive impairment and 119 healthy controls. We found highly similar results across VTC and in-person conditions, with significant intraclass correlations (mean = .74; range: 0.55–0.91) between test scores. Findings remained consistent in subjects with or without cognitive impairment and in persons with MMSE scores as low as 15. VTC-based neuropsychological testing is a valid and reliable alternative to traditional face-to-face assessment using selected measures. More VTC-based studies using additional tests in different populations are needed to fully explore the utility of this new testing medium. PMID:25343269

  1. NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY: a neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Esther Gomez-Perez, Ma; Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Pineda, David

    2007-01-01

    Health care professionals are now faced with a growing number of patients from different ethnic groups, and from different socioeconomical backgrounds. In the field of neuropsychology there is an increasing need of reliable and culturally fair assessment measures. Spanish is the official language in more than 20 countries and the second most spoken language in the world. The purpose of this research was to develop and standardize the neuropsychological battery NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY, designed to assess orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory and immediate and delayed verbal and visual memory. The developmental sequences of attention and memory as well as the educational effects were analyzed in a sample of 521 monolingual Spanish Speaking subjects, aged 6 to 85 years. Educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. The consideration of the developmental sequence, and the effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures. PMID:17848126

  2. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or...

  5. Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    1982-01-01

    The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of…

  6. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  7. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  8. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels) and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone). Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46) was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance. PMID:22640773

  9. A Neuropsychological Test of Belief and Doubt: Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Increases Credulity for Misleading Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a “doubt deficit” that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was “corrected” by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a “false tagging mechanism” which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  10. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    PubMed

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information.

  11. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    PubMed

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  12. Learning to read is much more than learning to read: a neuropsychologically based reading program.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U

    2000-11-01

    Departing from the observation that illiterates significantly underscore in some neuropsychological tests, a learning-to-read method named NEUROALFA was developed. NEUROALFA is directed to reinforce these underscored abilities during the learning-to-read process. It was administered to a sample of 21 adult illiterates in Colima (Mexico). Results were compared with 2 control groups using more traditional procedures in learning to read. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was administered to all the participants before and after completing the learning-to-read training program. All 3 groups presented some improvement in the test scores. Gains, however, were significantly higher in the experimental group in Orientation in Time, Digits Backward, Visual Detection, Verbal Memory, Copy of a Semi-Complex Figure, Language Comprehension, Phonological Verbal Fluency, Similarities, Calculation Abilities, Sequences, and all the recall subtests, excluding Recognition. Performance in standard reading tests was also significantly higher in the experimental group. Correlations between pretest NEUROPSI scores and reading ability were low. However, correlations between posttest NEUROPSI scores and reading scores were higher and significant for several subtests. Results are interpreting as supporting the assumption that reinforcement of those abilities in which illiterates significantly underscore results in a significant improvement in neuropsychological test scores and strongly facilitates the learning-to-read process. The NEUROALFA method of teaching reading to adult illiterates is beginning to be used extensively in Mexico. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply neuropsychological principles to social problems. PMID:11105469

  13. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  14. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  15. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  16. The mouse anti-morphine constipation test--a simple laboratory test of the gastrointestinal side-effect potential of orally administered prostaglandin analogues.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A J

    1979-08-01

    A test is described which is simple, reliable and highly sensitive to the diarrhoea-inducing properties of orally administered prostaglandin analogues in mice. Comparison with human data shows similar orders of relative potency.

  17. Beating the Odds: Intact Neuropsychological Functioning despite TLE.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Ashima; Chopra, Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Patients with Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) frequently display cognitive comorbidity and can have widespread network abnormalities, which might affect a variety of cognitive and intellectual functions. As a result, refractory TLE seems to be associated with slow but ongoing cognitive deterioration. The case is of a 32 year old, right handed male, engineering graduate, diagnosed with TLE- right mesial, 12 years ago. A number of head injuries were caused due to the seizure present, which includes a fall from height of 12 feet in childhood. The neuropsychological tests administered were Gesell's Drawing Test, Mini Mental State Examination, PGI Memory Scale, Battery of Performance Tests of Intelligence, Verbal Adult Intelligence Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Dysfunction Analysis Questionnaire. No impairment found on orientation; average cognitive functioning; above average attention and concentration, verbal working memory, visual and verbal memory; average practical ability, abstract ability, average verbal intellectual ability; superior ability on comprehension and average performance ability. Mild to moderate impairment on perceptuo-motor functioning and an evidence of depression were present. Patient showed high dysfunction in personal, social, vocational and cognitive areas. The study highlights that even despite chronic epilepsy, with a series of head injuries due to the seizures; an individual can still have average neuropsychological abilities. Holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation along with Vocational Retraining would go a long way in the functional independence of the patient. Neuropsychologists have a significant role in the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with epilepsy. PMID:25452679

  18. The Effectiveness of English Teaching in Japanese Elementary Schools: Measured by Proficiency Tests Administered to Seventh-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuyama, Hitomi; Nishigaki, Chikako; Wang, Jinfang

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of early English education was investigated in this study to determine if English should be taught formally in Japanese public elementary schools. We administered English tests and questionnaires to 1466 elementary school students in 2004 and 2005. The results showed significant differences between the…

  19. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  20. Bowden, shores, & Mathias (2006): failure to replicate or just failure to notice. Does effort still account for more variance in neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity?

    PubMed

    Rohling, Martin L; Demakis, George J

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a smaller effect on neuropsychological test scores, in contrast to the large effect of poor effort on test performance. Consequently, many authors have concluded that effort needs to be measured routinely and that it is necessary to control for poor effort when measuring the effects of brain disease or injury on performance. Recently, however, Bowden, Shores, and Mathias (2006) have challenged these notions. They argued that the Immediate Recognition subtest of the Word Memory Test (Green & Flaro, 2003), an effort measure, is another verbal memory test rather than a measure of cognitive effort. In this study we re-examine the data from Bowden et al. (2006) and Green, Rohling, Lees-Haley, and Allen (2001) to identify differences between the two studies that might account for their contradictory conclusions. In both sets of data, reanalysis showed that effort explains approximately five times more of the variance in composite neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity. Importantly, scores on the Word Memory Test-Immediate Recognition (WMT-IR) were not correlated with measures of TBI severity, and were not found to correlate with major variables known to be measuring ability (e.g., years of education). These findings challenge the conclusions offered by Bowden and colleagues (2006). PMID:20029718

  1. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  2. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  3. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. Material/Methods Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann--Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01–0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02–0.37). Conclusions Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD. PMID:27717954

  4. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  5. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  6. Neuropsychology in Multidisciplinary Stroke Care: Clinical Feasibility of the NINDS-CSN Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dong Y.; Anderson, Amelia J.; Jones, Jana E.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sattin, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    As a significant number of stroke victims exhibit cognitive impairment, neuropsychological assessments can enhance poststroke management by identifying pertinent cognitive sequelae and providing salient care recommendations. However, due to operational differences between traditional neuropsychology and stroke services, neuropsychological assessments often remain underutilized in stroke care. We developed a novel care model that incorporated neuropsychological testing into a comprehensive stroke program using the modified vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) half-hour assessment protocol proposed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke—Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN). The test batteries were administered during the patients' acute admissions and then again upon follow-up in the multidisciplinary stroke clinic. Patient and provider satisfaction was then evaluated. Surveys revealed high provider satisfaction with improved clinic efficacy, improved data turnaround time, and with value neuropsychology services added to the comprehensive stroke program. Results from the 18-item industry standard Press-Ganey surveys showed all scores above 4.4/5.0 for patient satisfaction. This clinic garnered high provider and patient satisfaction after the first year. The (modified) NINDS-CSN VCI assessment protocol demonstrated clinical feasibility, suggestive of an efficient method of providing focused neuropsychological services in a clinical setting that otherwise prohibits traditional, comprehensive cognitive assessments. PMID:27351003

  7. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  8. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  9. Deficits in visual functions and neuropsychological inconsistency in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Thomas; Saavedra, Anamaria Silva; Mensebach, Christoph; Lange, Wolfgang; Markowitsch, Hans-Joachim; Rau, Harald; Woermann, Friedrich G; Driessen, Martin

    2006-12-01

    For Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) cognitive and perceptual impairments were reported in some but not all studies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the neuropsychological performance of BPD patients in different domains. Predominant impairments of visual functions and an increased intra-individual variation of test performances within neuropsychological domains were expected. We investigated 22 patients with BPD and a matched sample of 22 healthy control subjects. A comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological test battery was administered. Effect sizes indicate primarily deficits of visual functions such as visual memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, WMS-R: Visual pair associates and visual reproduction, Complex Figure Test: Recall) and visuo-spatial abilities (Leistungspruefsystem, LPS 9 and 10: Spatial imagination and embedded figures), but also of executive functions (Tower of Hanoi, Trail Making Test-B, semantic and figural fluency, LPS 4: Reasoning). In addition, the intra-individual ranges of neuropsychological test results in BPD patients were increased compared to those of healthy subjects. This finding might be due to a high degree of temporary stress that interferes with effective cognitive processing. Further research is needed to confirm the present results and to control for stress during the test procedure. PMID:17070927

  10. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the first study, we administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 20 deficit and 25 nondeficit patients with schizophrenia and 25 normal healthy controls. In the second study, a meta-analysis was conducted of 13 separate studies examining the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. There was little evidence from either of the present studies that the deficit syndrome is associated with a selective impairment in frontal and parietal lobe functions. The first study failed to find significant differences in frontal or parietal abilities for deficit vs nondeficit patients. The meta-analytic findings revealed that deficit patients were globally more neuropsychologically impaired than nondeficit patients (effect size [ES] = 0.41). Relative to nondeficit patients, deficit patients performed poorest on tests of olfaction (ES = 1.11), social cognition (ES = 0.56), global cognition (ES = 0.52), and language (ES = 0.51). The neuropsychological impairments associated with the deficit form of schizophrenia do not follow an obvious anatomically defined pattern of impairment. The question of whether deficit patients exhibit a unique cognitive impairment profile will require a more sophisticated and rigorous examination of the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. PMID:17159230

  11. Test validity and performance validity: considerations in providing a framework for development of an ability-focused neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J

    2014-11-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures.

  12. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  13. Test Validity and Performance Validity: Considerations in Providing a Framework for Development of an Ability-Focused Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Larrabee, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. PMID:25280794

  14. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures. PMID:11912866

  15. Development of a menu of performance tests self-administered on a portable microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen cognitive, motor, and information processing performance subtests were screened for self-administration over 10 trials by 16 subjects. When altered presentation forms of the same test were collectively considered, the battery composition was reduced to 10 distinctly different measures. A fully automated microbased testing system was employed in presenting the battery of subtests. Successful self-administration of the battery provided for the field testing of the automated system and facilitated convenient data collection. Total test administration time was 47.2 minutes for each session. Results indicated that nine of the tests stabilized, but for a short battery of tests only five are recommended for use in repeated-measures research. The five recommended tests include: the Tapping series, Number Comparison, Short-term Memory, Grammatical Reasoning, and 4-Choice Reaction Time. These tests can be expected to reveal three factors: (1) cognition, (2) processing quickness, and (3) motor. All the tests stabilized in 24 minutes, or approximately two 12-minute sessions.

  16. Paradigmatic Results of a Word Association Test Administered in English and Farsi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crable, Elaine Ann; Johnson, David

    A study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a difference exists between the results of a paradigmatic/syntagmatic word association test given in an individual's native language and in his second language. The sample used in this study consists of 23 Iranian officers attending a course at Air University in Alabama. Their primary language is…

  17. Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gjaerum, B

    1997-01-01

    Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M

  18. Neuropsychological assessment for detecting adverse effects of volatile organic compounds on the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bolla, K.I. )

    1991-11-01

    Because there are no direct biological markers for the substances implicated in indoor air exposure, it is impossible to directly measure if an individual or group of individuals has been exposed to a potentially neurotoxic substance in the workplace. Behavioral changes may be the earliest and only manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) effects and are often too subtle to be revealed by routine physical or neurological examination. Neuropsychological techniques are sensitive to subtle behavioral/cognitive changes that can results from exposure to neurotoxins. These techniques consist of oral and written tests that are administered by a trained examiner on a on-to-one basis. In general, a wide variety of cognitive domains are evaluated. The typical battery generally includes assessing orientation, attention, intelligence, language, visual memory, verbal memory, perception, visuoconstruction, simple motor speed, psychomotor speed, and mood. As with most assessment techniques, the neuropsychological methods have limitations. One major drawback is the availability of appropriate norms that are used to compare the results of a specific individual. Although neuropsychological tests are sensitive to the presence of CNS involvement, they are not specific. Patterns of performance seen with specific instances of neurotoxic exposure may also be seen with a number of other diseases of the CNS such as dementia, cerebrovascular disease, hydrocephalus, or normal aging. Some of the more sensitive neuropsychological tests are presented. Interpretations of test performance as they relate to toxic effects on the CNS are discussed.

  19. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression. PMID:18024027

  20. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices.

  1. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when MMS...

  2. The culture of time in neuropsychological assessment: exploring the effects of culture-specific time attitudes on timed test performance in Russian and American samples.

    PubMed

    Agranovich, Anna V; Panter, A T; Puente, Antonio E; Touradji, Pegah

    2011-07-01

    Cultural differences in time attitudes and their effect on timed neuropsychological test performance were examined in matched non-clinical samples of 100 Russian and American adult volunteers using 8 tests that were previously reported to be relatively free of cultural bias: Color Trails Test (CTT); Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT); Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT); and Tower of London-Drexel Edition (ToL(Dx)). A measure of time attitudes, the Culture of Time Inventory (COTI-33) was used to assess time attitudes potentially affecting time-limited testing. Americans significantly outscored Russians on CTT, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) (p,.05) while differences in RFFT scores only approached statistical significance. Group differences also emerged in COTI-33 factor scores, which partially mediated differences in performance on CTT-1, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) initiation time, but did not account for the effect of culture on CTT-2. Significant effect of culture was revealed in ratings of familiarity with testing procedures that was negatively related to CTT, ToL(Dx), and SDMT scores. Current findings indicated that attitudes toward time may influence results of time limited testing and suggested that individuals who lack familiarity with timed testing procedures tend to obtain lower scores on timed tests.

  3. Administering design fluency tests in school-aged children: analyses of design productivity over time, clustering, and switching.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra P M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of child-related factors (age, sex, and intellectual abilities) upon design fluency (DF) test scores. A DF test, a semantic verbal fluency (VF) test, and a Block Design test, as a proxy of intelligence, were administered to N = 80 healthy native Dutch-speaking children aged 8.45-12.82 years. Three components of DF performance were examined, i.e., design productivity over time, clustering (i.e., generating designs that share visual-spatial similarities, such as addition, deletion, or rotation), and switching (i.e., shifting between strategies that children use to draw the designs). The relation between DF design productivity over time and age was curvilinear, that is, improvements in test scores were much more pronounced for younger children than for older children. No (curvi)linear age effects were found in DF productivity scores, clustering, and switching. Also, our results did not reveal a relation between intellectual abilities and DF test scores. Furthermore, DF test scores and VF test scores were only partially significant, i.e., only significant positive correlations were found between the productivity scores of the VF test and the DF test. Finally, higher order sex by age interactions were found in all DF test scores, i.e., girls <10.5 years produced more designs, made longer clusters, and switched less than boys. Opposite sex differences were found for children >10.5 years. This illustrates the utility of combining quantitative scoring procedures with in-depth clustering and switching to understand interactions between age and sex during DF tests.

  4. Estimation of parameters for the elimination of an orally administered test substance with unknown absorption.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Denzer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the elimination of an oral test dose based on plasma concentration values requires correction for the effect of gastric release and absorption. Irregular uptake processes should be described 'model independently', which requires estimation of a large number of absorption parameters. To limit the associated computational effort a new approach is developed with a reduced number of unknown parameters. A marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) is defined, which uses for the uptake just one parameter to control rigidity of the uptake curve. For validation, elimination and absorption were reproduced using published IVIVC data and a synthetic data set for comparison with approaches using a 'model-free'--staircase function or mechanistic models to describe absorption. MRA performed almost as accurate as well specified mechanistic models, which gave the best reproduction. MRA demonstrated a 50fold increase in computational efficiency compared to other approaches. The absorption estimated for the IVIVC study demonstrated an in vivo-in vitro correlation comparable to published values. The newly developed MRA approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate elimination and absorption with a restricted number of adaptive parameters and with automatic adjustment of the complexity of the uptake.

  5. Metallothionein-like cadmium binding protein in rat testes administered with cadmium and selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Seki, Y.; Imamiya, S.

    1988-08-01

    It is well known that the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium toxicity are protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium, and that the cadmium concentration in the testis increases remarkably as compared with that of only cadmium administration. The increased cadmium in the testis was found in the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium, and it has been thought that the shift of cadmium from the low molecular weight fraction to the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium is an important protection mechanism. However, the cadmium concentration in this high molecular weight fraction decreased with time, then re-shifted to the fraction of metallothionein, a low molecular weight protein having a protective effect against cadmium toxicity. While recently studying the cadmium binding protein, like metallothionein, in testes, it has been reported that the amino acid composition of cadmium binding protein in testis is not similar to that of the hepatic metallothionein. The present study was undertaken to clarify the properties of the increased cadmium binding protein in the testis protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium.

  6. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone.

  7. Testing the antidepressant properties of the peptide ARA290 in a human neuropsychological model of drug action.

    PubMed

    Cerit, Hilâl; Veer, Ilya M; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke; Harmer, Catherine J; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Van der Does, Willem

    2015-12-01

    Studies on the neural effects of Erythropoietin (EPO) indicate that EPO may have antidepressant effects. Due to its hematopoietic effects, EPO may cause serious side-effects with repeated administration if patients are not monitored extensively. ARA290 is an EPO-analog peptide without such hematopoietic side-effects but may have neurotrophic and antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant effects of ARA290 in a neuropsychological model of drug action. Healthy participants (N=36) received ARA290 (2mg) or placebo in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. Neural and cognitive effects were assessed one week after administration. Primary outcome measures were the neural processing of fearful vs happy faces and the behavioral recognition of emotional facial expressions. ARA290-treated individuals displayed lower neural responses to happy faces in the fusiform gyrus. ARA290 tended to lower the recognition of happy and disgust facial expressions. Although ARA290 was not associated with a better memory for positive words, it was associated with faster categorization of positive vs negative words. Finally, ARA290 increased attention towards positive emotional pictures. No effects were observed on mood and affective symptoms. ARA290 may modulate some aspects of emotional processing, however, the direction and the strength of its effects do not unequivocally support an antidepressant-like profile for ARA290. Future studies may investigate the effects of different timing and dose.

  8. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS) in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition) of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI. PMID:22676227

  9. [Neuropsychology of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Katrin; Gauggel, Siegfried

    2006-03-01

    In this article the contribution of neuropsychological research for a better understanding of the psychopathology of mood disorders is reviewed. First, the broad spectrum of bipolar disorders is described. Second, a selective review of important results of neuropsychological studies with patients with mood disorders is presented. Although several methodological problems limit the interpretation of the findings, there is evidence that patients with a bipolar disorder show a consistent impairment in attention, memory/learning and executive functions. The cognitive deficits are still visible during clinical recovery (euthymia) and closely associated with psychosocial limitation in daily life. Finally, the impact of neuropsychological findings is considered in relation to assessment, treatment and prognosis.

  10. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    No significant differences in performance on a self-adapted test or anxiety were found for college students (n=218) taking a self-adapted test who selected item difficulty without any prior information, inspected an item before selecting, or answered a typical item and received performance feedback. (SLD)

  11. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sabbadini, M; Bonanni, R; Carlesimo, G A; Caltagirone, C

    2001-04-01

    In people with cerebral palsy, severe neuromotor disability and communication problems make standard neuropsychological tests impossible. Therefore, alternative methods and specific aids must be developed to allow patients to autonomously respond to the examiner's questions. In the present individuals and study, a neuropsychological evaluation was made of a group of eight individuals with cerebral palsy, and severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities, and a group of 19 normal subjects matched for mental age. The tests were administered using an autonomous selection method in which the patient selects the various responses through specific aids without the examiner's interference. Patients' group performances in visuo-spatial and memory tests were on average lower than the mean of the control group. In the verbal domain, patients' scores were comparable to those of normal children in all tests but one assessing the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences. An analysis of the patients' individual performances also revealed heterogeneous cognitive profiles: some patients presented a homogeneously distributed cognitive impairment and others a more selective one. This finding is particularly important for planning differentiated learning programmes, and identifying suitable communicative instruments in rehabilitative and educational settings. PMID:11298257

  12. A five-year self-sustainability analysis of nurse-administered HIV rapid testing in Veterans Affairs primary care.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-10-01

    In 2008, nurse-administered HIV oral rapid testing (RT) was introduced at the Veterans Affairs Primary Care Clinic in Downtown Los Angeles. Analysis at five years revealed variable yet increasing rates of HIV RT at that facility despite the fact that no post-launch support was provided by the implementation team. Qualitative interviews among stakeholders conducted at five years revealed the pre-existing implementation practices endemic to this clinic that facilitated this unprecedented success (e.g. history of positive quality improvement implementations, leadership support, clinician involvement at each step of the process to facilitate empowerment, ownership and feasible customisation of the implementation, cohesive communication among clinicians and leadership, training, efficient supply pathway, progressive performance feedback and ongoing encouragement).

  13. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  14. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  15. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  16. Executive functions after orbital or lateral prefrontal lesions: Neuropsychological profiles and self-reported executive functions in everyday living

    PubMed Central

    LØVSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-TØNNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales. PMID:22731818

  17. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  18. Neuropsychology 3.0: evidence-based science and practice.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift toward evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of Web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress toward these goals.

  19. Relationship of Medication Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) performance to neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral adherence in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Patton, Doyle E; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald; Cattie, Jordan E; Heaton, Robert K; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    While performance-based tests of everyday functioning offer promise in facilitating diagnosis and classification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), there remains a dearth of well-validated instruments. In the present study, clinical correlates of performance on one such measure (i.e., Medication Management Test-Revised; MMT-R) were examined in 448 HIV+ adults who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Significant bivariate relationships were found between MMT-R scores and demographics (e.g., education), hepatitis C co-infection, estimated premorbid IQ, neuropsychological functioning, and practical work abilities. MMT-R scores were not related to HIV disease severity, psychiatric factors, or self-reported adherence among participants with a broad range of current health status. However, lower MMT-R scores were strongly and uniquely associated with poorer adherence among participants with CD4 T cell counts <200. In multivariate analyses, MMT-R scores were predicted by practical work abilities, estimated premorbid functioning, attention/working memory, learning, and education. Findings provide overall mixed support for the construct validity of the MMT-R and are discussed in the context of their clinical and research implications for evaluation of HAND.

  20. Qualitative neuropsychological performance characteristics in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Stopford, C; Snowden, J; Neary, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease are clinically distinct disorders, yet neuropsychological studies have had variable success in distinguishing them. A possible reason is that studies typically rely on overall accuracy scores, which may obscure differences in reasons for failure. Objectives: To explore the hypothesis that analysis of qualitative performance characteristics and error types, in addition to overall numerical scores, would enhance the neuropsychological distinction between FTD and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: 38 patients with FTD and 73 with Alzheimer's disease underwent assessment of language, visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive function, using a neuropsychological screening instrument and standard neuropsychological tests. In each of these cognitive domains, performance characteristics and error types were documented, in addition to numerical scores on tests. Results: Whereas comparison of neuropsychological test scores revealed some group differences, these did not occur consistently across tests within cognitive domains. However, analysis of performance characteristics and error types revealed qualitative differences between the two groups. In particular, FTD patients displayed features associated with frontal lobe dysfunction, such as concrete thought, perseveration, confabulation, and poor organisation, which disrupted performance across the range of neuropsychological tests. Conclusions: Numerical scores on neuropsychological tests alone are of limited value in differentiating FTD and Alzheimer's disease, but performance characteristics and error types enhance the distinction between the two disorders. FTD is associated with a profound behavioural syndrome that affects performance on cognitive assessment, obscuring group differences. Qualitative information should be included in neuropsychological research and clinical assessments. PMID:15965196

  1. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  2. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  4. Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Annie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Russell, Ailsa; Murray, Robin

    2002-06-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits.One-hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SR) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic patients (APR) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism; they were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The male relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives of affective psychotic patients. In the SR group, there were significant correlations between the TMT performance and the extraversion scores and, between the IQ scores and the psychoticism scores. However, when logistical regression analyses were performed, none of the three personality scores predicted any of the neuropsychological performance in either the SR or the APR group. These results indicate some specificity as well as sex differences in the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to psychosis whereas extraversion decreases it.

  5. The neuropsychology of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to our understanding of mood disorders in terms of patient experiences, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and psychological models. In this article, we highlight key findings from studies that have used neuropsychological tests and functional neuroimaging techniques to explore cognitive dysfunction in patients with depression and mania. In particular, we focus on affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, and decision making. Results are discussed in the context of current conceptualizations of dysfunctional neural circuitry, and in relation to important clinical research implications.

  6. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed.

  7. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... § 250.1509 What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing, you must: (a) Allow MMS or its authorized...

  11. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Baxter, Leslie C; Grunfeld, Itamar S; Brewer, Gene A; Aiken, Leona S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Camp, Bryan W; Acosta, Jazmin I; Braden, B Blair; Schaefer, Keley R; Gerson, Julia E; Lavery, Courtney N; Tsang, Candy W S; Hewitt, Lauren T; Kingston, Melissa L; Koebele, Stephanie V; Patten, K Jakob; Ball, B Hunter; McBeath, Michael K; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM) as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM) and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller's classic description of a processing-inclusive human working memory capacity of 7 ± 2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning. PMID:25249951

  12. [NeuroCogFX--a computer-based neuropsychological assessment battery for the follow-up examination of neurological patients].

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, K; Hoppe, C; Schlegel, U; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2006-11-01

    Many neurological therapeutic trials require a longitudinal assessment of cognitive functions. An ideal instrument for that purpose should be in accordance to the criteria of classical testing theory and, furthermore, it should be repeatable and economic in administration and interpretation. We developed NeuroCogFX, a computerized assessment battery, according to these criteria. NeuroCogFX comprises subtests for short term memory, working memory, psychomotor speed, selective attention, verbal and figural memory and verbal fluency (mean duration: 25 minutes). Age-related normative data was obtained from 244 subjects without history of neurological or psychiatric disease (age range 16 - 75 years). Forty-two subjects were re-tested after an average of 8 weeks (range: 6 - 10 weeks) in order to assess retest reliability and training effects. Retest-reliabilities were middle-sized in all but one subtest, ranging from r (12) = 0.5 to r (12) = 0.7 (2-back Test: r (12) = 0.37). For construct validation NeuroCogFX was administered in addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery in a group of 40 healthy subjects and in 42 patients with chronic epilepsy. The test allows a valid assessment of short-term memory, reaction speed, memory and verbal fluency. NeuroCogFX is an economic, sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for the neuropsychological follow-up examination in single patients and study groups which can be administered if a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is unavailable.

  13. Sex differences and the interaction of age and sleep issues in neuropsychological testing performance across the lifespan in an ADD/ADHD sample from the years 1989 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Barbara C; Garges, Danielle M; Yoon, Sun Young Rosalia; Maguire, Katie; Zipay, Danielle; Gambino, Maria; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-04-01

    Chart review of population (9 to 80 years) neuropsychological test battery for ADHD diagnosis, questionnaires with multiple responders were evaluated in outpatient setting from 1989-2009. The focus was gender differences across age, diagnostic group (ADHD-Inattentive/ADHD plus), neuropsychological test performance, and reported sleep symptoms over the lifespan. Individuals were assigned to ADHD-I group or ADHD plus group (based upon secondary diagnosis of sleep, behavioral, emotional disturbance); ADHD not primary was excluded (brain insult, psychosis). Among these were 1,828 children (ages 9 to 14), adolescents (ages 15 to 17), and adults (ages 18 and above); 446 children (312 diagnosed ADHD-I), 218 adolescents (163 diagnosed ADHD-I), and 1,163 adults (877 ADHD-I). Sleep was problematic regardless of age, ADHD subtype, and gender. The type and number of sleep problems and fatigue were age dependent. ADHD subtype, gender, fatigue, age, and sleep (sleep onset, unrefreshing sleep, sleep maintenance) were significant variables affecting neuropsychological test performance (sequencing, cognitive flexibility, slow- and fast-paced input, divided attention, whole brain functioning). Findings suggest that ADHD involves numerous factors and symptoms beyond attention, such as sleep which interacts differently dependent upon age.

  14. Neuropsychologic effects of saturation diving.

    PubMed

    Vaernes, R J; Kløve, H; Ellertsen, B

    1989-05-01

    Neuropsychologic status of saturation divers was assessed before and after 300-500 msw dives (deep saturation diving--DSD group) and before and after 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving (saturation diving--SD group). Average baseline results showed the divers to be slightly superior to nondiving controls. Mild-to-moderate neuropsychologic changes (greater than 10% impairment) were found in measures of tremor, spatial memory, vigilance, and automatic reactivity in 20% of the divers after deep dives (DSD group). One year postdive no recovery was observed except for a vigilance test. In the SD group, 20% of the divers showed greater than 10% impairment after 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving. Significant reduction in autonomic reactivity was also found and there was a relationship between low autonomic reactivity before saturation diving and number of greater than 10% impairments. For the whole group (DSD + SD divers), negative correlations were found between saturation experience and results on memory and complex visuomotor tests. Years of diving from first to last examination was positively correlated with number of greater than 10% impairments and with reduction in autonomic reactivity. No similar correlations were found to dive variables after about 3 yr of air diving. The mild-to-moderate changes seen in some divers, therefore, seem to be the effects of saturation diving. Since one deep dive may cause an effect similar to the effect of 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving, there is reason to believe that repeated deep diving may lead to more pronounced neuropsychologic impairment.

  15. BECTS evolving to Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and back by subsequent recovery: a longitudinal language reorganization case study using fMRI, source EEG, and neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Datta, A N; Oser, N; Ramelli, G P; Gobbin, N Zanda; Lantz, G; Penner, I K; Weber, P

    2013-04-01

    By means of a longitudinal case study, we demonstrated the course of cerebral reorganization of language representation due to epilepsy in a child with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) evolving to Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) and returning to BECTS. The child underwent the following procedures at the ages of 8.2, 8.6, and 9.3 years: 3D source EEG imaging, language fMRI (sentence generation and reading), and neuropsychological testing. He had a follow-up testing at the age of 10.8 years. Further, 24-h EEGs were regularly performed. At the age of around 8 years, the child was diagnosed initially with left-hemispheric BECTS, which evolved to LKS with continuous bilateral discharges. In addition, 3D source imaging data revealed a left anterior temporal focus with a spreading to the right parietal and left centro-parietal areas. The patient had verbal agnosia with poor verbal yet good performance indices. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed a left-hemispheric reading network but sentence generation was impossible to perform. After initiation of adequate treatment, continuous discharges disappeared, and only very rare left-hemispheric centro-temporal spikes remained. Verbal IQ and performance IQ increased at the age of 8.6 years. Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed, at this time, a right-hemispheric language activation pattern for sentence generation and reading. At the ages of 9.3 and 10.8 years, language tasks remained right-hemispheric and verbal IQ remained stable, but right-hemispheric non-verbal functions decreased due to possible crowding-out mechanisms.

  16. Speech and Pause Characteristics in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study of Speakers with High and Low Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenaughty, Lynda; Tjaden, Kris; Benedict, Ralph H. B.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated how cognitive-linguistic status in multiple sclerosis (MS) is reflected in two speech tasks (i.e. oral reading, narrative) that differ in cognitive-linguistic demand. Twenty individuals with MS were selected to comprise High and Low performance groups based on clinical tests of executive function and information…

  17. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  18. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Wright, Shana; Rotrosen, John; Khan, Rubina; Lee, Joshua D.; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    The time required to conduct drug and alcohol screening has been a major barrier to its implementation in mainstream healthcare settings. Because patient self-administered tools are potentially more efficient, we translated the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) into an audio guided computer assisted self interview (ACASI) format. This study reports on the test-retest reliability of the ACASI ASSIST in an adult primary care population. Adult primary care patients completed the ACASI ASSIST, in English or Spanish, twice within a 1–4 week period. Among the 101 participants, there were no significant differences between test administrations in detecting moderate to high risk use for tobacco, alcohol, or any other drug class. Substance risk scores from the two administrations had excellent concordance (90–98%) and high correlation (ICC 0.90–0.97) for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The ACASI ASSIST has good test-retest reliability, and warrants additional study to evaluate its validity for detecting unhealthy substance use. PMID:24629887

  19. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  20. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  1. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  2. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  3. Proton MagneƟc Resonance Spectroscopy in Asperger’s Syndrome: CorrelaƟons with Neuropsychological Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    ÖNER, Özgür; ÖZGÜVEN, Halise Devrimci; ÖKTEM, Ferhunde; YAĞMURLU, Banu; BASKAK, Bora; ÖLMEZ, Şenay; MUNiR, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has been shown that autistic spectrum patients have impaired theory of mind (ToM) performance; however, no study has investigated the relationship between ToM performance and brain neurochemistry in these patients. The present study aimed to investigate the correlations between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), and Cho/Cr values based on 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ToM tests. Method The study sample included 13 adult, right-handed, Caucasian males with Asperger’s syndrome (AS) (age range: 17–37 years) and 20 controls matched by age, gender, handedness, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised (WAIS-R) full-scale IQ scores. Results AS cases had significantly lower ToM performance. DLPFC NAA/Cho levels were inversely correlated to ToM scores (r = −0.738, P = 0.004). On the other hand, ToM performance improved as DLPFC Cho/Cr increased (r = 0.656, P = 0.015). ACC MRS variables were not significantly correlated with ToM performance in the AS group. No significant correlation was observed between ACC or DLPFC MRS variables and ToM performance in the control group. Discussion: Because NAA/Cho was inversely correlated with ToM performance and Cho/Cr was correlated with ToM performance, it can be suggested that the Cho level was related to better ToM test performance in the AS group. An increase in the Cho peak was associated with an increase in membrane breakdown or turnover. The Cho peak was also thought to reflect cellular density and astrocytosis. It is suggested that membrane turnover and astrocytosis might affect cognitive functioning. PMID:19306123

  4. An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Teaching Individuals How to Administer the Revised ABLA Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boris, Ashley L.; Awadalla, Nardeen; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.; Kaminski, Lauren; Miljkovic, Morena

    2015-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tool that is used to assess the learning ability of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and children with autism. The ABLA was recently revised and is now referred to as the ABLA-Revised (ABLA-R). A self-instructional manual was prepared to teach individuals how to administer the…

  5. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  6. An exploratory analysis linking neuropsychological testing to quantification of tractography using High Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) in military TBI.

    PubMed

    Presson, Nora; Beers, Sue R; Morrow, Lisa; Wagener, Lauren M; Bird, William A; Van Eman, Gina; Krishnaswamy, Deepa; Penderville, Joshua; Borrasso, Allison J; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava; Fissell, Catherine; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-09-01

    To realize the potential value of tractography in traumatic brain injury (TBI), we must identify metrics that provide meaningful information about functional outcomes. The current study explores quantitative metrics describing the spatial properties of tractography from advanced diffusion imaging (High Definition Fiber Tracking, HDFT). In a small number of right-handed males from military TBI (N = 7) and civilian control (N = 6) samples, both tract homologue symmetry and tract spread (proportion of brain mask voxels contacted) differed for several tracts among civilian controls and extreme groups in the TBI sample (high scorers and low scorers) for verbal recall, serial reaction time, processing speed index, and trail-making. Notably, proportion of voxels contacted in the arcuate fasciculus distinguished high and low performers on the CVLT-II and PSI, potentially reflecting linguistic task demands, and GFA in the left corticospinal tract distinguished high and low performers in PSI and Trail Making Test Part A, potentially reflecting right hand motor response demands. The results suggest that, for advanced diffusion imaging, spatial properties of tractography may add analytic value to measures of tract anisotropy.

  7. Comparison Between a Self-Administered and Supervised Version of a Web-Based Cognitive Test Battery: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailet, Marion; Lecoffre, Amandine C; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Amieva, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major public health problem, and repeated cognitive data from large epidemiological studies could help to develop efficient measures of early prevention. Data collection by self-administered online tools could drastically reduce the logistical and financial burden of such large-scale investigations. In this context, it is important to obtain data concerning the comparability of such new online tools with traditional, supervised modes of cognitive assessment. Objective Our objective was to compare self-administration of the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cognitive test battery (NutriCog) with administration by a neuropsychologist. Methods The test battery included four tests, measuring, among others aspects, psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and associative memory. Both versions of the cognitive battery were completed by 189 volunteers (either self-administered version first, n=99, or supervised version first, n=90). Subjects also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Concordance was assessed by Spearman correlation. Results Agreement between both versions varied according to the investigated cognitive task and outcome variable. Spearman correlations ranged between .42 and .73. Moreover, a majority of participants responded that they “absolutely” or “rather” agreed that the duration of the self-administered battery was acceptable (184/185, 99.5%), that the tasks were amusing (162/185, 87.6%), that the instructions were sufficiently detailed (168/185; 90.8%) and understandable (164/185, 88.7%), and that they had overall enjoyed the test battery (182/185, 98.4%). Conclusions The self-administered version of the Web-based NutriCog cognitive test battery provided similar information as the supervised version. Thus, integrating repeated cognitive evaluations into large cohorts via the implementation of self-administered online versions of traditional test batteries appears to be feasible. PMID

  8. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Administered Analytical Questions for the Graduate Record Examinations General Test. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-06P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Rock, Donald A.

    Three new computer-administered item types for the analytical scale of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test were developed and evaluated. One item type was a free-response version of the current analytical reasoning item type. The second item type was a somewhat constrained free-response version of the pattern identification (or…

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy and Test-Retest Reliability of Nonword Repetition and Digit Span Tasks Administered to Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    To assess diagnostic accuracy and test-retest reliability, two forms of a nonword repetition task were administered to 22 preschool children with specific language impairment and 22 controls. Nonword repetition scores provided excellent sensitivity and specificity for discrimination. Scores on nonword repetition and digit span tasks improved from…

  10. Neuropsychological performance in LRRK2 G2019S carriers with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Mirelman, Anat; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Raymond, Deborah; Palmese, Christina; Caccappolo, Elise; Ozelius, Laurie; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Clark, Lorraine; Giladi, Nir; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) LRRK2 carriers are more likely to manifest the postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) motor phenotype than non-carriers but perform similarly to non-carriers on cognitive screening tests. Objective To compare the cognitive profiles of AJ with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with and without LRRK2 G2019S mutations using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Methods We administered a neuropsychological battery to PD participants in the Michael J. Fox Foundation AJ consortium. Participants (n=236) from Beth Israel Medical Center, NY, Columbia University Medical Center, NY and Tel Aviv Medical Center, Israel included 116 LRRK2 G2019S carriers and 120 non-carriers. Glucocerbrosidase mutation carriers were excluded. We compared performance on each neuropsychological test between carriers and non-carriers. Participants in New York (n=112) were evaluated with the entire battery. Tel Aviv participants (n=124) were evaluated on attention, executive function and psychomotor speed tasks. The association between G2019S mutation status (predictor) and each neuropsychological test (outcome) was assessed using linear regression models adjusted for PIGD motor phenotype, site, sex, age, disease duration, education, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III, levodopa equivalent dose, and Geriatric Depression Score (GDS). Results Carriers had longer disease duration (p<0.001) and were more likely to manifest the PIGD phenotype (p=0.024). In adjusted regression models, carriers performed better than non-carriers in Stroop Word Reading (p<0.001), Stroop Interference (p=0.011) and Category Fluency (p=0.026). Conclusion In AJ-PD, G2019S mutation status is associated with better attention (Stroop Word Reading), executive function (Stroop Interference) and language (Category Fluency) after adjustment for PIGD motor phenotype. PMID:25434972

  11. Neuropsychology of Swedenborg's visions.

    PubMed

    Bradford, D T

    1999-04-01

    In 1744, the 56-yr.-old scientist Emanuel Swedenborg underwent a transformative event that could be characterized as convulsive. He subsequently became a visionary and spent the remaining 28 years of his life exploring the spirit world and describing his experiences in an extensive corpus of writings. Retrospective analysis of his visions and trance states indicates signs and symptoms consistent with a vascular anomaly in the posterior area of the left cerebral hemisphere and associated effects due to partial seizures with complex symptomatology. Swedenborg's writings have formed the basis of a church that remains active to this day. His visionary experiences can be interpreted as an instance of neuropsychological symptomatology, under the shaping influence of a powerful intellect, contributing to the formation of an historically significant religious movement. The term neuropathography is proposed for a new genre of neuropsychological case study in which the emphasis on brain-related symptomatology is balanced by attention to autobiographical and broad cultural factors.

  12. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  13. The use of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) in an efficacy and safety trial of BMY 21,502 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Shrotriya, R C; Sramek, J J; Veroff, A E; Seifert, R D; Reich, L A; Hironaka, D Y

    1993-09-24

    BMY 21,502 is a nootropic which protects memory and enhances long-term potentiation according to preclinical findings. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who were diagnosed by DSM-III-R and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were enrolled in a 12-week double-blind investigation of BMY 21,502 vs. placebo at 300 mg tid. The study design included a 1-week placebo lead-in and a 4-week placebo washout in addition to the 12-week double-blind treatment period. Efficacy was assessed with the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. Clinical Global Impression (CGI) assessments were also performed biweekly. Sixty-nine patients (28M, 41F; mean age 72 years, range 54 to 92 years) were enrolled in the study. Baseline Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scores ranged from 16 to 26 (mean 23.5) in patients on active drug (n = 34), and from 15 to 26 (mean 22.5) in placebo patients (n = 35). Baseline efficacy scores were comparable for drug and placebo patients (p > 0.05). Twelve (35%) patients who received BMY 21,502 withdrew from the study, 8 (24%) due to adverse events. Three (9%) patients who received placebo withdrew from the study, all due to adverse events. Patients on active drug who were valid for analysis of efficacy (n = 22) showed a mean decrease in ADAS of -1.5 at week 12, vs. a mean change of -0.5 in patients who received placebo (n = 32), although there was no significant difference between the two (p > 0.05). Correlations between the CNTB summary scores and ADAS cognitive subscores were, nevertheless, highly significant at baseline (r = -0.83, p = 0.0001) and week 12 (r = -0.83, p = 0.0001). Correlations between the word list learning, spatial, and naming subtests of the ADAS and CNTB were also highly significant (p = 0.0001). Although modest, the findings for active drug vs. placebo response in this study suggest that BMY 21,502 should be further investigated, with a larger study

  14. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  15. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  16. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  17. Insomnia: Neurophysiological and neuropsychological approaches.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Célyne H

    2011-03-01

    Insomnia is a symptom, a syndrome and a comorbid disorder. Its diagnosis relies on subjective reports from the afflicted individual and is defined as difficulties in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, waking up too early or non-restorative sleep. However, insomnia and especially, primary insomnia, has received much attention in insomnia research with the use of objective measures. Insomnia, its peculiarities, most frequent subtypes and two most prominent models will first be briefly introduced. Then, insomnia will be reviewed according to results obtained with the use of neurophysiological measures as basic/traditional as polysomnography to more sophisticated ones such as power spectral analysis, neuroimaging, cyclic alternating patterns and event-related potentials. In addition, a review of the discrepancies between subjective and objective reports of cognitive alterations through neuropsychological testing is offered. The need to combine measures is then highlighted in conclusion. PMID:21249453

  18. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  19. [Neuropsychology in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Helmstaedter, C; Witt, J-A

    2009-11-01

    In order to understand cognitive impairment associated with epilepsy, it is essential to appreciate that independent static and dynamic factors affect brain function in this disease. Whereas morphological lesions or structural changes are associated with more or less irreversible deficits, epileptic activity, seizures, and the treatment of epilepsy can cause dynamic and principally reversible impairment. The relative contribution of these factors differs depending on the type of epilepsy, the age at lesion/epilepsy onset, the localization and lateralization of epilepsy and individual demographic patient characteristics. Altered brain structure and function can result in epilepsy, but epilepsy can also alter the functional cerebral organization of the brain. Thus epilepsy-related cognitive impairment must be integrated within a developmental neuropsychological framework. The aetiology of epilepsy is strongly related to the age of onset. From a neuropsychological point of view, it makes a big difference for cognitive outcome as to whether epilepsy hits the maturing versus mature or aging brain. Dependent on this, epilepsy can result in retardation, loss of acquired functions, or accelerated mental decline. It will be demonstrated that cognitive impairments in epilepsy mostly exist from the beginning of epilepsy, that early onset lesions/epilepsy interfere with mental development, and that a progressive aetiology, severe seizures, and lesions secondary to epilepsy may accelerate mental decline. It will furthermore be discussed that uncontrolled epilepsy and epileptic activity may reversibly and irreversibly contribute to cognitive impairment. The same is demonstrated with regard to the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy. Finally, the cognitive risks and benefits of epilepsy surgery and the advantages of selective surgery will be addressed. The consequences for the neuropsychological assessment are discussed in part two of this review.

  20. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  1. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  2. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  3. [Neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Isler, H; Jagella, C; Röhrenbach, C

    1995-12-12

    The 17th centuryś origins of neuropsychiatry are found in the works of Thomas Willis, who introduced the terms 'psychologia' and 'neurologia' and developed a complete neuropsychiatric concept. His views were revived by 18th-century animists and vitalists who were able to accept body-mind interactions, unlike the followers of Leibniz (e.g. Haller) who stuck to his psychophysical parallelism without possible interaction. This was also the creed of John Hughlings Jackson, whose influence on the development of neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology in the first decades of the 20th century was second to none. Neuropsychiatry, a Germanic specialty, was able to germinate in 1845 in Griesinger's 'Pathology and therapy of mental diseases', after Gall, Mesmer, Johannes Müller and many others had reformed and expanded the concept of mind-body interaction. In the second half of the 19th century, in the German-speaking countries progress in both neurology and psychiatry was usually achieved by neuro-psychiatrists. Neuropsychology (Lashley, 1913) was a product of both Jacksonian and Germanic neuropsychiatric ideas. During the 20th century neurology was separated from psychiatry, but new trends and their names such as 'psychobiology' and 'biological psychiatry', although quite old, are suggestive of a new kind of neuropsychiatry.

  4. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  5. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  6. Reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children (BENCI).

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Catena-Martinez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (BENCI) is a computerized battery for the neuropsychological evaluation of children. This battery has been used in different studies to evaluate neuropsychological functions and neurodevelopment in children. The objective of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the first Arabic version of the BENCI on an Arabic population where neuropsychological tests are very scarce. We administrate the BENCI to 198 school-age children (98 boys and 100 girls) from Morocco. To examine the test retest reliability of the BENCI battery, we administered the battery 2 times to 43 children (23 boys and 20 girls) with 15 days in between the pre- and posttest. The results revealed good validity and reliability of the battery in Arabic children. Also, the BENCI battery has demonstrated the capacity to differentiate between children by their age group. This battery can be of great use to both the research and clinical areas of Arabic countries and/or in assistance to Arabic immigrants that live outside of their native country.

  7. [Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and by affective psychosis].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A; Gilvarry, C; Russel, A; Mathieu-Cura, C; Murray, R

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits. One hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (AS) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic (APA) patients completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism. They were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). In the AS group, the male relatives scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives in the APA group. There were no significant differences in personality between female relatives of the 2 patients groups. In the AS group, the NART scores were superior when the psychoticism scores were lower and the TMT performance was better when the extraversion scores were higher. These results seem to indicate some specificity as well as sex differences of the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to schizophrenia whereas extraversion decreases it.

  8. A New Method of Administering the Grooved Pegboard Test: Performance as a Function of Handedness and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, P.J.; Roy, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: first to examine the influences of sex and handedness on manual performance on the Grooved Pegboard Test; and secondly to provide normative data for two versions (Place and Remove tasks) of the Grooved Pegboard Test, as previous work (Bryden & Roy, 1999) had suggested that the Remove task of the…

  9. Detection and assessment of stroke in patients with sickle cell disease: neuropsychological functioning and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Johnson, Caroline B; Treadwell, Marsha J; Hans, Nitu; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2008-06-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased risk of stroke and cognitive impairment. This study describes a retrospective review of 65 patients who underwent routine neuropsychological testing and MRI during treatment at a comprehensive sickle cell center. It was hypothesized that (1) children with no evidence of CVA would perform lower than expected on cognitive tasks compared to population-based normative data, (2) children with strokes and children with silent infarcts would perform lower on cognitive tasks and motor skills as compared to patients with no evidence of CVA, and (3) children with evidence of silent infarcts would perform better than children with known overt strokes. This final hypothesis has not been studied previously, as children with known overt stroke and silent infarct were grouped together. Sixty-five children with SCD who were sent for routine neuropsychological testing and brain MRI were identified via retrospective chart review. Patients had been administered neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive, executive and motor function. Brain MRI was obtained from each patient and was analyzed for evidence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Based on MRI analysis, 27% of patients with SCD had experienced a stroke and 13% a silent infarct. The majority (59%) of patients diagnosed with stroke or infarct sustained cortical damage to the frontal lobe. Patients with SCD and no evidence of CVA functioned normally on tests of cognitive ability and achievement, but patients with CVA displayed impairments in cognitive function and comparatively lower scores on verbal and performance scales. Neuropsychological testing can identify impairments in patients with SCD with no known cerebrovascular accident. Investigations of neurocognitive functioning will help characterize patterns of deficits and can inform the ability to implement comprehensive care strategies for patients with SCD and cognitive impairment.

  10. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  11. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions.

  12. Neuropsychological Test Performance of Hawai‘i High School Athletes: Updated Hawai‘i Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing Data

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The present study reviewed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline test scores of 247 high school athletes ages 13 to 18 from a private school in Hawai‘i. The aim of the research was to update a prior exploratory investigation conducted in 2008 that compared the test scores of Hawai‘i public high school athletes with the normative data provided by the ImPACT publishers. The results of this study provide assurance that the present ImPACT scores of the Hawai‘i high school athletes are similar to the general ImPACT norms. The present study is a rare effort to compare the ImPACT scores of high school athletes from an ethnically diverse region with the ImPACT norms. The findings offer further support for the use of the ImPACT norms when evaluating high school athletes from Hawai‘i. Future research in various regions of the United States and with other sociocultural backgrounds is encouraged. PMID:25089231

  13. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  14. Neuropsychological sequelae of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K; Reid, W; Homewood, J; Cook, R

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 17 patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery before and six months after bilateral pallidotomy. A comparison group (n = 8) was also assessed at six month intervals. Outcome variables were tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, attention, executive skills, and depression. Results: Despite a large number of variables studied, a significant postsurgical change was found only in performance of the tower of London task, a measure of planning abilities. The effect size of this change was larger than that of the comparison group, and a reliable change index score established that 5 of 13 surgical patients had statistically reliable reductions in planning performance. Conclusions: Patients with a young age of onset and long duration of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral pallidotomy had a relatively circumscribed reduction in neuropsychological functioning, being limited to motor planning efficiency. These data suggest that the cognitive role of the posteroventral globus pallidus is limited, at least in people with Parkinson's disease. PMID:12235317

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  16. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  17. Patients with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis due to ROBO3 E319K mutation have both uncrossed and crossed central nervous system pathways and perform normally on neuropsychological testing

    PubMed Central

    Amoiridis, G; Tzagournissakis, M; Christodoulou, P; Karampekios, S; Latsoudis, H; Panou, T; Simos, P; Plaitakis, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is caused by mutations of the ROBO3 gene, which encodes a receptor associated with axonal guidance during development. Although there is evidence for uncrossed cuneatal and corticospinal tracts in HGPPS, it is unclear whether other central nervous system pathways are involved. Objective To study two patients with HGPPS homozygotic for the ROBO3 E319K mutation using a variety of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests. Methods A battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to assess various cognitive and perceptual functions. The corticospinal, somatosensory and auditory pathways were evaluated using appropriate neurophysiological tests. To access motor pathways to the neck muscles, electromyographic recordings were obtained from the sternocleidomastoideus and splenius capitis muscle during active head rotation. Results Both patients performed normally on manual dexterity, complex sensory and visuospatial functions, reading and general intelligence tests. Motor evoked potentials in both patients showed uncrossed corticospinal tracts for the extremities, although in one patient, electromyography indicated pyramidal tract crossing for the neck muscles. Although somatosensory evoked potentials showed uncrossed somatosensory fibres subserving proprioception and light touch, right median nerve somatosensory evoked potential in one patient indicated a partial lemniscal crossing. Sympathetic skin response and blink reflex showed a midline crossing of the spinothalamic and quintothalamic tracts. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials indicated a lack of crossing in the level of the trapezoid body. Conclusions Our patients with the ROBO3 E319Κ mutation show normal perceptual and cognitive functions and have both crossed and uncrossed motor, sensory and auditory pathways. PMID:16772357

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic testing of marbofloxacin administered as a single injection for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Vallé, M; Schneider, M; Galland, D; Giboin, H; Woehrlé, F

    2012-12-01

    New approaches in Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration suggested that marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone already licensed for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease at a daily dosage of 2 mg/kg for 3-5 days, would be equally clinically effective at 10 mg/kg once (Forcyl(®)), whilst also reducing the risk of resistance. This marbofloxacin dosage regimen was studied using mutant prevention concentration (MPC), PK simulation, PK/PD integration and an in vitro dynamic system. This system simulated the concentration-time profile of marbofloxacin in bovine plasma established in vivo after a single 10 mg/kg intramuscular dose and killing curves of field isolated Pasteurellaceae strains of high (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) MIC ≤ 0.03 μg/mL), average (MIC of 0.12-0.25 μg/mL) and low (MIC of 1 μg/mL) susceptibility to marbofloxacin. The marbofloxacin MPC values were 2- to 4-fold the MIC values for all Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida tested. Marbofloxacin demonstrated a concentration-dependent killing profile with bactericidal activity observed within 1 h for most strains. No resistance development (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL) was detected in the dynamic tests. Target values for risk of resistance PK/PD surrogates (area under the curve (AUC) AUC(24 h) /MPC and T(>MPC) /T(MSW) ratio) were achieved for all clinically susceptible pathogens. The new proposed dosing regimen was validated in vitro and by PK/PD integration confirming the single-injection short-acting antibiotic concept.

  19. Environmental enrichment, administered after establishment of cocaine self-administration, reduces lever pressing in extinction and during a cocaine context renewal test.

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, Robert; Kest, Karen; Zellner, Margaret; Hachimine-Semprebom, Priscila

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that environmental enrichment (EE) administered to rats previously trained to self-administer cocaine would reduce responding in extinction and in a cocaine-context renewal test. Long-Evans male rats were trained to press an active lever reinforced by cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/injection) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement (inactive lever presses produced no consequences). After stable responding was established, all rats were given a 10-day break from the operant chambers followed by random assignment to EE (larger cages equipped with visual and auditory stimuli) or control (standard housing) group conditions in which they lived for the remainder of the experiment. Ten days after this move, rats were exposed to 10 extinction-responding sessions in a context different from the one in which self-administration occurred, followed by a context-renewal session occurring in the original self-administration context. The EE group responded significantly less in both the extinction and context-renewal sessions compared with the control group. These results suggest that EE reduces the ability of cocaine-associated stimuli to control cocaine-related responding.

  20. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  1. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  2. Standard of Care for Neuropsychological Monitoring in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Lessons From the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne

    2016-02-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.

  3. No neuropsychological consequence in male and female soccer players after a short heading training.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Cornelia; Jansen, Petra

    2011-11-01

    The impact of heading on neuropsychological performance is a subject of controversy. In this experimental study, a controlled group design was used to investigate the possible effects of a short heading training session on neuropsychological performance. Ninety-one participants matched by age, sex, and intelligence were assigned to one of the following groups: A heading-training group, a placebo control group, and a waiting control group. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery for attention and working memory (D2 Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task Test). After 1 week, they received heading training, football (e.g., soccer) training without heading, or no training. Immediately after this training, the neuropsychological tests were conducted again. There was no neuropsychological deficit which could only be attributed to the heading training. However, within the heading group, women complained more about headache than men.

  4. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  5. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  6. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome (TS)

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Soleimani, Maryam; Carroll, Alan; Hodlevskyy, Oleksander

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether children with Tourette syndrome (TS) displayed a unique pattern of neuropsychological deficits on the CANTAB® relative to control children. We also looked at whether children with TS and other comorbidities had more neuropsychological impairments than those with uncomplicated TS and how age was related to the profile of neuropsychological deficits in TS. Method: Participants included 38 children with TS (aged 7 to 13 years) and 38 control children (aged 6 to 12 years). All children were administered 8 subtests from the CANTAB® and parents and teachers completed the BRIEF rating scale on children in the TS group. Results: Children with TS displayed deficits relative to control children on measures of visual memory, executive functioning, and attention from the CANTAB®. Among the TS group, age was negatively correlated with performance on measures of executive functioning, speed of response and working memory. Conclusions: Identifying the pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with TS on the CANTAB® is important for highlighting areas of deficit that can be targeted for intervention and teaching strategies. With further research, the CANTAB® may prove to be a useful resource in the assessment and treatment of children with TS. PMID:19881939

  7. Neuropsychological profile in adult schizophrenia measured with the CMINDS.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Turner, Jessica A; Callahan, Shawn; Calhoun, Vince D; Bustillo, Juan R; Lim, Kelvin O; Mueller, Bryon; Brown, Gregory G; Vaidya, Jatin G; McEwen, Sarah; Belger, Aysenil; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Nguyen, Dana; Ford, Judith M; Potkin, Steven G

    2015-12-30

    Schizophrenia neurocognitive domain profiles are predominantly based on paper-and-pencil batteries. This study presents the first schizophrenia domain profile based on the Computerized Multiphasic Interactive Neurocognitive System (CMINDS(®)). Neurocognitive domain z-scores were computed from computerized neuropsychological tests, similar to those in the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), administered to 175 patients with schizophrenia and 169 demographically similar healthy volunteers. The schizophrenia domain profile order by effect size was Speed of Processing (d=-1.14), Attention/Vigilance (d=-1.04), Working Memory (d=-1.03), Verbal Learning (d=-1.02), Visual Learning (d=-0.91), and Reasoning/Problem Solving (d=-0.67). There were no significant group by sex interactions, but overall women, compared to men, showed advantages on Attention/Vigilance, Verbal Learning, and Visual Learning compared to Reasoning/Problem Solving on which men showed an advantage over women. The CMINDS can readily be employed in the assessment of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders; particularly in large-scale studies that may benefit most from electronic data capture. PMID:26586142

  8. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-04-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties.

  9. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  10. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  11. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  12. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  13. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p < 0.17). Clinical ADHD cases, including both + comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on continuous performance test (CPT), working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD + comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing, and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and child behavior checklist (CBCL) tests particularly the CBCL-deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD + comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as ODD or with conduct disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L.; McLaren, Donald; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K.; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as valid indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI. PMID:22777078

  15. Searching for the elusive neural substrates of body part terms: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged patients with lesions distributed throughout the telencephalon. There were two main outcomes. First, impaired oral naming of body parts, attributable to a disturbance of the mapping between lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological structures, was most reliably and specifically associated with lesions in the left frontal opercular and anterior/inferior parietal opercular cortices and in the white matter underlying these regions (8 patients). Also, 1 patient with body part anomia had a left occipital lesion that included the "extrastriate body area" (EBA). Second, knowledge of the meanings of body part terms was remarkably resistant to impairment, regardless of lesion site; in fact, we did not uncover a single patient who exhibited significantly impaired understanding of the meanings of these terms. In the 9 patients with body part anomia, oral naming of concrete entities was evaluated, and this revealed that 4 patients had disproportionately worse naming of body parts relative to other types of concrete entities. Taken together, these findings extend previous neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies of body part knowledge and add to our growing understanding of the nuances of how different linguistic and conceptual categories are operated by left frontal and parietal structures.

  16. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  17. Neuropsychological impairment in patients with schizophrenia and evidence of hyponatremia and polydipsia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ivan J; Keedy, Sarah; Marlow-O'Connor, Megan; Beenken, Beth; Goldman, Morris B

    2009-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and water imbalance may represent a subset of patients with distinct pathophysiological abnormalities and susceptibility to cognitive impairment. Specifically, patients with polydipsia and hyponatremia have been shown to have smaller anterior hippocampal volumes, which are also associated with various impairments in neuroendocrine function. To determine whether abnormalities in patients with water imbalance extend to the cognitive realm, the present study evaluated neuropsychological functioning in three groups of patients with schizophrenia: polydipsic hyponatremic, polydipsic normonatremic, and nonpolydipsic normonatremic. Participants were administered cognitive tests assessing intelligence, attention, learning/memory (verbal, nonverbal, emotional), and facial discrimination. Hyponatremic patients showed poorer overall neuropsychological functioning relative to all other patients, and polydipsic normonatremic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups. Results indicate that patients with schizophrenia and polydipsia, and particularly those with hyponatremia, show prominent cognitive deficits relative to patients without water imbalance. The clinical, neuroendocrine, and cognitive abnormalities in these patients may arise from pathology within the anterior hippocampus and associated prefrontal/limbic brain regions. PMID:19413445

  18. Using State Tests vs. Study-Administered Tests to Measure Student Achievement: An Empirical Assessment Based on Four Recent Randomized Evaluations of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Pei; Somers, Marie-Andree; Wong, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    For this project, the authors use data from four IES-sponsored randomized studies to examine some of the key issues identified in May et. al. (2009). The first set of questions focuses on issues related to using state tests: (1) Do studies meet the assumptions needed for combining impacts on state tests across grades and/or states?; (2) How…

  19. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of some neuropsychological markers of Alzheimer dementia.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Marra, C; Villa, G; Parlato, V; Chiarotti, F

    1998-09-01

    A standardized neuropsychological test battery was administered to 167 patients with different forms of mild-to-moderate dementia: probable Alzheimer dementia (AD: n = 49), multi-infarct dementia (n = 43), idiopathic Parkinson disease with dementia (n = 35), depressive pseudodementia (n = 26), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 14). Results obtained were used (a) to analyze the profiles of cognitive impairment shown by the different dementia groups; (b) to assess the incidence of some neuropsychological patterns that we hypothesized to be more characteristic of AD, in the various groups; and hence (c) to evaluate the reliability of these patterns as diagnostic markers of AD. Four of the patterns investigated were derived from a verbal learning task (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning test): (1) absence of the primacy effect; (2) tendency to produce intrusion errors during free recall of a word list; (3) absolute decay of memory trace; and (4) tendency to produce false alarms during delayed recognition of the same word list. Two additional patterns were derived from visual-spatial tasks (copying drawings and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices): (5) occurrence of the closing-in phenomenon in copying drawings; and (6) tendency to choose globalistic or odd responses in Raven's matrices. Though all the six patterns were somewhat useful for identifying AD patients, no pattern met the criteria of being both highly sensitive and highly specific, which should characterize an ideal marker. In fact, intrusions and false alarms were observed in many AD patients, but also in patients affected by other forms of dementia. The absence of the primacy effect, the closing-in phenomenon, and the absolute decay of memory trace were more specific, but could be observed in only one-third of AD patients. We also computed the number of positive patterns shown by each patient and assumed the presence of two or more patterns as a global index suggestive of a dementia of the Alzheimer

  1. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  2. White Matter Correlates of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Chavez, Robert S.; Flores, Ranee A.; Qualls, Clifford; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Roldan, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20–50%) as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE). We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE), ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female), and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = −2.25+/−1.77, non-NPSLE = −1.22+/−1.03, Controls = −0.10+/−.57; F = 13.2, p<.001). In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree) in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results. PMID:22291880

  3. Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): Performance in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Temple, Richard O

    2010-10-01

    The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB; Stern & White, 2003) is a comprehensive test battery that assesses five cognitive domains (Attention, Language, Memory, Spatial, and Executive Functions). The purpose of the current descriptive study was to present data on the index and primary test scores from the five main NAB cognitive modules in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to a residential postacute rehabilitation program. Twenty patients were administered all five main NAB modules upon recommendation from the NAB Screening module. The sample performed significantly worse than normal on tests that assess selective and divided attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility. The largest proportion of patients performing below an established impairment cutoff (10th percentile) occurred on the Numbers and Letters, List Learning, Story Learning, Daily Living Memory, and Categories Tests. Significant performance decrements were not observed on any indices or tests from the Language or Spatial cognitive domain modules. The pattern of performance on the NAB demonstrated by the current sample is consistent with the neuropsychological profile observed in postacute patients with moderate-to-severe TBI without focal deficits (e.g., aphasia), demonstrating its relative sensitivity in this patient population. A comparison between the current study sample and a related clinical sample from the NAB standardization data is discussed.

  4. On the Neuropsychology of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1989-01-01

    Three neuropsychological case studies of individuals with learning disabilities support the possibility that nonverbal learning disability is associated with greater emotional dysfunction and the potential for suicide. Further research to resolve some concerns about this possible predisposition to suicidal behavior is recommended. (MSE)

  5. [Neuropsychology and forensic assessment in brain injured patients].

    PubMed

    Mazaux, J-M; Ricbourg, B

    2006-09-01

    Neuropsychology, which deals with the relationships between upper mental functions and brain structures is directly involved with psychiatric and psychological disorders and thus constitutes one of the major domains of cognitive sciences. The impairment of upper mental functions is evident after severe brain injuries causing significant motor deficits. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that even mild or moderate brain injuries can cause sequelae which are difficult to analyze and quantify clinically. These sequelae constitute an "invisible handicap" which may greatly interfere with the patient's professional, relational and social life. The neuropsychological evaluation must be systematic and complete and has to be carried out with a sufficient hindsight (two to three years after the trauma) using neuropsychological and behavioural deficiency evaluation scales. Psychometric tests are also necessary. The data obtained from this evaluation must be correctly interpreted and constitutes the main exhibit in the forensic examination of the brain injured patient.

  6. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  7. Bright and dark sides of impulsivity: performance of women with high and low trait impulsivity on neuropsychological tasks.

    PubMed

    Perales, Jose C; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Moya, Maribel; Lozano, Oscar; Perez-Garcia, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    We administered a multidimensional measure of trait impulsivity (the UPPS-P impulsivity scale; Cyders et al., 2007) to a nonclinical sample of 155 individuals and selected 32 participants at the two ends of the trait impulsivity continuum: high (HI, n = 15) and low (LI, n = 17) impulsive women. We further tested these extreme groups on neuropsychological measures of motor impulsivity (go/no-go, d2), delay discounting (Now or Later Questionnaire), reflection impulsivity (Matching Familiar Figures Test), self-regulation (Revised-Strategy Application Test), and decision making (Iowa Gambling Task). High-trait-impulsivity women were found to commit more commission errors in the initial stage of the go/no-go task but also to make fewer omission errors in the d2 test than did low-trait-impulsivity women. Both effects can be accounted for by a lower response criterion in impulsive women. On the other hand, measures of delay discounting, reflection impulsivity, self-regulation, and decision making did not yield significant differences between the two groups. This pattern of results supports the idea that trait impulsivity in healthy women is linked to neurocognitive mechanisms involved in response monitoring and inhibition, but not to mechanisms involved in self-regulation or decision making. These findings temper the assumption that impulsivity is the core cause of dysfunctional risky and/or impulsive behavior in psychopathological or neuropsychological profiles. PMID:19358009

  8. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  9. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  10. Attorneys Influence Expert Evidence in Forensic Psychological and Neuropsychological Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees-Haley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that attorneys are influencing data relied on by psychological experts in forensic cases, usually by advising clients how to respond to psychological tests or by prompting them in other ways. This article alerts psychologists to this threat to the validity of psychological and neuropsychological evaluations.…

  11. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions.

  12. Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications.

    PubMed

    Risser, M G; Bowers, T G

    1993-12-01

    10 children receiving stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were compared to normal children on cognitive and neuropsychological dimensions in a pilot study. When compared with 10 normal children the ADHD children showed significant differences on cognitive measures, including the Wechsler Developmental Index, the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Revised Visual Retention Test. Elevated levels of polyspike EEG activity were also noted for these children. Analysis suggested that ADHD children receiving stimulant medications may have persisting neuropsychological difficulty. Further research on the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD seems warranted.

  13. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  14. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  15. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices.

  16. Clinical neuropsychology in the criminal forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Denney, R L; Wynkoop, T F

    2000-04-01

    This article reviews the application of clinical neuropsychology to criminal court proceedings, a complex, underserved, yet growing area of neuropsychological practice. The authors write from the perspective that the audience is primarily neurorehabilitation clinicians with limited experience in criminal matters. Discussions on the theoretical differences between clinical and forensic work, the forensic evaluation process with conceptual model, historical and current perspectives on criminal competencies and responsibility, prediction of dangerousness, and professional and ethical issues often encountered in criminal neuropsychology are provided.

  17. Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine).

    PubMed

    Trefz, F; de Sonneville, L; Matthis, P; Benninger, C; Lanz-Englert, B; Bickel, H

    1994-04-01

    Aspartame, a high intensity sweetener, is used extensively worldwide in over 5,000 products. Upon ingestion, aspartame is completely metabolized to two amino acids and methanol (approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid, and 10% methanol). The effects of aspartame on cognitive function, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 48 adult (21 men, 27 women) heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKUH), PKUH subjects whose carrier status had been proven by DNA analysis ingested aspartame (either 15 or 45 mg/kg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks on each treatment using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline weeks -2 and -1, and during treatment at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. Samples for plasma amino acids and urinary organic acids were also collected during these visits. EEGs were evaluated by conventional and spectral analysis at baseline week -1 and treatment weeks 12 and 24. The results of the neuropsychological tests demonstrated that aspartame had no effect on cognitive function. Plasma phenylalanine significantly increased, within the normal range for PKUH, at 1 and 3 h following the morning dose of aspartame in the group receiving the 45 mg/kg per day dose only. There were no significant differences in the conventional or spectral EEG analyses, urinary organic acid concentrations, and adverse experiences when aspartame was compared with placebo. This study reaffirms the safety of aspartame in PKUH and refutes the speculation that aspartame affects cognitive performance, EEGs, and urinary organic acids.

  18. Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y; Johnson, Amy M; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. A total of 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with no neurologic disease (N = 185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N = 40), Parkinson's disease (N = 91), or stroke (N = 29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18-mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems.

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  20. Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuropsychological Tests in Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment: Can the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Be Better than the Cambridge Cognitive Examination?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. Method A total of 136 elderly subjects – 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil – were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. Results The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. Conclusion The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation. PMID:24987399

  1. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Richardson, L D; Crilly, R G

    1988-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

  2. Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Elkins, L E; Pollina, D A; Scheffer, S R; Krupp, L B

    1999-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric sequelae of chronic Lyme disease remains unclear. This study sought to characterize the psychological status of a group of participants who met criteria for post-Lyme syndrome (PLS). These measures were then used to examine the influence of psychological status on neuropsychological performances. Thirty PLS participants completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Lyme Symptom Checklist, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. As a group, the PLS participants did not appear to have an elevated incidence of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatric history was not useful for understanding neuropsychological performances or symptom reports. The mood of the PLS participants was characterized by lowered levels of positive affect (PA) and typical levels of negative affect. This combination can be distinguished from depression and is consistent with previous findings of affect patterns in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. PA was also linked to both total symptom severity and severity of cognitive complaints, but not to duration of illness, neurological manifestations at initial diagnosis, or treatment history. Relative to published normative data, neuropsychological performances were not in the impaired range on any measure. Neither psychological status nor symptom report were useful for understanding any aspect of cognitive functioning. It is concluded that decreased PA is the most useful marker of psychological functioning in PLS.

  3. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  4. Education quality, reading recognition, and racial differences in the neuropsychological outcome from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Noah D; Hanks, Robin A; Tompkins, Season C

    2013-08-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition.

  5. Alexithymia and aging: a neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Onor, Marialuisa; Trevisiol, Marianna; Spano, Mariangela; Aguglia, Eugenio; Paradiso, Sergio

    2010-12-01

    Consistent with the emotional changes associated with later life, higher alexithymia scores are widely reported in older adults, but their significance has not been fully examined. We posited that association between alexithymia and poorer neurocognition would support the deficit nature of alexithymia in later life. Widely used neurocognitive tests assessing the relative integrity of the left and right hemisphere functions were used to examine the extent to which alexithymia of older age is associated with poor left or right hemisphere functioning. Healthy community-dwelling volunteers (20 young and 20 elderly subjects) were studied with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Neurocognitive competence was assessed using a neuropsychological battery measuring attention, language, memory, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions. Neurocognitive abilities were strongly age-related and indirectly correlated with alexithymia. Alexithymia total score appeared to be uniquely predicted by Raven Matrices and Rey's Figure Recall. These results support the deficit hypothesis alexithymia of older age. PMID:21135641

  6. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  7. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REMEDIATION OF HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Neena; Rao, Shobini L.

    1997-01-01

    Hyperkinesis is associated with deficits of attention (poor allocation of attention resources, susceptibility to interference and perseveration); vigilance and perceptual sensitivity. Three boys aged 7-8 years with simple hyperkinesis were given cognitive tasks to improve the above functions in daily one hour sessions for a month. The children improved significantly in the above functions and behaviour. Three other children aged 5-8 years with simple hyperkinesis who were on medication improved only slightly in their behaviour during this period. Behavioural intervention and parental counselling were additional inputs to the children in both groups. Neuropsychological remediation combined with parental counselling and behavioural intervention shows promise in treating hyperactive children. PMID:21584098

  8. Longitudinal neuropsychological outcome in infants and preschoolers with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ewing-Cobbs, L; Fletcher, J M; Levin, H S; Francis, D J; Davidson, K; Miner, M E

    1997-11-01

    Neuropsychological outcome was evaluated in a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study of children age 4 months to 7 years at injury with either mild-to-moderate (N = 35) or severe (N = 44) traumatic brain injury (TBI). Age-appropriate tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after the injury. Performance was compared on (1) Composite IQ and motor, (2) Receptive and expressive language, and (3) Verbal and Perceptual-Performance IQ scores. In comparison to mild-to-moderate TBI, severe TBI in infants and preschoolers produced deficits in all areas. Interactions between task and severity of injury were obtained. Motor scores were lower than IQ scores, particularly after severe TBI. Both receptive and expressive scores were reduced following severe TBI. Expressive language scores were lower than receptive language scores for children sustaining mild-to-moderate TBI. While severe TBI lowered both Verbal and Perceptual-Performance IQ scores, Verbal IQ scores were significantly lower than Perceptual-Performance IQ scores after mild-to-moderate TBI. Mild injuries may produce subtle linguistic changes adversely impacting estimates of Verbal IQ and expressive language. Within the limited age range evaluated within this study, age at injury was unrelated to test scores: The impact of TBI was comparable in children ages 4 to 41 months versus 42 to 72 months at the time of injury. All neuropsychological scores improved significantly from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, no further change in scores was observed from 6 to 24 months after the injury. The persistent deficits and lack of catch-up over time suggest a reduction in the rate of acquisition of new skills after severe TBI. Methodological issues in longitudinal studies of young children were discussed. PMID:9448371

  9. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  10. Neuropsychological Deficits in Early Treated Phenylketonuric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Six early treated children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were compared at 9 to 14 years of age on a neuropsychological measure with three groups of children with documented neurological disorders. PKU Ss had overall level of neuropsychological impairment similar to that of brain-damaged groups. PKU Ss did not show consistent pattern of…

  11. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE WITHIN-PERSON VARIABILITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED TREATMENT CONSENT CAPACITY

    PubMed Central

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; Karel, Michele J.; Azar, Armin R.; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The capacity of older adults to make health care decisions is often impaired in dementia and has been linked to performance on specific neuropsychological tasks. Within-person across-test neuropsychological performance variability has been shown to predict future dementia. This study examined the relationship of within-person across-test neuropsychological performance variability to a current construct of treatment decision (consent) capacity. DESIGN Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and a standardized capacity assessment. Standard scores were used to compute mean neuropsychological performance and within-person across-test variability. SETTING Assessments were performed in the participant’s preferred location (e.g., outpatient clinic office, senior center, or home). PARTICIPANTS Participants were recruited from the community with fliers and advertisements, and consisted of men (N=79) and women (N=80) with (N=83) or without (N=76) significant cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool - Treatment (MacCAT-T) and 11 neuropsychological tests commonly used in the cognitive assessment of older individuals. RESULTS Neuropsychological performance and within-person variability were independently associated with continuous and dichotomous measures of capacity, and within-person neuropsychological variability was significantly associated with within-person decisional ability variability. Prevalence of incapacity was greater than expected in participants with and without significant cognitive impairment when decisional abilities were considered separately. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with an emerging construct of consent capacity in which discrete decisional abilities are differentially associated with cognitive processes, and indicate that the sensitivity and accuracy of consent capacity assessments can be improved by evaluating decisional abilities separately. PMID

  12. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI): A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    PubMed Central

    de Vent, Nathalie R.; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given. PMID:27812340

  13. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  14. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837

  15. The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.

  16. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

    PubMed

    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations. PMID:23156904

  17. Neuropsychological findings in a patient with Kernohan's notch.

    PubMed

    Clement, V L; Sherer, M

    1996-05-01

    This case report describes the use of neuropsychological testing to Iocalize and diagnose lesions The testing was instrumental in disentangling contradictory symptoms to reveal a Kernohan's notch (later confirmed by MRI), thus ruling out incorrect diagnoses We describe the case of a 36-year-old right-handed man who developed a left epidural hematoma after suffering head trauma from a blunt instrument Sequelae 2 months post-injury included left hemiparesis (ipsilateral to the lesion), dysphonic speech, severe naming/word-finding deficits, and severe memory impairment This patient's symptom pattern presented somewhat of a mystery as his cognitive deficits appeared consistent with left hemisphere damage, while his left motor symptoms suggested right hemisphere damage Medical records were inconsistent Deficits on neuropsychological testing at 3 months post-injury included impairment in verbal and visual memory, confrontation naming, and left-sided motor function Attention, visual-spatial skills, nonverbal problem solving, and right motor speed and coordination were intact A herniation syndrome, Kernohan's notch, was considered to be the most likely explanation This phenomenon occurs when a mass occupying lesion causes significant midline shift of the midbrain, pressing the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorium This pressure produces an ischemic infact in the region of the corticospinal (motor) pathways Subsequent MRI confirmed a lesion in the right cerebral crus The pattern of neuropsychological finding in this patient is discussed.

  18. [The rapid development of child neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Billard, C; Jambaqué, I

    2008-05-01

    The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.

  19. A comparison of neuropsychological and situational assessment for predicting employability after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J M; Hayden, M E; Paulman, R G

    2000-08-01

    The relationships among neuropsychological assessment, situational assessment, and judgments of future employability in 127 survivors of moderate to severe closed head injury were evaluated. Participants received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and a situational vocational evaluation. Two groups were created, based on employment recommendation from the situational evaluation. A seven-factor model was found to account for the preponderance of variance within the neuropsychological battery used, and one factor was predictive of group assignment from situational assessment. However, the present data reinforce the predominance of findings in the literature that indicate that, in general, no individual neuropsychological test can be used to predict vocational performance in more environmentally relevant environments. Exceptions to this "rule" may occur when comparisons between results of formal neuropsychological tests and situational evaluation are limited to very simple, very circumscribed, and/or very well-defined functions. Thus, situational assessment is seen as a critical adjunct to neuropsychological assessment in making "real-world" predictions. The particular situational assessment used in this study was internally valid, an important finding given the importance of situational assessment in ecologically valid predictions.

  20. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frol, Alan B; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A; Brown, E Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity.

  1. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frol, Alan B.; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity. PMID:23484893

  2. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as concentration and memory) assessments. Computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological tests may be included as a ... ideally a neuropsychologist should interpret the computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological test components of a baseline exam. ...

  3. Neuropsychological, Cognitive, and Theoretical Considerations for Evaluation of Bilingual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike. PMID:18841477

  4. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for evaluation of bilingual individuals.

    PubMed

    Rivera Mindt, Monica; Arentoft, Alyssa; Kubo Germano, Kaori; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Gollan, Tamar H

    2008-09-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike.

  5. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  6. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  7. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients’ overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  8. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  9. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  10. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  11. The neuropsychological profile of patients with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Schweiger, A; Blumkin, L; Yahalom, G; Anikster, Y; Lev, D; Ben-Zeev, B; Lerman-Sagie, T; Hassin-Baer, S

    2015-04-01

    Costeff syndrome is a rare genetic neuro-ophthalmological syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy along with a progressive complex motor disorder with elevated levels of urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. While borderline to mild cognitive deficits have been considered to be common in patients with this syndrome, a comprehensive cognitive assessment has never been performed. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive profile associated with Costeff syndrome. Sixteen adult patients diagnosed with Costeff syndrome were administered a neuropsychological test battery that was composed of standardized verbal tests adapted for the blind. General intelligence ranged from average to borderline, with a group mean consistent with intact general cognitive functioning (VIQmean  = 85, z = -1) in the low-average range of the general population. The auditory immediate and delayed memory indexes were in the average range and were significantly higher than the general cognitive functioning, whereas the working memory index was significantly lower than the general cognitive functioning. Adult patients with Costeff syndrome have intact global cognition and learning abilities and strong auditory memory performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25657044

  12. Results of a Pilot Test of a Self-Administered Smartphone-Based Treatment System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Usability and Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Campbell, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides results from a pilot study focused on assessing early-stage effectiveness and usability of a smartphone-based intervention system that provides a stand-alone, self-administered intervention option, the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A). The LBMI-A provided numerous features for intervening with ongoing drinking, craving, connection with supportive others, managing life problems, high risk location alerting and activity scheduling. Methods Twenty-eight participants, ranging in age from 22 to 45, who met criteria for an alcohol use disorder used an LBMI-A enabled smartphone for 6 weeks. Results Participants indicated the LBMI-A intervention modules were helpful in highlighting alcohol use patterns. Tools related to managing alcohol craving, monitoring consumption, and identifying triggers to drink were rated by participants as particularly helpful. Participants also demonstrated significant reductions in hazardous alcohol use while using the system (56% of days spent hazardously drinking at baseline vs. 25% while using the LBMI-A) and drinks per day diminished by 52%. Conclusions Implications for system improvement as well as suggestions for designing ecological momentary assessment and intervention systems for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:24821354

  13. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Franke-Sievert, Christiane; Jacoby, Georg E; Markowitsch, Hans J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2007-11-01

    In addition to the core psychopathology of bulimia nervosa (BN), patients with BN often show impulsive behavior that has been related to decision making deficits in other patient groups, such as individuals with anorexia nervosa and pathological gamblers. However, it remains unclear whether BN patients also show difficulties in decision making. In this study, 14 patients with BN and 14 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, education, body mass index, and intelligence, were examined with the Game of Dice Task (M. Brand, E. Fujiwara, et al., 2005), a gambling task that has fixed winning probabilities and explicit rules for gains and losses, as well as with a neuropsychological test battery and personality questionnaires. On the task, the patients with BN chose the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently than did the comparison subjects. Performance on the Game of Dice Task was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological functions, personality, or disease-specific variables in the BN group. Thus, in patients with BN, decision making abnormalities and executive reductions can be demonstrated and might be neuropsychological correlates of the patients' dysfunctional everyday-life decision making behavior. Neurocognitive functions should be considered in the treatment of BN.

  14. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression.

  15. Neuropsychological endophenotypes in ADHD with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Vekaria, Pooja; Miles-Mason, Eavan; Hochsztein, Natanya; Bender, Heidi A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in children with epilepsy. Despite similarities in behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological endophenotypes of children with developmental ADHD differ from those with ADHD in the context of epilepsy. The present study compared groups of clinically referred children with both ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) to children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C and epilepsy on neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning, auditory attention, working memory, and sustained attention and response inhibition. Those with ADHD and epilepsy performed more poorly on measures of intellectual function (e.g., Full-Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ) as well as auditory attention and working memory. Differences across the groups were also seen on a continuous performance test. Follow-up correlational analyses showed that variables such as seizure frequency and number of antiepilepsy medications predicted cognitive dysfunction in the epilepsy groups. Overall results suggest that the neuropsychological endophenotypes in developmental ADHD versus ADHD in epilepsy differ with seizure-related variables predicting cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  17. Parallel distributed processing and neuropsychology: a neural network model of Wisconsin Card Sorting and verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Parks, R W; Levine, D S; Long, D L; Crockett, D J; Dalton, I E; Weingartner, H; Fedio, P; Coburn, K L; Siler, G; Matthews, J R

    1992-06-01

    Neural networks can be used as a tool in the explanation of neuropsychological data. Using the Hebbian Learning Rule and other such principles as competition and modifiable interlevel feedback, researchers have successfully modeled a widely used neuropsychological test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. One of these models is reviewed here and extended to a qualitative analysis of how verbal fluency might be modeled, which demonstrates the importance of accounting for the attentional components of both tests. Difficulties remain in programming sequential cognitive processes within a parallel distributed processing (PDP) framework and integrating exceedingly complex neuropsychological tests such as Proverbs. PDP neural network methodology offers neuropsychologists co-validation procedures within narrowly defined areas of reliability and validity.

  18. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid psychiatric history and one or more possible precipitating factors for their amnesia. Eight of the 10 patients still had persistent retrograde amnesia at our last contact with them (median = 14 mo after the onset of amnesia). On tests of anterograde amnesia, the patients performed normally as a group, though some patients scored poorly on tests of verbal memory. On tests of retrograde amnesia, all patients had difficulty recollecting well-formed autobiographical memories of specific events from their past. In contrast, patients performed as well as controls at distinguishing the names of cities from fictitious city names. On remote memory tests for past public events and famous faces, different patients exhibited different but internally consistent patterns of impaired and spared performance. The variability in the clinical and neuropsychological findings among our patients may be understood by supposing that memory performance is poor in proportion to how directly a test appears to assess a patient's commonsense concept of memory. The presentation of patients with functional amnesia is as variable as humankind's concept of what memory is and how it works. PMID:15054137

  19. Frontal and posterior subtypes of neuropsychological deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ivy N; Neargarder, Sandy; Risi, Megan M; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2013-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is heterogeneous in regard to affected domains. Although patterns of cognitive performance that may predict later dementia are as yet undetermined, posterior- versus frontal-type assessments show promise for differential predictive value. The present study included 70 individuals: 42 with idiopathic PD without dementia and 28 age- and education-matched healthy control adults (HC). Participants completed assessments of cognition with emphasis on tests that are sensitive to frontal and posterior deficits. PD patients were classified into cognitive subgroups and the subgroups were compared on demographic and disease variables. Individual performance across neuropsychological tests was evaluated for the PD group. Patients with PD performed more poorly than HC on several measures of cognition, and they were classified into frontal (12), posterior (3), both (10) and neither subgroups (17), the latter two in reference to frontal- and posterior-type deficits. The neither subgroup was distinguished by less motor impairment than the both subgroup, but the four subgroups did not otherwise differ on demographic or disease variables. Across patients, the tests most sensitive to cognitive impairment included measures of attention and executive functioning (frontal-type tests). Examination of individual test performance for PD revealed substantial heterogeneity across tests with respect to number and severity of deficits. The current study provides insight into which commonly used neuropsychological tests are most sensitive to cognitive deficits (strictly defined) in a nondemented, well characterized PD sample, and into the relation of cognitive subgroups to demographic and disease-specific variables.

  20. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  1. Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning: An Investigative Tool for Cognitive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

  2. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    PubMed

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented.

  3. Neuropsychological evaluation for detecting alterations in the central nervous system after chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolla, K I

    1996-08-01

    Individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) report decreased attention/concentration, memory loss, disorientation, confusion, fatigue, depression, irritability, decreased libido, sleep disturbances, headaches, and weakness. These neurobehavioral symptoms represent possible alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The evaluation of neurobehavioral functioning using neuropsychological techniques provides an indirect method for determining the integrity of the CNS. However, caution must be used in interpreting neuropsychological test results, since this technique is extremely sensitive but is not specific. Clinically significant aberrant test performance may be noted after chemical exposure as well as with other diseases of the CNS. In addition, neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression are often manifested as cognitive difficulties that are similar in pattern to the cognitive dysfunction caused by toxic chemicals. Herein, limitations and cautions in the interpretations of neuropsychological test results are discussed. PMID:8921555

  4. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  5. Validation of NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols for Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Hui-Mei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yao, Shu-Chih; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the three time-difference neuropsychological protocols developed by the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Canadian Stroke Network for assessment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in Mandarin-speaking subjects and to investigate the clinical application of the shortest form. Methods Patients aged 50 years or older who had a stroke were invited to participate in the study. Clinical diagnosis of VCI was made. The NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols, 60-, 30-, and two 5-minute protocols, were administered. The criteria validities of the cognitive protocols against the diagnoses of stroke and VCI were determined via Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The optimal cut-off point for the 5-minute protocols total score was estimated for clinical use in screening. Results Eighty-three patients and 53 controls were recruited during the study period. Patients with stroke performed more poorly than the control group in the three neuropsychological protocols. Forty-two patients with stroke were diagnosed with VCI. VCI was used as the standard to estimate the criteria validities. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78, 0.80, 0.75, and 0.73 for the 60-, 30-, 5-mintue protocol-A and 5-minute protocol-B, respectively. Conclusion These modified neuropsychological protocols can be used as valid instruments when performing comprehensive cognitive assessment or for screening of VCI in Taiwan. PMID:27249647

  6. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Stough, C; Clarke, J; Lloyd, J; Nathan, P J

    2001-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) from the world's oldest living tree has been reputed to ameliorate cognitive decline in the elderly and slow cognitive deterioration in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. EGb remains as one of the most popular plant extracts to alleviate symptoms associated with a range of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-related amnesic conditions. EGb is known to contain a range of chemically active components that have antagonistic effects on platelet-activating factor, free-radical scavenging activity and direct effects on the cholinergic neurotransmitter system. Recently there has been much speculation, that EGb may act as a 'smart drug' or nootropic agent in the healthy young to improve intelligence. We conducted a 30-d randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 61 participants were administered a battery of validated neuropsychological tests before and after treatment. Statistical analysis indicated significant improvements in speed of information processing working memory and executive processing attributable to the EGb.

  7. Neuropsychological analysis of an idiot savant: A case study.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio E; Heller, Stephanie; Sekely, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Although biological etiologies and diffuse anatomical changes have been provided as plausible explanations for the unusual behaviors observed in idiot savants, no neuropsychological case studies or explanations for these behaviors are found in the literature. We present a case in which the "diagnosis" of idiot savant was based on historical, clinical, and test data. To assess his calendar abilities, this individual was subsequently tested over a period of six months on his ability to determine the day of the week across approximately 1,000 years. For a period of approximately 100 years he was 100% accurate. The neuropsychological tests revealed marked deficits in all areas with performance generally in the lower 1-5th percentile of the population (e.g., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ] = 54). Tests of attention yielded the best scores although still deficient. General learning, coding, and executive function tests proved to be challenging. In contrast, tests of visuo-motor abilities were only of moderate difficulty for the individual. These findings are considered within the theoretical framework of Rimland (autism) and Squyres (memory).

  8. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional. PMID:25540620

  9. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  10. Clinical acumen but psychometric naivete in neuropsychological assessment of educational disorders.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C R

    1986-01-01

    Many advances in clinical neuropsychology have resulted from the excellent clinical, observational skills developed in the field. In the development of assessment tools for clinical practice, advances in the field have not paralleled advances in applied psychometrics, especially in the assessment of educationally handicapped children. The Boder Test of Reading Spelling Patterns is examined as a detailed example of outstanding clinical acumen leading to a valuable heuristic that failed when translated into a practical assessment tool, primarily due to a lack of attention to the psychometric aspects of the scale. Implications of the failure to apply modern psychometric standards to test development in clinical neuropsychology are discussed. PMID:14589646

  11. The neuropsychological profile of children, adolescents, and young adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stedal, Kristin; Rose, Mark; Frampton, Ian; Landrø, Nils Inge; Lask, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    The neuropsychological profile of a sample of 155 patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa was assessed using a test battery specifically developed for such patients. The current findings suggest that the patients display a common neuropsychological profile including both strengths and weaknesses when compared with published norms. The patients displayed good verbal fluency skills, but performed poorly on tests of visuospatial memory, associated with relatively weak central coherence. They were within the average range on the assessment of executive functioning except for one measure of set-shifting. This study provides a valuable point of reference for clinicians when considering treatment options.

  12. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in “Younger” and “Older” Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208

  13. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  14. [The verbal fluency test for the diagnosis of dementia].

    PubMed

    Sciarma, T; Finali, G; Mazzi, P; Poli, R; D'Alessandro, P; Piccirilli, M; Piccinin, G L; Agostini, L

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of verbal fluency test, phonological (FF) and semantic (FS) sets, have been administered to four groups of demented patients: 11 with Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT), 13 with multi-infarct dementia (MID), 8 with Parkinson-Dementia (P-D) and 11 with adult chronic hydrocephalus (ICA). Patients were matched for age, educational level and neuropsychological impairment pattern. Further, ten neurologically healty subjects were selected as control group. Control subjects result to be different from all other groups in both FF and FS; moreover, FF test results to be more impaired in ICA than in DAT. Furthermore, FF is more impaired than FS in P-D and ICA patients. On the basis of our results, verbal fluency tests might represent an useful instrument to differentiate demented subjects from non-demented ones and within demented groups to characterize the different neuropsychological pattern of the cortical and subcortical type of cognitive deterioration.

  15. Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: cases and questions

    PubMed Central

    van Zomeren, A. H; ten, D; Minderhoud, J.; Sipma, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To objectify neuropsychological impairments in survivors of lightning stroke with lasting complaints about poor concentration and inability to divide their attention.
DESIGN—A series of six cases of lightning stroke were studied. All patients had lost consciousness and reported amnesia of varying length. Assessment took place between one and four years after injury, ensuring that their neurological state had stabilised. They were tested with a neuropsychological battery with an emphasis on attention and memory. Personality and emotional reaction to the accident were assessed with questionnaires and a lightning fear scale. Complaints were recorded by means of a trauma complaints list including 10 questions on symptoms of the post-traumatic stress disorder.
RESULTS—Patients reported fatigue and lack of energy as their main complaints. In addition, poor concentration, irritability, and emotional lability were mentioned often. Neuropsychological tests disclosed mild impairments in memory, attention, and visual reaction times. Two patients could be classified as depressed, and one of these also showed convincing signs of the post-traumatic stress disorder.
CONCLUSION—As the lasting complaints and impairments could not be explained, for all six cases, as resulting from head injury concomitant with lightning stroke, cerebral hypoxia or a post-traumatic stress syndrome, it is concluded that lightning stroke can result in subtle cognitive impairments. It is speculated that most complaints of these survivors are caused by a vegetative dysregulation, a disorder that has often been noted in the literature on the effects of electrical injury to the nervous system. Such a dysregulation might cause both the main complaint of fatigue and the mild cognitive impairments identified with the present test battery.

 PMID:9647306

  16. Credibility of neuropsychological performances of Persian Gulf War veterans and military control subjects participating in clinical epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Barrash, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L; Moser, David J; Woolson, Robert F; Schumacher, Amy J; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-07-01

    We investigated whether Persian Gulf War veterans (GWVs) were more likely than Persian Gulf War-era veterans deployed elsewhere (GEVs) to have noncredible neuropsychological examinations. A total of 301 GWVs and 99 GEVs underwent neuropsychological testing. The credibility of 173 examinations showing impairment was evaluated based on test performances, clinical background, psychometric measures, and other self-report data. All 11 examinations judged less than fully credible by one neuropsychologist, plus 19 examinations judged impaired but credible, were then evaluated independently by two more neuropsychologists. Noncredibility was judged with excellent reliability (93% agreement). Seven examinations were judged noncredible. Rates of noncredibility did not differ between GWVs (1%) and GEVs (4%). The pattern of associations of noncredible examinations with cognitive, psychological, and clinical variables generally indicated defective neuropsychological scores, with no coherent pattern, and personality disorder. Findings supported the validity of noncredibility judgments and suggested that noncredible examinations are not a significant problem in neuropsychological investigations of GWVs.

  17. Neuropsychological analysis of a case of reduplicative paramnesia.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M B; Mack, J L

    1985-02-01

    Following a right cerebral hemispheric CVA, a patient showed extensive reduplication of place (his hospital) and occasional reduplication of person. His language was essentially intact, but he was deficient on tests of conceptualization and on nonverbal tasks, both visual and auditory. Short- and long-term memory for nonverbal but not verbal material were also impaired. However, he had sufficient "memory" for the reduplicated hospitals to comment that they were spatially identical. He simply seemed unable to treat these memories as representing the same phenomena. Neuropsychological analysis suggest that reduplicative paramnesia represents a combination of perceptual and memory deficits as well as impaired ability to integrate information.

  18. Neuropsychological patterns in right versus left frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Boone, K B; Miller, B L; Lee, A; Berman, N; Sherman, D; Stuss, D T

    1999-11-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) often present with an asymmetric left or right-sided anterior cerebral perfusion abnormality that is associated with differential behavioral symptoms. However, whether patients with primarily right versus left FTD also have unique neuropsychological characteristics has not been previously investigated. Comparisons of 11 patients with right-sided FTD and 11 with left FTD indicated that the 2 patient groups showed relatively distinct cognitive profiles. Patients with right FTD exhibited relatively worse performance on PIQ than VIQ, and on select nonverbal executive tasks relative to their verbal analogs (e.g., design fluency < word generation; Picture Arrangement < word sequencing). In contrast, patients with left FTD showed the opposite pattern. In addition, the 2 patient groups differed on several absolute test scores; patients with right FTD demonstrated more errors and perseverative responses, and worse percent conceptual level responses, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, while the left FTD patients obtained significantly worse scores on the Boston Naming Test, and Stroop word reading and color naming. Verbal and nonverbal memory, mental speed, visual perceptual-constructional skill, and IQ subtest scaled scores did not significantly differ between groups. These data indicate that FTD should not be viewed as a unitary disorder, and that neuropsychological testing holds promise for the differential diagnosis of right versus left FTD.

  19. The CERAD Neuropsychological Battery in Patients with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haanpää, Ramona M.; Suhonen, Noora-Maria; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koivisto, Anne M.; Moilanen, Virpi; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hänninen, Tuomo; Remes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is based on neuropsychological examination in addition to clinical symptoms and brain imaging. There is no simple, validated, cognitive tool available in screening for FTLD. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB) was originally devised to identify the early cognitive changes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the utility of the CERAD-NB in FTLD. Methods Patients with FTLD (n = 95) and AD (n = 90) were assessed with the CERAD-NB, Trail Making Test parts A and B and single-letter Phonemic Fluency. Results FTLD patients were more severely impaired in the Verbal Fluency subtest in the CERAD-NB and Trail Making Test part A compared to AD patients. In addition, AD patients were more impaired in memory subtests compared to FTLD patients. Conclusion The CERAD-NB may be a useful tool in screening for FTLD. Impaired performance in Verbal Fluency with moderately well-preserved Delayed Recall and Memory Tests may help in identifying patients with probable FTLD and discriminating FTLD from AD. Adding the Trail Making Test to the battery might enhance its value as a screening instrument for FTLD. PMID:25999981

  20. Empirical Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Case Definition for Neuropsychological Impairment in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brooks, Brian L; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Keightley, Michelle; Anderson, Peter; Yeates, Keith O; Osmond, Martin H; Zemek, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aims to identify individual performance profiles in multiple domains of cognitive functioning; however, substantial variation exists in how deficits are defined and what cutoffs are used, and there is no universally accepted definition of neuropsychological impairment. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a clinical case definition rule to identify neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents. An existing normative pediatric sample was used to calculate base rates of abnormal functioning on eight measures covering six domains of neuropsychological functioning. The dataset was analyzed by varying the range of cutoff levels [1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean] and number of indicators of impairment. The derived rule was evaluated by bootstrap, internal and external clinical validation (orthopedic and traumatic brain injury). Our neuropsychological impairment (NPI) rule was defined as "two or more test scores that fall 1.5 SDs below the mean." The rule identifies 5.1% of the total sample as impaired in the assessment battery and consistently targets between 3 and 7% of the population as impaired even when age, domains, and number of tests are varied. The NPI rate increases in groups known to exhibit cognitive deficits. The NPI rule provides a psychometrically derived method for interpreting performance across multiple tests and may be used in children 6-18 years. The rule may be useful to clinicians and scientists who wish to establish whether specific individuals or clinical populations present within expected norms versus impaired function across a battery of neuropsychological tests.

  1. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  2. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  3. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  4. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  5. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  6. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  7. [Neuropsychological symptomatology in normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    De Mol, J

    1986-01-01

    The neuropsychological observations of 63 patients undergoing surgery for "normal pressure hydrocephalus" (NPH) have been analyzed retrospectively. To make a semiological picture of mental disturbances in NPH, the level of consciousness, behaviour and cognitive functions were studied. A neuropsychological investigation of the main cognitive functions (language, gnosis, praxis, calculation, memory) enables us to specify the characteristics of dementia shown by these patients. A mental picture of the most frequent neuropsychological signs is described. The mental syndrome which characterized NPH reveals an alteration of alertness and concentration, a deficiency in memory, a disorganization of graphism (writing and drawing), a dyscalculia and behaviour problems (bradypsychy, apathy, indifference). Such a syndrome points out a bilateral frontal lesion. On the other hand, the less frequent signs are largely verbal and show different stages of aphasia. These signs can usually be found in patients who don't improve after ventricular drainage and are more suggestive of a degenerative disease of the Alzheimer type. The results are compared with the psychometric and neuropsychological data of the literature. More specific attention is accorded to differential diagnosis. PMID:2428104

  8. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  9. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  10. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  11. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  12. Combining Select Neuropsychological Assessment With Blood-Based Biomarkers to detect Mild Alzheimer’s disease: A Molecular Neuropsychology approach

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Balldin, Valerie Hobson; Hall, James; O’Bryant, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Background The current project sought to create combined biomarker-cognitive profile to detect mild Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Data was analyzed from 266 participants (129 AD cases [Early AD n=93; Very Early AD n=36]; 137 controls) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Non-fasting serum samples were collected from each participant and assayed via a multi-plex biomarker assay platform using electrochmiluminescence (ECL). Logistic Regression was utilized to detect early AD using two serum biomarkers (TNFα and IL7), demographic information (age) and one neuropsychological measure (Clock-4 point) as predictor variable. Disease severity was determined via Clinical Dementia Rating scale global scores. Results In the total sample (all levels of CDR scores), the combination of biomarkers, cognitive test score, and demographics yielded the obtained sensitivity (SN) of 0.94, specificity (SP) of 0.90 and an overall accuracy of 0.92. When examining early AD cases (i.e. CDR=0.5-1), the biomarker-cognitive profile yielded SN of 0.94, SP of 0.85 and an overall accuracy of 0.91. When restricted to very early AD cases (i.e CDR=0.5), the biomarker-cognitive profile yielded SN of 0.97, SP of 0.72 with an overall accuracy of 0.91. Conclusions The combination of demographics + 2 biomarkers + 1 cognitive test created a biomarker-cognitive profile that was highly accurate in detecting AD presence, even in the very early stages. This work demonstrates the complementary nature of each modality (blood biomarkers + neuropsychological assessment) and supports our previously proposed concept for Molecular Neuropsychology. PMID:24916542

  13. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  14. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype.

  15. Predicting competency in automated machine use in an acquired brain injury population using neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Simon F; Mahony, Kate; Jackson, Martin

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether performance on standardised neuropsychological measures could predict functional ability with automated machines and services among people with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Participants were 45 individuals who met the criteria for mild, moderate or severe ABI and 15 control participants matched on demographic variables including age- and education. Each participant was required to complete a battery of neuropsychological tests, as well as performing three automated service delivery tasks: a transport automated ticketing machine, an automated teller machine (ATM) and an automated telephone service. The results showed consistently high relationship between the neuropsychological measures, both as single predictors and in combination, and level of competency with the automated machines. Automated machines are part of a relatively new phenomena in service delivery and offer an ecologically valid functional measure of performance that represents a true indication of functional disability. PMID:15271411

  16. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Pediatric Neuropsychology: A Review and Call to Attention.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In the search to understand the basis of performance discrepancies, many clinicians are recognizing that, often, factors with no direct relationship to brain functioning influence performance on neuropsychological measures of cognition among children and adolescents. The emergent research on cross-cultural neuropsychology indicates that while the test performance discrepancies do indeed exist, they can be explained by a number of other factors, some of which are known and others that have yet to be operationalized or even identified. While a review of all such factors is beyond the scope of this article, an examination of those that have received the most attention is presented: factors associated with the examinee, factors associated with the neuropsychological measures, cultural competency of the examiner, and factors at the organizational/political level. PMID:25117200

  17. [Neuropsychological characterization of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in drug addicts: clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a stable correlate throughout the course of drug addiction. However, it has always been studied as a negative condition, linked to psychopathology. Dickman (1990) proposed two subdimensions of impulsivity, dysfunctional (DI) and functional (FI). He defines the latter as the tendency for rapid, goal-oriented decision-making characterized by well calculated risks. Only a few studies have attempted to differentiate between these two subdimensions using classical neuropsychological tests. Fifty two drug addicts in treatment were tested using Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory and a battery of classical neuropsychological tests. FI shows moderate to high correlations with many classical neuropsychological test scores in relation to enhanced executive functioning, whereas DI reveals surprisingly weak and scarce correlations with indicators of impaired executive functioning. DI appears to be a trait related to some difficulties in classical neuropsychological tests, while FI emerges as a consistent and much stronger predictor of higher attention capacity, lower distractibility, better precision, fewer errors, and better maintenance of goal-oriented strategies. Thus, functional impulsivity is related to positive conditions and more efficient cognitive functioning. Implications for the treatment of drug addictions are suggested.

  18. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits.

  19. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits. PMID:17676531

  20. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  1. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  2. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  3. Neuropsychological profiles in schizophrenia: paranoid versus undifferentiated distinctions.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, J; Conrad, C; Cassens, G

    1997-02-01

    Research on schizophrenia has searched for subtype-specific cognitive dysfunction to elucidate the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of the disorder. The neuropsychological distinctions between 21 paranoid and 15 undifferentiated schizophrenics were studied. The paranoid group had significantly better Verbal IQ, executive functioning on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and memory for spoken language on the Sentence Repetition Test compared to undifferentiated schizophrenics. While the paranoid subtype showed trends toward better performance on a wide variety of tasks, both subtypes showed impairments on tasks requiring continuous auditory attention and fine motor speed and coordination. Despite the paranoid subjects' more intact verbal skills, both groups showed significant deficits in verbal learning on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. This suggests that temporal-hippocampal system dysfunction may be a common denominator in both schizophrenic subtypes. These findings were not accounted for by subtype differences in the level of education, depression or severity of illness.

  4. Neuropsychological deficit among elderly workers in aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Bast-Pettersen, R; Drabløs, P A; Goffeng, L O; Thomassen, Y; Torres, C G

    1994-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at a Norwegian primary aluminum plant. All workers aged 61-66 years were offered early retirement benefits. Among the workers, 47 met the study criteria and 38 (81%), comprising 14 potroom workers, 8 foundry workers, and 16 controls, volunteered to participate. They were tested with a neuropsychological test battery. Workers in potrooms with Søderberg electrolytic cells were found to show signs of impairment of the nervous system. A test for tremor discriminated significantly between the potroom group and the controls. There was a suggestion of increased risk of impaired visuospatial organization and a tendency to a decline in psychomotor tempo in the potroom workers. We suggest that the above findings may be related to long-term occupational exposure in the potroom, and further to chronic low-dose exposure to aluminum.

  5. Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 μg/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p≤0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p≤0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

  6. Neurological and neuropsychological characteristics of occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Antje; Grimsen, Cathleen; Kehrer, Stefanie; Bahnemann, Markus; Spang, Karoline; Prass, Maren; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Köhnlein, Martin; Lipfert, Anika; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits after occipital infarction are most often described in case studies and only a small sample of studies has attempted to exactly correlate the anatomical localization of lesions with associated neuropsychological symptoms. The present study investigated a large number of patients (N = 128) in order to provide an overview of neurological and neuropsychological deficits after occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction. A particular approach of the study was to define exact anatomical correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction by using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in 61 patients. In addition to a visual field defect and phosphenes, patients often reported anomia, difficulties in reading and memory deficits. Visual disorders, such as achromatopsia, akinetopsia or prosopagnosia, were rarely reported by the patients. Memory and visual disorders were diagnosed efficiently using simple clinical screening tests, such as the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test for immediate recall, the Demtect and the Lang Stereo Test. Visual field defects, reading disorders and the perception of phosphenes were associated primarily with lesions of the calcarine sulcus. Anomia and memory deficits were related to lesions of the occipital inferior gyrus, the lingual gyrus and hippocampus, as well as to lesions of principal white matter tracts.

  7. A prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, J D; Dowell, R E; Copeland, D R; Fletcher, J M; Francis, D J; van Eys, J

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions. PMID:3343496

  8. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  9. Considering the base rates of low performance in cognitively healthy older adults improves the accuracy to identify neurocognitive impairment with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB).

    PubMed

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Egli, Simone C; Iverson, Grant L; Berres, Manfred; Willmes, Klaus; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Monsch, Andreas U

    2015-08-01

    It is common for some healthy older adults to obtain low test scores when a battery of neuropsychological tests is administered, which increases the risk of the clinician misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. Thus, base rates of healthy individuals' low scores are required to more accurately interpret neuropsychological results. At present, this information is not available for the German version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB), a frequently used battery in the USA and in German-speaking Europe. This study aimed to determine the base rates of low scores for the CERAD-NAB and to tabulate a summary figure of cut-off scores and numbers of low scores to aid in clinical decision making. The base rates of low scores on the ten German CERAD-NAB subscores were calculated from the German CERAD-NAB normative sample (N = 1,081) using six different cut-off scores (i.e., 1st, 2.5th, 7th, 10th, 16th, and 25th percentile). Results indicate that high percentages of one or more "abnormal" scores were obtained, irrespective of the cut-off criterion. For example, 60.6% of the normative sample obtained one or more scores at or below the 10th percentile. These findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low scores in healthy individuals. The summary figure of CERAD-NAB base rates is an important supplement for test interpretation and can be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of neurocognitive disorders. PMID:25555899

  10. Neuropsychological outcomes of pediatric burn patients who sustained hypoxic episodes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marta; Robertson, Carrie; Murphy, Kevin D; Rosenberg, Laura; Mlcak, Ronald; Robert, Rhonda S; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2005-11-01

    The neuropsychological outcomes of children who suffered hypoxic episodes following their burns are not completely understood and vary depending on the nature and severity of the episode. A retrospective review of youth that were admitted to this acute burn care facility over the past 20 years was conducted to identify the extent of cognitive and affective difficulties. Thirty-nine children who sustained hypoxic injuries related to their burns were compared with 21 controls that were matched for age, TBSA, and time of injury. Approximately a third of the children who survived from the hypoxia group continued to have long-term cognitive and emotional difficulties. For those who recovered reasonably well, no differences were found from the matched burned controls. These results probably underestimate the true extent of neuropsychological difficulties experienced by these youth given that detailed cognitive testing was not routinely performed. Prospective studies are needed to further characterize the full nature of difficulties and outcomes associated with burn related hypoxic injuries.

  11. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  12. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis. PMID:26507010

  13. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis.

  14. Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Serroni, N; Moschetta, F S; Di Giannantonio, M; Ferrara, M; De Berardis, D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological functioning and the effect of antidepressant drug intake on cognitive performance in a group of relatively young generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. Forty patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and 31 healthy subjects participated in the study (Control group, CON). None of the selected subjects had comorbid depression. GAD subjects were divided into two different subgroups: 18 were taking antidepressants [GAD-pharmacotherapy (GAD-p group)] and 22 were treatment-naïve (GAD group). Each group was administered with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention, memory and executive functions. Performance on executive and non-verbal memory tasks of both GAD groups was largely worse than the CON group. However, these deficits seem to be more marked in patients taking antidepressants, especially in the domains of attention, non-verbal memory and executive functions. The present study indicates that GAD is associated with cognitive impairments among young adults. However, the observed association of neuropsychological deficits and the use of pharmacotherapy suggest a possible effect of antidepressant treatment on attention, executive functioning and non-verbal memory. PMID:23796524

  15. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  16. Psychosocial, neuropsychological and neurological status in a sample of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Thormann, T; Strenge, H; Biernath, E; Foerst, U; Stauch, C; Torp, U; Bernhard, A; Speidel, H

    1992-04-01

    The sample for this psychosocial follow-up study was formed using the 71 surviving patients from a total of 100 who underwent heart transplantation up until March 1990 at Kiel University Hospital. Forty of these could be investigated comprehensively. The neurological investigation comprised EEG and auditory and visually evoked potentials. The psychological investigation started with several neuropsychological tests; additionally all patients were interviewed and they completed questionnaires concerning anxiety, depression, ways of coping, personality characteristics and life satisfaction. Within the entire sample, there were few indications for specific psychological impairment. The psychosocial status of the patients was not significantly related to the time which had elapsed since they underwent transplantation. There were few associations between neuropsychological and psychosocial data, and several indicators of early postoperative complications which are described in the literature (e.g., length of stay in the intensive care unit). Clinically relevant subgroups (formed on the basis of neuropsychological test results, anxiety and depression) did not differ in terms of these indicators. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of the patients (25%) were characterized by having a higher level of affective and neuropsychological impairment. Although based upon retrospective investigations, the results of this follow-up generally correlate with those gained from Anglo-American countries. In interpreting the results one needs to consider the possible influence of premorbid personality characteristics as well as denial which may be typical for patients undergoing heart transplantation. PMID:1301119

  17. [Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality].

    PubMed

    Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-05-16

    Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the normal range for patients whose daily life difficulties would predict an inferior performance. These discrepancies suggest that classical neuropsychological tests may not adequately reproduce the complexity and dynamic nature of real life situations. Latest developments in the field of virtual reality offer interesting options for the neuropsychological assessment of many cognitive processes. Virtual reality reproduces three-dimensional environments with which the patient interacts in a dynamic way, with a sense of immersion in the environment similar to the presence and exposure to a real environment. Furthermore, the presentation of these stimuli, as well as distractors and other variables, may be controlled in a systematic way. Moreover, more consistent and precise answers may be obtained, and an in-depth analysis of them is possible. The present review shows current problems in neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions and latest advances in the consecution of higher preciseness and validity of the evaluation by means of new technologies and virtual reality, with special mention to some developments performed in Spain.

  18. Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Husain, S G; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, S P; Anand, M; Ali, M M; Seth, P K

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psycho-motor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers.

  19. The neuropsychology of cocaine addiction: recent cocaine use masks impairment.

    PubMed

    Woicik, Patricia A; Moeller, Scott J; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-04-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also did not differ in measures of general intellectual functioning. All subjects were administered an extensive NP battery measuring attention, executive function, memory, facial and emotion recognition, and motor function. Compared with healthy control subjects, CUD exhibited performance deficits on tasks of attention, executive function, and verbal memory (within one standard deviation of controls). Although CUD with positive urine status, who had higher frequency and more recent cocaine use, reported greater symptoms of dysphoria, these cognitive deficits were most pronounced in the CUD with negative urine status. Cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dysphoria did not alter these results. The current findings replicate a previously reported statistically significant, but relatively mild NP impairment in CUD as compared with matched healthy control individuals and further suggest that frequent/recent cocaine use [corrected] may mask underlying cognitive (but not mood) disturbances. These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine.

  20. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  1. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  2. Frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, M; Bellodi, L; Ferri, S; Scarone, S

    1995-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests there is a specific role of dorso-lateral-prefrontal cortex (DLPC) in schizophrenic disorders and of orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 25 schizophrenic and 25 OCD patients were evaluated with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Object Alternation Test; neuropsychological tools sensitive to DLPC and OFC damage, respectively; and compared with 25 subjects of a control group. Moreover, they all underwent Weigl's Sorting Test and the Word Fluency Test to assess global frontal functioning. The results indicated a DLPC deficit in schizophrenia and an OFC involvement in OCD. These data suggest that functional disorders of the central nervous system can be explored with neuropsychological instruments.

  3. Neuropsychological and behavioural correlates of CSF biomarkers in dementia.

    PubMed

    Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Maertens, Karen; Vloeberghs, Ellen; Aerts, Tony; Somers, Nore; Mariën, Peter; De Deyn, Peter P

    2006-03-01

    To improve clinical, neuropsychological and behavioural characterisation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers beta-amyloid((1-42)) protein (Abeta42), protein tau (tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181) across diagnostic dementia categories, a prospective study was set up. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=201), AD with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (AD+CVD) (n=33), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n=27), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=22) and healthy controls (n=148) were included. All patients underwent neuropsychological examination and behavioural assessment by means of a battery of behavioural assessment scales. CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture and levels of Abeta42, tau and P-tau181 were determined with commercially available ELISA kits. Negative correlations between CSF Abeta42 levels and aggressiveness (Spearman: r=-0.223; p=0.002) and positive correlations with age at inclusion (r=0.195; p=0.006), age at onset (r=0.205; p=0.003) and MMSE scores (r=0.198; p=0.005) were found in AD. In AD+CVD, CSF Abeta42 levels were correlated with MMSE (r=0.482; p=0.006), Hierarchic Dementia Scale (r=0.503; p=0.017) and Boston Naming Test (r=0.516; p=0.012) scores. In controls, age was positively correlated with CSF tau (r=0.465; p<0.001) and P-tau181 levels (r=0.312; p<0.001). CSF tau and P-tau181 levels correlated significantly in all groups, whereas CSF Abeta42 correlated with tau and P-tau181 levels in healthy controls only. Negative correlations between CSF Abeta42 levels and aggressiveness were found in AD patients. CSF Abeta42 seems to be a stage marker for AD (+/-CVD) given the positive correlations with neuropsychological test results suggesting that CSF Abeta42 might be of help for monitoring disease progression. Different correlations between age and CSF biomarker levels were obtained in healthy controls compared to AD patients, indicating that AD-induced pathophysiological processes change age-dependent regulation of

  4. Hippocampal Atrophy Varies by Neuropsychologically-Defined MCI among Men in Their 50s

    PubMed Central

    Jak, Amy J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Thompson, Wesley, K.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Xian, Hong; Eyler, Lisa T.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J.; Neale, Michael C.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In an effort to address earliest detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), we examined hippocampal volumes and atrophy in middle-aged males to explore neuroanatomical support for different neuropsychological definitions of MCI. Methods 460 men ages 51-60 underwent neuropsychological testing and an MRI. MCI was defined according to five criteria sets. MRI-derived hippocampal volume and hippocampal occupancy (HOC) were obtained via FreeSurfer. Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed models. Results Differences in HOC between normal cognitive functioning, amnestic, and non-amnestic MCI were observed using MCI criteria that required one impaired (>1.5 SD) cognitive measure in a given cognitive domain or a cognitive composite score method with a cut-point 2 SD below the mean. Differences in standard hippocampal volume were only found between normal and amnestic presentations and only when using the composite score method. Conclusions Results provide empirical support for detection of pre-MCI in younger cohorts. Convergence of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data, particularly HOC (as opposed to standard cross-sectional volume), supports early identification of MCI as defined by some neuropsychological criteria. PMID:25306196

  5. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology. PMID:24685311

  6. Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

    2013-10-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

  7. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function-which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry-could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology.

  8. The role of functional neuroimaging in the neuropsychology of depression.

    PubMed

    Liotti, M; Mayberg, H S

    2001-02-01

    Depressed individuals show impaired performance in tests of attention and concentration. They also exhibit PET resting state abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate, regions known to be substrates of attentional processing in healthy individuals. This chapter outlines a strategy to study neuropsychological mechanisms in emotional disorders using functional imaging methods. It reviews evidence strongly implicating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, as a key brain structure in emotion/cognition interactions in negative mood states. It will be argued that this neocortical region is a crucial convergence zone, being the substrate of sustained attention to the external environment, and the main target of limbic-cortical influences during changes in mood state across health and disease.

  9. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-01-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits. Images PMID:3379434

  10. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-04-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits.

  11. Neuropsychological studies of perception and visuomotor control.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A D

    1998-01-01

    According to recent conceptualizations, there are two separate cortical visual systems--each with its own distinctive cortical and subcortical links--and these two systems respectively serve the functions of perception and of motor control. These ideas have been arrived at through a confluence of neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, behavioural, and neuropsychological research. It is proposed that this distinction between two broad purposes of vision and their neural bases can provide useful working procedures for analysing both: (i) the nature of visuomotor processing in the normal brain; and also (ii) the abnormal patterns of visual processing that are seen in certain neurological conditions. PMID:9770230

  12. Learning disabilities: the need for neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Cheryl H; Ruff, Ronald M; Iverson, Grant L; Barth, Jeffrey T; Broshek, Donna K; Bush, Shane S; Koffler, Sandra P; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2008-03-01

    A learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder that presents as a serious difficulty with reading, arithmetic, and/or written expression that is unexpected, given the individual's intellectual ability. A learning disability is not an emotional disorder nor is it caused by an emotional disorder. If inadequately or improperly evaluated, a learning disability has the potential to impact an individual's functioning adversely and produce functional impairment in multiple life domains. When a learning disability is suspected, an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities is necessary to determine the source of the difficulty as well as the areas of neurocognitive strength that can serve as a foundation for compensatory strategies and treatment options.

  13. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  14. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity.

  15. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  16. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity. PMID:26786086

  17. The Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Adult Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1992-01-01

    The area of adult learning disabilities is reviewed from a neurobiological and neuropsychological perspective. The paper covers possible pathophysiologic bases in dyslexia, neurobehavioral disorders that may coexist with learning disorders, neuropsychological assessment methods, treatment in the context of brain plasticity and recovery of…

  18. Effect of endoscopic third ventriculostomy on neuropsychological outcome in late onset idiopathic aqueduct stenosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, J; Bartha, L; Twerdy, K; Eisner, W; Benke, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To undertake a prospective study of the long term neuropsychological outcome in patients with late onset idiopathic aqueduct stenosis (LIAS) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Methods: Six patients with LIAS were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and standardised psychometric testing procedures. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was done using standard surgical techniques. The mean long term follow up was 81.2 weeks. Results: Preoperatively, all patients had cognitive impairment, four of them showing deficits in several cognitive domains. After endoscopic third ventriculostomy, all patients improved clinically and had ventricular size reduction on MRI. Postoperative neuropsychological testing showed that five patients achieved normal or near normal cognitive functions, and one improved moderately. Conclusions: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy caused a substantial improvement in the neuropsychological deficit of LIAS patients. This was also true for patients with enlarged ventricles that might be diagnosed radiologically as "arrested hydrocephalus." PMID:12531955

  19. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  20. The Influence of Levetiracetam in Cognitive Performance in Healthy Individuals: Neuropsychological, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Julio Cesar; Gongora, Mariana; Vicente, Renan; Bittencourt, Juliana; Tanaka, Guaraci; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Morato, Gledys; Basile, Luis F.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Pompeu, Fernando A.M.S; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to analyze the influence of Levetiracetam (LEV) in cognitive performance by identifying the changes produced by LEV in reaction time, in neuropsychological assessment of attention and memory and in absolute theta power in frontal activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects (5 men and 7 women; mean age, 30.08 years, standard deviation, 4.71) were recruited for this study. The neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit Span (direct and indirect numerical orders/working memory); Stroop test (inhibitory control of attention); Tower of London (planning and decision-making) and a quantitative electroencephalography were applied in 2 different days after and before the participants ingested the capsule of placebo or 500 mg LEV. Results A two-way-ANOVA was implemented to observe the interaction between conditions (placebo or LEV 500 mg) and moments (pre- and post-ingestion of LEV or placebo). The data were analyzed by the SPSS statistical package (p<0.05). For the neuropsychological parameter, the Trail Making Test (A) was the only test that showed significant difference for condition in the task execution time (p=0.026). Regarding the reaction time in the behavioral parameter, an interaction between both factors (p=0.034) was identified through a two-way-ANOVA (condition versus moment). Electrophysiological measures showed a significant interaction for electrodes: F7, F3, and FZ. Conclusion The findings showed that LEV promotes an important cognitive enhancement in the executive functions. PMID:25912541

  1. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  2. Cognitive neuropsychology and developmental disorders: uncomfortable bedfellows.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V

    1997-11-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology provides a theoretical framework and methods that can be of value in the study of developmental disorders, but the "dissociation" logic at the centre of this approach is not well suited to the developmental context. This is illustrated with examples from specific language impairment. Within the developing language system there is ample evidence for interaction between levels of representation, with modularity emerging in the course of development. This means that one typically is seeking to explain a complex pattern of associated impairments, rather than highly selective deficits. For instance, a selective impairment in auditory processing can have repercussions through the language system and may lead to distinctive syntactic deficits that are seen in written as well as spoken language. Changes in the nature of representations and in the relationships between components of a developing system mean that cross-sectional data at a single point in development may be misleading indicators of the primary deficit. Furthermore, traditional cognitive neuropsychology places a disproportionate emphasis on representational (competence) deficits, with processing (performance) deficits being relatively neglected. Methods for distinguishing these two kinds of impairment are discussed, as well as other approaches for elucidating the underlying nature of developmental disorders.

  3. Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Hermesh, Haggai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2012-09-01

    Research implicates frontostriatal pathophysiology in both attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, ADHD is characterized with frontostriatal hypoactivity and OCD with hyperactivity. Furthermore, both disorders seem to lie on opposite ends of a clinical impulsive-compulsive continuum. While never having directly been compared, and despite these differences, OCD and ADHD appear to share similar neuropsychological impairments especially in executive functions. This study aimed at comparing adults with OCD and adults with ADHD on neuropsychological measures and behavioural impulsivity and OC measures. Thirty OCD, 30 ADHD, and 30 matched healthy control (HC) participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and completed several questionnaires. The groups were compared on all neuropsychological and clinical measures and correlations between neuropsychological and clinical symptoms were computed. The ADHD and OCD groups performed more poorly than HC on all neuropsychological domains and most domain subtests. The ADHD group reported significantly higher impulsivity than the OCD group. OCD patients did not differ from HC on behavioural impulsivity. A unique dissociation was found between impulsivity and response inhibition where both clinical groups showed similar response inhibition deficit, but differed significantly on impulsivity. Moreover, a negative association between OC symptoms and response inhibition and a bias in self-perception of impulsivity was found only in the OCD group. We propose an executive overload model of OCD that views neuropsychological impairments in OCD as an epiphenomenon, according to which continuous attempts to control automatic processes are associated with obsessive thoughts overflow that causes an overload on the executive system.

  4. Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well understood due to small sample sizes and lack of adequate control conditions. We examined neuropsychological functioning in relatively large and well-characterized samples of children with TS, TS-plus-ADHD, ADHD, and unaffected controls. Method Fifty-six children with TS-only, 45 with TS-plus-ADHD, 64 with ADHD and 71 healthy community control subjects were assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures including the Connors’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI), and the Purdue Pegboard Test. Results There were no differences between children with TS-only and unaffected controls on the measures of response inhibition and visual-motor integration. Boys with TS-only but not girls with TS-only were impaired in the dominant hand Purdue performance. Children with ADHD were impaired on all study measures. Children with TS-plus-ADHD revealed no deficits on the Stroop, VMI and Purdue tests but were impaired on the sustained attention portion of the CPT. Conclusions These results indicate that co-occurring ADHD may be responsible for the neuropsychological deficits, or at least those assessed in the present study, in children with TS. Explanations in terms of neurobiological mechanisms of co-occurring TS and ADHD as well as possible compensatory mechanisms in children with TS are discussed. PMID:20970703

  5. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

    2012-01-01

    Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

  6. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted.

  7. A Comparison of Brain Structural Variables, Neuropsychological Factors, and Treatment Outcome in Early Versus Late Onset Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Disabato, Brianne M.; Morris, Carrie; Hranilovich, Jennifer; D’Angelo, Gina; Zhou, Gongfu; Wu, Ningying; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare differences in grey matter volumes, white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, neuropsychological factors, and treatment outcome between early and late onset late life depressed (LLD) subjects. Design Two-site, prospective, nonrandomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinics at Washington University and Duke University. Participants 126 subjects aged 60 years or older, met DSM-IV criteria for major depression, scored 20 or more on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), received neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging, excluded for cognitive impairment or severe medical disorders. Intervention Twelve weeks of sertraline treatment. Main Outcome Measure Subjects’ MADRS scores over time, neuropsychological factors. Results Left anterior cingulate thickness was significantly smaller in the late onset depressed group than early onset LLD subjects. The late onset group also had more hyperintensities than the early onset LLD subjects. There was no difference in neuropsychological factor scores or treatment outcome between early onset and late onset LLD subjects. Conclusions Age of onset of depressive symptoms in the late life depressed are associated with differences in cortical thickness, and white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, but age of onset did not affect neuropsychological factors or treatment outcome. PMID:23768683

  8. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD.

  9. Challenging a flexible neuropsychological battery under Kelly/Frye: a case study.

    PubMed

    McKinzey, R K; Ziegler, T G

    1999-01-01

    The ability of the flexible neuropsychological battery approach to withstand a challenge under California's evidentiary standard, Kelly/Frye, was tested in an actual trial. Despite repeating many criticisms offered by the literature (e.g., no malingering measures, unknown accuracy rates, ignoring statistical limitations, not using age norms), the battery was allowed in "for the weight of the evidence," rather than being excluded as unreliable.

  10. NAMING DYNAMIC AND STATIC ACTIONS: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Kenneth; Asp, Erik; Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in identifying the neural correlates of action naming, but the bulk of previous work on this topic has utilized static stimuli. Recent research comparing the visual processing of dynamic versus static actions suggests that these two types of stimuli engage largely overlapping neural systems, raising the possibility that the higher-order processing requirements for naming dynamic and static actions might not be very different. To explore this issue in greater depth, we developed the Dynamic Action Naming Test (DANT), which consists of 158 video clips 3–5 sec in length, for each of which the participant is asked to produce the most appropriate verb. We administered the DANT to 78 brain-damaged patients drawn from our Patient Registry, and to a demographically matched group of 50 normal participants. Out of the 16 patients who performed defectively on the DANT, nearly all (15/16) had damage in the left hemisphere. Lesion analysis indicated that the frontal operculum was the most frequent area of damage in the 15 patients; also, damage to the posterolateral temporal-occipital sector (in and near MT) was specifically related to defective dynamic action naming. Most of the brain-damaged participants (n = 71) also received our Static Action Naming Test (SANT), and we found that performances on verb items that were common across the DANT and SANT were highly correlated (R = .91). Moreover, patients who failed the DANT almost invariably also failed the SANT. These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that there is considerable commonality in the neural systems underlying the use of verbs to orally name dynamic and static actions, a conclusion that is in turn compatible with the concept of “representational momentum.” Our results also contribute more generally to the rapidly growing field of research on embodied cognition. PMID:18486456

  11. [Proposal for a neuropsychological cognitive evaluation battery for detecting and distinguishing between mild cognitive impairment and dementias].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, Pilar; Azcárate-Jiménez, Leire; Seijas-Gómez, Raquel; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2015-06-16

    The early and etiological diagnosis of dementia syndrome in the clinical practice remains the neuropsychological assessment through the study of the cognitive profile of the patient and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the functions, both impaired and preserved. In this article, we describe a neuropsychological battery of cognitive evaluation to detect mild cognitive impairment in any of its clinical forms and dementia; as well as discriminate between the main profiles of dementia syndrome, based on its topographic and etiological classification (frontotemporal, temporoparietal, subcortical, cortico-subcortical and multifocal). This battery is implemented in the neuropsychological assessment specialized surgery from Navarra Hospital Center Neurology Service. Not only the tests that form the assessment protocol are presented, but also the theoretical models that are considered more appropriate for their interpretation.

  12. Ethics questions raised by the neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological, educational, developmental, and family characteristics of 18 juveniles awaiting execution in Texas.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; Yeager, Catherine A; Blake, Pamela; Bard, Barbara; Strenziok, Maren

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen males condemned to death in Texas for homicides committed prior to the defendants' 18th birthdays received systematic psychiatric, neurologic, neuropsychological, and educational assessments, and all available medical, psychological, educational, social, and family data were reviewed. Six subjects began life with potentially compromised central nervous system (CNS) function (e.g., prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome). All but one experienced serious head traumas in childhood and adolescence. All subjects evaluated neurologically and neuropsychologically had signs of prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Neuropsychological testing was more sensitive to executive dysfunction than neurologic examination. Fifteen (83%) had signs, symptoms, and histories consistent with bipolar spectrum, schizoaffective spectrum, or hypomanic disorders. Two subjects were intellectually limited, and one suffered from parasomnias and dissociation. All but one came from extremely violent and/or abusive families in which mental illness was prevalent in multiple generations. Implications regarding the ethics involved in matters of culpability and mitigation are considered.

  13. Clinical, neuropsychological, neurophysiologic, and genetic features of a new Italian pedigree with familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suppa, Antonio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Brancati, Francesco; Marianetti, Massimo; Barrano, Giuseppe; Mina, Concetta; Pizzuti, Antonio; Sideri, Giulio

    2009-05-01

    We studied the clinical, neuropsychological, neurophysiologic, and genetic features of an Italian family with familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE). Clinically affected members of the family had limb and voice tremor, seizures, and myoclonus involving the eyelids during blinking. Neuropsychological testing disclosed visuospatial impairment, possibly due to temporal lobe dysfunction. Neurophysiologic findings suggested increased primary motor cortex excitability with normal sensorimotor integration. Linkage analysis excluded the 8q24 locus, where patients shared a common haplotype spanning 14.5 Mb in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2. PMID:19222544

  14. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore‐processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn‐air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn‐air ranged from 0.11–0.46 mg/m3 (55% >0.20 mg/m3). MnB >10 µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p⩽0.05), executive function (p⩽0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p⩽0.04), verbal learning (p

  15. [The twenty-first century as a neuropsychology era].

    PubMed

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Lambert, J; Belleville, S; Platel, H

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews how neuropsychology, in the French-speaking world, has evolved as a discipline focused on research, teaching and clinical work. The article targets the last 30 years as this corresponds to the time at which the Société de Neuropsychologie de Langue Française (French-Speaking Neuropsychological Society) was created. The review addresses how the cognitive neuropsychology approach and the advent of brain imaging have shaped the field of neuropsychology in recent years. It presents the status of the discipline in the main French-speaking countries (where neuropsychology is currently developed) including France, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. It also analyzes a number of indicators that reflect the vitality of the discipline and its cohesion as a science and as a clinical domain. These indicators include the creation of specialized journals, organization of scientific meetings, accessibility to training programs in neuropsychology, development of discipline-oriented clinical programs, and the increase in scientific productivity. The Quebec academic environment is used as an illustration, whereby structured clinical doctoral training programs that meet national standards in neuropsychology were implemented to train clinical neuropsychologists. Finally, the authors emphasize the major role that the discipline is likely to play at different levels of society in the near future.

  16. The Neuropsychological Course of Acute Delirium in Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beglinger, Leigh J.; Mills, James A.; Vik, Stacie M.; Duff, Kevin; Denburg, Natalie L.; Weckmann, Michelle T.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Gingrich, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Although delirium is a common medical comorbidity with altered cognition as its defining feature, few publications have addressed the neuropsychological prodrome, profile, and recovery of patients tested during delirium. We characterize neuropsychological performance in 54 hemapoietic stem cell/bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients shortly before, during, and after delirium and in BMT patients without delirium and 10 healthy adults. Patients were assessed prospectively before and after transplantation using a brief battery. BMT patients with delirium performed more poorly than comparisons and those without delirium on cross-sectional and trend analyses. Deficits were in expected areas of attention and memory, but also in psychomotor speed and learning. The patients with delirium did not return to normative “average” on any test during observation. Most tests showed a mild decline in the visit before delirium, a sharp decline with delirium onset, and variable performance in the following days. This study adds to the few investigations of neuropsychological performance surrounding delirium and provides targets for monitoring and early detection; Trails A and B, RBANS Coding, and List Recall may be useful for delirium assessment. PMID:21183605

  17. The use of neuropsychological data to detect altered neurological functioning in a child with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Ashcraft, E W

    1993-12-01

    Although children with myelomeningocele often display atypical patterns on psychometric testing, this case study demonstrates the sensitivity of neuropsychological instruments to detect altered neurological functioning in a patient with spina bifida. The subject had a history of myelomeningocele at the lumbosacral level and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. During a routine neuropsychological evaluation, a 44-point discrepancy between his verbal (verbal IQ = 98) and nonverbal abilities (performance IQ = 54) on the Wechsler Intelligence for Children-Revised was found. In comparison to high average academic achievement, test findings suggested depressed memory skills and extreme slowing in psychomotor speed. A pattern of acute decline in overall cognitive functioning was suggested. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left frontoparietal brain mass, which was surgically removed. Follow-up neuropsychological testing 9 months postsurgery indicated an increase in nonverbal intelligence with improved psychomotor speed and information processing. This case study illustrates the importance of obtaining baseline evaluations in this neurologically high-risk population as well as the clinical usefulness of psychometric data in diagnostic workups. PMID:8126234

  18. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  19. Comparing two methods of delivering neuropsychological feedback.

    PubMed

    Fallows, Robert R; Hilsabeck, Robin C

    2013-03-01

    Feedback methods have been studied in medical and psychotherapy settings, but limited research is available in neuropsychology. The purpose of this study was to examine whether supplementing oral feedback with written information would lead to greater retention of information and improved adherence to recommendations. Seventy-two veterans were enrolled in the study and randomized to receive oral feedback only or oral feedback with written information. The participants were then interviewed immediately after feedback and 1 month later by phone. Univariate analyses revealed that the written group freely recalled more recommendations at the phone interview; however, there were no differences in recall of diagnostic information or the number of recommendations attempted. Findings indicate that receiving supplemental written information improves recall of recommendations and that patients prefer to receive written information in addition to oral feedback. Recommendations to improve the retention of feedback information are discussed. PMID:23315402

  20. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  1. Neuropsychological Effects of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Matthew; Kirshner, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition of the cerebral arterioles and to a lesser extent capillaries and veins, wherein beta-amyloid is deposited. In arterioles, this preferentially targets vascular smooth muscle cells and in the later stages undermines the stability of the vessel. This condition is frequently comorbid with Alzheimer's disease and its role in cognitive impairment and dementia is a topic of considerable recent research. This article reviews recent literature which confirms that CAA independently contributes to cognitive impairment by potentiating the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease, by predisposing to microhemorrhagic and microischemic injury to the brain parenchyma, and by interfering with the autoregulation of CNS blood flow. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with a focus on the neuropsychological manifestations of this vasculopathy. PMID:27357378

  2. Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.

    PubMed Central

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention. PMID:1571297

  3. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  4. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with brain tumor: comparison of approaches used in the classification of impairment.

    PubMed

    Dwan, Toni Maree; Ownsworth, Tamara; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G; Shum, David H K

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to classifying neuropsychological impairment after brain tumor vary according to testing level (individual tests, domains, or global index) and source of reference (i.e., norms, controls, and pre-morbid functioning). This study aimed to compare rates of impairment according to different classification approaches. Participants were 44 individuals (57% female) with a primary brain tumor diagnosis (mean age = 45.6 years) and 44 matched control participants (59% female, mean age = 44.5 years). All participants completed a test battery that assesses pre-morbid IQ (Wechsler adult reading test), attention/processing speed (digit span, trail making test A), memory (Hopkins verbal learning test-revised, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure-recall), and executive function (trail making test B, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure copy, controlled oral word association test). Results indicated that across the different sources of reference, 86-93% of participants were classified as impaired at a test-specific level, 61-73% were classified as impaired at a domain-specific level, and 32-50% were classified as impaired at a global level. Rates of impairment did not significantly differ according to source of reference (p > 0.05); however, at the individual participant level, classification based on estimated pre-morbid IQ was often inconsistent with classification based on the norms or controls. Participants with brain tumor performed significantly poorer than matched controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning, including executive function (p = 0.001) and memory (p < 0.001), but not attention/processing speed (p > 0.05). These results highlight the need to examine individuals' performance across a multi-faceted neuropsychological test battery to avoid over- or under-estimation of impairment.

  6. Neuropsychological Assessment of Individuals with Brain Tumor: Comparison of Approaches Used in the Classification of Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dwan, Toni Maree; Ownsworth, Tamara; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G.; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to classifying neuropsychological impairment after brain tumor vary according to testing level (individual tests, domains, or global index) and source of reference (i.e., norms, controls, and pre-morbid functioning). This study aimed to compare rates of impairment according to different classification approaches. Participants were 44 individuals (57% female) with a primary brain tumor diagnosis (mean age = 45.6 years) and 44 matched control participants (59% female, mean age = 44.5 years). All participants completed a test battery that assesses pre-morbid IQ (Wechsler adult reading test), attention/processing speed (digit span, trail making test A), memory (Hopkins verbal learning test-revised, Rey–Osterrieth complex figure-recall), and executive function (trail making test B, Rey–Osterrieth complex figure copy, controlled oral word association test). Results indicated that across the different sources of reference, 86–93% of participants were classified as impaired at a test-specific level, 61–73% were classified as impaired at a domain-specific level, and 32–50% were classified as impaired at a global level. Rates of impairment did not significantly differ according to source of reference (p > 0.05); however, at the individual participant level, classification based on estimated pre-morbid IQ was often inconsistent with classification based on the norms or controls. Participants with brain tumor performed significantly poorer than matched controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning, including executive function (p = 0.001) and memory (p < 0.001), but not attention/processing speed (p > 0.05). These results highlight the need to examine individuals’ performance across a multi-faceted neuropsychological test battery to avoid over- or under-estimation of impairment. PMID:25815271

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  8. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice.

  9. Phenomenological and neuropsychological profile across motor variants of delirium in a palliative-care unit.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Maeve; Donnelly, Sinead; Conroy, Marion; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David J

    2011-01-01

    Studies using composite measurement of cognition suggest that cognitive performance is similar across motor variants of delirium. The authors assessed neuropsychological and symptom profiles in 100 consecutive cases of DSM-IV delirium allocated to motor subtypes in a palliative-care unit: Hypoactive (N=33), Hyperactive (N=18), Mixed (N=26), and No-Alteration motor groups (N=23). The Mixed group had more severe delirium, with highest scores for DRS-R-98 sleep-wake cycle disturbance, hallucinations, delusions, and language abnormalities. Neither the total Cognitive Test for Delirium nor its five neuropsychological domains differed across Hyperactive, Mixed, and Hypoactive motor groups. Most patients (70%) with no motor alteration had DRS-R-98 scores in the mild or subsyndromal range even though they met DSM-IV criteria. Motor variants in delirium have similar cognitive profiles, but mixed cases differ in expression of several noncognitive features.

  10. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  11. Consequences and risks of <1000-g birth weight for neuropsychological skills, achievement, and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Drotar, Dennis; Schluchter, Mark; Hack, Maureen

    2006-12-01

    A cohort of 219 children with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) born from 1992 to 1995 was followed to mean age 8 years to evaluate outcomes and identify risk factors. We compared 204 of these children with 176 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) controls on neuropsychological skills, academic achievement, and adaptive behavior. The ELBW group had worse outcomes than the NBW on all measures. Within the ELBW group, lower scores on NEPSY tests of executive function and memory were related to <750 g birth weight, B (SE) = -0.93 (0.36), p =.010; cranial ultrasound abnormality, B = -1.03 (0.22), p =.002; postnatal steroid therapy, B = -1.00 (0.33), p =.003; and necrotizing enterocolitis, B = -2.26 (0.75), p =.008. A lower score on the Test of Motor Proficiency was related to chronic lung disease, B = -7.33 (1.98), p <.001. Neuropsychological skills mediated the effects of neonatal risk on achievement and adaptive functioning. The findings document the neuropsychological consequences of ELBW at school age in a recently born cohort and identify risks for adverse outcomes.

  12. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  13. Not guilty by reason of insanity of murder: clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nestor, P G; Haycock, J

    1997-01-01

    We examined archivally clinical status, neuropsychological functioning, and perpetrator-victim relationships of 28 adult patients who had committed homicide and had been subsequently involuntarily committed to a forensic hospital. We divided patients into two groups: (1) not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) acquittees (n = 13) and (2) convicted murderers (n = 15). In comparison with convicted murderers, NGRI acquittees were more likely to be seen as psychotic at the time of the index offense and also were more likely to have killed blood relatives, especially a parent. By contrast, convicted murderers were more likely to have killed a significant other, mainly a spouse or lover. At the time of the index offense, substance abuse was more likely to have occurred in the convicted murderers than in the NGRI acquittees. NGRI acquittees and convicted murderers did not differ on neuropsychological tests, with both groups generally scoring within normal limits on all tests. Taken together, these results suggested that NGRI murderers may be driven by acute psychosis directed toward blood relatives and occurring against a backdrop of relatively preserved neuropsychological functioning.

  14. Factor structure of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery for children: a brief report supplement.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sylvia An; Allen, Daniel N; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (HRNB) is the first factor-analyzed neuropsychological battery and consists of three batteries for young children, older children, and adults. Halstead's original factor analysis extracted four factors from the adult version of the battery, which were the basis for his theory of biological intelligence. These factors were called Central Integrative Field, Abstraction, Power, and Directional. Since this original analysis, Reitan's additions to the battery, and the development of the child versions of the test, this factor-analytic research continued. An introduction and the adult literature are reviewed in Ross, Allen, and Goldstein ( in press ). In this supplemental article, factor-analytic studies of the HRNB with children are reviewed. It is concluded that factor analysis of the HRNB or Reitan-Indiana Neuropsychological Battery with children does not replicate the extensiveness of the adult literature, although there is some evidence that when the traditional battery for older children is used, the factor structure is similar to what is found in adult studies. Reitan's changes to the battery appear to have added factors including language and sensory-perceptual factors. When other tests and scoring methods are used in addition to the core battery, differing solutions are produced. PMID:24236936

  15. On the use of different methodologies in cognitive neuropsychology: drink deep and from several sources.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Lyndsey; Howard, David; Best, Wendy

    2011-10-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology has championed the use of single-case research design. Recently, however, case series designs that employ multiple single cases have been increasingly utilized to address theoretical issues using data from neuropsychological populations. In this paper, we examine these methodologies, focusing on a number of points in particular. First we discuss the use of dissociations and associations, often thought of as a defining feature of cognitive neuropsychology, and argue that they are better viewed as part of a spectrum of methods that aim to explain and predict behaviour. We also raise issues regarding case series design in particular, arguing that selection of an appropriate sample, including controlling degree of homogeneity, is critical and constrains the theoretical claims that can be made on the basis of the data. We discuss the possible interpretation of "outliers" in a case series, suggesting that while they may reflect "noise" caused by variability in performance due to factors that are not of relevance to the theoretical claims, they may also reflect the presence of patterns that are critical to test, refine, and potentially falsify our theories. The role of case series in treatment research is also raised, in light of the fact that, despite their status as gold standard, randomized controlled trials cannot provide answers to many crucial theoretical and clinical questions. Finally, we stress the importance of converging evidence: We propose that it is conclusions informed by multiple sources of evidence that are likely to best inform theory and stand the test of time.

  16. Neuropsychological markers of mild cognitive impairment: A clinic based study from urban India

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Ravikesh; Kumar, Keshav; Balachandar, Rakesh; Marimuthu, P; Varghese, Mathew; Bharath, Srikala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Persons with MCI are at higher risk to develop dementia. Identifying MCI from normal aging has become a priority area of research. Neuropsychological assessment could help to identify these high risk individuals. Objective: To examine clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological measures in identifying MCI. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 42 participants (22 patients with MCI and 20 normal controls [NC]) between the age of 60 and 80 years. All participants were screened for dementia and later a detailed neuropsychological assessment was carried out. Results: Persons with MCI performed significantly poorer than NC on word list (immediate and delayed recall), story recall test, stick construction delayed recall, fluency and Go/No-Go test. Measures of episodic memory especially word list delayed recall had the highest discriminating power compared with measures of semantic memory and executive functioning. Conclusion: Word list learning with delayed recall component is a possible candidate for detecting MCI from normal aging. PMID:26019415

  17. Electrophysiological and neuropsychological effects of a central alpha 2-antagonist atipamezole in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mervaala, E; Alhainen, K; Helkala, E L; Partanen, J; Jousmäki, V; Väyrynen, M; Heinonen, E; Riekkinen, P

    1993-05-31

    We studied the electrophysiological and neuropsychological effects of acute modulation of central noradrenergic (NA) transmission using a specific alpha 2-antagonist atipamezole (ATI) in sic healthy volunteers. ATI had effects on resting EEG, auditory event-related potentials and neuropsychological tests. Quantitative EEG revealed increased total power in frontal, parietal and temporo-occipital areas without significant changes in the mean or peak frequencies. Event-related potentials showed no effects on the active attention-related processing negativity or the passive mismatch negativity, but frontally recorded mean amplitude of target-P300 was decreased. Neuropsychological tests after ATI revealed improvement in Digit Span, more errors in Word Recognition task, and no effects on Moss spatial recognition task. In healthy subjects with intact NA systems and without any attention deficit, ATI produced evident NA overactivity. ATI decreased the spontaneous thalamocortical oscillation of EEG and improved focused attention (Digit Span). It impaired, however, more divided attention (decreased mean P300 amplitude, increased errors in Word Recognition). PMID:8101086

  18. The effects of acutely administered low dose sarin on cognitive behaviour and the electroencephalogram in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Pearce, P C; Crofts, H S; Muggleton, N G; Ridout, D; Scott, E A

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that administration of a clinically sign-free dose of sarin to non-human primates gives rise to subtle changes in brain electrical activity as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) several months following exposure. The functional significances of such changes are unclear. The present study monitored EEG by using implantable radiotelemetry, and also assessed the performance of complex behavioural tasks, in non-human primates for up to 15 months following exposure to a low dose of sarin. Baselines of EEG and behaviour were shown to be stable over several months in control animals. The doses of sarin administered caused erythrocyte cholinesterase inhibitions of 36.4% to 67.1%. Overall, no significant changes in EEG patterns were observed although there were increases in beta 2 amplitude which approached significance (p=0.07). No deleterious effects on performance were seen on the touchscreen mediated discrimination tasks presented from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). This study illustrates the validity of the approach employed and makes an important contribution to the investigation of the long-term effects of organophosphorous compounds.

  19. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  20. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions. PMID:27617190

  1. Efficacy of intravenously administered ibandronate in postmenopausal Korean women with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lim, Kyeong Hye; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Hong Kyu; Kim, Ghi Su; Koh, Jung-Min

    2012-09-01

    We investigated rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women, and tested the efficacy of intravenous ibandronate in patients with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates. Postmenopausal women were treated with either alendronate (70 mg/week; n = 88) or risedronate (35 mg/week; n = 84) for 1 year, and their response to orally administered bisphosphonates was assessed using serum C-telopeptide (CTX) levels. Insufficient responders were changed to once-quarterly intravenous ibandronate 3 mg injection (n = 13) or maintained on orally administered bisphosphonates (n = 19), according to patients' preference, for an additional 1 year. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between two orally administered bisphosphonate groups except the bone mineral density values at the lumbar spine. Insufficient rate was higher in the risedronate group (19.0 %) than in the alendronate group (8.0 %), using the premenopausal serum CTX median as a cut-off (P = 0.043). The over-response rate among the alendronate group (59.1 %) was significantly higher than that in the risedronate group (38.1 %), based on a serum CTX cut-off value of 0.100 ng/ml (P = 0.006). Intravenous ibandronate suppressed serum CTX levels to a significantly greater degree at 7 days after the second dosing (0.191 ± 0.110 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and 3 months after the fourth dosing (0.274 ± 0.159 ng/mL; P = 0.004) among insufficient responders, compared with post-oral/pre-intravenous levels (0.450 ± 0.134 ng/mL). Rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates were considerable, and a change to intravenous bisphosphonates may be considered in patients showing an insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

  2. Genetics and Neuropsychology: A Merger Whose Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Kremen, William S.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been two rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the two should advance both fields. PMID:26710091

  3. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  4. Sequential processing deficits in schizophrenia: relationship to neuropsychology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Hill, S Kristian; Bjorkquist, Olivia; Carrathers, Tarra; Roseberry, Jarett E; Hochberger, William C; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing a combination of neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience approaches may be essential for characterizing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and eventually assessing cognitive outcomes. This study was designed to compare the stability of select exemplars for these approaches and their correlations in schizophrenia patients with stable treatment and clinical profiles. Reliability estimates for serial order processing were comparable to neuropsychological measures and indicate that experimental serial order processing measures may be less susceptible to practice effects than traditional neuropsychological measures. Correlations were moderate and consistent with a global cognitive factor. Exploratory analyses indicated a potentially critical role of the Met allele of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in externally paced sequential recall. Experimental measures of serial order processing may reflect frontostriatal dysfunction and be a useful supplement to large neuropsychological batteries.

  5. Genetics and neuropsychology: A merger whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the 2 should advance both fields.

  6. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    PubMed

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  7. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  8. Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion.

    PubMed

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael

    2015-02-28

    Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in patients with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicide Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk.

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in HIV-positive African-American women with a history of drug use.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, K. I.; Campbell, A.; Hawkins, P.; Madhere, S.; Johnson, K.; Takushi-Chinen, R.

    1998-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined neuropsychological performance in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative African-American women with a history of drug use. The study population was comprised of 10 HIV-negative, 9 asymptomatic HIV-positive, 13 symptomatic HIV-positive, and 10 acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) patients. A neuropsychological battery designed to assess attention, psychomotor processing, verbal memory, and visual memory was administered to participants. No evidence of HIV-related cognitive impairment was found in patients in the early stages of HIV infection. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant deficits in psychomotor processing and verbal recall in persons with AIDS. These individuals showed greater difficulty in tasks requiring maintained attention and performed poorly on measures of immediate and delayed verbal recall. In contrast, HIV status was not related to visual memory, verbal recognition, or the number of errors made during a verbal recall task. The pattern of cognitive deficits observed in persons with AIDS resembles that commonly associated with subcortical pathology. The cognitive deficits observed were not related to depression or recentness of drug use. PMID:9828581

  10. Fixed belief in cognitive dysfunction despite normal neuropsychological scores: neurocognitive hypochondriasis?

    PubMed

    Boone, Kyle Brauer

    2009-08-01

    A subset of patients who present for neuropsychological testing report dysfunction in daily life activities secondary to cognitive deficits, but are found on formal testing to have no objective abnormalities, raising the possibility of "neurocognitive hypochondriasis." Such a case is presented, and the factors that appear to give rise to this presentation are explored. Cases of hypochondriacal overconcern regarding cognitive function are likely not rare, particularly given research showing there is little correlation between objective report of cognitive dysfunction and actual test scores in such conditions as mild traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, toxic mold exposure, and post-polio syndrome. PMID:18923966

  11. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  12. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  13. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  14. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  15. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  16. Early Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients With Neuropsychological Impairment Are Associated With Increased Fractional Anisotropy in the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Chieh; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Liou, Michelle; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Kao, Hung-Wen; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ma, Hsin I.; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to investigate the reactive changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived diffusion metrics of the anterior thalamic nucleus (AN), a relaying center for the Papez circuit, in early idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with memory impairment, as well as its correlation with the patients’ neuropsychological performances. In total, 28 probable iNPH patients with symptom onset within 1 year and 17 control subjects were prospectively recruited between 2010 and 2013 for this institutional review board-approved study. Imaging studies including DTI and a neuropsychological assessment battery were performed in all subjects. Diffusion metrics were measured from the region of the AN using tract-deterministic seeding method by reconstructing the mammillo–thalamo–cingulate connections within the Papez circuit. Differences in diffusion metrics and memory assessment scores between the patient and control group were examined via the Mann–Whitney U test. Spearman correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between diffusion metrics of AN and neuropsychological tests within the patient group. We discovered that early iNPH patients exhibited marked elevations in fractional anisotropy, pure diffusion anisotropy, and axial diffusivity (all P < 0.01), as well as lower neuropsychological test scores including verbal and nonverbal memory (all P < 0.05) compared with normal control. Spearman rank correlation analyses did not disclose significant correlations between AN diffusion metrics and neuropsychological test scores in the patient group, whereas ranked scatter plots clearly demonstrated a dichotic sample distribution between patient and control samples. In summary, our study highlighted the potential compensatory role of the AN by increasing thalamocortical connectivity within the Papez circuit because memory function declines in early iNPH when early shunt treatment may potentially reverse the

  17. Tract-Specific Correlates of Neuropsychological Deficits in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Han, Cheol E; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoo, Sang Wook; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Lockhart, Samuel N; Jagust, William J; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    The white matter tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits are not fully established in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI), where white matter tract damage may be a critical factor in cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits in SVCI patients using tract-specific statistical analysis (TSSA). We prospectively recruited 114 SVCI patients, and 55 age-, gender-, and education-matched individuals with normal cognition (NC). All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging and neuropsychological testing. We classified tractography results into fourteen major fiber tracts and analyzed group comparison and correlation with cognitive impairments. Relative to NC subjects, SVCI patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy values in bilateral anterior-thalamic radiation, cingulum, superior-longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus. Focal disruptions in specific tracts were associated with specific cognitive impairments. Our findings suggest that disconnection of specific white matter tracts, especially those neighboring and providing connections between gray matter regions important to certain cognitive functions, may contribute to specific cognitive impairments in SVCI. PMID:26836179

  18. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  20. Orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex functioning in Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-06-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced stages of PD. This pattern has also been suggested by studies that have shown that dopaminergic drugs impair the performance of early PD patients in OMPFC tasks that involve reinforcement learning but enhance the performance of advanced PD patients. Based on these empirical findings, we reviewed the neuropsychological evidence of OMPFC functions in PD patients to test two hypotheses regarding the following: (1) OMPFC functions at different stages of PD; (2) different effects of dopaminergic drugs on OMPFC functions based on PD stage and task demand. We focused our review only on the neuropsychological tasks that were specific and sensitive to the functions of the OMPFC and that were adopted at different stages of PD, such as reversal learning tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task and the affective Theory of Mind task. We found robust empirical evidence that in early PD, OMPFC functions are preserved and dopaminergic drugs result in a detrimental effect when the task involves reinforcement learning. Further studies are needed to verify the status of OMPFC functions in non-demented, advanced PD and to describe the longitudinal course of OMPFC functions in this clinical population.

  1. Relations of biomarkers of manganese exposure and neuropsychological effects among welders and ferroalloy smelters

    PubMed Central

    HASSANI, Hamid; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; SHIRKHANLOO, Hamid; TEHRANI-DOUST, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to assess relationship between biomarkers of Manganese (Mn) and neuropsychological effects. The study was carried out on 27 welders and 31 ferroalloy smelters as Mn-exposed groups and 30 office workers as unexposed controls. Air Mn concentrations were determined according to NIOSH method 7300. The biological samples were prepared using microwave assisted acid digestion and all samples were analyzed by graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) in order to determine manganese. Questionnaire 16 (Q16) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to evaluate the neuropsychological effects. The mean concentrations of air Mn for the welder and ferroalloy smelter groups were 0.023 ± 0.012 mg/m3 and 0.008 ± 0.005 mg/m3, respectively. Manganese concentrations in blood, urine, and toenail samples of exposed workers ranged between 1.80–32.60 (µg/l), 1.00–42.50 (µg/l), and 0.10–6.08 (µg/g), respectively. Mean Mn concentrations in all biological samples of cases were significantly higher than unexposed controls (p<0.05). A moderate relationship was observed between biomarkers of Mn exposure, air Mn, Q16 as well as some neurocognitive outcome measures. The present study shows that blood Mn, urine Mn and toenail Mn could be used to distinguish Mn-exposed workers from unexposed population at the group level. PMID:26423330

  2. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

    PubMed

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  3. Best practice guidelines for forensic neuropsychological examinations of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Forensic examiners generally agree that their contributions to the forensic process have to be based on scientific principles, high ethical values, and sound clinical skills and judgment. In part I, the challenges of maintaining high ethical standards as a scientist-practitioner are addressed. In part II, the scientific strengths and weaknesses of our neuropsychological assessments are explored within the context of the 4 articles published in this issue. Specifically, Wood points out that while most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) compromise the prefrontal cortex (PFC), traditional neuropsychological examinations do not fully capture to what extent PFC damage disrupts cognitive, emotional, and social regulation. New advances in clinical neuroscience are presented to facilitate a more detailed understanding of PFC functioning. Schwarz et al examine how clinical neuropsychology services can adequately handle forensic consultations. Frederick and Bowden, meanwhile, identify the persistent weaknesses of various Symptom Validity Tests in reliably classifying poor effort and malingering. Bailey et al conclude that the findings from sport concussion studies cannot be generalized to clinical populations, who, as a rule, have more premorbid and comorbid vulnerabilities. Finally, part III provides guidelines based on the introductory article by Bigler and Brooks, as well as a synopsis of the main conclusions offered by the contributors in this journal issue. Guidelines for both the diagnosis of mild TBI and the diagnosis of postconcussional disorder are included.

  4. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  5. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile Virus Infection: An Extensive Neuropsychiatric Assessment of 49 Cases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie; Bawor, Monica; Potter, Tammy Hlywka; Eskandarian, Sasha; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection. Methods Patients from Ontario Canada with a diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis) and non-neuroinvasive disease who had participated in a cohort study were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory were collected, as well as demographics and medical history. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Data from 49 individuals (32 with West Nile fever and 17 with West Nile neuroinvasive disease) were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment were comparable across participants with both neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection on all cognitive measures. Neuropsychiatric impairment was also observed more frequently at two to four years post-infection compared to earlier stages of illness. Conclusions Our data provide objective evidence for cognitive difficulties among patients who were infected with West Nile virus; these deficits appear to manifest regardless of severity of West Nile virus infection (West Nile fever vs. West Nile neuroinvasive disease), and are more prevalent with increasing illness duration (2–4 years vs. 1 month). Data from this study will help inform patients and healthcare providers about the expected course of recovery, as well as the need to implement effective treatment strategies that

  6. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  7. Testing for neglect in right-hemispheric stroke patients using a new assessment battery based upon standardized activities of daily living (ADL).

    PubMed

    Eschenbeck, Philipp; Vossel, Simone; Weiss, Peter H; Saliger, Jochen; Karbe, Hans; Fink, Gereon R

    2010-10-01

    Spatial neglect is most frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke and is characterized by a failure to report, to respond, or to orient to stimuli presented to the contralesional side. Although many neglect patients show difficulties in accomplishing activities of daily living (ADL), to date the clinical assessment of neglect is based upon neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. Thus, essential information about the patient's functional status may be missed out. Accordingly, we aimed at developing a new neglect test battery that incorporates standardized ADL. Six conventional paper-and-pencil neglect tests and eight standardized ADL with newly developed neglect-specific scoring criteria and cut-off scores were administered to 68 right-hemispheric stroke patients. According to the neuropsychological tests 22 patients showed symptoms suggesting neglect, whereas 17 patients showed symptoms suggesting neglect according to the newly developed neglect test based upon ADL. Neglect-specific impairments in the neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with those in the ADL-based tests, although dissociations were observed in seven patients. Neglect severity (as reflected in the percentage of positive subtests) was comparable for both test batteries and both test instruments showed high interrater reliability. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed that the severity of neglect according to the neuropsychological and ADL-based tests was significantly associated with lesions within right fronto-parietal networks. We conclude that the newly developed ADL-based neglect battery provides an economic and ecologically valid tool for the assessment of neglect. The test can be used to assess and quantify neglect in everyday activities, and thus to monitor realistically rehabilitative needs of neglect patients.

  8. Young adult stroke: neuropsychological dysfunction and recovery.

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Crespo, M

    1988-08-01

    Etiology, neuropsychological deficits, aphasia type, and recovery were retrospectively studied in 254 young adults with stroke. Cardiac embolism was the most common cause of stroke in patients younger than 40, while atherosclerosis was the most frequent etiology among those aged 41-50 years. In 166 aphasic patients, Broca's aphasia was the most common while Wernicke's and transcortical aphasias were rare. Compared with an older aphasic population, young patients had significantly more nonfluent aphasias and fewer comprehension deficits. These differences were related to stroke localization: the majority of infarcts localized by computed tomography in 37 patients involved either the entire middle cerebral artery territory or its superior or deep branches, explaining the preponderance of nonfluent aphasia. Prognosis of aphasia in our patients was better than has been reported for non-age-selected aphasia populations. Roughly one third of our patients recovered completely, one third improved, and one third had an unresolved language deficit. Complete recovery and significant improvement were observed even greater than 6 months after stroke. In some patients, recovery was much better than might have been predicted from lesion site and size depicted on computed tomograms. PMID:2456633

  9. Adaptive Immunity in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mosley, R Lee

    2015-12-01

    Neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders are becoming a greater proportion of the global disease burden; however the pathogenic mechanisms by which these disorders originate and contribute to disease progression are not well-described. Increasing evidence supports neuroinflammation as a common underlying component associated with the neuropathological processes that effect disease progression. This collection of articles explores the role of adaptive immunity in autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, neurotrauma, and psychological disorders. The section emphasizes the interactions of T cells with innate cellular responses within the CNS and the effects on neurological functions. One recurrent theme is that modified and aggregated self-proteins upregulate innate-mediated inflammation and provide a permissive environment for polarization of T cells to proinflammatory effector cells. Moreover, infiltration and reactivation of those T effector cells exacerbate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to greater neurotoxic levels. Another recurrent theme in these disorders promotes diminished regulatory functions that reduce control over activated T effector cells and microglia, and ultimately augment proinflammatory conditions. Augmentation of regulatory control is discussed as therapeutic strategies to attenuate neuroinflammation, mitigate neurodegeneration or neuronal dysfunction, and lessen disease progression.

  10. Medically unexplained symptoms and neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Binder, Laurence M; Campbell, Keith A

    2004-05-01

    Several illnesses expressed somatically that do not have clearly demonstrated pathophysiological origin and that are associated with neuropsychological complaints are reviewed. Among them are nonepileptic seizures, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, Persian Gulf War unexplained illnesses, toxic mold and sick building syndrome, and silicone breast implant disease. Some of these illnesses may be associated with objective cognitive abnormalities, but it is not likely that these abnormalities are caused by traditionally defined neurological disease. Instead, the cognitive abnormalities may be caused by a complex interaction between biological and psychological factors. Nonepileptic seizures serve as an excellent model of medically unexplained symptoms. Although nonepileptic seizures clearly are associated with objective cognitive abnormalities, they are not of neurological origin. There is evidence that severe stressors and PTSD are associated with immune system problems, neurochemical changes, and various diseases; these data blur the distinctions between psychological and organic etiologies. Diagnostic problems are intensified by the fact that many patients are poor historians. Patients are prone to omit history of severe stressors and psychiatric problems, and the inability to talk about stressors increases the likelihood of suffering from physiological forms of stress. PMID:15512927

  11. Progressive associative phonagnosia: A neuropsychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Patterson, Roy D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    There are few detailed studies of impaired voice recognition, or phonagnosia. Here we describe two patients with progressive phonagnosia in the context of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Patient QR presented with behavioural decline and increasing difficulty recognising familiar voices, while patient KL presented with progressive prosopagnosia. In a series of neuropsychological experiments we assessed the ability of QR and KL to recognise and judge the familiarity of voices, faces and proper names, to recognise vocal emotions, to perceive and discriminate voices, and to recognise environmental sounds and musical instruments. The patients were assessed in relation to a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. QR exhibited severe impairments of voice identification and familiarity judgments with relatively preserved recognition of difficulty-matched faces and environmental sounds; recognition of musical instruments was impaired, though better than recognition of voices. In contrast, patient KL exhibited severe impairments of both voice and face recognition, with relatively preserved recognition of musical instruments and environmental sounds. Both patients demonstrated preserved ability to analyse perceptual properties of voices and to recognise vocal emotions. The voice processing deficit in both patients could be characterised as associative phonagnosia: in the case of QR, this was relatively selective for voices, while in the case of KL, there was evidence for a multimodal impairment of person knowledge. The findings have implications for current cognitive models of voice recognition. PMID:20006628

  12. A neuropsychological investigation of decisional certainty

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Aaron M.; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The certainty that one feels following a decision increases decision-making efficiency, but can also result in decreased decision accuracy. In the current study, a neuropsychological approach was used to examine the impact of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on core psychological processes promoting decision certainty: selective exposure, overconfidence, and decisiveness. Given previous research demonstrating that vmPFC damage disrupts the generation of negative emotional (somatic) states that have been associated with selective exposure and overconfidence, it was hypothesized that damage to the vmPFC would disrupt engagement in selective exposure, decrease overconfidence, and increase indecision. Individuals with vmPFC damage exhibited increased indecision, but contrary to our hypothesis, engaged in similar levels of selective exposure and overconfidence as the comparison groups. These results indicate that indecision may be an important psychological mechanism involved in decision-making impairments associated with vmPFC injury. The results also suggest that the vmPFC may not be critical for selective exposure or overconfidence, which provides support for a recent “desirability” account of selective exposure. PMID:25725416

  13. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight <750 g, 64 with birth weight 750-1499 g, and 67 term-born controls. Growth modeling of raw scores from mean ages 7-14 years revealed persistent VLBW sequelae. Even when adjusting for IQ, the <750 g group scored more poorly than the term-born group on measures of language processing, verbal list learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors.

  14. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atiea, J A; Moses, J L; Sinclair, A J

    1995-08-01

    Neuropsychological function was compared in three well-matched groups of subjects: Group 1, 20 diabetic patients with hypertension, mean age 69.1 +/- 4.8 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 2, 20 normotensive diabetic patients, mean age 69.0 +/- 6.2 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 3, 20 healthy community controls, mean age 68.1 +/- 4.5 years, 13 males and 7 females. There were no significant differences between the groups in education or estimated IQ using the NART (National Adult Reading Test). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in duration of diabetes (mean 10.6 and 9.5 years, respectively), or mean glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1 (mean 9.8 and 10.6%, respectively), or mean blood glucose before and after testing. On a battery neuropsychological tests, sensitive to cognitive impairment in older subjects, analysis of covariance using estimated IQ as the covariate showed no significant differences between the groups on tests of recall, with (Brown-Peterson Test) and without (Kendrick Object Learning Test) interference, forward and backward digit span, concentration (serial subtraction), verbal fluency, immediate and delayed prose recall, digit symbol substitution or psychomotor speed (Kendrick Digit Copying Test). These results provide no support for an association between cognitive deficits and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older subjects or for the view that such deficits may also be mediated by hypertension.

  15. [Working memory: neuropsychological and neurobiological issues].

    PubMed

    Borkowska, Alina; Wiłkość, Monika; Tomaszewska, Marta; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Working memory denotes an ability to remember information for a short-time and to manipulate it. The memory allows including correct information depending on the situation, to keep the information on present activities for a while and enables changing the reaction according to new criteria. The relation between working memory and efficiency of complex cognitive processes and also with the control of emotional processes, plasticity of behaviour and consciousness was demonstrated. Working memory is connected with the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain. Recently, it has been shown, that working memory disturbances play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of psychiatric disturbances such as schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Working memory disturbances are also shown in a proportion of healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Working memory disturbances are presently regarded as a cognitive endophenotypic marker of vulnerability to these illnesses. In recent years, an association between working memory abilities and activity of different neurotransmitters, especially with the dopaminergic system in the brain, has been shown. Molecular genetic studies show an association between working memory abilities and polymorphism of the dopaminergic system genes in schizophrenia and polymorphism of BDNF gene in bipolar affective disorders. So far not much data about the genetics of working memory in healthy subjects has been gathered. Currently in Poland such research is carried on in the Clinical Neuropsychology Unit Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz in cooperation with the Department of Adult Psychiatry and Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics University of Medical Sciences in Poznań.

  16. A status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Robert L

    2004-05-01

    The practice of forensic neuropsychology has experienced tremendous growth over the past two decades, becoming perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of practice within the field of clinical neuropsychology. Indeed, there have been many important advancements in the field that have helped to position neuropsychologists as instrumental participants within the forensic arena. Yet, there is currently no consensus in our field regarding what constitutes competency in forensic neuropsychology and also no specific guidelines or standards of practice to inform neuropsychologists about how to operate in the forensic arena. There are even fewer safeguards to protect the public from questionable methods of practice. This article provides a status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology. It employs a framework emphasized by Otto and Heilbrun (2002) in their assessment of the field of forensic psychology. Emphasis is directed toward identifying recent advances in the field and documenting some of the inherent flaws and weaknesses in forensic practice to help advance the practice of forensic neuropsychology toward a more established specialty area.

  17. Implications of neuropsychological evidence for theories of normal memory.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, A D

    1982-06-25

    The relation between neuropsychology and the study of normal cognitive function is discussed in the context of recent research on human memory. It is suggested that neuropsychological evidence has clear implications for the fractionation of human memory into subsystems. The distinction between long-term and short-term memory, between semantic and episodic memory, and the further fractionation of short-term or working memory all offer examples of concepts that have been successfully applied within the neuropsychological domain, and where the neuropsychological evidence has led to a modification and development of the original concept. Attempts to offer a cognitive interpretation of the amnesic syndrome are discussed. While none of these is entirely satisfactory, such work has led to a potentially important distinction between autobiographical memory or recollection, which is defective in amnesic patients, and a more perceptual or procedural learning process, which appears to be intact in such patients. Recent research on normal subjects is beginning to reveal a similar distinction. It is concluded that the relation between neuropsychology and the study of normal cognitive function continues to be an extremely fruitful one.

  18. Self-reported quality of life and clinician-rated functioning in mood and anxiety disorders: relationships and neuropsychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Caldirola, Daniela; Grassi, Massimiliano; Riva, Alice; Daccò, Silvia; De Berardis, Domenico; Dal Santo, Barbara; Perna, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate 1) the relationship between subjective perception of quality of life (QoL) and clinician-rated levels of psychosocial functioning and 2) the relationship of these indicators with neuropsychological performances, in a sample of 117 subjects with mood and anxiety disorders hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. At the beginning of the hospitalization, QoL and clinician-rated functioning were respectively measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and subjects were administered a neuropsychological battery evaluating verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency and comprehension. We did not find any association between WHOQOL-BREF and GAF scores and between cognitive impairment and lower QoL or clinician-rated functioning. Our results suggest that 1) the individuals' condition encompasses different dimensions that are not fully captured by using only clinician-rated or self-administered evaluations; 2) the GAF scale seems unable to indicate the cognitive impairments of our subjects and the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to be influenced by these deficits. Overall, our findings suggest the need of simultaneously use of multiple assessment tools, including objective evaluations of functioning and different measures of QoL, in order to obtain a more complete clinical picture of the patients. This may allow to identify more specific targets of therapeutic interventions and more reliable measures of outcome.

  19. Psychopathology and neuropsychological impairments in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Shi, Chuan; Yi, Jinyao

    2008-03-15

    Deficit schizophrenia is a relatively homogeneous subtype of patients which is considered helpful to explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to reexamine the clinical characteristics of deficit (n=30) and nondeficit schizophrenia (n=93) in a Chinese sample and investigate the differences of neurocognitive function among the two subtypes of schizophrenia and the normal controls (n=103). Schizophrenia patients completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Additionally, all participants completed an abbreviated version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) and a neuropsychological test battery examining the executive functions, visuospatial abilities and explicit memory related to the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe functions. The deficit group received higher scores than the nondeficit group on the BPRS anergia factor and SANS affective flattening, alogia, avolition-apathy, anhedonia-asociality subscales, but not on the SAPS. Both two schizophrenia subgroups performed more poorly on the WAIS-RC and neuropsychological tests than the normal controls. Moreover, deficit patients performed worse than nondeficit patients on the prorated IQ, the Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting test and Block Design test. The present study replicated symptom profiles in deficit vs. nondeficit schizophrenia in the Chinese sample. Furthermore, this study suggested that deficit schizophrenia is associated with frontal and parietal lobe impairment, and that temporal lobe dysfunction may be a common basis for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia as a whole.

  20. Essential books and journals in clinical neuropsychology: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2004-04-01

    To assist in the identification of key professional resources for neuropsychologists, 214 Australian clinical neuropsychologists were asked to identify "essential" reference materials. Fifty members of the Australian College of Clinical Neuropsychologists returned useable surveys. Forty-three respondents provided information about which clinical neuropsychology books and journals they considered essential and why. Results showed 15 books, including 3 Australian books, and 31 journals were included in the essential reading list of at least 10% of this sample. Compared to similar previous surveys (predominantly conducted overseas and mostly over 10 years ago), the results of this survey suggest that, Australian neuropsychologists have similar views about the top ranking books and journals in clinical neuropsychology as their overseas counterparts. An exception to this general trend may be the status of reference books containing norms, which appear to be growing in perceived importance. Importantly, the results of this survey may be used to help practitioners identify key professional resources in the area of clinical neuropsychology.