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Sample records for administered neuropsychological tests

  1. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  2. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  3. [Neuropsychological test in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Annoni, Jean-Marie; Pertusio, Françoise Bernasconi; Caldara, Anne-Sarah; Khateb, Asaid; Lubini, Deborah; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Mayer, Eugène; Ortigue, Stéphanie; Pegna, Alan J; Valenza, Nathalie

    2003-04-01

    Neuropsychology is a scientific discipline, born in the XIX century, and bridges the fields of neurology and psychology. Neuropsychologists apply scientific knowledge about the relationship between brain function and mental performances. The major clinical role of a neuropsychological evaluation is to help to establish medical and functional diagnosis in patients (adults or infants) with different neurological pathologies such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia, epilepsy.... Such analysis necessitates accurate observation of behaviour and administration of tests of mental abilities (e.g. language, memory...). Test results can also help to clarify the nature of cognitive difficulties and to support the formulation of plans for neuropsychological therapy and functional adjustment in every day life.

  4. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    PubMed

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-03-10

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing.

  5. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  6. The Mediating Effect of Age on the Relationship between Hyperactivity and Neuropsychological Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massman, Paul J.; Nussbaum, Nancy L.

    The relationship between hyperactivity and neuropsychological test performance at different age levels was investigated with 90 children 6-8 years old and 92 children 9-12 years old. Subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and a parent completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC). Young children demonstrated no…

  7. [Normalisation and validation of the Brief Neuropsychological Battery as the reference neuropsychological test in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Duque, P; Ibanez, J; Del Barco, A; Sepulcre, J; de Ramon, E; Fernandez-Fernandez, O

    2012-03-01

    INTRODUCTION. The current batteries such as the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N) for evaluating cognitive decline in patients with multiple sclerosis are complex and time-consuming. AIM. To obtain normative values and validate a new battery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Four neuropsychological tests were finally included (episodic memory, the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, a category fluency test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test). Normative values (overall and by age group) were derived by administering the battery to healthy subjects (5th percentile was the limit of normal). External validity was explored by comparison with the BRB-N. The new battery was also administered to a subsample after 4 weeks to assess reproducibility. RESULTS. To provide normative data, 1036 healthy subjects were recruited. The mean completion time was 18.5 ± 5.2 minutes. For the 229 subjects who were administered the new battery and the BRB-N, no statistically significant differences were found except for mean completion time (19 ± 4 vs 25 ± 5 minutes). In the reproducibility study, there were no significant differences except in the memory tests. CONCLUSION. The scores on the new battery and the BRB-N were strongly correlated although the shorter completion time and ease of administration could make the new battery preferable in clinical practice.

  8. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau.

  9. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  10. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  11. Value of neuropsychological testing after head injuries in football

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Makdissi, M; Davis, G; Collie, A

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the pros and cons of the traditional paper and pencil and the newer computerised neuropsychological tests in the management of sports concussion. The differences between diagnosing concussion on the field and neuropsychological assessment at follow up and decision making with regard to return to play are described. The authors also discuss the issues involved in interpreting the results of neuropsychological testing (comparison with population norms versus player's own baseline test results) and potential problems of such testing in football. Finally, suggested recommendations for neuropsychological testing in football are given. PMID:16046357

  12. Interpreter-mediated neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers.

    PubMed

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish speakers with limited English proficiency, aged 18-65 years (M = 39.7, SD = 13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending on whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient's target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals.

  13. Embedded performance validity testing in neuropsychological assessment: Potential clinical tools.

    PubMed

    Rickards, Tyler A; Cranston, Christopher C; Touradji, Pegah; Bechtold, Kathleen T

    2017-01-31

    The article aims to suggest clinically-useful tools in neuropsychological assessment for efficient use of embedded measures of performance validity. To accomplish this, we integrated available validity-related and statistical research from the literature, consensus statements, and survey-based data from practicing neuropsychologists. We provide recommendations for use of 1) Cutoffs for embedded performance validity tests including Reliable Digit Span, California Verbal Learning Test (Second Edition) Forced Choice Recognition, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test Combination Score, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, and the Finger Tapping Test; 2) Selecting number of performance validity measures to administer in an assessment; and 3) Hypothetical clinical decision-making models for use of performance validity testing in a neuropsychological assessment collectively considering behavior, patient reporting, and data indicating invalid or noncredible performance. Performance validity testing helps inform the clinician about an individual's general approach to tasks: response to failure, task engagement and persistence, compliance with task demands. Data-driven clinical suggestions provide a resource to clinicians and to instigate conversation within the field to make more uniform, testable decisions to further the discussion, and guide future research in this area.

  14. Diagnostic mistakes of culturally diverse individuals when using North American neuropsychological tests.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Julia C; Puente, Antonio E; Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Pérez-Garcia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of culture has increasingly gained acceptance in clinical neuropsychology, relatively minimal research exists regarding the actual impact on clinical activities. In this study, we assess how using North American neuropsychological tests affects diagnostic accuracy in cognitive disorders of culturally diverse individuals. To address this question, participants from Colombia, Morocco, and Spain were administered five commonly used neuropsychological tests and the test results were used to determine whether they would be classified as having the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for Mild Cognitive and Major Cognitive Disorder. Results reveal that diagnostic error occurred up to 20% of the time, and that the frequency of misdiagnosis differed by nationality. These results provide evidence that using tests from one culture to assess individuals from other cultures produces significant false positives. Findings are discussed in terms of the foundations of neuropsychological assessment and its relationship to cultural variables.

  15. [Use of neuropsychological tests in the Cronos Project].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Goffredo; Gasparini, Marina; Caffari, Bruno; Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Bianchi, Clara; Bruno, Giuseppe; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto; Vanacore, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Within the Cronos Project, 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated throughout the country. In June/July 2002 a questionnaire was sent to all Alzheimer's disease units to collect data on neuropsychological tests utilised in the diagnostic process of dementias. Only 196 of Alzheimer's disease units that have responded to the questionnaire (196/392) declare to utilize neuropsychological test while 97.8% use the mini mental state examination. This paper aims to collect, for the first time in Italy, data on use of the neuropsychological tests in the specialist units on dementia and to propose a discussion on the reliability of neuropsychological instruments.

  16. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  17. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed.

  18. Contributions of the Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) for the diagnosis of MCI in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Memória, Cláudia M; Yassuda, Mônica S; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-05-07

    ABSTRACT Background: The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments. Results: The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p < 0.001). A moderate level of concurrent validity was attained relative to the screening test for MCI (MoCA test, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of the original test, i.e., memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness of fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.09). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses suggested high sensitivity and specificity (81% and 73% respectively) to screen for possible MCI cases. Conclusions: The CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required.

  19. Computerized neuropsychological assessment in aging: testing efficacy and clinical ecology of different interfaces.

    PubMed

    Canini, Matteo; Battista, Petronilla; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Salvatore, Christian; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people.

  20. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  1. Predictors of neuropsychological effort test performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morra, Lindsay F; Gold, James M; Sullivan, Sara K; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-03-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome and symptoms were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having "deficit schizophrenia" (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia.

  2. Predictors of Neuropsychological Test Performance After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus; Nesbit-Greene, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The influence of neurological and demographic variables on neuropsychological test performance was examined in 100 9- to 16-year-old children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of coma, neuroimaging findings, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender to variance in…

  3. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  4. Neuropsychological test performance of Spanish speakers: is performance different across different Spanish-speaking subgroups?

    PubMed

    Buré-Reyes, Annelly; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Gontier, Javier; Sánchez, Laura; Pérez-García, Miguel; Puente, Antonio E

    2013-01-01

    Even though theories and research have pointed out the importance of variables such as age, gender, or education on neuropsychological assessment, much less emphasis has been placed on language and culture. With the increasing population of Spanish speakers in North America and the limited amount of clinical and scholarly information currently available, neuropsychological assessment of this group has similarly become of increasing importance. Though several studies have been published over the last two decades, an assumption exists that all Spanish speakers, holding education and age constant, would perform similarly regardless of their origin. To address this assumption, a sample of 126 participants was tested from four different countries (Chile, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Participants were compared on the following commonly used neuropsychological tests: Verbal Serial Learning Curve, Rey- Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Trail Making Test. Analyses revealed significant differences across the groups in two of the five tests administered. Significant differences were observed in the delayed recall of the Serial Learning Test and in the Verbal Fluency Test. The findings highlight the importance of within-group differences between Spanish speakers.

  5. Misuse of statistical tests in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology publications.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Philip; Jay, Kristin A; McComb, Jason; McLaughlin, Jason R

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the (mis)use of statistical tests in neuropsychology research studies published in the Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology in the years 1990-1992 and 1996-2000, and 2001-2004, prior to, commensurate with the internet-based and paper-based release, and following the release of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Statistical Inference. The authors focused on four statistical errors: inappropriate use of null hypothesis tests, inappropriate use of P-values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rates. Despite the recommendations of the Task Force on Statistical Inference published in 1999, the present study recorded instances of these statistical errors both pre- and post-APA's report, with only the reporting of effect size increasing after the release of the report. Neuropsychologists involved in empirical research should be better aware of the limitations and boundaries of hypothesis testing as well as the theoretical aspects of research methodology.

  6. Neuropsychological tests for predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Baerresen, Kimberly M; Miller, Karen J; Hanson, Eric R; Miller, Justin S; Dye, Richelin V; Hartman, Richard E; Vermeersch, David; Small, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine neuropsychological tests likely to predict cognitive decline. Methods A sample of nonconverters (n = 106) was compared with those who declined in cognitive status (n = 24). Significant univariate logistic regression prediction models were used to create multivariate logistic regression models to predict decline based on initial neuropsychological testing. Results Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) Retention predicted conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) while baseline Buschke Delay predicted conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to group sample size differences, additional analyses were conducted using a subsample of demographically matched nonconverters. Analyses indicated RCFT Retention predicted conversion to MCI and AD, and Buschke Delay predicted conversion to AD. Conclusion Results suggest RCFT Retention and Buschke Delay may be useful in predicting cognitive decline. PMID:26107318

  7. Effects of culture and education on neuropsychological testing: a preliminary study with indigenous and nonindigenous population.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ramirez, M; Ardila, A

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of education and of culture on the neuropsychological profile of an indigenous and a nonindigenous population. The sample included 27 individuals divided into four groups: (a) seven illiterate Maya indigenous participants, (b) six illiterate Pame indigenous participants, (c) seven nonindigenous participants with no education, and (d) seven Maya indigenous participants with 1 to 4 years of education . A brief neuropsychological test battery developed and standardized in Mexico was individually administered. Results demonstrated differential effects for both variables. Both groups of indigenous participants (Maya and Pame) obtained higher scores in visuospatial tasks, and the level of education had significant effects on working and verbal memory. Our data suggested that culture dictates what it is important for survival and that education could be considered as a type of subculture that facilitates the development of certain skills.

  8. Army Research Needs for Automated Neuropsychological Tests: Monitoring Soldier Health and Performance Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S (2007) S7–S14 Army research needs for automated neuropsychological tests: Monitoring soldier health and...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 S8 K.E. Friedl et al. / Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S...central role in post-deployment health research. K.E. Friedl et al. / Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S (2007)

  9. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  10. EEG correlates of fatigue during administration of a neuropsychological test battery

    PubMed Central

    Barwick, Fiona; Arnett, Peter; Slobounov, Semyon

    2011-01-01

    Objective Mental fatigue, a poorly understood symptom of sports-related concussion, ideally requires assessment across multiple modalities. Our study aimed to examine mental fatigue effects among ten neurologically normal, athletically active students undergoing typical concussion testing. It is our intention to ultimately address the question whether fatigue effects due to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may become confounded with fatigue effects due to testing effort. Methods Fourteen athletically active and neurologically normal volunteers were initially recruited from Penn State University. Self-reported fatigue, neuropsychological performance, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were measured throughout the whole testing duration. EEG measures in frequency domain (e.g., relative power of theta, alpha & beta bands) were examined over the course of neuropsychological (NP) test administration. Results Predicted fatigue effects over the course of testing included: (a) increased self-reported fatigue; (b) increased errors on the Stroop Interference Test; (c) significantly increased relative power of theta activity during the Stroop Interference Test in frontal-central and parietal regions; and (d) migration of alpha activation from the occipital to anterior (left parietal and pre-central) regions during the Stroop Interference task administered at the beginning compared with the end of testing. Conclusions Results supported predictions related to subjective fatigue and cognitive performance and offered partial support for predictions related to EEG activation patterns over the course of administering the NP testing. Significance Neurologically intact and athletically active college students demonstrate effects related to fatigue after undergoing a typical sports concussion assessment battery, including an increase in subjectively experienced fatigue, a decrease in cognitive task performance accuracy and associated modulations in EEG activity. This finding

  11. Cognitive dysfunction after on-pump operations: neuropsychological characteristics and optimal core battery of tests.

    PubMed

    Polunina, Anna G; Golukhova, Elena Z; Guekht, Alla B; Lefterova, Natalia P; Bokeria, Leo A

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges as memory decline, decreased attention, and decreased concentration during several months, or even years, after surgery. Here we present results of our three neuropsychological studies, which overall included 145 patients after on-pump operations. We found that the auditory memory span test (digit span) was more effective as a tool for registration of POCD, in comparison with the word-list learning and story-learning tests. Nonverbal memory or visuoconstruction tests were sensitive to POCD in patients after intraoperative opening of cardiac chambers with increased cerebral air embolism. Psychomotor speed tests (digit symbol, or TMT A) registered POCD, which was characteristic for elderly atherosclerotic patients. Finally, we observed that there were significant effects of the order of position of a test on the performance on this test. For example, the postoperative performance on the core tests (digit span and digit symbol) showed minimal impairment when either of these tests was administered at the beginning of testing. Overall, our data shows that the selection of tests, and the order of which these tests are administered, may considerably influence the results of studies of POCD.

  12. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  13. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  14. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  15. Contextualizing Laboratory Administered Aural Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.; Whiteson, Valerie

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test consisting of dialogue with intermittent pauses for responses and a white noise accompaniment was given to non-English speakers who were candidates for admission to the English Department at Bar Ilan University in order to evaluate aural comprehension. Development of the test and results are reported. (RM)

  16. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  17. Treatment of Not-Administered Items on Individually Administered Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2012-01-01

    In administration of individually administered intelligence tests, items are commonly presented in a sequence of increasing difficulty, and test administration is terminated after a predetermined number of incorrect answers. This practice produces stochastically censored data, a form of nonignorable missing data. By manipulating four factors…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  19. The predictive utility of neuropsychological symptom validity testing as it relates to psychological presentation.

    PubMed

    Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Gammada, Emnet; Jeffay, Eliyas

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between multiple neuropsychological symptom validity tests (SVTs) and psychological presentation. More formally, we set out to determine if performance on neuropsychological SVTs was related to psychological symptom credibility and which specific neuropsychological SVTs were most associated with noncredible psychological presentation. Archival records from 106 litigating examinees were utilized in this study. Our results illustrate that neuropsychological SVTs are modestly related to psychological symptom credibility and that specific neuropsychological SVTs are variably associated to this end. We conclude that when multiple, but not independent, neuropsychological SVTs are employed within the context of a neuropsychological examination, they do have clinical utility as it relates to credibility of psychological presentation and these constructs do share variance reciprocally in clinically meaningful ways. When independently employed, however, the observed relationship is modest at best. Hence, to place clinical opinion on firmer scientific grounds within the context of a neuropsychological examination, multiple cognitive SVTs, in hand with psychological test instruments that include validity indexes, are essential to derive opinion that is based on science rather than faith in the instance of litigation when an incentive to manifest disability for the sake of an external reward holds probable.

  20. Administration of neuropsychological tests using interactive voice response technology in the elderly: validation and limitations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Delyana Ivanova; Talbot, Vincent; Gagnon, Michèle; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Interactive voice response (IVR) systems are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits) and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68-134). Only six participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale fourth edition subtests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93-95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93-95%). The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities subtest was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly.

  1. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  2. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    PubMed

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings.

  3. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  4. Neuropsychological test performance in healthy volunteers before and after donepezil administration.

    PubMed

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Gaydos, Brenda L; Kareken, David A; Tangphao-Daniels, Oranee; Siemers, Eric R; Mohs, Richard C

    2004-03-01

    Participants in early Phase I clinical trials for drugs designed to enhance cognition are typically healthy volunteers. If improvement can be detected with a battery of cognitive tests in healthy volunteers, such a battery could be a pharmacodynamic marker in the future development of the compound for treatment of cognitive disorders. In the present exploratory study, a battery of neuropsychological (NP) tests was used to determine if changes in cognition from a pharmacological intervention could be detected in healthy volunteers. A drug with known cognitive-enhancing effects in Alzheimer's disease, donepezil, was compared with placebo and no treatment arms. Carry-over effects of repeated test administration were also assessed. In this double-blind study, 27 healthy adults were randomized into one of three arms (eight donepezil, nine placebo and 10 no treatment) and completed 14 days of donepezil (5 mg q.h.s.) or placebo (q.h.s.). A battery of NP tests was administered on days 0, 7, 14 (randomization), 21, 28 (end of treatment) and 42 (washout). There were no differences in performance between the placebo and the no treatment arms. However, on day 21, subjects in the donepezil group performed slightly but significantly worse on some tests of speed, attention and memory (p < 0.05) compared to the pooled control group (placebo and no treatment arms). No improvement in performance was present while on donepezil at days 21 or 28. While the results are counter to expectations, some tests in the battery did detect a cognitive change (transient mild worsening during drug administration) in healthy volunteers.

  5. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Greher, Michael R; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility. In response to a greater appreciation for the critical role that performance validity issues play in neuropsychological testing and the need to measure this variable to the best of our ability, the scientific base for performance validity testing has expanded greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. As such, the majority of current day neuropsychologists in the United States use a variety of measures for the purpose of performance validity testing as part of everyday forensic and clinical practice and address this issue directly in their evaluations. The following is the first article of a 2-part series that will address the evolution of performance validity testing in the field of neuropsychology, both in terms of the science as well as the clinical application of this measurement technique. The second article of this series will review performance validity tests in terms of methods for development of these measures, and maximizing of diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico.

  7. Differentiation of Schizophrenia Patients from Healthy Subjects by Mismatch Negativity and Neuropsychological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chih-Min; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Shan, Jia-Chi; Hsieh, Ming H.; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III). The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ) were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%). Conclusions/Significance MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility. PMID:22496807

  8. A Culturally Sensitive Approach to the Interpretation of Performance of Black Adolescents on Selected Neuropsychological Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuckle, Essie P.

    Normal black adolescents were given neuropsychological tests of brain damage, and the interpretation of these tests was reviewed with respect to culturally relevant data. Subjects were 50 male and 50 female black students, aged 12-13, with no history of central nervous system trauma, and average scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  9. Effects of handcuffs on neuropsychological testing: Implications for criminal forensic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Christine M; Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Denney, Robert L

    2016-11-02

    Neuropsychological evaluations are increasingly performed in forensic contexts, including in criminal settings where security sometimes cannot be compromised to facilitate evaluation according to standardized procedures. Interpretation of nonstandardized assessment results poses significant challenges for the neuropsychologist. Research is limited in regard to the validation of neuropsychological test accommodation and modification practices that deviate from standard test administration; there is no published research regarding the effects of hand restraints upon neuropsychological evaluation results. This study provides preliminary results regarding the impact of restraints on motor functioning and common neuropsychological tests with a motor component. When restrained, performance on nearly all tests utilized was significantly impacted, including Trail Making Test A/B, a coding test, and several tests of motor functioning. Significant performance decline was observed in both raw scores and normative scores. Regression models are also provided in order to help forensic neuropsychologists adjust for the effect of hand restraints on raw scores of these tests, as the hand restraints also resulted in significant differences in normative scores; in the most striking case there was nearly a full standard deviation of discrepancy.

  10. Intraindividual neuropsychological test variability in healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Holster, Jessica L; Golden, Charles J

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of patterns of neuropsychological performance among normal, healthy individuals is integral to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, because clinicians may not always account for intraindividual variability (IIV) before coming to diagnostic conclusions. The IIV was assessed among a sample of 46 healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment, utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). The data indicated substantial variability in neurocognitive abilities. All participants were found to demonstrate scores considered impaired by at least 2 standard deviations (SDs). Despite adjusting for outliers, no participant produced a "normal" testing profile with an intraindividual maximum discrepancy (MD) of less than 1 SD in either direction. When WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was considered, participants generally demonstrated cognitive test scores ranging from 2 SDs less than to 1.5 SDs greater than their FSIQ. Furthermore, after demographic corrections, the majority (59%) of participants demonstrated at least 1 impaired cognitive test score, as defined by being 1 to 1.5 SDs below the mean. Overall, results substantiate the need for clinicians to consider FSIQ and educational attainment in interpretation of neuropsychological testing results, given the relevant commonality of "abnormal" test scores within this population. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of making false-positive conclusions of impairment when educational attainment and intelligence are high, thus improving diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  12. Spatial Orientation and Congenital Blindness: A Neuropsychological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, I.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of a neuropsychological model for spatial orientation in the absence of vision were developed and administered to 31 children with congenital blindness. Results support the neuropsychological model and indicate that some congenitally blind subjects had focal brain damage, sufficient to impair their capacity to be accurately oriented in…

  13. Construct Validity of WAIS-R Factors: Neuropsychological Test Correlates in Adults Referred for Evaluation of Possible Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elisabeth M. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A 3-factor solution of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) in 260 adults with suspected head injury suggested relatively good construct validity for the factors, based on correlations with neuropsychological tests. Findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional nature of neuropsychological tests and WAIS-R factors.…

  14. Associations between Benzodiazepine Use and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Østbye, Truls

    2015-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed for anxiety, although use of this class of medications has been associated with dependency and cognitive changes. This article describes the study in which we investigated the relationship between the class of benzodiazepine available for use and associated performance on neuropsychological tests in a community sample of 1,754 older Canadians from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Benzodiazepines were classified as short-, intermediate-, and long-acting. Associations were calculated between each class of benzodiazepine and eight neuropsychological measures, using multiple regression analysis and controlling for demographic variables. Results showed different effects of the co-variates across the three drug classes, and short half-life benzodiazepines were not associated with any neuropsychological measure. Intermediate half-life and long half-life benzodiazepine use were each associated with two measures. Increased focus on specific domains of cognitive function is needed to improve our understanding of how benzodiazepine use influences cognition.

  15. Diagnostic and screening power of neuropsychological testing in detecting mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Roberta; Weis, Luca; Pilleri, Manuela; Facchini, Silvia; Formento-Dojot, Patrizia; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is variable likely due to methodological differences in classification criteria and lack of consensus about neuropsychological tests used for cognitive profiling. The main objective of our study was to identify the most suitable neuropsychological tests and determine their screening and diagnostic cutoff scores for PD-MCI. A series of 104 consecutive PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Individual test values were converted into Z-scores using relative published normative data. According to published criteria, PD patients were categorized as PD-CNT (PD without cognitive impairment), PD-MCI (patients performing -1.5 SDs below the mean score in at least one cognitive domain), and PDD. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and K-means clustering analyses to calculate the best discriminating power of each neuropsychological tests in detecting PD-MCI. PD patients were categorized as follows: 55 PD-CNT (53 %), 34 PD-MCI (33 %), and 15 PDD (14 %). PD-MCI had lower education, longer disease duration and greater frequency of hallucinations than PD-CNT. We found that only the Trail Making test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) copy, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Digit Span Backward, and Rey's word auditory verbal learning test (RVLT) immediate recall reached significant screening and diagnostic validity in predicting PD-MCI (AUC 0.705-0.795) with cutoff scores calculated by ROC analyses lying within normal range for normative data. Specific neuropsychological tests covering verbal memory, attention/set-shifting, and visual-spatial deficits are the best predictors of MCI in PD if valid cutoff scores are used. These results have consequences for cognitive diagnosis and potentially in establishing the rate of PD cognitive decline.

  16. Use of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) in neuropsychological evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Barr, W; Morrison, C; Zaroff, C; Devinsky, O

    2004-04-01

    Many commonly used measures of figural reproduction have been found to be relatively insensitive to the effects of right temporal lobe dysfunction. More positive findings are present in studies using measures of figural learning over repeated trials. This study examined the use of a commercially available measure of figural learning in a sample of epilepsy patients undergoing presurgical neuropsychological testing. The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) was administered to 47 subjects undergoing comprehensive presurgical workups with video and EEG monitoring. Groups with left (N = 25) and right (N = 22) temporal lobe seizures did not differ on BVMT-R measures of learning, delayed recall, or yes/no recognition. Approximately 29% of the sample exhibited "impaired" performance in comparison to published norms. The results of receiver operating curve analyses revealed little discrimination in performance between groups. The BVMT-R does not appear to have the sensitivity required for assessing nonverbal memory in this population.

  17. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  18. Pediatric Malingering: The Capacity of Children to Fake Believable Deficits on Neuropsychological Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Instructed preadolescents to "fake bad" on comprehensive neuropsychological testing, then had cases reviewed by 42 clinical neuropsychologists. Ninety-three percent of reviewers diagnosed abnormality, most attributing results to cortical dysfunction; no clinician detected malingering. Results are consistent with other studies exploring…

  19. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  20. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  1. Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychological Tests Validate Positron Emission Topography (PET) Brain Metabolism in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Damle, Uma J.; Kerner, Mallory; Dushaj, Kristina; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Topography (PET) brain hypometabolism (HM) correlates with diminished cognitive capacity and risk of developing dementia. However, because clinical utility of PET is limited by cost, we sought to determine whether a less costly electrophysiological measure, the P300 evoked potential, in combination with neuropsychological test performance, would validate PET HM in neuropsychiatric patients. We found that patients with amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairment and HM (n = 43) evidenced significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, delayed latencies, and neuropsychological deficits, compared to patients with normal brain metabolism (NM; n = 187). Data from patients with missing cognitive test scores (n = 57) were removed from the final sample, and logistic regression modeling was performed on the modified sample (n = 173, p = .000004). The logistic regression modeling, based on P300 and neuropsychological measures, was used to validate membership in the HM vs. NM groups. It showed classification validation in 13/25 HM subjects (52.0%) and in 125/148 NM subjects (84.5%), correlating with total classification accuracy of 79.8%. In this paper, abnormal P300 evoked potentials coupled with cognitive test impairment validates brain metabolism and mild/moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). To this end, we cautiously propose incorporating electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessments as cost-effective brain metabolism and MCI indicators in primary care. Final interpretation of these results must await required additional studies confirming these interesting results. PMID:23526928

  2. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  3. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  4. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  5. Clinical Applications of Neuropsychological Tests in the Diving Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    function as well as providing an overall probability of the presence of brain damage. The Bender Visual-motor Gestalt test ( Bender , 1939) is probably the...Medicine and Undersea Medical Society, 13-15 July 1975, Honolulu, Hawaii. 2. Bender , L. A. Visual motor gestalt test and its clinical use. American...Cortex, 1966, 2, 244-253. 15. Pascal, G. R. and Suttell, B. J. The Bender - Gestalt Test : Quantifi- cation and Validity for Adults. New York: Grune and

  6. Do Laboratory Tests Predict Everyday Memory? A Neuropsychological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between memory performance in everyday life and performance on laboratory tests was investigated with normal-memory and previously severely head-injured subjects. Correlation of the two test types was found in normal-memory and long-term head-injured, but not with the recently-injured. Highest correlations were with prose recall…

  7. Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work.

  8. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms.

  9. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological testing for neuronal connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianhui; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Ekholm, Sven; Kavcic, Voyko

    2004-04-01

    We have used MR DTI to identify relevant brain structures involved in visuospatial processing, in an attempt to link perceptual and attentional impairments to WM changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Correlation of DTI measured parameters with results of several neuropsychological tests will be reported here. Several issues related to quantitation of DTI parameters in ROI analysis are addressed. In spite of only a small number of subjects were studied so far, we found not only that AD patients showed significant decrease of white matter (WM) integrity in corpus callosum (CC), most prominent at the posterior portion, but also found significant correlations between the DTI parameters and scores from several neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary results suggest that DTI help to improve the overall accuracy rate in distinguishing between early AD onset and age-related functional decline, and potentially may improve efficiency in differentiating between different types of dementia.

  10. Cortical brain atrophy and intra-individual variability in neuropsychological test performance in HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsay J; Miller, Eric N; Hinkin, Charles H; Alger, Jeffery R; Barker, Peter; Goodkin, Karl; Martin, Eileen M; Maruca, Victoria; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Sanders, Joanne; Selnes, Ola; Becker, James T

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests.

  11. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Aguiar, Wagner; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; de Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Methods A neuropsychological assessment was made in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia, aged over 65 years, literate, with no history of psychiatric or neurological problems and score on the Mini Mental State Examination at or above the cutoff point for the Brazilian population (>18 or >23) according to the schooling level of the subject. Eighty patients were evaluated by a trained team of neuropsychologists up to 24 hours before elective surgery. Results Among the patients evaluated, one was excluded due to score below the cutoff point in the Mini Mental State Examination and two did not complete the test battery, thus remaining 77 patients in the study. The mean age was 69±7.5 years, and 62.34% of the subjects had ±4 years of study. The subjects had significantly lower averages than expected (p<0.001) for normative tables on neuropsychological tests. Conclusion The study demonstrated the applicability of the instruments in the Brazilian elderly and low schooling level population, but suggested the need to determine cutoff points appropriate for these individuals, ensuring the correct interpretation of results. This battery is relevant to postoperative follow-up evaluations, favoring the diagnosis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing different types of surgery and anesthetic techniques. PMID:25993064

  12. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. Methods The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. Results The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:27171377

  13. Diagnostic validity of a neuropsychological test battery for Hispanic patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Barr, William B; Bender, Heidi A; Morrison, Chris; Cruz-Laureano, Daniel; Vazquez, Blanca; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2009-11-01

    The Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS) was developed to address the growing need for linguistically appropriate Spanish-language assessment measures. Despite the potential benefits to clinical practice, no prior study has assessed its diagnostic validity in populations with epilepsy. One hundred and fifteen patients with confirmed epilepsy were evaluated via the NeSBHIS; these data were standardized according to age- and education-based norms. Performance decrements were observed in more than 40% of participants on measures of processing speed and naming. Deficits in verbal and visual recall were also exhibited by 29 and 26% of the sample, respectively. No significant differences in test performance emerged between patients with VEEG evidence of left (N=48) versus right (N=24) temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the NeSBHIS is sensitive to the cognitive impairments commonly observed in populations with epilepsy, there are limitations to its ability to identify lateralized neuropsychological impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  14. [The association between paid or voluntary employment and neuropsychological test performance at an older age].

    PubMed

    Weghorst, Ronan B W M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have convincingly shown that both physical and mental activity are positively associated with cognitive task performance in aging. Little is known, however, about whether still being employed or doing volunteer work, which obviously engages physical and/or mental activity, is similarly associated with cognitive ability at an older age. The current study explored this relationship in 28 volunteers aged sixty years and older. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, and data regarding the number of working hours (paid and voluntary) per week were collected. A total of 28 participants were included, 13 of whom worked three or more hours per week. As a group, these active participants achieved better episodic memory, sustained attention and psychomotor speed results. This study shows that older people who are still working demonstrate better neuropsychological task performance. An important question for future research concerns the causality of this relationship.

  15. Neuropsychological assessment with the Visual Gestalt Test: psychometric properties and differential diagnostic probabilities.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter; Andersen, Ruth

    2006-02-01

    The Visual Gestalt Test is a neuropsychological instrument developed for evaluation of learning and memory of visuo-spatial material. A revised strategy of scoring has motivated the present study, where data from 153 normal persons, 99 epilepsy patients, and 24 depressed patients are presented and compared. The Visual Gestalt Test is observed to discriminate between normal and diagnosed groups in several ways. Additionally it is found to discriminate between depressed and brain damage subgroups of patients. Data are presented in order to supplement previously published ways of scoring and norms. Practical guidelines for the clinical applications of the test are suggested as perspectives.

  16. Evaluation of Experimental Tests Administered Spring 1969 with the Standard Washington Pre-College Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Clifford; Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    The Washington Pre-College (WPC) Testing Program, together with experimental tests administered in Spring 1969, was analyzed to instigate a new guidance system for high school juniors and seniors. Initially, WPC employed predictors established on an already selected intellectual group. New test predictors were needed to match the complexity of the…

  17. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests.

  18. Caveats in the neuropsychological assessment of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alfonso L.; Ocampo, Carlota; DeShawn Rorie, Kashemi; Lewis, Sonya; Combs, Shawn; Ford-Booker, Phyllis; Briscoe, Juanita; Lewis-Jack, Ometha; Brown, Andrew; Wood, Don; Dennis, Gary; Weir, Roger; Hastings, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the predictive accuracy of six neuropsychological tests in a population of non-brain-injured African Americans. False positives were unacceptably high on five of the neuropsychological tests administered. These pilot data raise important questions about the utility of neuropsychological test norms with groups dissimilar in sociocultural background to the normative population. These findings are examined in terms of the relative merits of the race-homogenous and race-comparative paradigms and underscore the importance of conducting normative studies that involve ethnic minority populations. PMID:12126285

  19. Time of day and caffeine influence some neuropsychological tests in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2015-03-01

    We report that performance on neuropsychological tests used in the diagnosis of dementia can be influenced by external factors such as time of day (TOD) and caffeine. This study investigates TOD effects on cognitive performance in the elderly. The optimal TOD at which an individual is at his or her maximal arousal alters with age, and in the elderly, typically occurs in the morning. Neuropsychological test scores from healthy elderly participants were analyzed to determine whether TOD affected performance. Interactions between caffeine and TOD were also investigated. Across 2 data sets that were analyzed, significant TOD effects were noted for Pattern-Comparison Speed (PCS), Letter-Comparison Speed (LCS; Salthouse & Babcock, 1991), Trail Making Test Part A (Reitan, 1958), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975) and the Graded Naming Test (GNT; McKenna & Warrington, 1980), revealing a decline in test scores as TOD increases. Significant interactions between TOD, age, and the PCS, LCS, and Trail Making Part A were noted in Data Set 1. In Data Set 2, caffeine intake had been controlled for, and significant interactions between caffeine, TOD, and scores on the MMSE and GNT were found. The TOD and caffeine effects highlight the need to control for these external factors when scoring the assessments. This conclusion has implications for the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's.

  20. Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Neuropsychological Testing Improved by Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Gardner, Margaret N.; McCrary, John W.; DeGrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aids in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by objectively establishing cognitive impairment from standardized tests. We present new criteria for diagnosis that use weighted combined scores from multiple tests. Our method employs two multivariate analyses: Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis. PCA (N = 216 subjects) created more interpretable cognitive dimensions by resolving 49 test measures in our neuropsychological battery to 13 component scores for each subject. The component scores were used to build discriminant functions that classified each participant as either an early-stage AD (N = 55) or normal elderly (N = 78). Our discriminant function performed with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (nearly all >90%) in the development, a cross-validation, and a new subjects validation. When contrasted to two different traditional empirical methods for diagnosis (using cutscores and defining AD as falling below 5% on two or more test domains), our results suggested that the multivariate method was superior in classification (approximately 20% more accurate). PMID:20358452

  1. The non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: is it better at predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance than the RAVLT recognition score?

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ≤9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated.

  2. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; Gurnani, Ashita S; Saurman, Jessica L; Chapman, Kimberly R; Steinberg, Eric G; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new learning, an

  3. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurnani, Ashita S.; Saurman, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kimberly R.; Steinberg, Eric G.; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed—but not the immediate—recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants—but not participants with AD—improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects—especially on the delayed recall condition—suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  4. Do Neuropsychological Test Norms From African Americans in the U.S. Generalize to a Zambian Population?

    PubMed Central

    Hestad, Knut A.; Menon, J. Anitha; Serpell, Robert; Kalungwana, Lisa; Mwaba, Sidney O. C.; Kabuba, Norma; Franklin, Donald R.; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy Zambian adults (N = 324) were evaluated to determine to what degree a Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery, with African American norms adjusted for age, gender, and education could be used in healthy Zambians, including 157 (48.46%) men and 167 (51.54%) women with an average age of 38.48 (SD = 12.80) years and an average education level of 11.02 (SD = 2.58) years. The NP battery included tests of attention/working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. The Zambian Achievement Test (ZAT) and the U.S. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) reading subtest also were administered to assess literacy and quality of education. Similar to findings in Western countries, the Zambian results show substantial age and education effects on most tests and smaller, less consistent effects of gender. Beyond the basic demographic effects, urban/rural background had small effects on some cognitive variables, and the ZAT (but not WRAT-4) reading level was a robust predictor of performance on many NP tests, even when other background characteristics were controlled. Women in the United States tend to outperform men on tests of processing speed and episodic memory, Zambian women showed modest but statistically significant disadvantages versus their male counterparts. The results show that tests developed in the United States may be used in Zambia, but development and use of local cultural norms remains very important and is a must. New demographically corrected norms were developed for the cohort that was examined. PMID:26146950

  5. The modified Location Learning Test: norms for the assessment of spatial memory function in neuropsychological patients.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; van den Berg, Esther; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the applicability of the modified Location Learning Test (mLLT) as a test of spatial memory in neuropsychological patients. Three groups of participants were examined: stroke patients, patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy participants (N=411). Three error measures were computed, the Total Score (index of overall performance), the Learning Index (the learning curve over subsequent trials) and the Delayed Recall Score, measuring decay over time. The Learning Index was the most sensitive measure, showing differences between the three groups as well as lateralization effects within the stroke group. Also, the mLLT correlated significantly with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, as well as with age and education level. Regression-based normative data were computed based on the healthy participants. In all, the mLLT appears to be a sensitive and valid test for the detection of object-location memory impairments in clinical groups.

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Educational Interventions Using State Tests or Study-Administered Tests. NCEE 2012-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Price, Cristofer; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the differences in impact estimates and standard errors that arise when these are derived using state achievement tests only (as pre-tests and post-tests), study-administered tests only, or some combination of state- and study-administered tests. State tests may yield different evaluation results relative to a test that is…

  7. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations.

  8. Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment.

  9. Administering Cognitive Tests Through Touch Screen Tablet Devices: Potential Issues.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Amy; Lindsay, Stephen; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Thornton, Ian M; Tales, Andrea

    2016-10-04

    Mobile technologies, such as tablet devices, open up new possibilities for health-related diagnosis, monitoring, and intervention for older adults and healthcare practitioners. Current evaluations of cognitive integrity typically occur within clinical settings, such as memory clinics, using pen and paper or computer-based tests. In the present study, we investigate the challenges associated with transferring such tests to touch-based, mobile technology platforms from an older adult perspective. Problems may include individual variability in technical familiarity and acceptance; various factors influencing usability; acceptability; response characteristics and thus validity per se of a given test. For the results of mobile technology-based tests of reaction time to be valid and related to disease status rather than extraneous variables, it is imperative the whole test process is investigated in order to determine potential effects before the test is fully developed. Researchers have emphasized the importance of including the 'user' in the evaluation of such devices; thus we performed a focus group-based qualitative assessment of the processes involved in the administration and performance of a tablet-based version of a typical test of attention and information processing speed (a multi-item localization task), to younger and older adults. We report that although the test was regarded positively, indicating that using a tablet for the delivery of such tests is feasible, it is important for developers to consider factors surrounding user expectations, performance feedback, and physical response requirements and to use this information to inform further research into such applications.

  10. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  11. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  12. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Glenn E.; Simone, Christa M.; Ng, Nicole F.; Hardy, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings. PMID:26579035

  13. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Glenn E; Simone, Christa M; Ng, Nicole F; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings.

  14. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  15. Training and management of a multisite neuropsychological testing protocol for the Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study evaluating on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft procedures.

    PubMed

    Kozora, E; Kongs, S; Box, T; Schooley, L; Hampton, M; Berkowitz, S; Grover, F; Shroyer, A L

    2007-07-01

    Research study coordinators from 17 sites participating in a cardiac surgery study were trained to administer and score a brief neuropsychological test battery. Results were sent to the study's centralized laboratory for review and feedback. The average examiner errors on the first six protocols were compared with the average errors on the last six protocols over 12 months for each site. Overall, errors for the first six protocols were 4.42, and errors for the last six protocols were 1.83, representing a significant overall decline. Errors for instruction, administration, and recording showed a significant decrease over time. Despite ongoing feedback to examiners, scoring errors did not decline significantly overall; this suggests that a review of all protocols is necessary to achieve reliable scoring. However, when examiners' number of protocols completed was compared with number of scoring errors per protocol, there was a trend for examiners who had completed more protocols to show more improvement in scoring.

  16. Dynamic feature analysis of vector-based images for neuropsychological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Cervantes, Basilio R.

    1998-07-01

    The dynamic properties of human motor activities, such as those observed in the course of drawing simple geometric shapes, are considerably more complex and often more informative than the goal to be achieved; in this case a static line drawing. This paper demonstrates how these dynamic properties may be used to provide a means of assessing a patient's visuo-spatial ability -- an important component of neuropsychological testing. The work described here provides a quantitative assessment of visuo-spatial ability, whilst preserving the conventional test environment. Results will be presented for a clinical population of long-term haemodialysis patients and test population comprises three groups of children (1) 7-8 years, (2) 9-10 years and (3) 11-12 years, all of which have no known neurological dysfunction. Ten new dynamic measurements extracted from patient responses in conjunction with one static feature deduced from earlier work describe a patient's visuo-spatial ability in a quantitative manner with sensitivity not previously attainable. The dynamic feature measurements in isolation provide a unique means of tracking a patient's approach to motor activities and could prove useful in monitoring a child' visuo-motor development.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing in the spectrum of normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Maria Paula; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Formigheri, Paulo; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Speciali, José Geraldo; Santos, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationships between brain structures and function (behavior and cognition) in healthy aging. METHOD: The study group was composed of 56 healthy elderly subjects who underwent neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Cluster analysis classified the cohort into two groups, one (cluster 1) in which the magnetic resonance imaging metrics were more preserved (mean age: 66.4 years) and another (cluster 2) with less preserved markers of healthy brain tissue (mean age: 75.4 years). RESULTS: The subjects in cluster 2 (older group) had worse indices of interference in the Stroop test compared with the subjects in cluster 1 (younger group). Therefore, a simple test such as the Stroop test could differentiate groups of younger and older subjects based on magnetic resonance imaging metrics. CONCLUSION: These results are in agreement with the inhibitory control hypotheses regarding cognitive aging and may also be important in the interpretation of studies with other clinical groups, such as patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24141834

  18. Internal consistency and stability of the CANTAB neuropsychological test battery in children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Räsänen, Pekka; Tolvanen, Asko; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2015-06-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-assessed test battery widely use in different populations. The internal consistency and 1-year stability of CANTAB tests were examined in school-age children. Two hundred-thirty children (57% girls) from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland participated in the study in spring 2011. The children completed the following CANTAB tests: (a) visual memory (pattern recognition memory [PRM] and spatial recognition memory [SRM]), (b) executive function (spatial span [SSP], Stockings of Cambridge [SOC], and intra-extra dimensional set shift [IED]), and (c) attention (reaction time [RTI] and rapid visual information processing [RVP]). Seventy-four children participated in the follow-up measurements (64% girls) in spring 2012. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency of the nonhampering test, and structural equation models were applied to examine the stability of these tests. The reliability and the stability could not be determined for IED or SSP because of the nature of these tests. The internal consistency was acceptable only in the RTI task. The 1-year stability was moderate-to-good for the PRM, RTI, and RVP. The SSP and IED showed a moderate correlation between the two measurement points. The SRM and the SOC tasks were not reliable or stable measures in this study population. For research purposes, we recommend using structural equation modeling to improve reliability. The results suggest that the reliability and the stability of computer-based test batteries should be confirmed in the target population before using them for clinical or research purposes.

  19. A methodology for assessing treatment response in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a case study demonstrating repeated computerized neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Barlow, Karen M

    2011-06-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy, a steroid-responsive encephalopathy, presents with cognitive deterioration, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures and is often associated with elevation of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies or thyroid dysfunction. Because of the absence of a gold-standard diagnostic test and serological marker of disease, improvement in cognitive impairment is an important sign when assessing response to corticosteroid treatment. The purpose of this case study is to present a methodology for tracking neurocognitive functioning using computerized testing (CNS Vital Signs) in a 14-year-old girl with Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Computerized neuropsychological testing was done prior to commencing corticosteroid treatment, as well as at 7 follow-up assessments over 1 year. Improvement in cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning heralded a response to treatment, which was sustained during tapering of medication. Computerized neuropsychological testing seems to be a viable tool for tracking cognitive functioning (when rapid assessments are desired) and assessing response to corticosteroid treatment in Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  20. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  1. Test Takers' Experiences with Computer-Administered Listening Comprehension Tests: Interviewing for Qualitative Explorations of Test Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta

    2004-01-01

    In this study, retrospective interviews were used to investigate reliability (and thus validity) threats to a computerized ESL listening comprehension test administered at a university in the US. The participants in the investigation, six international graduate students, were asked to respond to semi- and open-ended questions during individual…

  2. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  3. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  4. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  5. Computerized neuropsychological testing to rapidly evaluate cognition in pediatric patients with neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Sherman, Elisabeth M S

    2012-08-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests represent a viable method for rapidly screening cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore performance on the CNS Vital Signs in a large pediatric neurology sample. Participants included 166 neurology patients (mean age, 13.0 years; standard deviation, 3.2) and 281 controls (mean age, 13.2 years; standard deviation, 3.2) between 7 and 19 years. The neurology sample performed significantly worse on all domain scores and nearly all subtest scores. Cohen d effect sizes were small to medium for verbal memory (d= 0.44), visual memory (d= 0.40), and reaction time (d= 0.48) and very large for psychomotor speed (d= 1.19), complex attention (d = 0.94), cognitive flexibility (d = 0.94), and the overall composite score (d = 1.08). Using the criterion for cognitive impairment of 2 or more scores ≤5th percentile, 36.6% of the neurology sample was identified as having an uncommon cognitive profile. This is the first study to demonstrate the performance of pediatric patients with neurologic disorders on CNS Vital Signs.

  6. Quantitative I-123-IMP brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing in AIDS dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; Rhame, F.S.; Meier, M.J.; Foehse, M.C.; Loewenson, R.B.; Lee, B.C.; Boudreau, R.J.; duCret, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    We performed I-123-IMP SPECT brain imaging on seven mildly demented AIDS patients and seven normal subjects. In an attempt to detect and quantitate regions of decreased I-123-IMP uptake, pixel intensity histograms of normalized SPECT images at the basal ganglia level were analyzed for the fraction of pixels in the lowest quartile of the intensity range. This fraction (F) averaged 17.5% (S.D. = 4.6) in the AIDS group and 12.6% (S.D. = 5.1) in the normal group (p less than .05). Six of the AIDS patients underwent neuropsychological testing (NPT). NPT showed the patients to have a variety of mild abnormalities. Regression analysis of NPT scores versus F yielded a correlation coefficient of .80 (p less than .05). We conclude that analysis of I-123-IMP SPECT image pixel intensity distribution is potentially sensitive in detecting abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia and may correlate with the severity of dementia as measured by NPT.

  7. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were generally small to medium. The most pronounced differences between patients and controls were seen on tests of prospective memory, speed and complex working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  8. A Study of Computer-Administered Stradaptive Ability Testing. Research Report 75-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David; Weiss, David J.

    A conventional vocabulary test and two forms of a stradaptive vocabulary test were administered by a time-shared computer system to undergraduate college students. The two stradaptive tests differed in that one counted question mark responses (i.e., omitted items) as incorrect and the other ignored items responded to with question marks.…

  9. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  10. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Stakeholder Accounts of Testing Experience with a Computer-Administered Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing…

  11. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  12. The sensitivity of the Bender-Gestalt Test as a screening instrument for neuropsychological impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Margolis, R B; Williger, N R; Greenlief, C L; Dunn, E J; Gfeller, J D

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of the Bender (1938) Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BGT) using the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (HRB) as the criterion for cortical dysfunction. We studied 95 subjects over age 55 who had been diagnosed as having dementia or pseudodementia. Subjects were classified as mild, moderately, or severely impaired on the HRB and as impaired or unimpaired on the BGT. The results indicated that the BGT is less sensitive (36%) than was expected when used on an impaired geriatric population. The data further indicated that false negatives occurred more frequently with the BGT when individuals had mild neuropsychological impairment. Less frequent misclassifications occurred as the severity of impairment on HRB indices increased.

  13. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  14. Test-retest reliability and validity of a custom-designed computerized neuropsychological cognitive test battery in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Jinal P; Varghese, Rini; Weisenbach, Sara L; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dual-task methodologies are utilized to probe attentional resource sharing between motor and cognitive systems. Computerized neuropsychological testing is an advanced approach for cognitive assessment and its application in dual task testing is evolving. This study aimed to establish the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of a custom-designed, computerized, cognitive test battery. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults were tested for the following domains (and tasks): 1) visuomotor function (Spot and Click, SC), 2) phonemic memory (Category Naming, Cat N) and verbal fluency (Word List Generation, WLG), 3) response inhibition (Color Naming, CN), 4) discriminant decision-making (Unveil the Star, US), 5) visual working memory (Triangle and Letter Tracking, TT and LT), 6) problem solving (Peg Game, PG) and 7) information processing speed (Letter-Number, LN). The reaction time, accuracy, time of completion, total number of responses and total number of errors were used as the outcome variables. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine reliability for all outcome variables and concurrent validity was established with respect to the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System™ (D-KEFS™). Reliability ranged from good to excellent for all seven tasks (ICC>0.65). The Cat.N, WLG and CN showed good correlation and PG task showed moderate correlation with tests of the D-KEFS. Conclusion Findings indicate that these computerized cognitive tests were both valid and reproducible and therefore can be easily implemented by clinicians for assessing cognition and incorporated for dual-task testing and training. PMID:28286883

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrene C.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive batteries for neuropsychological assessment of children with learning problems,such as the Reitan-Indiana and Luria-Nebraska Children's Batteries, have demonstrated diagnostic validity. Guidelines are proposed for the neuropsychological interpretation of assessment instruments commonly used by school psychologists and educational…

  16. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  17. A Comparative Neuropsychological Test Battery Differentiates Cognitive Signatures of Fragile X and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, C. S.; Boutet, I.; Cornish, K.; Graham, G. E.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Drouin, A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standardised neuropsychological and cognitive measures present some limitations in their applicability and generalisability to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Alternative approaches to defining the cognitive signatures of various forms of ID are needed to advance our understanding of the profiles of strengths and…

  18. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  19. Bayes' theorem and diagnostic tests in neuropsychology: interval estimates for post-test probabilities.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Betkowska, Karolina

    2009-05-01

    Most neuropsychologists are aware that, given the specificity and sensitivity of a test and an estimate of the base rate of a disorder, Bayes' theorem can be used to provide a post-test probability for the presence of the disorder given a positive test result (and a post-test probability for the absence of a disorder given a negative result). However, in the standard application of Bayes' theorem the three quantities (sensitivity, specificity, and the base rate) are all treated as fixed, known quantities. This is very unrealistic as there may be considerable uncertainty over these quantities and therefore even greater uncertainty over the post-test probability. Methods of obtaining interval estimates on the specificity and sensitivity of a test are set out. In addition, drawing and extending upon work by Mossman and Berger (2001), a Monte Carlo method is used to obtain interval estimates for post-test probabilities. All the methods have been implemented in a computer program, which is described and made available (www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/BayesPTP.htm). When objective data on the base rate are lacking (or have limited relevance to the case at hand) the program elicits opinion for the pre-test probability.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when MMS...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control...

  2. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  3. Value of neuropsychological testing, imaging, and CSF biomarkers for the differential diagnosis and prognosis of clinically ambiguous dementia.

    PubMed

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Delaroche, Odile; Lamy, Estelle; Evrard, Christelle; Charriau, Tiphaine; Bretonnière, Cédric; Damier, Philippe; Derkinderen, Pascal; Vercelletto, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of imaging and CSF biomarkers in clinically ambiguous dementia (CAD). 69 patients were prospectively followed. The endpoint was clinical diagnosis at follow-up of 24 months based upon existing criteria. Medial temporal lobe atrophy score on MRI, distinctive patterns on 99 mTc-HMPAO-SPECT, and CSF levels of amyloid-β peptide, total tau protein, and P-tau181P were used together with neuropsychological testing to assess Se (sensitivity) and Sp (specificity) of separate and combined markers. 60 patients reached the endpoint. A definite diagnosis was achieved in 48 patients. CSF biomarkers had a Sp of 71% and a Se of 100% for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Sp increased to 88% and 93% when MRI and MRI + SPECT were combined, at the expense of Se. CSF biomarkers levels also provided clues to frontotemporal (FTD) or vascular dementias (VaD) diagnosis when situated in an intermediate range between normal and pathological values. MRI and SPECT contributed mostly to the diagnosis of VaD (Se 88%, Sp 75%) and FTD (Se 73%, Sp 78%), respectively. Initial neuropsychological testing had a poor diagnostic accuracy, except for a neuropsychiatric inventory score >40 for the diagnosis of FTD (Se 73%, Sp 84%). Independent of the clinical diagnosis, medial temporal lobe atrophy and total-tau were best correlated with cognitive decline at 2 years. In conclusion, CSF biomarkers efficiently predict evolution toward an AD phenotype in CAD. Imaging biomarkers mostly contribute to the differential diagnosis between non-AD dementias. Initial neuropsychological testing was poorly contributive in CAD diagnosis.

  4. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  5. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    PubMed Central

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  6. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  7. Effects of topiramate on neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Hulusi; Atakay, Selcuk

    2009-12-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is a antiepileptic drug that has multiple mechanisms of action. It is effective as a monotherapy for migraine prophylaxis. Unfortunately, TPM can frequently cause adverse effects, such as cognitive dysfunction. The present study examines the neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of TPM in 35 consecutive migraine patients above 18years of age. The TPM dose was started at 25mg/day and increased by 25mg/week, until reaching the maximum dose of 50mg twice daily in the fourth week. Patients were evaluated for development of side effects of the medication and for its effectiveness on migraine. The Wechsler memory scale was used for neuropsychological evaluation and cognitive evoked potentials were used for neurophysiologic evaluations. Analyses of repeated measures show that visual analog scale pain values, as well as migraine attack frequency and headache duration, were decreased significantly during the study. The amplitudes and latencies of P300 did not change. The results of this study show that 100mg TPM is effective in the prevention of migraine headache and in reducing severity of attacks. Patients' cognitive complaints are frequent in the first month and decrease in the following month. Despite these complaints, only the attention section of the visual memory section of the Wechsler memory scale was affected - other sections were not affected. Also, P300 study did not reflect changes appropriate to these cognitive complaints.

  8. Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms-workshop report.

    PubMed

    Reppas, Christos; Friedel, Horst-Dieter; Barker, Amy R; Buhse, Lucinda F; Cecil, Todd L; Keitel, Susanne; Kraemer, Johannes; Morris, J Michael; Shah, Vinod P; Stickelmeyer, Mary P; Yomota, Chikako; Brown, Cynthia K

    2014-07-01

    Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms has become an important tool for the assessment of drug product in vivo behavior. An in vitro performance test which mimics the intraluminal performance of an oral dosage form is termed biorelevant. Biorelevant tests have been utilized to decrease the number of in vivo studies required during the drug development process and to mitigate the risk related to in vivo bioequivalence studies. This report reviews the ability of current in vitro performance tests to predict in vivo performance and generate successful in vitro and in vivo correlations for oral dosage forms. It also summarizes efforts to improve the predictability of biorelevant tests. The report is based on the presentations at the 2013 workshop, Biorelevant In Vitro Performance Testing of Orally Administered Dosage Forms, in Washington, DC, sponsored by the FIP Dissolution/Drug Release Focus Group in partnership with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) and a symposium at the AAPS 2012 Annual meeting on the same topic.

  9. Investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek-Uphoff, Carol; Obrzut, John E.

    Twenty-three learning disabled (LD) children (age 8-12 years) and 15 nondisabled children (age 8-12 years) were individually administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB). Means and standard deviations for each of the test's scales were computed by group, and individual T-tests were calculated for…

  10. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures.

  11. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-08

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test's final version Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies.

  12. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  13. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test’s final version Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  14. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  15. Neuropsychological Language Tests in Dementia Diagnosis in English-Speaking Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological language tests have limitations (e.g., unrepresentative norms) when applied to "Hispanics" and clinicians are likely aware that these tests may lead to inaccurate dementia diagnoses. Therefore, it was hypothesized that language tests would be weaker diagnostic predictors in Hispanics versus "Non-Hispanic Whites." Participants included 436 English-speaking Hispanic and 436 Non-Hispanic White (randomly selected from 10,937) outpatients classified as having dementia or normal cognition at initial evaluation. When covarying for age, sex, education, and functional abilities, vegetable fluency significantly predicted diagnosis among Non-Hispanic Whites (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [0.69, 0.94], p < .01). Animal fluency and an abbreviated (30-item) Boston Naming Test (BNT) comparably predicted diagnosis across groups. Results remained similar when covarying for primary language among Hispanics. Findings suggest that vegetable fluency, but not animal fluency, was relatively unimportant in diagnosis for the English-speaking Hispanics in this study possibly because of cultural influences on the familiarity, salience, and relevance of this category's items. Additionally, clinicians may have informally adjusted Hispanics' 30-item BNT and animal fluency scores and discounted vegetable fluency to account for their limitations. Animal fluency and BNT may be preferable language tests when assessing dementia in English across groups, as they comparably predicted diagnosis in both groups.

  16. Predicting Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease Using Neuropsychological Tests and Multivariate Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Porsteinsson, Anton; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.; DeGrush, Elizabeth; Reilly, Lindsey A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral markers measured through neuropsychological testing in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) were analyzed and combined in multivariate ways to predict conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a longitudinal study of 43 MCI patients. The test measures taken at a baseline evaluation were first reduced to underlying components (Principal Components Analysis, PCA) and then the component scores were used in discriminant analysis to classify MCI individuals as likely to convert or not. When empirically weighted and combined, episodic memory, speeded executive functioning, recognition memory (false and true positives), visuospatial memory processing speed, and visuospatial episodic memory were together strong predictors of conversion to AD. These multivariate combinations of the test measures achieved through the PCA were good, statistically significant predictors of MCI conversion to AD (84% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 83% specificity). Importantly, the posterior probabilities of group membership that accompanied the binary prediction for each participant indicated the confidence of the prediction. Most of the subjects (81%) were in the highly confident probability bins (0.70 – 1.00), where the obtained prediction accuracy was more than 90%. The strength and reliability of this multivariate prediction method were tested by cross-validation and randomized resampling. PMID:20711906

  17. Interpretive accuracy of the disk diffusion method for testing newer orally administered cephalosporins against Morganella morganii.

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N; Erwin, M E

    1993-01-01

    Eight newer orally administered cephems (cefdinir, cefetamet, cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, and loracarbef) were tested against 100 clinical strains of Morganella morganii to determine the extent of serious interpretive very major (false-susceptible) errors when current criteria for the disk diffusion test are applied. Agar dilution MICs and disk diffusion tests were performed as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (Villanova, Pa.) (NCCLS), and the methods were compared by regression analysis using the method of least squares and by error rate bounding. The following results are listed in the order of increasing error rates: cefdinir, loracarbef, and cefprozil, < or = 1% very major error; ceftibuten, 8% minor errors; cefuroxime, 21% minor errors; cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefetamet, very major errors of 15, 24, and 36%, respectively. M. morganii produces unacceptable rates of test error with cefuroxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefetamet. The latter two cephalosporins currently have NCCLS table footnote warnings covering the problem observed with this organism. The inclusion of cefuroxime and cefixime in the NCCLS table footnote is strongly recommended. PMID:8253998

  18. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: The sample comprised 160 individuals with MS. One group of participants (n = 82) completed a 6MW while wearing a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) in a square hallway with four corridors and performing 90° turns. Another group (n = 78) completed a 6MW while wearing the same metabolic unit in a single corridor and performing 180° turns. Main outcome measures included total distance walked (in feet) and oxygen consumption (in milliliters per minute) expressed as 30-second averages for 1 minute before the 6MW and over the entire 6MW. Disability status was assessed using the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale. Results: Participants undertaking the 6MW in a single corridor (1412 ft) walked 37 ft (2.7%) farther than those undertaking the test in a square hallway (1375 ft), but this difference was not statistically significant (F = 0.45, P = .51). Those completing the 6MW in a single corridor expended more energy than those completing the 6MW in the square hallway with four corridors (F = 3.41, P < .01). Conclusions: Either protocol is acceptable, but researchers should be aware of the additional physiological demands when administering the 6MW in a single corridor with 180° turns. PMID:24688354

  19. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  20. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  1. But the Scores Don't Show How I Really Function: A Feedback Method to Reveal Cognitive Distortions Regarding Normal Neuropsychological Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Carone, Dominic A

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychologists commonly provide feedback to patients with a high degree of cognitive complaints in the context of normal neuropsychological test performance. Patients are sometimes not reassured by this feedback because they blame external factors (e.g., the tests are wrong) and do not develop insight about internal factors (e.g., distorted self-perception) that could lead to better understanding about why high symptom reporting is present in the context of normal test results. This article presents the first formal feedback model for neuropsychologists to use with such patients that helps reveal the presence of cognitive distortions that result in high cognitive complaints. The critical elements of this model incorporate self-ratings of neuropsychological test performance, comparing those ratings to actual test performance, and presenting discrepancies to patients in an objective, professional, and respectful manner. Ways in which this feedback model may lead to improved patient outcomes and reductions in healthcare costs are discussed.

  2. Investigating Administered Essay and Multiple-Choice Tests in the English Department of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Lotfollah; Mehrdad, Ali Gholami

    2012-01-01

    This study has attempted to investigate the administered written tests in the language department of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan, Iran from validity, practicality and reliability points of view. To this end two steps were taken. First, examining 112 tests, we knew that the face validity of 50 tests had been threatened, 9 tests lacked…

  3. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  4. Latent Structure and Factorial Invariance of a Neuropsychological Test Battery for the Study of Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, N. Maritza; Hermann, Bruce; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the latent structure of a test battery currently being used in a longitudinal study of asymptomatic middle-aged adults with a parental history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and test the invariance of the factor solution across subgroups defined by selected demographic variables and known genetic risk factors for AD. Method An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a sequence of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted on 24 neuropsychological measures selected to provide a comprehensive estimate of cognitive abilities most likely to be affected in preclinical AD. Once the underlying latent model was defined and the structural validity established through model comparisons, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis model was used to test for factorial invariance across groups. Results The EFA solution revealed a factor structure consisting of 5 constructs: verbal ability, visuo-spatial ability, speed & executive function, working memory, and verbal learning & memory. The CFA models provided support for the hypothesized 5-factor structure. Results indicated factorial invariance of the model across all groups examined. Conclusions Collectively, the results suggested a relatively strong psychometric basis for using the factor structure in clinical samples that match the characteristics of this cohort. This confirmed an invariant factor structure should prove useful in research aimed to detect the earliest cognitive signature of preclinical AD in similar middle aged cohorts. PMID:21038965

  5. A Study of the Relationship between the GATB and Tactually Administered Tests of Form Perception and Spatial Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, James H.; Black, Victoria

    1982-01-01

    Forty sighted persons (16 to 40 years old) were blindfolded and administered tactual form perception (FP) and spatial aptitude (SA) tests. No statistically significant correlation between scores on the tactual tests and FP and SA subtests of the General Aptitude Test Battery for sighted persons was found. (CL)

  6. Evaluating constructs represented by symptom validity tests in forensic neuropsychological assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is

  7. Finding regional models of the Alzheimer disease by fusing information from neuropsychological tests and structural MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsy-chological tests. This work presents an automatic strategy that uses Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to learn brain models for different stages of the disease using information from clinical assessments. Then, a comparison of the discriminant power of the models in different anatomical areas is made by using the brain region of the models as a reference frame for the classification problem, by using the projection into the AD model a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is constructed. Validation was performed using a leave- one-out scheme with 86 subjects (20 AD and 60 NC) from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database. The region with the best classification performance was the left amygdala where it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 85% at the same time. The regions with the best performance, in terms of the AUC, are in strong agreement with those described as important for the diagnosis of AD in clinical practice.

  8. Neuropsychological Testing Predicts Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Benjamin M.; Avants, Brian B.; Gee, James C.; Arnold, Steven E.; Wolk, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychometric tests predict conversion of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Because the definition of clinical AD relies on those same psychometric tests, the ability of these tests to identify underlying AD pathology remains unclear. Objective To determine the degree to which psychometric testing predicts molecular evidence of AD amyloid pathology, as indicated by CSF Aβ1–42, in patients with MCI, as compared to neuroimaging biomarkers. Methods We identified 408 MCI subjects with CSF Aβ levels, psychometric test data, FDG-PET scans, and acceptable volumetric MR scans from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used psychometric tests and imaging biomarkers in univariate and multivariate models to predict Aβ status. Results The 30-minute delayed recall score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) was the best predictor of Aβ status among the psychometric tests, achieving an AUC of 0.67±0.02 and odds ratio of 2.5±0.4. FDG-PET was the best imaging-based biomarker (AUC 0.67±0.03, OR 3.2±1.2), followed by hippocampal volume (AUC 0.64±0.02,,OR 2.4±0.3). A multivariate analysis based on the psychometric tests improved on the univariate predictors, achieving an AUC of 0.68±0.03 (OR 3.38±1.2). Adding imaging biomarkers to the multivariate analysis did not improve the AUC. Conclusion Psychometric tests perform as well as imaging biomarkers to predict presence of molecular markers of AD pathology in MCI patients and should be considered in the determination of the likelihood that MCI is due to AD. PMID:25881908

  9. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-04-06

    Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the nuclear membranes of spermatocytes without producing apparent testicular injury.

  10. The Effects of Stress on Neuropsychological Tests of Attention and Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    relationship between high levels of stress and diminished performance on tests of memory in HIV -posi ti ve military subjects (Nesselhof, 1989), the...fractures. 5. Other central nervous system complications, including meningitis, encephalitis, toxoplasmosis , treatment for stroke, multiple...unpublished manuscript). The effects of stress on neuropsycho logical tests in HIV -positive military men . Paul, G.L., & Eriksen, C.W. (1964). Effects of

  11. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to its State's assessment policy; and (3) Administer pre-tests to students in the skill areas... students in the same skill areas as the pre-test. (d) Other requirements. (1) A local eligible provider... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  12. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  13. NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY: a neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Esther Gomez-Perez, Ma; Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Pineda, David

    2007-01-01

    Health care professionals are now faced with a growing number of patients from different ethnic groups, and from different socioeconomical backgrounds. In the field of neuropsychology there is an increasing need of reliable and culturally fair assessment measures. Spanish is the official language in more than 20 countries and the second most spoken language in the world. The purpose of this research was to develop and standardize the neuropsychological battery NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY, designed to assess orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory and immediate and delayed verbal and visual memory. The developmental sequences of attention and memory as well as the educational effects were analyzed in a sample of 521 monolingual Spanish Speaking subjects, aged 6 to 85 years. Educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. The consideration of the developmental sequence, and the effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures.

  14. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  15. Teleneuropsychology: Evidence for Video Teleconference-Based Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, C. Munro; Hynan, L.S.; Grosch, M.; Parikh, M.; Weiner, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of videoconference technology to deliver health care diagnostics and treatment continues to grow at a rapid pace. Telepsychiatry and telepsychology applications are well-accepted by patients and providers, and both diagnostic and treatment outcomes have generally been similar to traditional face-to-face interactions. Preliminary applications of videoconference-based neuropsychological assessment (teleneuropsychology) have yielded promising results in the feasibility and reliability of several standard tests, although large-scale studies are lacking. This investigation was conducted to determine the reliability of video teleconference (VTC) - based neuropsychological assessment using a brief battery of standard neuropsychological tests commonly used in the evaluation of known or suspected dementia. Tests included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Digit Span forward and backward, short form Boston Naming Test, Letter and Category Fluency, and Clock Drawing. Tests were administered via VTC and in-person to subjects, counterbalanced using alternate test forms and standard instructions. Two hundred two adult subjects were tested in both rural and urban settings, including 83 with cognitive impairment and 119 healthy controls. We found highly similar results across VTC and in-person conditions, with significant intraclass correlations (mean = .74; range: 0.55–0.91) between test scores. Findings remained consistent in subjects with or without cognitive impairment and in persons with MMSE scores as low as 15. VTC-based neuropsychological testing is a valid and reliable alternative to traditional face-to-face assessment using selected measures. More VTC-based studies using additional tests in different populations are needed to fully explore the utility of this new testing medium. PMID:25343269

  16. Virtual Reality Paced Serial Assessment Test for Neuropsychological Assessment of a Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    digits visually on a computer screen [7]. A number of studies with various patient groups (e.g., TBI; and multiple sclerosis ) have found PVSAT...correlated. These results are consistent with the studies using various patient groups (e.g., TBI; and multiple sclerosis ) that have found PVSAT performance...simultaneous time-constrained performance of multiple neurocognitive tasks [6]. There is also a Paced Visual Serial Addition Test (PVSAT) that presents the

  17. Higher-order factor structures for the WISC-IV: implications for neuropsychological test interpretation.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Englund, Julia A; Roberts, Alycia M

    2014-01-01

    Factor-analytic studies support a hierarchical four-factor model for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) with a prominent general, third-order factor. However, there is substantial disagreement on which type of higher-order model best fits the data and how different models should guide test interpretation in clinical practice, with many studies concluding interpretation should primarily be focused on general indicators of intelligence. We performed a series of confirmatory factor analyses with the WISC-IV standardization sample (N = 2,200, ages 6-16 years) to examine model fit and reexamined models used to support test interpretation at the general level. Consistent with previous research, bifactor models were difficult to identify; however, compared with bifactor and hierarchical models, the correlated factors model with no general higher-order factor provided the best fit to the data. Results from this study support the basic four-factor model specified in the WISC-IV technical manual, with test interpretation primarily focused at the factor level, rather than the general level suggested in previous studies.

  18. Development of computerized Kana Pick-out Test for the neuropsychological examination.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masashi; Suyama, Akihiko; Kato, Toshiaki; Urakami, Katsuya; Nakashima, Kenji; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke

    2003-03-01

    The Kana Pick-out Test, which was developed in Japan and done with paper and pencil, is said to be suitable for inspecting higher-order brain function and to be a good method for screening persons with mild or slight dementia. We have developed a computerized version of the Kana Pick-out Test, which runs on a stand-alone computer, intended to be utilized for mass screening and self-administration. The program was developed with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and runs under the Windows operating system on any IBM PC compatible computer. In this study, all subjects could use the system by interacting with the computer and it was found that the system seemed to have the capability of detecting cognitive status equal to the paper-based Kana Pick-out Test. Besides this, we developed a network-based Kana Pick-out game software which was intended to attract user's notice. The game program was written in JAVA language and runs on a web-browser supporting JAVA on any operating system. The program, a so called applet, is located on our web site (http://environ.med.tottori-u.ac.jp) and anyone can use the applet by accessing our homepage.

  19. Neuropsychological assessment of refugees: Methodological and cross-cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Veliu, Bahrie; Leathem, Janet

    2016-07-06

    Cross-cultural research in neuropsychological assessment has primarily focused on Hispanic and African American populations. Less is known about the impact of language, culture, education, socioeconomic factors, and life experiences on assessment for other cultural groups. We highlight the methodological and cross-cultural barriers encountered at each stage of the neuropsychological assessment of Arabic- and Burmese-speaking refugees, who were culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD). A total of 18 refugees (13 men/five women; in their 20-50s) who were victims of torture in their countries of origin, some with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and now residents in New Zealand, were seen for neuropsychological assessment. Measures were officially translated, back translated, and administered with the assistance of professional interpreters. Multiple challenges arose in terms of administration (e.g., use of interpreters, interactions with the tester, assessment environment, assessment experience, and motivation), scoring, and interpretation (e.g., age appropriate scoring, estimation of prior function, estimation of brain injury severity, obtaining collateral information), the tests themselves, and ecological validity. There are more challenges in the neuropsychological assessment of people who are CALD than can be managed by adhering to current guidelines. The best approach is to find a balance between maintaining assessment integrity and working creatively and sensitively with this group.

  20. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  1. A Neuropsychological Test of Belief and Doubt: Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Increases Credulity for Misleading Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a “doubt deficit” that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was “corrected” by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a “false tagging mechanism” which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  2. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    PubMed

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information.

  3. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  4. Effects of time-of-day on neuropsychological testing as measured by dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Morton, L L; Kershner, J R

    1991-08-01

    In a study of 30 reading-disabled and 30 normal-achieving children tested on a dichotic listening task using digits in either morning or afternoon settings neither laterality nor capacity differences were evident between groups in the afternoon. In the morning, the normal-achieving children compared to the disabled readers were more strongly lateralized when attending selectively to the right channel and less lateralized when attending to the left channel, suggesting disabled readers do not respond normally to circadian influences and may suffer from a time-locked dysfunction which reduces their control over attentional resources in the morning. To examine the normal circadian effect further a second study (using 40 normal-achieving, right-handed male children) was conducted using the same dichotic listening stimuli with an order variable included. The increased report in the morning was seen to be linked to a right ear (left hemisphere) priming effect which served to increase the overall report. The effect was evident only for subjects directed to report the right ear first. The results are consistent with a prepotent left hemisphere in the morning which appears to facilitate attending in the morning for subjects directed to attend to their right ear (left hemisphere) first. Potential research and educational implications are discussed.

  5. Quantitative electroencephalographic and neuropsychological investigation of an alternative measure of frontal lobe executive functions: the Figure Trail Making Test.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Ferguson, Brad J; Harrison, Patti Kelly; Harrison, David W

    2015-12-01

    The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men. The results indicated a significant relationship between the FTMT and both the TMT and the RFFT. Performance on the FTMT was also related to high beta EEG over the right frontal lobe. Thus, the FTMT appears to be an equivalent measure of executive functioning that may be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Applications for use in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other patient populations are discussed.

  6. Learning to read is much more than learning to read: a neuropsychologically based reading program.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U

    2000-11-01

    Departing from the observation that illiterates significantly underscore in some neuropsychological tests, a learning-to-read method named NEUROALFA was developed. NEUROALFA is directed to reinforce these underscored abilities during the learning-to-read process. It was administered to a sample of 21 adult illiterates in Colima (Mexico). Results were compared with 2 control groups using more traditional procedures in learning to read. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was administered to all the participants before and after completing the learning-to-read training program. All 3 groups presented some improvement in the test scores. Gains, however, were significantly higher in the experimental group in Orientation in Time, Digits Backward, Visual Detection, Verbal Memory, Copy of a Semi-Complex Figure, Language Comprehension, Phonological Verbal Fluency, Similarities, Calculation Abilities, Sequences, and all the recall subtests, excluding Recognition. Performance in standard reading tests was also significantly higher in the experimental group. Correlations between pretest NEUROPSI scores and reading ability were low. However, correlations between posttest NEUROPSI scores and reading scores were higher and significant for several subtests. Results are interpreting as supporting the assumption that reinforcement of those abilities in which illiterates significantly underscore results in a significant improvement in neuropsychological test scores and strongly facilitates the learning-to-read process. The NEUROALFA method of teaching reading to adult illiterates is beginning to be used extensively in Mexico. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply neuropsychological principles to social problems.

  7. Reversible dyscognition in patients with a unilateral, middle fossa arachnoid cyst revealed by using a laptop based neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB).

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Johan; Helland, Christian; Flaatten, Hans; Wester, Knut

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in a Norwegian group of patients undergoing surgery for middle fossa arachnoid cysts (AC). We also wanted to assess health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients to see if it could be improved by decompression of the AC. Adult patients (>18 years) with unilateral middle fossa AC and no previous history of neurological disease, head injury, or a psychiatric disorder were eligible for inclusion. We used four tests from CANTAB to assess the level of neuropsychological performance: paired associate learning (PAL) and delayed matching to sample (DMS) assessed temporal lobe functions, while Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) and intra-extra dimensional (IED) shift focused on frontal lobe functions. Patients with postoperative cerebral complications were reported, but excluded from neuropsychological follow-up. In addition to the CANTAB data, pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data were collected. HRQOL was assessed using Short Form 36 (SF-36) pre- and postoperatively. We found significant improvement in the two temporal tests assessing memory, but no improvement in the two frontal tests assessing executive function. HRQOL was significantly reduced preoperatively in two of eight SF-36 domains and improved significantly in four domains postoperatively. CANTAB facilitates detection of cognitive improvements after decompression of the cyst in patients with AC in the middle fossa. The improvements were detected on the tests sensitive to temporal lobe problems only, not on the tests more sensitive to frontal lobe affection. This establishes construct validity for CANTAB for the first time in this population.

  8. The Effectiveness and Unique Contribution of Neuropsychological Tests and the δ Latent Phenotype in the Differential Diagnosis of Dementia in the Uniform Data Set

    PubMed Central

    John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara; Saurman, Jessica L.; Griffin, Jason W.; Gavett, Brandon E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Two main approaches to the interpretation of cognitive test performance have been utilized for the characterization of disease: evaluating shared variance across tests, as with measures of severity, and evaluating the unique variance across tests, as with pattern and error analysis. Both methods provide necessary information, but the unique contributions of each are rarely considered. This study compares the two approaches on their ability to differentially diagnose with accuracy, while controlling for the influence of other relevant demographic and risk variables. Method Archival data requested from the NACC provided clinical diagnostic groups that were paired to one another through a genetic matching procedure. For each diagnostic pairing, two separate logistic regression models predicting clinical diagnosis were performed and compared on their predictive ability. The shared variance approach was represented through the latent phenotype δ, which served as the lone predictor in one set of models. The unique variance approach was represented through raw score values for the 12 neuropsychological test variables comprising δ, which served as the set of predictors in the second group of models. Results Examining the unique patterns of neuropsychological test performance across a battery of tests was the superior method of differentiating between competing diagnoses, and it accounted for 16-30% of the variance in diagnostic decision making. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice are discussed, including test selection and interpretation. PMID:27797542

  9. Implications of Neuropsychology for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Hynd, George W.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews implications of the previous four papers on the neuropsychological approach to learning disabilities (ED 161 035-038), notes the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, discusses potential valuable test batteries, and emphasizes the need for appropriate training in neuropsychology psychologists and teachers. (CL)

  10. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. Material/Methods Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann--Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01–0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02–0.37). Conclusions Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD. PMID:27717954

  11. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  12. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  13. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  14. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  15. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Test Performance of Persons with Abnormalities of Adolescent Development: A Test of Waber's Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne

    1983-01-01

    A total of 20 children with idiopathic precocious puberty; 27 adolescents with clinically delayed puberty; and an equivalent number of controls matched for sex, age, and IQ were given a battery of tests including measures of verbal and spatial abilities and a task using a dichotic listening procedure to assess hemispheric lateralization.…

  16. Fifteen Year Follow-Up Geography Skills Test Administered in Indiana, 1987 and 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, F. L.; Hayes, James J.; Jones, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    After fifteen years of geographic education efforts, a baseline geography skills test was repeated in Indiana. In 2002, 2,278 students in college freshman geography courses were tested with a revision of the National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level Form II. The test measured geographic ability in…

  17. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.

  18. Neuropsychological deficits associated with driving performance in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grace, Janet; Amick, Melissa M; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Ott, Brian R

    2005-10-01

    Neuropsychological and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease that may contribute to driving impairment were examined in a cohort study comparing patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to healthy elderly controls. Nondemented individuals with Parkinson's disease [Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage I-III], patients with Alzheimer's disease [Clinical Demetia Rating scale (CDR) range 0-1], and elderly controls, who were actively driving, completed a neuropsychological battery and a standardized road test administered by a professional driving instructor. On-road driving ability was rated on number of driving errors and a global rating of safe, marginal, or unsafe. Overall, Alzheimer's patients were more impaired drivers than Parkinson's patients. Parkinson's patients distinguished themselves from other drivers by a head-turning deficiency. Drivers with neuropsychological impairment were more likely to be unsafe drivers in both disease groups compared to controls. Compared to controls, unsafe drivers with Alzheimer's disease were impaired across all neuropsychological measures except finger tapping. Driving performance in Parkinson's patients was related to disease severity (H&Y), neuropsychological measures [Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF), Trails B, Hopkins Verbal List Learning Test (HVLT)-delay], and specific motor symptoms (axial rigidity, postural instability), but not to the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. Multifactorial measures (ROCF, Trails B) were useful in distinguishing safe from unsafe drivers in both patient groups.

  19. Neuropsychological deficits associated with driving performance in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    GRACE, JANET; AMICK, MELISSA M.; D’ABREU, ANELYSSA; FESTA, ELENA K.; HEINDEL, WILLIAM C.; OTT, BRIAN R.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological and motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease that may contribute to driving impairment were examined in a cohort study comparing patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to healthy elderly controls. Nondemented individuals with Parkinson’s disease [Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage I–III], patients with Alzheimer’s disease [Clinical Demetia Rating scale (CDR) range 0–1], and elderly controls, who were actively driving, completed a neuropsychological battery and a standardized road test administered by a professional driving instructor. On-road driving ability was rated on number of driving errors and a global rating of safe, marginal, or unsafe. Overall, Alzheimer’s patients were more impaired drivers than Parkinson’s patients. Parkinson’s patients distinguished themselves from other drivers by a head-turning deficiency. Drivers with neuropsychological impairment were more likely to be unsafe drivers in both disease groups compared to controls. Compared to controls, unsafe drivers with Alzheimer’s disease were impaired across all neuropsychological measures except finger tapping. Driving performance in Parkinson’s patients was related to disease severity (H&Y), neuropsychological measures [Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF), Trails B, Hopkins Verbal List Learning Test (HVLT)-delay], and specific motor symptoms (axial rigidity, postural instability), but not to the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. Multifactorial measures (ROCF, Trails B) were useful in distinguishing safe from unsafe drivers in both patient groups. PMID:16248912

  20. Evaluation of the effect of methylphenidate by computed tomography, electroencephalography, neuropsychological tests, and clinical symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz Oc, Ozlem; Agaoglu, Belma; Sen Berk, Fatma; Komsuoglu, Sezer; Karakaya, Isik; Coskun, Aysen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the mechanism of action of these drugs is still not entirely understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), electrical activity of the brain, and clinical symptoms in children with ADHD using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electroencephalography (EEG), and neuropsychological tests. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, pediatric outpatients received MPH for 3 months at a mean dose of 1 mg/kg · d (range, 0.5–1.5 mg/kg · d). They were then administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), EEG, and SPECT of the brain. The parents and/or teacher of each child were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS), and the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition-based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S). All of the evaluations were performed at baseline and after 3 months of MPH treatment. Each child underwent a Stroop test as an activation method 15 minutes before the SPECT procedure. Results: Sixty patients were assessed for inclusion. Twenty-one children (18 boys [85.7%], 3 girls [14.3%]; mean [SD] age, 9.7 [1.7] years; range, 8–13 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD were included in and completed the study. Mean (SD) BGT scores before MPH treatment compared with after MPH treatment were significantly decreased (9.8 [4.2] vs 6.3 [3.4]; Z = -3.27; P = 0.001). After treatment with MPH, the visual SPECT results suggested that low rCBF was normalized in the right frontotemporal areas in 10 children with ADHD. After treatment, 12 patients (57.1%) had no change in EEG activity, 5 (23.8%) had improvement, and 4 (19

  1. Performance validity test and neuropsychological assessment battery screening module performances in an active-duty sample with a history of concussion.

    PubMed

    Grills, Chad E; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The current retrospective investigation sought to replicate previous findings demonstrating the significant impact of performance validity test (PVT) performance and evaluation context on neuropsychological testing. We examined differences on performance validity testing between active-duty service members undergoing neurocognitive screening for concussion who were seen in a clinical context and those who were seen in a disability-seeking context, as well as the overall impact of PVT performance on a neurocognitive screening battery. Overall, 38.2% of the sample failed the Word Memory Test (WMT). Of those involved in a disability evaluation, the failure rate was 51.9%, which was significantly higher than the 36.8% failure rate among those evaluated in a clinical context. The effect size of WMT performance on a cognitive screening measure was also large. The current retrospective analysis served to replicate previous work.

  2. Test Validity and Performance Validity: Considerations in Providing a Framework for Development of an Ability-Focused Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Larrabee, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. PMID:25280794

  3. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  4. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  5. Development of a menu of performance tests self-administered on a portable microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen cognitive, motor, and information processing performance subtests were screened for self-administration over 10 trials by 16 subjects. When altered presentation forms of the same test were collectively considered, the battery composition was reduced to 10 distinctly different measures. A fully automated microbased testing system was employed in presenting the battery of subtests. Successful self-administration of the battery provided for the field testing of the automated system and facilitated convenient data collection. Total test administration time was 47.2 minutes for each session. Results indicated that nine of the tests stabilized, but for a short battery of tests only five are recommended for use in repeated-measures research. The five recommended tests include: the Tapping series, Number Comparison, Short-term Memory, Grammatical Reasoning, and 4-Choice Reaction Time. These tests can be expected to reveal three factors: (1) cognition, (2) processing quickness, and (3) motor. All the tests stabilized in 24 minutes, or approximately two 12-minute sessions.

  6. Uptake of Community-Based Peer Administered HIV Point-of-Care Testing: Findings from the PROUD Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Lisa; Patel, Sheetal; Shaw, Ashley; Leblanc, Sean; Lalonde, Christine; Hladio, Manisha; Mandryk, Kira; Horvath, Cynthia; Petrcich, William; Kendall, Claire; Tyndall, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. Methods PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa. From March-October 2013, 593 people who reported injecting drugs or smoking crack cocaine were enrolled through street-based recruitment. Trained peer or medical student researchers administered a quantitative survey and offered an HIV POCT (bioLytical INSTI test) to participants who did not self-report as HIV positive. Results 550 (92.7%) of the 593 participants were offered a POCT, of which 458 (83.3%) consented to testing. Of those participants, 74 (16.2%) had never been tested for HIV. There was no difference in uptake between testing offered by a peer versus a non-peer interviewer (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.67–1.66). Despite testing those at high risk for HIV, only one new reactive test was identified. Conclusion The findings from PROUD demonstrate high uptake of community-based HIV POCT. Peers were able to successfully provide HIV POCT and reach participants who had not previously been tested for HIV. Community-based and peer testing models provide important insights on ways to scale-up HIV prevention and testing among people who use drugs. PMID:27911908

  7. P300 and neuropsychological measurements in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy biological siblings

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Shanmugiah, Arumugam; Bharathi, P.; Jeyaprakash, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives' exhibit abnormalities in neuropsychological and electrophysiological measures especially P300. The aim was to study the P300 and neuropsychological measures together in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings, and normal controls. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia, their unaffected biological siblings, and normal controls were included in the study. Inpatient group, the severity of symptoms was assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. All subjects were administered P300 event-related potential, which was measured using oddball paradigm and specific neuropsychological tests from NIMHANS neuropsychiatry battery. Results: Both patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected biological siblings showed lower P300 amplitude and longer P300 latency when compared with the normal controls. The three groups showed statistically significant differences in digit symbol substitution test, digit vigilance test, Trail making test B and Stroop test (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected biological siblings show deficits in both cognitive function tests and P300 event-related potential. Our results suggest a continuum in the electrophysiological and neuropsychological measures among the three groups. PMID:28197005

  8. Neuropsychological deficits associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Libon, David J; Schwartzman, Robert J; Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Brahin, Eric; Peterlin, B Lee; Alexander, Guillermo; Kalanuria, Atul

    2010-05-01

    We sought to elucidate the existence of neuropsychological subtypes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). One hundred thirty seven patients with CRPS were administered tests that assess executive control, naming/lexical retrieval, and declarative memory. A 2-step cluster analysis that does not require any a priori specification regarding the number of clusters, classified patients into three groups. Group 1 obtained scores that were in the average range on all tests (n = 48; normal CRSP group). Group 2 (n = 58; dysexecutive CRSP group) presented with mild impairment or statistically low average test performance on working memory/verbal fluency tests. Group 3 (n = 31; global CRSP group) produced scores in the statistically low average/borderline range on all tests with particularly reduced scores on naming/declarative memory tests. Between-group analyses found that the CRPS group 1 obtained higher scores than CRPS groups 2 and 3 on all tests. However, groups 2 and 3 were equally impaired on executive tests. CRPS group 3 was impaired on tests of naming/memory tests compared to the other groups. Significant neuropsychological deficits are present in 65% of patients, with many patients presenting with elements of a dysexecutive syndrome and some patients presenting with global cognitive impairment.

  9. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the first study, we administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 20 deficit and 25 nondeficit patients with schizophrenia and 25 normal healthy controls. In the second study, a meta-analysis was conducted of 13 separate studies examining the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. There was little evidence from either of the present studies that the deficit syndrome is associated with a selective impairment in frontal and parietal lobe functions. The first study failed to find significant differences in frontal or parietal abilities for deficit vs nondeficit patients. The meta-analytic findings revealed that deficit patients were globally more neuropsychologically impaired than nondeficit patients (effect size [ES] = 0.41). Relative to nondeficit patients, deficit patients performed poorest on tests of olfaction (ES = 1.11), social cognition (ES = 0.56), global cognition (ES = 0.52), and language (ES = 0.51). The neuropsychological impairments associated with the deficit form of schizophrenia do not follow an obvious anatomically defined pattern of impairment. The question of whether deficit patients exhibit a unique cognitive impairment profile will require a more sophisticated and rigorous examination of the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. PMID:17159230

  10. Choice in HIV testing: the acceptability and anticipated use of a self-administered at-home oral HIV test among South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Cheruvillil, Sonia; Christian, Stephanie; Mantell, Joanne E; Milford, Cecilia; Rambally-Greener, Letitia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Greener, Ross; Smit, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is being widely promoted by funders. This strategy aims to offer HIV prevention choices that can be selected and combined to decrease HIV risk in ways that fit with each individual's situation. Treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis are two new evidence-based strategies to decrease HIV incidence, both of which require high HIV testing rates to be effective, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a goal of 90% of HIV-positive individuals knowing their status by 2030. However, HIV testing rates in many countries remain suboptimal. Just as no single HIV prevention method is ideal for all people in all situations, no single HIV testing modality is likely to be acceptable to everyone. By offering HIV testing choices, we may be able to increase testing rates. However, many low-resourced countries have been slow to take up new HIV testing options such as the self-administered at-home oral HIV test that is currently available in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews, conducted in 2010, documenting opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing, a testing modality still largely unavailable in Africa. Participants were clients of three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. Self-testing was seen as enabling confidentiality/privacy, saving time, and facilitating testing together with partners. However, concerns were raised about psychological distress when testing at home without a counsellor. Some suggested this concern could be minimised by having experienced clinic-based HIV testing and counselling before getting self-testing kits for home use. Thus, self-administered HIV testing could be an option added to the current testing modalities to address some important barriers to testing.

  11. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  12. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices. PMID:26136693

  13. A Re-Examination of Neuropsychological Functioning in Persian Gulf War Era Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 17(8), 754. 9. Sullivan, K., Krengel, M., White, R., Honn...V. (2002, September). Neuropsychological test performance in Gulf-war era veterans: Does Referral source matter? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 17...in patients with advanced VaD. reet edi a ther opsychology annual meeting. Octob ir, 200,2 754 Abstracts/ Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

  14. Neuropsychological impairment in auto-immune disease.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, R; Niemann, T; Biehl, G; Hinrichsen, H; Kirch, W

    1992-10-01

    Estimations of the prevalence of central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) vary from 25 to 75%. In order to assess possible deficits in memory, attention, and/or reaction time, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 15 patients with SLE and to two matched groups of control subjects; eight patients on corticosteroids and 15 healthy controls. The test battery included the Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B), Benton Visual Memory Scale, Syndrome Short Test (SKT; attention and memory), Attention and Concentration Test (d2), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests for Comprehension, Digit Span, Block Design, a Computer Controlled Reaction Time task (CCRT), and a Learning and Memory Test (LGT-3). Results revealed a statistically significant short-term memory deficit (for all six relevant subtests used) and a marked delayed simple reaction time in SLE patients as compared with scores in healthy subjects. An attention deficit as well as the expected difference between the estimated premorbid and actual level of intelligence could not be demonstrated. With three exceptions (SKT-9 figural recognition, Benton Visual Memory, and LGT-3 figural recognition), patients treated with corticosteroids did not differ from healthy controls. They also did not differ from SLE patients in any of the parameters tested. It therefore appears that the demonstrated deficit in short-term memory and reaction time in SLE patients may not only be due to the neuropsychiatric manifestation of SLE but possibly also result from medication side-effects.

  15. Using State or Study-Administered Achievement Tests in Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Abt Associates for the Institute of Education Sciences' National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, takes an important first step in sorting out the implications of relying on state tests for general, student-level measures of reading and math achievement in evaluations of educational…

  16. Assessing neuropsychological impairment using Reitan and Wolfson's screening battery.

    PubMed

    Preiss, J; Preiss, M

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to verify the applicability of Reitan and Wolfson's proposed neuropsychological screening battery for adults (2006, 2008) in the Czech population. The sample consisted of 70 participants aged 19-65 years, all of whom were examined using a screening method as well as the full Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery (HRNB). The correlation, logistic regression, ROC curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were all calculated. The Pearson correlation between the screening scale of neuropsychological deficit and the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale (GNDS) from HRNB was 0.78 (p < .001). When optimal cut-off scores of 8 were utilized (in accordance with Horwitz, Lynch, McCaffrey, & Fisher in Screening for neuropsychological impairment using Reitan and Wolfsońs preliminary neuropsychological test battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 393-398, 2008, but different from Reitan, & Wolfson in The use of serial testing in evaluating the need for comprehensive neuropsychological testing of adults. Applied Neuropsychology, 15, 21-32, 2008), 78.6% of individuals were correctly classified having neuropsychological impairment or no impairment according to the GNDS. Our results confirm that this neuropsychological screening battery has good psychometric properties in the Czech population.

  17. The culture of time in neuropsychological assessment: exploring the effects of culture-specific time attitudes on timed test performance in Russian and American samples.

    PubMed

    Agranovich, Anna V; Panter, A T; Puente, Antonio E; Touradji, Pegah

    2011-07-01

    Cultural differences in time attitudes and their effect on timed neuropsychological test performance were examined in matched non-clinical samples of 100 Russian and American adult volunteers using 8 tests that were previously reported to be relatively free of cultural bias: Color Trails Test (CTT); Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT); Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT); and Tower of London-Drexel Edition (ToL(Dx)). A measure of time attitudes, the Culture of Time Inventory (COTI-33) was used to assess time attitudes potentially affecting time-limited testing. Americans significantly outscored Russians on CTT, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) (p,.05) while differences in RFFT scores only approached statistical significance. Group differences also emerged in COTI-33 factor scores, which partially mediated differences in performance on CTT-1, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) initiation time, but did not account for the effect of culture on CTT-2. Significant effect of culture was revealed in ratings of familiarity with testing procedures that was negatively related to CTT, ToL(Dx), and SDMT scores. Current findings indicated that attitudes toward time may influence results of time limited testing and suggested that individuals who lack familiarity with timed testing procedures tend to obtain lower scores on timed tests.

  18. Neuropsychological assessment for detecting adverse effects of volatile organic compounds on the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bolla, K.I. )

    1991-11-01

    Because there are no direct biological markers for the substances implicated in indoor air exposure, it is impossible to directly measure if an individual or group of individuals has been exposed to a potentially neurotoxic substance in the workplace. Behavioral changes may be the earliest and only manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) effects and are often too subtle to be revealed by routine physical or neurological examination. Neuropsychological techniques are sensitive to subtle behavioral/cognitive changes that can results from exposure to neurotoxins. These techniques consist of oral and written tests that are administered by a trained examiner on a on-to-one basis. In general, a wide variety of cognitive domains are evaluated. The typical battery generally includes assessing orientation, attention, intelligence, language, visual memory, verbal memory, perception, visuoconstruction, simple motor speed, psychomotor speed, and mood. As with most assessment techniques, the neuropsychological methods have limitations. One major drawback is the availability of appropriate norms that are used to compare the results of a specific individual. Although neuropsychological tests are sensitive to the presence of CNS involvement, they are not specific. Patterns of performance seen with specific instances of neurotoxic exposure may also be seen with a number of other diseases of the CNS such as dementia, cerebrovascular disease, hydrocephalus, or normal aging. Some of the more sensitive neuropsychological tests are presented. Interpretations of test performance as they relate to toxic effects on the CNS are discussed.

  19. Detection of recombinant human EPO administered to horses using MAIIA lateral flow isoform test.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, Maria; Bondesson, Ulf; Cormant, Florence; Garcia, Patrice; Bonnaire, Yves; Carlsson, Jan; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Rollborn, Niclas; Råsbo, Kristina; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic

    2012-06-01

    Doping of horses with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) to illegally enhance their endurance capacity in horseracing has been reported during the last years. This leads to increased blood viscosity which can result in sudden death and is of concern for the horse welfare. Additionally, the horse can start production of rHuEPO antibodies, which cross-reacts with endogenous equine EPO and can lead to severe anaemia and even death. In this study, a novel micro-chromatographic method, EPO WGA MAIIA, has been tested for the capability in plasma and urine samples to detect administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, like the rHuEPO glycoprotein varieties Eprex and Aranesp, to horses. After administration of 40 IU Eprex kg(-1) day(-1) to seven horses during 6 days, the presence of Eprex in horse plasma was detected up to 2-5 days after last injection. In urine samples collected from two horses, Eprex was detected up to 3 days. A single injection of Aranesp (0.39 μg/kg) was detected up to 9 days in plasma and up to 8 days, the last day of testing, in the urine sample. The LC-FAIMS-MS/MS system, with 1 day reporting time, confirmed the presence of Eprex up to 1 day after last injection for six out of seven horses and the presence of Aranesp up to 5 days after last injection in plasma samples. The MAIIA system showed to be a promising tool with high sensitivity and extremely short reporting time (1 h).

  20. Estimation of parameters for the elimination of an orally administered test substance with unknown absorption.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Denzer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the elimination of an oral test dose based on plasma concentration values requires correction for the effect of gastric release and absorption. Irregular uptake processes should be described 'model independently', which requires estimation of a large number of absorption parameters. To limit the associated computational effort a new approach is developed with a reduced number of unknown parameters. A marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) is defined, which uses for the uptake just one parameter to control rigidity of the uptake curve. For validation, elimination and absorption were reproduced using published IVIVC data and a synthetic data set for comparison with approaches using a 'model-free'--staircase function or mechanistic models to describe absorption. MRA performed almost as accurate as well specified mechanistic models, which gave the best reproduction. MRA demonstrated a 50fold increase in computational efficiency compared to other approaches. The absorption estimated for the IVIVC study demonstrated an in vivo-in vitro correlation comparable to published values. The newly developed MRA approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate elimination and absorption with a restricted number of adaptive parameters and with automatic adjustment of the complexity of the uptake.

  1. Late neuropsychologic status after childhood head trauma.

    PubMed

    Costeff, H; Abraham, E; Brenner, T; Horowitz, I; Apter, N; Sadan, N; Najenson, T

    1988-01-01

    A neurologic and neuropsychologic test battery was administered to a sample of 35 children drawn from all those in a defined geographic area who had been hospitalized for head trauma before age 7 during the years 1970-1976. Examination was performed 3 1/2 to 10 years after injury, at age 6-15. Twelve subjects had been diagnosed at the time of injury as suffering moderate insult and had been referred to the metropolitan neurosurgical center, while twenty-three with only mild injury had been retained for observation in a local pediatric ward. The twelve with more severe insult were significantly inferior to the other subjects on the Block Design and Coding subtests of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Koppitz score of the Bender Test, the WISC-R scatter, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the GATB Motor Speed Test and the Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test showed less diagnostic power and failed to distinguish between the group with more severe injury and that with less. A detailed and carefully scored neurologic examination also failed to distinguish between the two groups. The findings suggest that relatively common traumatic injury may be associated with detectable late cognitive deficit, and that some WISC-R subtests may be among the best measures for detecting such deficit.

  2. Assessment of individual cognitive changes after deep brain stimulation surgery in Parkinson's disease using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version.

    PubMed

    Foki, Thomas; Hitzl, Daniela; Pirker, Walter; Novak, Klaus; Pusswald, Gisela; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2017-02-07

    Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination. Reliable change index methodology was used. Roughly 10% of DBS patients showed cognitive decline mainly affecting the domains attention and executive functioning (phonemic fluency). Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that lead to improvement or deterioration of cognitive functions in individual cases.

  3. Neuropsychological assessment of sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric W; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of concussion can be challenging for medical practitioners given the different factors associated with each individual injury. The use of neuropsychological testing provides an objective method in the evaluation and management of concussion. Over the last 20 years it has become increasingly useful in the realm of sports concussion and has been deemed a cornerstone of concussion management by the Concussion in Sport group at the International Symposia on Concussion in Sport. Neuropsychological assessment has evolved to using computer-based neurocognitive testing, which has become increasingly common over the last decade, especially in organized sports. Neuropsychological assessment has also proven to be effective in the detection of differences based on several individual factors, including age, gender, and history of prior concussion. Despite its documented value, neuropsychological assessment should be one of several tools used as part of the concussion assessment/management process.

  4. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone.

  5. Orally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 affects glucose homeostasis following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Steinert, R E; Poller, B; Castelli, M C; Friedman, K; Huber, A R; Drewe, J; Beglinger, C

    2009-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts several effects on glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake. After its release from intestinal L cells, GLP-1 is subject to (i) rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and (ii) high liver extraction. The highest concentrations of GLP-1 are found in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation. An oral delivery system would mimic endogenous secretion. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) effects of a single dose (2 mg) of oral GLP-1 administered prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 16 healthy males. GLP-1 was rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to tenfold higher plasma concentrations compared with controls. The PD profile was consistent with reported pharmacology; GLP-1 significantly stimulated basal insulin release (P < 0.027), with marked effects on glucose levels. The postprandial glucose peak was delayed with GLP-1, suggesting an effect on gastric emptying.

  6. [Neuropsychological studies of two subjects after the transection of the splenium of the corpus callosum. (Part 2. The auditory recognition by the dichotic listening test) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Hojo, K; Sato, T; Tanaka, T; Watanabe, K; Yoshimura, I

    1979-10-01

    We made the neuropsychological auditory studies of two right-handed subjects who had undergone the transection of the splenium of the corpus callosum for the pineal operation (the teratoma by the histopathological examination). The transection grades were 2.0 cm and 2.5 cm. The truncus and splenium of the second subject were flat by the compression of the tumor. We examined these subjects by the some audiolocigal methods. 1. Pure tone audiometry. 2. Fixed frequency Békésy audiometry. 3. SISI test (short increment sensitivity index test). 4. Speech audiometry. 5. Distorted speech test (filtered speech test). 6. Binaural fusion test. 7. Dichotic listening test. The tasks used for the dichotic listening test were following. Different digits (one pair, three pairs), different words (from two to four syllables) and different vowels and consonants were presented simultaneously to the two ears by means of a dual-channel tape recorder with stereophonic earphone. The result shows that the first subject (whose section of the spelenium was 2.0 cm) shows a slight but not significant superiority on the right ear to the one pair digits and words (p less than 0.1), and the second subject (whose section of the splenium was 2.5 cm and whose splenium and truncus of the corpus callusum were flatten by the compression of the tumor) shows a significant superiority on the right ear to the one pair digits, words, three pairs digits and vowels (p less than 0.05). But there was no definitive abnormalities at the pure tone audiometry, the fixed frequency Békésy audiometry, SISI test, distorted speech test and binaural fusion test of two cases. The result shows that the commissure fibres of the auditory perception of the speech of two hemispheres connect through from splenium to the truncus of the corpus callosum.

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment of Hippocampal Integrity.

    PubMed

    Saury, Jean-Michel; Emanuelson, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Finding methods to describe subcortical processes assisting cognition is an important concern for clinical neuropsychological practice. In this study, we reviewed the literature concerning the relationship between a neuropsychological instrument and the underlying neural substructure. We examined evidence indicating that one of the oldest neuropsychological tests still in use, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), includes reliable indicators of hippocampal integrity. We reviewed studies investigating the neural structures underlying seven tasks generated by the RAVLT, from the perspective of whether the performance of these tasks is dependent on the hippocampus. We found support for our hypothesis in five cases: learning capacity, proactive interference, immediate recall, delayed recall, and delayed recognition. No support for our hypothesis was found with regard to short-term memory and retroactive interference. The RAVLT appears to be a reliable tool for assessing the integrity of the hippocampus and for the early detection of dysfunction. There is a need for such assessments, due to the crucial role of the hippocampus in cognition, for instance, in terms of predicting future outcomes.

  8. Pathogenesis and neuropsychological sequelae in cysticercosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pimental, Patricia A; Siegel, Rhonda; Gregor, Mia M

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease that occurs via the dissemination of the larvae form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium to various organ systems, including the central nervous system. Sequelae may include seizures and neuropsychological impairment. The present case study involves a 45-year-old Caucasian female executive diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. Evaluation methods consisted of neuropsychological and electrophysiological assessment. Both neuropsychological evaluation and electrophysiological testing suggested right temporal and right parietal lobe dysfunction. Comparison of neuropsychological and quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) test results yielded high agreement in terms of site of lesion as documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scan (CT scan) findings. Neuropsychological findings are described in detail, as well as a description of subsequent neurocognitive rehabilitation. Serial assessment is delineated and compared with the baseline evaluation. This case study serves to underscore the clinical utility of neuropsychological assessment and neurocognitive rehabilitation in infectious disease consultations, specifically in neurocysticercosis.

  9. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  10. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  11. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2016-06-09

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  12. Neuropsychological approaches to epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Melissa; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Gobbi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission report on classification and terminology indicates that "diagnosing an individual as having an encephalopathic course requires demonstration of a failure to develop as expected relative to the same-aged peers or to regress in abilities." In this chapter, basing our discussion on the theoretical framework of neuroconstructivism, on the latest results deriving from functional neuroimaging and on the concept of system epilepsy, we use continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) as an example of how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep spikes interfere with the organization and consolidation of neuropsychological networks in the sensitive phase of development, affecting also interconnected systems. Indeed, recent discoveries show that the normal overnight downscaling of slow wave activity (SWA) from the first to the last hours of sleep is absent in electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) patients, thus impairing the neural process and possibly the local plastic changes associated with learning and other cognitive functions. Moreover, specific patterns of spike-induced activation (especially in perisylvian and/or prefrontal areas) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) have been shown in patients with CSWS. Consequently, to date, we may conceive that the possible mechanisms underlying neuropsychological disorders in encephalopathic epilepsy (EE) may be double, since NREM sleep interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) induce both a pathologic activation in epileptogenic areas and a pathologic deactivation of DMN beyond the epileptogenic zone. The growing body of literature on the effects of ESES in CSWS provides us with increasing knowledge on the complexity of brain development and a better understanding of plasticity, enlightening the pathogenesis of damage on developing neuropsychological functions. Finally, the need for an individually tailored interpretation of the neuropsychological

  13. Relationship of Medication Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) performance to neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral adherence in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Patton, Doyle E; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald; Cattie, Jordan E; Heaton, Robert K; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    While performance-based tests of everyday functioning offer promise in facilitating diagnosis and classification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), there remains a dearth of well-validated instruments. In the present study, clinical correlates of performance on one such measure (i.e., Medication Management Test-Revised; MMT-R) were examined in 448 HIV+ adults who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Significant bivariate relationships were found between MMT-R scores and demographics (e.g., education), hepatitis C co-infection, estimated premorbid IQ, neuropsychological functioning, and practical work abilities. MMT-R scores were not related to HIV disease severity, psychiatric factors, or self-reported adherence among participants with a broad range of current health status. However, lower MMT-R scores were strongly and uniquely associated with poorer adherence among participants with CD4 T cell counts <200. In multivariate analyses, MMT-R scores were predicted by practical work abilities, estimated premorbid functioning, attention/working memory, learning, and education. Findings provide overall mixed support for the construct validity of the MMT-R and are discussed in the context of their clinical and research implications for evaluation of HAND.

  14. Abbreviated neuropsychological assessment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Bowie, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best subset of neuropsychological tests for prediction of several different aspects of functioning in a large (n = 236) sample of older people with schizophrenia. While the validity of abbreviated assessment methods has been examined before, there has never been a comparative study of the prediction of different elements of cognitive impairment, real-world outcomes, and performance-based measures of functional capacity. Scores on 10 different tests from a neuropsychological assessment battery were used to predict global neuropsychological (NP) performance (indexed with averaged scores or calculated general deficit scores), performance-based indices of everyday-living skills and social competence, and case-manager ratings of real-world functioning. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the best predictors for each of the outcomes measures. Then, the analyses were adjusted for estimated premorbid IQ, which reduced the magnitude, but not the structure, of the correlations. Substantial amounts (over 70%) of the variance in overall NP performance were accounted for by a limited number of NP tests. Considerable variance in measures of functional capacity was also accounted for by a limited number of tests. Different tests constituted the best predictor set for each outcome measure. A substantial proportion of the variance in several different NP and functional outcomes can be accounted for by a small number of NP tests that can be completed in a few minutes, although there is considerable unexplained variance. However, the abbreviated assessments that best predict different outcomes vary across outcomes. Future studies should determine whether responses to pharmacological and remediation treatments can be captured with brief assessments as well. PMID:18720182

  15. Neuropsychology 3.0: evidence-based science and practice.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift toward evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of Web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress toward these goals.

  16. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  17. Video Teleconference Administration of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status

    PubMed Central

    Galusha-Glasscock, Jeanine M.; Horton, Daniel K.; Weiner, Myron F.; Cullum, C. Munro

    2016-01-01

    Teleneuropsychology applications are growing, but a limited number of assessment tools have been studied in this context. The present investigation was designed to determine the feasibility and reliability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) administration by comparing video teleconference (VTC) with face-to-face (FF) test conditions. Eighteen adult subjects over age 55 with and without cognitive impairment were administered Forms A and B of the RBANS in VTC and FF settings in counterbalanced fashion. Similar RBANS scores were obtained in both test conditions, with generally high correlations between administration methods. Results support the feasibility and reliability of remote administration of the RBANS via VTC. PMID:26446834

  18. Comparing neuropsychological function before and during haemodialysis: a habituating selective deficit for prose recall.

    PubMed

    Oaksford, Karen; Oaksford, Mike; Ashraf, Mohammad; Fitzgibbon, Gillian

    2008-05-01

    This study was based on the clinical observation that patients receiving haemodialysis(HD) showed poor retention for complex verbal information. To investigate this hypothesis, 45 patients with endstage renal disease were administered a neuropsychological (NP) test battery, including a test of prose recall on two occasions, 7 days apart (pre-dialysis and whilst dialysing). A range of demographic, biochemical and mood variables were also assessed. Results revealed a selective deficit for prose recall whilst dialysing compared to pre-dialysis performance, which habituated in the long-term. Possible physiological and psychological bases of these effects in HD patients are discussed.

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Adarsh; Rana, Devender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been encouraged by brain imaging studies suggesting a putative fron to- striatial biological basis of the condition. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, motor speed and memory. The Aim of the present study was to assess neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD. Objectives of the study were to assess and compare the neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty clinically stable outpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD and equal number of normal controls matched for age, education, gender and handedness were studied using a battery of neuropsychological tests. The tests consisted of verbal and performance tests of intelligence, memory, perceptual motor functions, set test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: On perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence and memory patients with OCD did not show impairments comparable to healthy controls. An attempt to correlate the test findings with the duration of illness, stability of illness and the average drug dose was made and it was found that there was no correlation between the two. Conclusion: The present study does not provide evidence for a localized neuropsychological/cognitive impairment in OCD in cases that are stable for at least three months. Absence of impairments in perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence, and memory does not agree with the results of other studies using these tests. PMID:25969608

  20. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... § 250.1509 What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing, you must: (a) Allow MMS or its authorized...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources BUREAU... do when BSEE administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If BSEE or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator,...

  4. Normative data for 8 neuropsychological tests in older blacks and whites from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurological disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education-specific mean and -1.5 SD scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics.

  5. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    PubMed Central

    Mennenga, Sarah E.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Grunfeld, Itamar S.; Brewer, Gene A.; Aiken, Leona S.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Camp, Bryan W.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Braden, B. Blair; Schaefer, Keley R.; Gerson, Julia E.; Lavery, Courtney N.; Tsang, Candy W. S.; Hewitt, Lauren T.; Kingston, Melissa L.; Koebele, Stephanie V.; Patten, K. Jakob; Ball, B. Hunter; McBeath, Michael K.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM) as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM) and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller's classic description of a processing-inclusive human working memory capacity of 7 ± 2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning. PMID:25249951

  6. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment and Neurodevelopmental Screening: A Role in Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Ray

    A child's neuropsychological assessment entails the examination of the neurological integrity and functioning of a child's brain and the child's concommitant behavioral responses. This paper reviews the use of two major assessment batteries: (1) the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Tests that measure basic sensory and motor functioning as well…

  8. The effect of varied test instructions on neuropsychological performance following mild traumatic brain injury: an investigation of "diagnosis threat".

    PubMed

    Blaine, Hannah; Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

    2013-08-15

    Diagnosis threat is a psychosocial factor that has been proposed to contribute to poor outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This threat is thought to impair the cognitive test performance of individuals with mTBI because of negative injury stereotypes. University students (N=45, 62.2% female) with a history of mTBI were randomly allocated to a diagnosis threat (DT; n=15), reduced threat (DT-reduced; n=15), or neutral (n=15) group. The reduced threat condition invoked a positive stereotype (i.e., that people with mTBI can perform well on cognitive tests). All participants were given neutral instructions before they completed baseline tests of objective cognitive function across a number of domains, psychological symptoms, and PCS symptoms, including self-reported cognitive and emotional difficulties. Participants then received either neutral, DT, or DT-reduced instructions before repeating the tests. Results were analyzed using separate mixed model analysis of variances (ANOVAs); one for each dependent measure. The only significant result was for the 2 × 3 ANOVA on an objective test of attention/working memory, Digit Span (p<0.05), such that the DT-reduced group performed better than the other groups, which were not different from each other. Although not consistent with predictions or earlier DT studies, the absence of group differences on most tests fits with several recent DT findings. The results of this study suggest that it is timely to reconsider the role of DT as a unique contributor to poor mTBI outcome.

  9. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed.

  10. Speech and Pause Characteristics in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study of Speakers with High and Low Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenaughty, Lynda; Tjaden, Kris; Benedict, Ralph H. B.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated how cognitive-linguistic status in multiple sclerosis (MS) is reflected in two speech tasks (i.e. oral reading, narrative) that differ in cognitive-linguistic demand. Twenty individuals with MS were selected to comprise High and Low performance groups based on clinical tests of executive function and information…

  11. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  12. Brain tumors in children with neurofibromatosis: additional neuropsychological morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    De Winter, A. E.; Moore, B. D.; Slopis, J. M.; Ater, J. L.; Copeland, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with numerous physical anomalies and an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairment. Tumors of the CNS occur in approximately 15% of children with neurofibromatosis, presenting additional risk for cognitive impairment. This study examines the impact of an additional diagnosis of brain tumor on the cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 149 children with neurofibromatosis. Thirty-six of these children had a codiagnosis of brain tumor. A subset of 36 children with neurofibromatosis alone was matched with the group of children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis and brain tumor. Although mean scores of the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group were, in general, lower than those of the neurofibromatosis alone group, these differences were not statistically significant. Children in the neurofibromatosis plus brain tumor group who received cranial irradiation (n = 9) demonstrated weaker academic abilities than did children with brain tumor who had not received that treatment. These results suggest that neurofibromatosis is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning, but the severity of the problems is not significantly exacerbated by the codiagnosis of a brain tumor unless treatment includes cranial irradiation. PMID:11550319

  13. Intelligence and Neuropsychological Aptitude Testing of U.S. Air Force MQ-1 Predator Pilot Training Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    pilot tasks completed by the United Kingdom Royal Air Force (UK RAF) (Bailey M, Predator Pilot and Sensor Operator Selection Test Batteries, Royal...standard deviation SME subject matter expert SUPT Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training UK United Kingdom USAF U.S. Air Force VIQ verbal intelligence quotient ... UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Aerospace Medicine Dept/FECN 2510 Fifth St

  14. An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Teaching Individuals How to Administer the Revised ABLA Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boris, Ashley L.; Awadalla, Nardeen; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.; Kaminski, Lauren; Miljkovic, Morena

    2015-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tool that is used to assess the learning ability of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and children with autism. The ABLA was recently revised and is now referred to as the ABLA-Revised (ABLA-R). A self-instructional manual was prepared to teach individuals how to administer the…

  15. Scoring neuropsychological tests using the Rasch model: an illustrative example with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R; Perea, Maria V; Ladera, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Parametric statistical methods are typically used for analyzing test scores, even though they are ordinal at best. The Meyers and Meyers' Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure four-category scoring system has been evaluated with the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and disordered thresholds have been found. However, Rasch-modeling dichotomized data led to good fit for both normal (n = 219) and Traumatic Brain Injury (n = 54) samples and generalized validity for these groups, as well as for male and female groups. The logarithmic transformation of the item and person data performed by the model converts the ordinal data to yield interval scaled data. This is desirable not only from a scientific perspective, but also from the point of view of interpretability and communicability.

  16. Comparison Between a Self-Administered and Supervised Version of a Web-Based Cognitive Test Battery: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailet, Marion; Lecoffre, Amandine C; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Amieva, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major public health problem, and repeated cognitive data from large epidemiological studies could help to develop efficient measures of early prevention. Data collection by self-administered online tools could drastically reduce the logistical and financial burden of such large-scale investigations. In this context, it is important to obtain data concerning the comparability of such new online tools with traditional, supervised modes of cognitive assessment. Objective Our objective was to compare self-administration of the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cognitive test battery (NutriCog) with administration by a neuropsychologist. Methods The test battery included four tests, measuring, among others aspects, psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and associative memory. Both versions of the cognitive battery were completed by 189 volunteers (either self-administered version first, n=99, or supervised version first, n=90). Subjects also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Concordance was assessed by Spearman correlation. Results Agreement between both versions varied according to the investigated cognitive task and outcome variable. Spearman correlations ranged between .42 and .73. Moreover, a majority of participants responded that they “absolutely” or “rather” agreed that the duration of the self-administered battery was acceptable (184/185, 99.5%), that the tasks were amusing (162/185, 87.6%), that the instructions were sufficiently detailed (168/185; 90.8%) and understandable (164/185, 88.7%), and that they had overall enjoyed the test battery (182/185, 98.4%). Conclusions The self-administered version of the Web-based NutriCog cognitive test battery provided similar information as the supervised version. Thus, integrating repeated cognitive evaluations into large cohorts via the implementation of self-administered online versions of traditional test batteries appears to be feasible. PMID

  17. An exploratory analysis linking neuropsychological testing to quantification of tractography using High Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) in military TBI.

    PubMed

    Presson, Nora; Beers, Sue R; Morrow, Lisa; Wagener, Lauren M; Bird, William A; Van Eman, Gina; Krishnaswamy, Deepa; Penderville, Joshua; Borrasso, Allison J; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava; Fissell, Catherine; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-09-01

    To realize the potential value of tractography in traumatic brain injury (TBI), we must identify metrics that provide meaningful information about functional outcomes. The current study explores quantitative metrics describing the spatial properties of tractography from advanced diffusion imaging (High Definition Fiber Tracking, HDFT). In a small number of right-handed males from military TBI (N = 7) and civilian control (N = 6) samples, both tract homologue symmetry and tract spread (proportion of brain mask voxels contacted) differed for several tracts among civilian controls and extreme groups in the TBI sample (high scorers and low scorers) for verbal recall, serial reaction time, processing speed index, and trail-making. Notably, proportion of voxels contacted in the arcuate fasciculus distinguished high and low performers on the CVLT-II and PSI, potentially reflecting linguistic task demands, and GFA in the left corticospinal tract distinguished high and low performers in PSI and Trail Making Test Part A, potentially reflecting right hand motor response demands. The results suggest that, for advanced diffusion imaging, spatial properties of tractography may add analytic value to measures of tract anisotropy.

  18. Careful neuropsychological testing reveals a novel genetic marker, GSTO1*C, linked to the pre-stage of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Umlauf, Ellen; Rappold, Eduard; Schiller, Bettina; Fuchs, Petra; Rainer, Michael; Wolf, Brigitte; Zellner, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30 million people currently suffer from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) worldwide. Twin studies demonstrated that 60 to 80% of LOAD is genetically determined, 20% of which remaining unassigned. This case-control study included 118 cognitively healthy controls, 52 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; the pre-stage of LOAD) and 71 LOAD patients. The participants were genotyped for the genetic LOAD marker apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4925 in glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO1). Additive logistic regression showed a novel, statistically significant association of the major allele GSTO1*C with MCI (OR1.9; p = 0.032). However, identification of significant SNP-disease relations required well-defined study groups. When classifying participants solely by the short Mini Mental State examination (MMSE), the associations of GSTO1*C and the reference marker APOE4 with MCI were cancelled. Moreover, even identifying only the control group by MMSE nullified a statistically significant association (OR1.8; p = 0.045) between GSTO1*C and LOAD. In contrast, these statistical relations were retained when the detailed Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-Plus) test battery was used. Hence, besides proposing rs4925 as a genetic marker for cognitive impairment, this work also emphasized the importance of carefully characterized controls in addition to well-diagnosed patients in case-control studies. PMID:27259244

  19. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  20. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  1. Individualized identification of euthymic bipolar disorder using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Passos, Ives Cavalcante; Bauer, Isabelle E.; Lavagnino, Luca; Cao, Bo; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Mwangi, Benson; Soares, Jair C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with cognitive impairments during mood episodes as well as euthymic phase. However, it is still unknown whether reported neurocognitive abnormalities can objectively identify individual BD patients from healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 21 euthymic BD patients and 21 demographically matched HC were included in the current study. Participants performed the computerized Cambridge Neurocognitive Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) machine learning algorithm was implemented to identify neurocognitive signatures to distinguish individual BD patients from HC. Results The LASSO machine learning algorithm identified individual BD patients from HC with an accuracy of 71%, area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.7143 and significant at p = 0.0053. The LASSO algorithm assigned individual subjects with a probability score (0 – healthy, 1 – patient). Patients with rapid cycling (RC) were assigned increased probability scores as compared to patients without RC. A multivariate pattern of neurocognitive abnormalities comprising of affective Go/No-go and the Cambridge gambling task was relevant in distinguishing individual patients from HC. Limitations Our study sample was small as we only considered euthymic BD patients and demographically matched HC. Conclusion Neurocognitive abnormalities can distinguish individual euthymic BD patients from HC with relatively high accuracy. In addition, patients with RC had more cognitive impairments compared to patients without RC. The predictive neurocognitive signature identified in the current study can potentially be used to provide individualized clinical inferences on BD patients. PMID:26748737

  2. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  3. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  4. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  5. Neuropsychological Differences Between Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellacy, Frank

    1977-01-01

    To the extent that brain dysfunction is present in violence-prone groups, one may expect that assessment of simple perceptual and cognitive abilities may facilitate significantly the detection of subjects prone to violent behavior. This research examines the ability of neuropsychological tests to discriminate between violent and nonviolent…

  6. Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Woods, Steven Paul; Zurhellen, Cynthia H; Vertinski, Mary; Narvaez, Jenille M; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2008-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate impairment in prospective memory (ProM), which describes the multifaceted ability to execute a future intention. Despite its clear implications for everyday functioning, the neuropsychological substrates and functional correlates of ProM impairment in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), a standardized measure of ProM, was administered to 72 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric research evaluation. Results showed that ProM was positively correlated with standard clinical tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, learning, and executive functioning, but not delayed recall. In the context of multiple neuropsychological predictors, learning ability was the only domain that independently contributed to ProM. Importantly, better ProM was predictive of higher functional capacity (as measured by the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version), above and beyond the variability explained by demographic and disease factors. Analysis of component processes revealed that event-based ProM, as well as no response (i.e., omission) and task substitution errors were the strongest predictors of everyday functioning. Overall, these findings suggest that ProM impairment in schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive substrates, particularly episodic learning deficits, and plays an important role in everyday living skills. Studies regarding the potential effectiveness of ProM-based remediation strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia are indicated.

  7. The impact of a multimodal Summer Camp Training on neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents with ADHD: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Gerber-von Müller, Gabriele; Andrasik, Frank; Niederberger, Uwe; Siniatchkin, Michael; Kowalski, Jens T; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of methylphenidate (MPD) and response cost and token strategy (RCT), administered in an intensive ADHD Summer Camp Training (ASCT) format, on neuropsychological functions. Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned to either the ASCT treatment (MPD plus RCT) or a control group (MPD plus a 1-hour session of standardized parental education/counselling [SPC]). This latter group was structured to be similar to the more typical current treatment. The ASCT treatment was administered for 2½ weeks and included RCT, consisting of elements of social skill training, attention training, and sports participation. RCT was systematically applied in all daily situations and activities. Executive functions and state of regulation using the Test for Attention Performance (TAP) and the Trail-Making Test (TMT) were assessed before training and at a 6-month follow-up. Participants receiving the ASCT improved specific neuropsychological functions in attention regulation and inhibitory control tasks at the 6-month follow-up. No changes occurred for participants assigned to the control condition. The data suggest that an intensive multimodal summer camp treatment program including strategies of instrumental learning can lead to substantial and enduring improvements in neuropsychological functioning of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  8. The neuropsychological profile of galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Claire M; Channon, Shelley; Orlowska, Danuta; Lee, Philip J

    2010-10-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of individuals with galactosaemia have indicated that despite a strict galactose-free diet, cognitive functioning is often below average. This study was designed to examine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with galactosaemia in terms of IQ, memory, executive functioning, perceptual abilities and educational outcome. Twenty-eight people with classic galactosaemia and no comorbid neurological or psychiatric disorder took part. A battery of clinical neuropsychological tests was performed. Overall, findings were consistent with previous literature in showing galactosaemia to be linked to below-average functioning across a range of cognitive measures when mean scores were examined. Thus, the mean overall scores for verbal and performance IQ, memory, and executive functions were in the low average range. However, a range of ability was represented across individuals, with some achieving average or above scores and education to A level or above. Further work using longitudinal methodology is needed to address the issue of factors mediating any cognitive weaknesses and to establish the extent of any possible decline in functioning over time.

  9. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment in Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S (2007) S89–S99 Neuropsychological assessment in extreme environments Michael Lowe a,∗, Wayne Harris b...c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 S90 M. Lowe et al. / Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S...et al. / Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22S (2007) S89–S99 S91 There was a 10% reduction in this score during the final hour of toluene

  11. The WAIS-R factors: usefulness and construct validity in neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Berger, S

    1998-01-01

    One-hundred and twelve patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), an abbreviated Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, and the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. In order to replicate an earlier study (Sherman, Strauss, Spellacy, & Hunter, 1995), correlations were generated between the WAIS-R factor scores and neuropsychological and memory tests. The Verbal Comprehension factor (Factor 1) correlated with Speech Sounds Perception Test (SSPT), the Seashore Rhythm Test (SSRT), the Category Test, and memory indices. The Perceptual Organizational factor (Factor 2) correlated with the time, memory, and location scores of the Tactual Performance Test, the SSPT, SSRT, the Category Test, Trails A, Trails B, memory indices, and finger tapping. The Freedom From Distractibility factor (Factor 3) was correlated with the Category Test, the SSPT, the SSRT, Trails A, Trails B, immediate Logical Memory, and Visual Reproduction. Modest correlations suggest that the WAIS-R factors may be useful for understanding underlying cognitive performance and can be functional for generating hypotheses, but should not be utilized exclusively to make clinical inferences.

  12. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  13. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  14. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  15. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know.

  16. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  17. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  18. Measuring effort in neuropsychological evaluations of forensic cases of Spanish speakers.

    PubMed

    Burton, Vala; Vilar-López, Raquel; Puente, Antonio E

    2012-05-01

    Changing demographics indicate a dramatic growth in Spanish speakers in the USA. There is an increasing need to provide valid neuropsychological evaluations to these individuals as well as interest in providing the same in Latin American countries. This is especially the case with symptom validity testing, in general, and those involved with litigation in particular. To address this situation, the Dot Counting Test, the Rey 15-Item Test, and the Test of Memory Malingering were administered to clinical controls as well as individuals involved in litigation-forensic non-capital and forensic capital murder cases. The results represent a first step toward the determination of the utility of those tests to address effort in Spanish speakers in the USA.

  19. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  20. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed.

  1. Neuropsychological assessment without upper limb involvement: a systematic review of oral versions of the Trail Making Test and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test.

    PubMed

    Jaywant, Abhishek; Barredo, Jennifer; Ahern, David C; Resnik, Linda

    2016-10-18

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) and written version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) assess attention, processing speed, and executive functions but their utility is limited in populations with upper limb dysfunction. Oral versions of the TMT and SDMT exist, but a systematic review of their psychometric properties and clinical utility has not been conducted, which was the goal of this study. Searches were conducted in PubMed and PsycINFO, test manuals, and the reference lists of included articles. Four measures were identified: the SDMT-oral, oral TMT-A, oral TMT-B, and the Mental Alternation Test (MAT). Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts to identify peer-reviewed articles that reported on these measures in adult populations. From each article, one investigator extracted information on reliability, validity, responsiveness, minimum detectable change, normative data, and demographic influences. A second investigator verified the accuracy of the data in a random selection of 10% of papers. The quality of the evidence for each psychometric property was rated on a 4-point scale (unknown, poor, adequate, excellent). Results showed excellent evidence for the SDMT-oral, adequate evidence for the oral TMT-B and MAT, and adequate to poor evidence for the oral TMT-A. These findings inform the clinical assessment of attention, processing speed, and executive functions in individuals with upper limb disability.

  2. [Dementias: mostly clinico-neuropsychological or mostly psychometric diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Spinnler, Hans

    2005-01-01

    In this paper many critical reflections on diagnosis management of patients affected by dementia have been reported. In particular, the importance of clinico-neuropsychological evaluation of patients with respect to management prevalently based on neuropsychological tests is underlined. In this view a periodic diagnostic exercise with the objective of improving the diagnostic approach of dementias has been proposed to the Alzheimer's disease units (UVA) included in the Cronos Project.

  3. Neuropsychological test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes: updated Hawai'i immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing data.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M

    2014-07-01

    The present study reviewed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline test scores of 247 high school athletes ages 13 to 18 from a private school in Hawai'i. The aim of the research was to update a prior exploratory investigation conducted in 2008 that compared the test scores of Hawai'i public high school athletes with the normative data provided by the ImPACT publishers. The results of this study provide assurance that the present ImPACT scores of the Hawai'i high school athletes are similar to the general ImPACT norms. The present study is a rare effort to compare the ImPACT scores of high school athletes from an ethnically diverse region with the ImPACT norms. The findings offer further support for the use of the ImPACT norms when evaluating high school athletes from Hawai'i. Future research in various regions of the United States and with other sociocultural backgrounds is encouraged.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children (BENCI).

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Catena-Martinez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (BENCI) is a computerized battery for the neuropsychological evaluation of children. This battery has been used in different studies to evaluate neuropsychological functions and neurodevelopment in children. The objective of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the first Arabic version of the BENCI on an Arabic population where neuropsychological tests are very scarce. We administrate the BENCI to 198 school-age children (98 boys and 100 girls) from Morocco. To examine the test retest reliability of the BENCI battery, we administered the battery 2 times to 43 children (23 boys and 20 girls) with 15 days in between the pre- and posttest. The results revealed good validity and reliability of the battery in Arabic children. Also, the BENCI battery has demonstrated the capacity to differentiate between children by their age group. This battery can be of great use to both the research and clinical areas of Arabic countries and/or in assistance to Arabic immigrants that live outside of their native country.

  5. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered musculoskeletal symptoms and job factors questionnaire used in ergonomics research.

    PubMed

    Rosecrance, John C; Ketchen, Kelly J; Merlino, Linda A; Anton, Dan C; Cook, Tom M

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of questionnaire items related to musculoskeletal symptoms and the reliability of specific job factors. The type of questionnaire items described in the present study have been used by several investigators to assess symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and problematic job factors among workers from a variety of occupations. Employees at a plastics molding facility were asked to complete an initial symptom and jobs factors questionnaire and then complete an identical questionnaire either two or four weeks later. Of the 216 employees participating in the initial round, 99 (45.8%) agreed to participate in the retest portion of the study. The kappa coefficient was used to determine repeatability for categorical outcomes. The majority of the kappa coefficients for the 58 questionnaire items were above 0.50 but ranged between 0.13 and 1.00. The section of the questionnaire having the highest kappa coefficients was the section related to hand symptoms. Interval lengths of two and four weeks between the initial test and retest were found to be equally sufficient in terms of reliability. The results indicated that the symptom and job factors questionnaire is reliable for use in epidemiologic studies. Like all measurement instruments, the reliability of musculoskeletal questionnaires must be established before drawing conclusions from studies that employ the instrument.

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, L D; Poynton, A; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1991-12-01

    Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy is a surgical procedure performed for the alleviation of intractable affective disorders. It involves the destruction of bifrontal pathways located beneath and in front of the head of the caudate nucleus. We report the first prospective study of the neuropsychological correlates of this operation in 23 patients. Tests of general intelligence, speed and attention, as well as a wide range of focal cognitive tests, including tasks which have been reported in the literature to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, were administered 1 wk before the operation, 2 wks after the operation and approximately 6 mths after the operation. The results indicated that this operation does not cause any significant, long-term adverse, cognitive deficits. In the post-operative assessment, however, patients show a significant deterioration in their performance on recognition memory tests and a large proportion of them present with a marked tendency to confabulate on recall tasks. In addition, their performance on some of the tasks which are considered to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction is found to be significantly impaired. These deficits are interpreted to reflect frontal lobe dysfunction due to widespread post-operative oedema rather than damage to the subcaudate pathways. The potential for research on these transient effects of the operation for the advancement of our understanding of frontal lobe functions is discussed.

  7. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  8. The neuropsychology of sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles.

  9. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years.

  10. Neuropsychological sequelae of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K; Reid, W; Homewood, J; Cook, R

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 17 patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery before and six months after bilateral pallidotomy. A comparison group (n = 8) was also assessed at six month intervals. Outcome variables were tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, attention, executive skills, and depression. Results: Despite a large number of variables studied, a significant postsurgical change was found only in performance of the tower of London task, a measure of planning abilities. The effect size of this change was larger than that of the comparison group, and a reliable change index score established that 5 of 13 surgical patients had statistically reliable reductions in planning performance. Conclusions: Patients with a young age of onset and long duration of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral pallidotomy had a relatively circumscribed reduction in neuropsychological functioning, being limited to motor planning efficiency. These data suggest that the cognitive role of the posteroventral globus pallidus is limited, at least in people with Parkinson's disease. PMID:12235317

  11. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion.

  12. Neuropsychological predictors of adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.

  13. Comparison of the Motor Tests of the SCSIT and the L-NNBC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ra-Van; Yerxa, Elizabeth J.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared the test-retest reliability of the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Version. Both sets were administered twice to a group of 30 dysfunctional eight-year-old children. Findings are discussed in relation to reliability coefficients for normal as well as…

  14. Accounting for ethnic-cultural and linguistic diversity in neuropsychological assessment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Valeria; Scarpa, Pina; Toraldo, Alessio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history. Clinical reports from 43 foreign-born patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were collected from the archives of Milan Niguarda Hospital. Epileptogenic zone, age, education, profession, illness duration, seizure frequency, handedness, and gender were considered in selecting 43 Italian controls. Ethnicity (Italian/foreign-born) and years spent in Italy were analyzed as main predictors on 21 neuropsychological scales by means of General(ized) Linear Models. An additional analysis studied two composite scores of overall verbal and nonverbal abilities. Ethnicity significantly affected the following: the verbal overall score, Verbal Fluency, Naming, Token-test, Digit Span, Attentional Matrices, Trail-Making-Test, Line-Orientation-Test, and Raven matrices; no effects were found on the nonverbal overall score, Word Pairs Learning, Episodic Memory, reading accuracy, visual span, Bells test, Rey Figure, and face memory and recognition. No significant effects of years spent in Italy emerged. While years spent in Italy does not predict neuropsychological performance, linguistic background had a strong impact on it. With respect to Italian-speaking patients, those who were foreign-born showed large task-related variability, with an especially low performance on language

  15. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  16. Standard of Care for Neuropsychological Monitoring in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Lessons From the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne

    2016-02-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.

  17. Standard of care for neuropsychological monitoring in pediatric neuro-oncology: Lessons from the Children’s Oncology Group (COG)

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, KS; Noll, RB; Annett, RD; Patel, SK; Patenaude, AF; Embry, L

    2016-01-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States (US) in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care. PMID:26451963

  18. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  19. A discriminant analysis of neuropsychological effect of low lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Boey, K W; Jeyaratnam, J

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of psychological tests in discriminating neuropsychological effects of low lead exposure. The sample consists of 49 workers occupationally exposed to lead and a control group of 36 non-exposed workers. Their performance on various neuropsychological measures was subject to a discriminant analysis using the SPSS DISCRIMINANT subprogramme. The results indicate that simple reaction time, Digit Symbol (WAIS) and Trail-Making Test (Part A) provide the best combination of tests for the detection of neurotoxic effect of low lead exposure.

  20. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  1. Innovations in neuropsychological assessment using event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J F; D'Arcy, R C

    2000-07-01

    Historically, clinicians have utilized evoked potentials for evaluating sensory functions and neuropsychological tests for evaluating cognitive functions. However, the clinical implementation of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), an on-line index of cognitive processing, remains to be developed fully. We describe a new method for assessing language functions using neuropsychological tests that are formatted for computer presentation with simultaneous ERP recordings. From its inception, there have been two major objectives of this ERP language assessment research. Practically, we have sought to develop assessment techniques that would enable clinicians to evaluate the language functions of individuals with limited behavioral and communicative abilities. Conceptually, we have endeavored to increase the precision of neuropsychological testing through the development of measures that are sensitive to readily identifiable and objective neural responses. This article summarizes the issues central to the development of ERP assessment techniques, reviews recent normative studies with healthy individuals, and suggests some future avenues of research in this area.

  2. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-04-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties.

  4. Validation of a Computer-Administered Version of the Digits-in-Noise Test for Hearing Screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Folmer, Robert L.; Vachhani, Jay; McMillan, Garnett P.; Watson, Charles; Kidd, Gary R.; Feeney, M. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The sooner people receive treatment for hearing loss, the quicker they are able to recognize speech and to master hearing aid technology. Unfortunately, a majority of people with hearing loss wait until their impairments have progressed from moderate to severe levels before seeking auditory rehabilitation. In order to increase the number of individuals with hearing loss who pursue and receive auditory rehabilitation, it is necessary to improve methods for identifying and informing these people via widely accessible hearing screening procedures. Screening for hearing loss is the first in a chain of events that must take place in order to increase the number of patients who enter the hearing healthcare system. New methods for hearing screening should be readily accessible through a common medium (e.g, telephone or computer) and should be relatively easy and quick for people to self-administer. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess a digits-in-noise (DIN) hearing screening test that was delivered via personal computer. Research Design Participants completed the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) questionnaire, audiometric testing in a sound booth, and computerized DIN testing. During the DIN test, sequences of 3 spoken digits were presented in noise via headphones at varying signal-to-noise ratios. Participants entered each three-digit sequence they heard using an on-screen keypad. Study Sample Forty adults (16 females, 24 males) participated in the study, 20 of whom had normal hearing and 20 with hearing loss (pure-tone average [PTA] thresholds for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz >25 dB HL). Data Collection and Analysis DIN signal-to-noise (SNR) and PTA data were analyzed and compared for each ear tested. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on these data were plotted. A measure of overall accuracy of a screening test is the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). This measures the average true positive rate

  5. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  6. Clinical applications of neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D

    2012-03-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is a performance-based method to assess cognitive functioning. This method is used to examine the cognitive consequences of brain damage, brain disease, and severe mental illness. There are several specific uses of neuropsychological assessment, including collection of diagnostic information, differential diagnostic information, assessment of treatment response, and prediction of functional potential and functional recovery. We anticipate that clinical neuropsychological assessment will continue to be used, even in the face of advances in imaging technology, because it is already well known that the presence of significant brain changes can be associated with nearly normal cognitive functioning, while individuals with no lesions detectable on imaging can have substantial cognitive and functional limitations.

  7. Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Uran, Pınar; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, demographic features and behavioral patterns of children and adolescents with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C), and the severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Study includes 112 children: 67 with ADHD-C, 24 with SMD and 21 healthy controls. These groups were identified by using the schedule for affective disorders, and schizophrenia for the school-age children-present and lifetime version (KSADS-PL) and the K-SADS-PL-SMD Module. Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-revised long form (CPRS-R:L and CTRS-R:L) and neuropsychological tests were administered to the research groups. ADHD-C group's performances in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test TBAG form and Controlled Oral Word Association Test were significantly poorer than the control group's performances (p < 0.05). Performance of the SMD group was only descriptively intermediate between performances of the ADHD-C and control group. In the "Oppositional", "Hyperactivity", "Social Problems", "Impulsive", "Emotional Lability" and "Conners' Global Index" subscales of CPRS-R:L, the average scores of the SMD group were significantly higher than the ADHD-C and control group's average scores (p < 0.05). ADHD-C group (but not SMD) could be significantly differentiated from healthy controls with the neuropsychological tests used. SMD group could be differentiated from the ADHD-C and healthy control groups with CPRS-R:L; i.e., ADHD-C versus SMD could be differentiated at the behavioral level only.

  8. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  9. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  10. Neuropsychological outcomes from constant current deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Joseph; Tagliati, Michele; Peichel, DeLea; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurobehavioral safety of constant‐current subthalamic deep brain stimulation and to compare the neuropsychological effects of stimulation versus electrode placement alone. Methods A total of 136 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral subthalamic device implantation in this randomized trial. Patients received stimulation either immediately after device implantation (n = 101; active stimulation) or beginning 3 months after surgery (n = 35; delayed activation control). Patients were administered neuropsychological tests before, 3, and 12 months after device implantation. Results Neuropsychological change in stimulation and control groups were comparable. Within‐group analyses revealed declines in category and switching verbal fluency in both groups, but only the stimulation group had letter verbal fluency and Stroop task declines. Depression symptom improvements occurred in both groups, but more often in the stimulation group. Letter fluency declines were associated with worse Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire Communication subscale scores. Baseline and 12‐month comparisons (in the combined group) revealed gains in verbal and visual delayed recall scores and improvement in depression symptoms, but decrements in verbal fluency and Stroop scores. Conclusions Constant‐current bilateral subthalamic stimulation had a good cognitive safety profile except for decrements in verbal fluency and on the Stroop task. These abnormalities are related to device implantation, but stimulation likely had an additive effect. One year after surgery, the cognitive changes did not exert a detrimental effect on quality of life, although letter fluency declines were associated with communication dissatisfaction at 12 months. Improvement in depressive symptom severity appears dependent on stimulation and not placebo or lesion effects. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley

  11. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  12. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p < 0.17). Clinical ADHD cases, including both + comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on continuous performance test (CPT), working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD + comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing, and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and child behavior checklist (CBCL) tests particularly the CBCL-deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD + comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as ODD or with conduct disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery.

    PubMed

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L; McLaren, Donald G; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J

    2012-12-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI.

  14. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  15. Searching for the elusive neural substrates of body part terms: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged patients with lesions distributed throughout the telencephalon. There were two main outcomes. First, impaired oral naming of body parts, attributable to a disturbance of the mapping between lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological structures, was most reliably and specifically associated with lesions in the left frontal opercular and anterior/inferior parietal opercular cortices and in the white matter underlying these regions (8 patients). Also, 1 patient with body part anomia had a left occipital lesion that included the "extrastriate body area" (EBA). Second, knowledge of the meanings of body part terms was remarkably resistant to impairment, regardless of lesion site; in fact, we did not uncover a single patient who exhibited significantly impaired understanding of the meanings of these terms. In the 9 patients with body part anomia, oral naming of concrete entities was evaluated, and this revealed that 4 patients had disproportionately worse naming of body parts relative to other types of concrete entities. Taken together, these findings extend previous neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies of body part knowledge and add to our growing understanding of the nuances of how different linguistic and conceptual categories are operated by left frontal and parietal structures.

  16. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  17. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances, thyroid hormones, and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-12-30

    Minimal data exist regarding the neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aging populations and the possible mediating effects of thyroid hormones (THs). Hence, the aims of this study were to: (i) assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological function, and (ii) determine if such associations are mediated by changes in circulating THs in an aging population. We measured perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) in serum and performed neuropsychological tests in 157 men and women aged 55-74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological test scores. Mediation analyses were performed in a subset of 87 participants for whom information was available on both PFASs and THs. We obtained TH-mediated, non-TH mediated, and total effects of PFASs on neuropsychological test scores. Overall, our results suggested a protective association between higher PFOA and tasks of executive function. A one interquartile range higher PFOA was associated with a 16% lower perseverative score (that is, improved performance) on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (p-value=0.04). T4 and fT4 partially mediated the protective effect of PFOS on Block Design Subtest total scores, a measure of visuospatial function, in the 87 person subsample. Our findings do not suggest that PFASs are associated with poor neuropsychological function. There was some evidence of mediation for the association between PFASs and neuropsychological functions by THs, although some other modes of action also appear likely.

  19. A Test of Concept Study of At-Home, Self-Administered HIV Testing With Web-Based Peer Counseling Via Video Chat for Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly MSM who identify as African-American or Black (BMSM), are the sociodemographic group that is most heavily burdened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. To meet national HIV testing goals, there must be a greater emphasis on novel ways to promote and deliver HIV testing to MSM. Obstacles to standard, clinic-based HIV testing include concerns about stigmatization or recognition at in-person testing sites, as well as the inability to access a testing site due to logistical barriers. Objective This study examined the feasibility of self-administered, at-home HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling to MSM by using an interactive video chatting method. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether individuals would participate in at-home HIV testing with video chat–based test counseling with a peer counselor, (2) address logistical barriers to HIV testing that individuals who report risk for HIV transmission may experience, and (3) reduce anticipated HIV stigma, a primary psychosocial barrier to HIV testing.   Methods In response to the gap in HIV testing, a pilot study was developed and implemented via mailed, at-home HIV test kits, accompanied by HIV counseling with a peer counselor via video chat. A total of 20 MSM were enrolled in this test of concept study, 80% of whom identified as BMSM. Results All participants reported that at-home HIV testing with a peer counseling via video chat was a satisfying experience. The majority of participants (13/18, 72%) said they would prefer for their next HIV testing and counseling experience to be at home with Web-based video chat peer counseling, as opposed to testing in an office or clinic setting. Participants were less likely to report logistical and emotional barriers to HIV testing at the 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that self-administered HIV testing with Web-based peer

  20. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Computerized Cognitive Battery in an Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Alain K.; Hagan, Kaitlin A.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Rosner, Bernard; Grodstein, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of the Cogstate self-administered computerized neuropsychological battery in a large population of older men. Methods We invited 7,167 men (mean age: 75 years) from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort of male health professionals. We considered individual Cogstate scores and composite scores measuring psychomotor speed and attention, learning and working memory, and overall cognition. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between risk factors measured 4 and 28 years prior to cognitive testing and each outcome. Results The 1,866 men who agreed to complete Cogstate testing were similar to the 5,301 non-responders. Many expected risk factors were associated with Cogstate scores in multivariate-adjusted models. Increasing age was significantly associated with worse performance on all outcomes (p < 0.001). For risk factors measured four years prior to testing and overall cognition, a history of hypertension was significantly associated with worse performance (mean difference=−0.08 standard units [95% CI −0.16, 0.00]) and higher nut consumption was significantly associated with better performance (>2 servings/week vs. <1 serving/month: 0.15 [0.03, 0.27]). Conclusions The self-administered Cogstate battery showed significant associations with several risk factors known to be associated with cognitive function. Future studies of cognitive aging may benefit from the numerous advantages of self-administered computerized testing. PMID:26501919

  1. Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Huel, G; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although chemicals posing potential neurotoxic hazards are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, there has been no systematic study of possible chronic nervous system effects in microelectronics workers. The objective of the present study was to assess neuropsychological functions of a group of former microelectronics plant assembly workers and a group of referents, using a matched pair design. During employment, the former microelectronics workers had been exposed to multiple organic solvents, including trichloroethylene, xylene, chlorofluorocarbons and trichloroethane. Referents were recruited from the same geographic region. From a pool of 180 former workers and 157 referents, 67 pairs were matched on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, sex and number of children. Comparison of results on the subtests of the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Revised (CNS-R) revealed significantly lower performance by the former microelectronics workers on tests of attention/concentration, verbal ability, memory functions, visuospatial functions, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, and reaction time (t-test for pairs or Wilcoxon Signed Rank p less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed for performance on tests assessing mental status, visual recall, tactile function and learning. This overall pattern of impairment is consistent with organic solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy, and possible early stages of dementia. These findings underline the need for more studies among workers currently or previously employed in microelectronics industries.

  2. On the Neuropsychology of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1989-01-01

    Three neuropsychological case studies of individuals with learning disabilities support the possibility that nonverbal learning disability is associated with greater emotional dysfunction and the potential for suicide. Further research to resolve some concerns about this possible predisposition to suicidal behavior is recommended. (MSE)

  3. Neuropsychological performance and solvent exposure among car body repair shop workers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W; Stebbins, A; O'Donnell, J; Horstman, S W; Rosenstock, L

    1993-01-01

    A cross sectional study to evaluate symptom reporting and neuropsychological test performance among a cohort of car body repair workers (n = 124) was performed using a computer-administered test system. Subjects with high and medium current exposures to solvent and paint (n = 39 and 32), and low exposure subjects who formerly painted (n = 29) reported significantly more acute and chronic neurological symptoms than did low exposure subjects with no history of painting (n = 24). Subjects with higher current exposure performed significantly less well on selected tests of visual perception and memory, but there were no significant exposure related differences in mood state, motor speed, or visuomotor performance. The exposure related effects were most noticeable among subjects 35 years or older. The findings are consistent with age interactive central neurotoxic effects of current exposure to solvents or of cumulative past exposure, although the study is unable to distinguish between these possibilities. The computer administered test system was effective in this field based investigation involving multiple, geographically dispersed worksites. PMID:8494777

  4. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  5. [Metallic mercury poisoning and neuropsychological effects: a case report].

    PubMed

    Cöp, Esra; Cengel Kültür, S Ebru; Erdoğan Bakar, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic heavy metal that can devastate central nervous system. We present the case of a 15 year old adolescent with mercury intoxication following 4 days of exposure to elemental mercury at home who was consulted by department of pediatrics with complaints of demonstrated emotional lability, memory impairment, disinhibition, and impulsivity. Olanzapin 2,5 mg/day was initiated. Her neuropsychological performance was evaluated by a neuropsychological test battery at initial examination. Deterioration in neuropsychological functions like interference effect and attention (Stroop Test TBAG form), verbal fluency and switching to other category (Verbal Fluency Test, /(VFT), verbal short term and long term memory and recognition (Auditory Verbal Learning Test, /(AVLT) was detected. In 9 months follow up period her complaints resolved. Initial neuropsychological deficits were also fully recovered at follow up. There was an increase in intelligence scores with increased ability to pay and sustain attention. She had better performance at Stroop Test TBAG form, VFT and AVLT which was similar to her normal peers. In this case report, the clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in mercury intoxication and protection from potential toxic effects of laboratory materials like mercury at schools were discussed. School administrators should be aware of and parents and students should be given necessary protective information.

  6. [Neuropsychological course of patients with craniocerebral injuries in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Callegari, S; Pierobon, A; Viola, L; Mastretta, E; Majani, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe a neuropsychological assessment and intervention model in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients. The theoretical and methodological frameworks are described and the following diagnostic and rehabilitative flowchart is fully explained: 1. first visit with patient and his relatives; 2. clinical and testing assessment; 3. diagnostic balance and its communication to patient and his relatives; 4. neuropsychological rehabilitation and psychological counseling. Whenever necessary, patient's relatives are involved. Furthermore, TBI patients' health related quality of life is outlined as an important clinical and scientific issue deserving more attention, in spite of the objective methodological difficulties which its evaluation implies.

  7. Neuropsychological Investigation of Motor Impairments in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Tyler; Trontel, Haley; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5–33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved peg-board test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (pre-central gyrus), somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were non-significant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as region of interest (ROI) volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD. PMID:23985036

  8. Development of quantitative neuropsychological tests for diagnosis of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis patients and establishment of diagnostic criteria-multicenter collaborative study in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akinobu; Kato, Motoichiro; Ishii, Hiromasa; Ichimiya, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Kawamura, Naohiro; Hayashi, Naoaki; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Terano, Akira; Okita, Kiwamu; Watanabe, Akiharu

    2004-10-01

    At present, there are no generally accepted diagnostic criteria or methods for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) associated with liver cirrhosis. We therefore developed an easily conducted computer-aided quantitative neuropsychiatric function test system for use in routine medical practice. We established normal values in healthy Japanese subjects and determined differences between healthy persons and liver cirrhosis patients without clinical encephalopathy in a multi-center clinical trial. The test system consists of eight tests: number connection tests A and B, a figure position test, a digit symbol test, a block design test, and reaction time tests A, B and C. The test results were affected by age, but not by gender or facility. No learning effect was noted. The results were therefore reported by 5-year quartile ranges and differences were evaluated between 542 healthy subjects and 292 cirrhotic patients. When the cut-off value was set at the 10th/90th percentile of the results in healthy subjects, the results of each of the 8 tests were abnormal in about 25% of cirrhotic patients, and at least 1 of the 8 tests gave values greater than the 10th/90th percentile cut-off value in 58.2% of the 292 liver cirrhosis patients. SHE patients were thought to be included in these 58.2% of patients. The developed test makes it possible to quantitatively assess neuropsychiatric function, and the results obtained can be used as a basis for the diagnosis of SHE.

  9. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Context: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity

  11. Variable patterns of neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Dawes, S; Suarez, P; Casey, C Y; Cherner, M; Marcotte, T D; Letendre, S; Grant, I; Heaton, R K

    2008-08-01

    Based upon prior findings with group means, a "prototypical pattern" of neuropsychological results with HIV infection has emerged: impaired executive functioning, motor skills, speed of information processing, and learning, with intact memory retention, most language skills, and visuospatial functioning. We examined neuropsychological results from 553 HIV+ adults to determine the number of patterns seen among individuals with HIV infection. Factor analysis of a relatively comprehensive neuropsychological battery identified 6 component factors: verbal memory (VeM), visual memory (ViM), processing speed (PS), attention/working memory (A/WM), executive function (EF), and motor (M). These factor scores were submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis, to determine the appropriate number of clusters or patterns in the cohort. Final cluster membership was then determined by K-means analysis, based on the Lange, Iverson, Senior, and Chelune (2002) method. A 6-cluster solution was found to be most appropriate. The definitions of the clusters were based upon ipsative scoring of factor scores to indicate relative strengths and weaknesses (independent of overall level of performance): Cluster 1: strong EF; Cluster 2: strong M, weak VeM and EF; Cluster 3: strong PS, weak ViM and EF; Cluster 4: strong VeM, weak M; Cluster 5: strong A/WM; Cluster 6: strong VeM, weak EF. Neuropsychological-impairment rates differed across clusters, but all 6 clusters contained substantial numbers of impaired and unimpaired individuals. Cluster membership was not explained by demographic variables or psychiatric or neuromedical confounds. Thus, there does not appear to be a single, prototypical pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV infection for this battery of representative neuropsychological tests.

  12. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Juan Carlos Sanz; Barrios, Maite; Junqué, Carme

    2005-08-01

    Functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological performance indicate a prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia patients. Frontal morphological brain abnormalities are also evident in these patients, but the relationship between neuropsychology and neuroimaging findings remains unclear. In this study, thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 control participants were assessed using a neuropsychological test battery sensitive to fronto-striatal system dysfunction. Computed tomography (CT) scans were used to calculate the distance from the corpus callosum to the frontal pole corrected for brain size (anterioposterior length) in the group of patients and in a group of control participants with negative radiological findings. Schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than controls in all frontal lobe tests. Corrected length from the corpus callosum to the frontal pole was reduced in patients with schizophrenia. This easy-to-perform measurement has not been used in previous studies, and indicates that schizophrenia patients have structural frontal abnormalities. However, correlations between structural and functional measures fail to show a clear relationship between the prefrontal performance and the main CT measures. As a rule, the trend observed in the correlation matrix pointed towards a relationship between CT parameters and a dysfunction on neuropsychological tests sensitive to frontal lobe damage.

  13. [The neuropsychological principles of psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ulrike; Schüßler, Gerhard; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances achieved in the field of clinical neuro(bio-)psychology have been varied and impressive. Together with the related social and psychosocial aspects, they contribute to and enrich the development of new options in diagnosis and psychotherapy. Important research results are discussed here based on the examples of depression, Alzheimer's disease and self-injury, which profit greatly from neuropsychological research, especially through early detection of symptoms and prevention.

  14. Neuropsychological tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia and other dementias: a generic protocol for cross-sectional and delayed-verification studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel HJ; Creavin, Sam T; Noel-Storr, Anna; Quinn, Terry J; Smailagic, Nadja; Hyde, Chris; Brayne, Carol; McShane, Rupert; Cullum, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy of [index test] at various thresholds for ADD and other dementias [target condition] in [target population].ORTo determine the accuracy of [index test] at various thresholds for diagnosing ADD and other dementias [target condition] in [target population] after a follow-up period (delayed-verification studies).To investigate the heterogeneity of test accuracy in the included studies.To highlight the quality and quantity of research evidence available on the effectiveness of the index test in the target population.To identify gaps in the evidence and determine where further research is required. PMID:25177209

  15. Psychological, neuropsychological, and electrocortical effects of mixed mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Crago, B Robert; Gray, Michael R; Nelson, Lonnie A; Davis, Marilyn; Arnold, Linda; Thrasher, Jack D

    2003-08-01

    The authors assessed the psychological, neuropsychological, and electrocortical effects of human exposure to mixed colonies of toxigenic molds. Patients (N = 182) with confirmed mold-exposure history completed clinical interviews, a symptom checklist (SCL-90-R), limited neuropsychological testing, quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) with neurometric analysis, and measures of mold exposure. Patients reported high levels of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Ratings on the SCL-90-R were "moderate" to "severe," with a factor reflecting situational depression accounting for most of the variance. Most of the patients were found to suffer from acute stress, adjustment disorder, or post-traumatic stress. Differential diagnosis confirmed an etiology of a combination of external stressors, along with organic metabolically based dysregulation of emotions and decreased cognitive functioning as a result of toxic or metabolic encephalopathy. Measures of toxic mold exposure predicted QEEG measures and neuropsychological test performance. QEEG results included narrowed frequency bands and increased power in the alpha and theta bands in the frontal areas of the cortex. These findings indicated a hypoactivation of the frontal cortex, possibly due to brainstem involvement and insufficient excitatory input from the reticular activating system. Neuropsychological testing revealed impairments similar to mild traumatic brain injury. In comparison with premorbid estimates of intelligence, findings of impaired functioning on multiple cognitive tasks predominated. A dose-response relationship between measures of mold exposure and abnormal neuropsychological test results and QEEG measures suggested that toxic mold causes significant problems in exposed individuals. Study limitations included lack of a comparison group, patient selection bias, and incomplete data sets that did not allow for comparisons among variables.

  16. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  17. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  18. Exploring the link between character, personality disorder, and neuropsychological function.

    PubMed

    Bergvall, A H; Nilsson, T; Hansen, S

    2003-11-01

    Personality deviations and deficits in cognitive executive function are common among forensic populations. The present study on incarcerated offenders explored whether there are links between the two domains. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Neuropsychological performance, including visual working memory, attentional set-shifting and planning, were tested with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects with personality disorders scored high on harm avoidance, and low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Personality disordered offenders did not differ from the comparison groups (offenders without personality disorder, and non-criminal controls) with regard to CANTAB measures of visual working memory (delayed matching to sample, spatial working memory) and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), but they made a larger number of errors on the attentional set-shifting task. Dimensional analysis of the personality and neuropsychological variables revealed significant associations between self-directedness and cooperativeness on the one hand, and attentional set-shifting on the other. Intellectually disabled, non-criminal individuals (marginal mental retardation) who performed poorly on attentional set-shifting also scored low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. The results indicate that poor development of certain personality traits may be associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning.

  19. Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuropsychological Tests in Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment: Can the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Be Better than the Cambridge Cognitive Examination?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. Method A total of 136 elderly subjects – 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil – were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. Results The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. Conclusion The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation. PMID:24987399

  20. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices.

  1. DSM Nosology Changes in Neuropsychological Diagnoses through the Years: A Look at ADHD and Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carlew, Anne R.; Zartman, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of modern neuropsychology as a field and the concomitant changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Themes in neuropsychology through the years will be highlighted alongside discussion of how neuropsychologists and neuropsychological research have influenced and have been influenced by the DSM. The DSM 5 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mild neurocognitive disorder will be used as examples to reflect the evolution of the disorders in relation to neuropsychology and the DSM. In particular, recent criticism and research regarding the nosology of both disorders and future directions will be presented in the context of neuropsychology and DSM. Finally, influence regarding changes to the DSM 5 on neuropsychology in clinical decision making, test selection, and diagnosis will be discussed. PMID:28036066

  2. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory.

  3. Credit-by-Examination Results from Tests Administered at the University of Texas at Austin by the Measurement and Evaluation Center, 1975-1976, Special Report. SR-76-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan S.

    In 1975-76, 26 institutionally administered tests gave students at the University of Texas at Austin the chance to earn credits for 52 lower division courses in 15 departments: anthropology, biology, chemistry, communication, English, French, German, government, history, Latin, mathematics, physics, psychology, Russian, and Spanish. Results were…

  4. Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit.

  5. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  6. Education Quality, Reading Recognition, and Racial Differences in the Neuropsychological Outcome from Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Noah D.; Hanks, Robin A.; Tompkins, Season C.

    2013-01-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition. PMID:23858087

  7. Education quality, reading recognition, and racial differences in the neuropsychological outcome from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Noah D; Hanks, Robin A; Tompkins, Season C

    2013-08-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition.

  8. Depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological performance in mild Alzheimer's and cognitively normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls) from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment) as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.

  9. Neuropsychological features of adult mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Moura, Daniela S; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Gaillard, Raphaël; Hermine, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    In approximately one-third of cases, patients with mastocytosis can display various disabling general and neuropsychological symptoms. General signs may have a major impact on quality of life. Neurologic symptoms are less frequent. In a majority of cases, the pathophysiology of these symptoms is not known but could be linked to tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release, or both. Treatments aiming at reducing mast cell number and/or stabilizating mast cells may be useful. Preliminary results suggest that treatment with kinase inhibitors may improve symptoms of depression and cognitive impairment.

  10. The quantified process approach: an emerging methodology to neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Poreh, A M

    2000-05-01

    An important development in the field of neuropsychological assessment is the quantification of the process by which individuals solve common neuropsychological tasks. The present article outlines the history leading to this development, the Quantified Process Approach, and suggests that this line of applied research bridges the gap between the clinical and statistical approaches to neuropsychological assessment. It is argued that the enterprise of quantifying the process approach proceeds via three major methodologies: (1) the "Satellite" Testing Paradigm: an approach by which new tasks are developed to complement existing tests so as to clarify a given test performance; (2) the Composition Paradigm: an approach by which data on a given test that have been largely overlooked are compiled and subsequently analyzed, resulting in new indices that are believed to reflect underlying constructs accounting for test performance; and (3) the Decomposition Paradigm: an approach which investigates the relationship between test items of a given measure according to underlying facets, resulting in the development of new subscores. The article illustrates each of the above paradigms, offers a critique of this new field according to prevailing professional standards for psychological measures, and provides suggestions for future research.

  11. Brain Structure in Neuropsychologically Defined Subgroups of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological impairment is heterogeneous in psychosis. The association of intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) with cognition suggests brain structure abnormalities in psychosis will covary with the severity of cognitive impairment. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) brain structure abnormalities will be more extensive in neuropsychologically impaired psychosis patients; (2) psychosis patients with premorbid cognitive limitations will show evidence of hypoplasia (ie, smaller ICV); and (3) psychosis patients with evidence of cognitive decline will demonstrate atrophy (ie, smaller TBV, but normal ICV). Methods: One hundred thirty-one individuals with psychosis and 97 healthy subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Patients were divided into neuropsychologically normal and impaired groups. Impaired patients were further subdivided into deteriorated and compromised groups if estimated premorbid intellect was average or below average, respectively. ICV and TBV were compared across groups. Localized brain volumes were qualitatively examined using voxel-based morphometry. Results: Compared to healthy subjects, neuropsychologically impaired patients exhibited smaller TBV, reduced grey matter volume in frontal, temporal, and subcortical brain regions, and widespread white matter volume loss. Neuropsychologically compromised patients had smaller ICV relative to healthy subjects, and neuropsychologically normal and deteriorated patient groups, but relatively normal TBV. Deteriorated patients exhibited smaller TBV compared to healthy subjects, but relatively normal ICV. Unexpectedly, TBV, adjusted for ICV, was reduced in neuropsychologically normal patients. Conclusions: Patients with long-standing cognitive limitations exhibit evidence of early cerebral hypoplasia, whereas neuropsychologically normal and deteriorated patients show evidence of brain tissue loss consistent with progression

  12. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  13. Clinical neuropsychology: a discipline in evolution.

    PubMed

    Costa, L

    1983-02-01

    The future of neuropsychology is considered first in terms of the potential impact of events occurring in clinical medicine, neuroscience research, basic behavioral science and applied psychology, and related disciplines. The focus is then turned inward on clinical neuropsychology itself and a series of suggestions are made concerning how this specialty can evolve to best meet the challenges it will face.

  14. Neuropsychological Deficits in Early Treated Phenylketonuric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Six early treated children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were compared at 9 to 14 years of age on a neuropsychological measure with three groups of children with documented neurological disorders. PKU Ss had overall level of neuropsychological impairment similar to that of brain-damaged groups. PKU Ss did not show consistent pattern of…

  15. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  16. Neuropsychological investigations in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review of methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Mittelman, Andrew; Tankersley, Amelia P; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Schweiger, Avraham

    2015-07-30

    The inconsistent nature of the neuropsychology literature pertaining to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been recognized. However, individual studies, systematic reviews, and recent meta-analytic reviews were unsuccessful in establishing a consensus regarding a disorder-specific neuropsychological profile. In an attempt to identify methodological factors that may contribute to the inconsistency that is characteristic of this body of research, a systematic review of methodological factors in studies comparing OCD patients and non-psychiatric controls on neuropsychological tests was conducted. This review covered 115 studies that included nearly 3500 patients. Results revealed a range of methodological weaknesses. Some of these weaknesses have been previously noted in the broader neuropsychological literature, while some are more specific to psychiatric disorders, and to OCD. These methodological shortcomings have the potential to hinder the identification of a specific neuropsychological profile associated with OCD as well as to obscure the association between neurocognitive dysfunctions and contemporary neurobiological models. Rectifying these weaknesses may facilitate replicability, and promote our ability to extract cogent, meaningful, and more unified inferences regarding the neuropsychology of OCD. To that end, we present a set of methodological recommendations to facilitate future neuropsychology research in psychiatric disorders in general, and in OCD in particular.

  17. Neuropsychological functioning and social functioning of survivors of pediatric brain tumors: evidence of nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Carey, M E; Barakat, L P; Foley, B; Gyato, K; Phillips, P C

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if survivors of pediatric brain tumors exhibit a pattern of performance consistent with nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) and to explore the relationship between neuropsychological and social functioning in these children. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective measures of psychosocial function designed to assess NVLD were administered to 15 survivors of brain tumors, ages 8-12 years. Despite the small sample size, a trend for better verbal skills compared to nonverbal skills was found using composite scores. Parents reported significant social deficits and a tendency for greater internalizing behavior problems as expected in NVLD. Additionally, there was a trend for a positive association between nonverbal scores and social function. Further research is needed to determine if the NVLD pattern observed is attributable to white matter damage of the right hemisphere. Routine neuropsychological and psychosocial assessment and intervention are indicated.

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE WITHIN-PERSON VARIABILITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED TREATMENT CONSENT CAPACITY

    PubMed Central

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; Karel, Michele J.; Azar, Armin R.; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The capacity of older adults to make health care decisions is often impaired in dementia and has been linked to performance on specific neuropsychological tasks. Within-person across-test neuropsychological performance variability has been shown to predict future dementia. This study examined the relationship of within-person across-test neuropsychological performance variability to a current construct of treatment decision (consent) capacity. DESIGN Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and a standardized capacity assessment. Standard scores were used to compute mean neuropsychological performance and within-person across-test variability. SETTING Assessments were performed in the participant’s preferred location (e.g., outpatient clinic office, senior center, or home). PARTICIPANTS Participants were recruited from the community with fliers and advertisements, and consisted of men (N=79) and women (N=80) with (N=83) or without (N=76) significant cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool - Treatment (MacCAT-T) and 11 neuropsychological tests commonly used in the cognitive assessment of older individuals. RESULTS Neuropsychological performance and within-person variability were independently associated with continuous and dichotomous measures of capacity, and within-person neuropsychological variability was significantly associated with within-person decisional ability variability. Prevalence of incapacity was greater than expected in participants with and without significant cognitive impairment when decisional abilities were considered separately. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with an emerging construct of consent capacity in which discrete decisional abilities are differentially associated with cognitive processes, and indicate that the sensitivity and accuracy of consent capacity assessments can be improved by evaluating decisional abilities separately. PMID

  19. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI): A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    PubMed Central

    de Vent, Nathalie R.; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given. PMID:27812340

  20. Case illustration of a boy with nonverbal learning disorder and Asperger's features: neuropsychological and personality assessment.

    PubMed

    Yalof, Jed

    2006-08-01

    I present a case study of a latency-age boy referred for assessment of a nonverbal learning disability/disorder (NLD) who also had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS). I review NLD terminology, presumed brain-behavior relationship, neuropsychological profile, and diagnosis/classification issues. I discuss the challenge of differentiating NLD from AS in relation to the client's pattern of visual-spatial, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral NLD correlates. I integrate neuropsychological and personality assessment data with interviews, observations, prior testing, and input from teacher and therapist in formulating a diagnostic impression. I discuss Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and neuropsychological consultations in relation to subtle language and interpersonal features of the client's communication style. I provide parent feedback at 18 and 24 months posttesting. I discuss implications relative to a model of school neuropsychological assessment that includes the Rorschach test.

  1. Affective and neuropsychological correlates of children's rituals and compulsive-like behaviors: continuities and discontinuities with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Evans, David W

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report questionnaires assessed the intensity of children's fears and compulsive-like behaviors ("just right" perceptions and repetitive behaviors). For younger children (72 months), set-shifting and response inhibition accounted for significant variance in their ritualistic, compulsive-like behaviors. For older children (>72 months), a combination of neuropsychological (response inhibition) and affective (animal fears and social anxiety) factors predicted compulsive-like behaviors. These findings suggest that common neuropsychological mechanisms underlie compulsive, ritualistic behavior exhibited in normal development and in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  2. Test anxiety in relation to measures of cognitive and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Curiel, Rosie E

    2011-08-01

    The potential impact of test anxiety on cognitive testing was examined in a sample of 300 predominantly male veteran referrals who were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Exclusionary criteria included failure on effort testing (n= 14). Level of test anxiety was significantly related to performance on the WAIS-III Working Memory Index (r = -.343, p < .001) but not to scores on the Processing Speed, Perceptual Organization, or Verbal Comprehension indexes. Test anxiety was not related to a global index of neuropsychological performance on the HRNES-R (Average Impairment Scale). Level of education had a collinear relationship with test anxiety in predicting cognitive test performance. Regression analyses revealed a more prominent role for education, indicating the possibility that test anxiety may be a reaction to, more than a cause of, deficient working memory performance. These results suggest that clinicians who use these particular tests should be reluctant to attribute poor test performance to anxiety that occurs during the testing process.

  3. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837

  4. Neuropsychological findings in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gagliano, Antonella; Calarese, Tiziana; Magaudda, Adriana; Striano, Pasquale; Cortese, Lara; Cedro, Clemente; Laguitton, Virgilie; Bramanti, Placido; Carbonaro, Marilena; Albachiara, Addolorata; Fragassi, Nina; Italiano, Domenico; Sessa, Edoardo; Coppola, Antonietta; Genton, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify if patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) have adequate cognitive functioning and to delineate their neuropsychological profile. We evaluated 20 patients with ULD and 20 healthy, matched controls. Mean age of the patients was 35 years, and mean duration of disease, 22 years. Patients underwent a neuropsychological battery exploring intelligence, executive functions, visuospatial and verbal memory, depression, and anxiety. Eleven of 20 subjects with ULD had mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Compared with controls, patients with ULD had lower scores on all short-term memory and executive function tasks. Linear regression analysis disclosed significant associations between impaired performance on some memory tests and duration of disease and between severity of myoclonus and performance on most executive function tests. In conclusion, most patients with ULD seem to be impaired with respect to cognitive abilities. Longitudinal prospective studies are needed to confirm and further expand our findings.

  5. The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.

  6. Detecting neuropsychological malingering: effects of coaching and information.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Thomas M; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven; Ris, M Douglas

    2003-03-01

    Concerns that patients presenting for neuropsychological assessment may not be putting forth maximum effort during testing has prompted the development of measures designed to detect malingering and incomplete effort. Two of these measures are the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias-97 (CARB-97) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Despite widespread use of these instruments, no study has been published determining the vulnerability of neuropsychological malingering measures to explicit coaching or brain injury information. The present study, using analog participants, found that the CARB-97 and WMT differentiate "normal" from "malingered" instructional sets, and show little difference between nai;ve and coached malingering efforts. There was also little difference between providing brain injury information and a no-information condition, but when effects were present, the information group generally scored worse. Further, it was found that response times (RTs), in addition to items correct, may also be effective in detecting those who are not giving their full effort.

  7. Neuropsychological Test Performance and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between brain-behavior and hypnotic susceptibility in 70 alcoholic patients, using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and its Fromm-Weingarten modification. Results showed the two scales were interchangeable insofar as they measured the same ability, and indicated that hypnotic susceptibility is related to…

  8. Neuropsychology of Aesthetic Judgment of Ambiguous and Non-Ambiguous Artworks.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Barbetti, Sonia; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2017-03-18

    Several affective and cognitive processes have been found to be pivotal in affecting aesthetic experience of artworks and both neuropsychological as well as psychiatric symptoms have been found to affect artistic production. However, there is a paucity of studies directly investigating effects of brain lesions on aesthetic judgment. Here, we assessed the effects of unilateral brain damage on aesthetic judgment of artworks showing part/whole ambiguity. We asked 19 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (10 left and 9 right brain damaged patients, respectively LBDP and RBDP) and 20 age- and education-matched healthy individuals (controls, C) to rate 10 Arcimboldo's ambiguous portraits (AP), 10 realistic Renaissance portraits (RP), 10 still life paintings (SL), and 10 Arcimboldo's modified portraits where only objects/parts are detectable (AO). They were also administered a Navon task, a facial recognition test, and evaluated on visuo-perceptual and visuo-constructional abilities. Patients included in the study did not show any deficits that could affect the capability to explore and enjoy artworks. SL and RP was not affected by brain damage regardless of its laterality. On the other hand, we found that RBDP liked AP more than the C participants. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between aesthetic judgment of AP and visuo-perceptual skills even if the single case analyses failed to find a systematic association between neuropsychological deficits and aesthetic judgment of AP. On the whole, the present data suggest that a right hemisphere lesion may affect aesthetic judgment of ambiguous artworks, even in the absence of exploration or constructional deficits.

  9. Neuropsychology of Aesthetic Judgment of Ambiguous and Non-Ambiguous Artworks

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maddalena; Barbetti, Sonia; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Several affective and cognitive processes have been found to be pivotal in affecting aesthetic experience of artworks and both neuropsychological as well as psychiatric symptoms have been found to affect artistic production. However, there is a paucity of studies directly investigating effects of brain lesions on aesthetic judgment. Here, we assessed the effects of unilateral brain damage on aesthetic judgment of artworks showing part/whole ambiguity. We asked 19 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (10 left and 9 right brain damaged patients, respectively LBDP and RBDP) and 20 age- and education-matched healthy individuals (controls, C) to rate 10 Arcimboldo’s ambiguous portraits (AP), 10 realistic Renaissance portraits (RP), 10 still life paintings (SL), and 10 Arcimboldo’s modified portraits where only objects/parts are detectable (AO). They were also administered a Navon task, a facial recognition test, and evaluated on visuo-perceptual and visuo-constructional abilities. Patients included in the study did not show any deficits that could affect the capability to explore and enjoy artworks. SL and RP was not affected by brain damage regardless of its laterality. On the other hand, we found that RBDP liked AP more than the C participants. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between aesthetic judgment of AP and visuo-perceptual skills even if the single case analyses failed to find a systematic association between neuropsychological deficits and aesthetic judgment of AP. On the whole, the present data suggest that a right hemisphere lesion may affect aesthetic judgment of ambiguous artworks, even in the absence of exploration or constructional deficits. PMID:28335460

  10. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological correlates in traumatic brain injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Farbota, Kimberly D.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves focal cortical injury and white matter (WM) damage that can be measured shortly after injury. Additionally, slowly evolving WM change can be observed but there is a paucity of research on the duration and spatial pattern of long-term changes several years post-injury. The current study utilized diffusion tensor imaging to identify regional WM changes in 12 TBI patients and nine healthy controls at three time points over a four year period. Neuropsychological testing was also administered to each participant at each time point. Results indicate that TBI patients exhibit longitudinal changes to WM indexed by reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, as well as FA increases in bilateral regions of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and portions of the optic radiation (OR). FA changes appear to be driven by changes in radial (not axial) diffusivity, suggesting that observed longitudinal FA changes may be related to changes in myelin rather than to axons. Neuropsychological correlations indicate that regional FA values in the corpus callosum and sagittal stratum (SS) correlate with performance on finger tapping and visuomotor speed tasks (respectively) in TBI patients, and that longitudinal increases in FA in the SS, SLF, and OR correlate with improved performance on the visuomotor speed (SS) task as well as a derived measure of cognitive control (SLF, OR). The results of this study showing progressive WM deterioration for several years post-injury contribute to a growing literature supporting the hypothesis that TBI should be viewed not as an isolated incident but as a prolonged disease state. The observations of long-term neurological and functional improvement provide evidence that some ameliorative change may be occurring concurrently with progressive degeneration. PMID:22723773

  11. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Patients with Shunted Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Bakar, Emel Erdogan

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study is planned to determine the neurocognitive difficulties of hydrocephalic adults. Methods The research group contained healthy adults (control group, n : 15), and hydrocephalic adults (n : 15). Hydrocephalic group consisted of patients with idiopathic aquaduct stenosis and post-meningitis hydrocephalus. All patients were followed with shunted hydrocephalus and not gone to shunt revision during last two years. They were chosen from either asymptomatic or had only minor symptoms without motor and sensorineural deficit. A neuropsychological test battery (Raven Standart Progressive Matrices, Bender-Gestalt Test, Cancellation Test, Clock Drawing Test, Facial Recognition Test, Line Orientation Test, Serial Digit Learning Test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test-TBAG Form, Verbal Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Visual-Aural Digit Span Test-B) was applied to all groups. Results Neuropsychological assessment of hydrocephalic patients demonstrated that they had poor performance on visual, semantic and working memory, visuoconstructive and frontal functions, reading, attention, motor coordination and executive function of parietal lobe which related with complex and perseverative behaviour. Eventually, these patients had significant impairment on the neurocognitive functions of their frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. On the other hand, the statistical analyses performed on demographic data showed that the aetiology of the hydrocephalus, age, sex and localization of the shunt (frontal or posterior parietal) did not affect the test results. Conclusion This prospective study showed that adult patients with hydrocephalus have serious neuropsychological problems which might be directly caused by the hydrocephalus; and these problems may cause serious adaptive difficulties in their social, cultural, behavioral and academic life. PMID:20379471

  12. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology, coupled with military personnel returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have increased interest in the neuropsychology and neurobiology of these two conditions. There has been a particular focus on differential diagnosis. This paper provides an overviev of findings regarding the neuropsychological and neurobiological underpinnings of TBI andfor PTSD. A specific focus is on assessment using neuropsychological measures and imaging techniques. Challenges associated with the assessment of individuals with one or both conditions are also discussed. Although use of neuropsychological and neuroimaging test results may assist with diagnosis and treatment planning, further work is needed to identify objective biomarkers for each condition. Such advances would be expected to facilitate differential diagnosis and implementation of best treatment practices. PMID:22034217

  13. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  14. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources MINERALS... or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If MMS or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing,...

  15. A comparison of neuropsychological and situational assessment for predicting employability after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J M; Hayden, M E; Paulman, R G

    2000-08-01

    The relationships among neuropsychological assessment, situational assessment, and judgments of future employability in 127 survivors of moderate to severe closed head injury were evaluated. Participants received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and a situational vocational evaluation. Two groups were created, based on employment recommendation from the situational evaluation. A seven-factor model was found to account for the preponderance of variance within the neuropsychological battery used, and one factor was predictive of group assignment from situational assessment. However, the present data reinforce the predominance of findings in the literature that indicate that, in general, no individual neuropsychological test can be used to predict vocational performance in more environmentally relevant environments. Exceptions to this "rule" may occur when comparisons between results of formal neuropsychological tests and situational evaluation are limited to very simple, very circumscribed, and/or very well-defined functions. Thus, situational assessment is seen as a critical adjunct to neuropsychological assessment in making "real-world" predictions. The particular situational assessment used in this study was internally valid, an important finding given the importance of situational assessment in ecologically valid predictions.

  16. Medication management and neuropsychological performance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manning, Kevin J; Clarke, Christina; Lorry, Alan; Weintraub, Daniel; Wilkinson, Jayne R; Duda, John E; Moberg, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is associated with chronic disease and complex medication schedules, and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients also frequently have cognitive impairments that may interfere with effective medication management. The current study quantitatively assessed the medication management skills of PD patients and probed the neurocognitive underpinnings and clinical correlates of this skill. A total of 26 men with PD completed a neuropsychological battery and a modified version of the Hopkins Medication Schedule (HMS), a standard test of a person's ability to understand and implement a routine prescription medication. Estimated adherence rates from performance on the HMS were low. Memory, executive functioning, and processing speed were strongly related to different components of the HMS. A range of neuropsychological abilities is associated with the ability to understand and implement a medication schedule and pillbox in individuals with PD.

  17. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frol, Alan B.; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity. PMID:23484893

  18. Neuropsychological, Cognitive, and Theoretical Considerations for Evaluation of Bilingual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike. PMID:18841477

  19. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  20. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  1. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma. PMID:3981170

  2. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  3. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  4. The neuropsychological profile of patients with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Schweiger, A; Blumkin, L; Yahalom, G; Anikster, Y; Lev, D; Ben-Zeev, B; Lerman-Sagie, T; Hassin-Baer, S

    2015-04-01

    Costeff syndrome is a rare genetic neuro-ophthalmological syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy along with a progressive complex motor disorder with elevated levels of urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. While borderline to mild cognitive deficits have been considered to be common in patients with this syndrome, a comprehensive cognitive assessment has never been performed. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive profile associated with Costeff syndrome. Sixteen adult patients diagnosed with Costeff syndrome were administered a neuropsychological test battery that was composed of standardized verbal tests adapted for the blind. General intelligence ranged from average to borderline, with a group mean consistent with intact general cognitive functioning (VIQmean  = 85, z = -1) in the low-average range of the general population. The auditory immediate and delayed memory indexes were in the average range and were significantly higher than the general cognitive functioning, whereas the working memory index was significantly lower than the general cognitive functioning. Adult patients with Costeff syndrome have intact global cognition and learning abilities and strong auditory memory performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients’ overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  6. Memory-related white matter tract integrity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an advanced neuroimaging and neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Zalonis, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Giavri, Zoi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Xirou, Sophia; Rentzos, Michalis; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Velonakis, George; Toulas, Panagiotis; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Poulou, Loukia; Argyropoulos, Georgios; Athanasakos, Athanasios; Zambelis, Thomas; Levin, Harvey S; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr). Patients were administered neuropsychological measures of verbal (list learning via Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT] and prose memory via Babcock Story Recall Test) and nonverbal (Rey's Complex Figure Test) episodic memory. After correcting for multiple comparisons, ALS patients showed increased Dr in the left PPZ compared to HC. We then fitted a multivariate general linear model within ALS patients with neuropsychological measures as dependent variables and age, age(2), gender, verbal IQ, and diffusion tensor tractography metrics with at least medium effect size differences between ALS and HC as independent variables. We found that (1) left PPZ FA, gender, and verbal IQ contributed to RAVLT-Total Learning; (2) left PPZ FA, left UF Dr, and gender contributed to RAVLT-Immediate Recall; and (3) left PPZ FA and left UF axial diffusivity contributed to Babcock Story Recall Test-Immediate and Delayed Recall. Advanced neuroimaging techniques verified in this study previously reported neuropathological findings regarding PPZ degeneration in ALS. We also detected a unique contribution of microstructural changes in hippocampal and frontotemporal white matter tracts on patients' memory profile.

  7. Recruiting a U.S. national sample of HIV-negative gay and bisexual men to complete at-home self-administered HIV/STI testing and surveys: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Cain, Demetria; Whitfield, Thomas H. F.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Pawson, Mark; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    We describe enrollment for the One Thousand Strong panel, present characteristics of the panel relative to other large U.S. national studies of gay and bisexual men (GBM), and examine demographic and behavioral characteristics that were associated with passing enrollment milestones. A U.S. national sample of HIV-negative men were enrolled via an established online panel of over 22,000 GBM. Participants (n = 1071) passed three milestones to join our panel. Milestone 1 was screening eligible and providing informed consent. Milestone 2 involved completing an hour-long at-home computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) survey. Milestone 3 involved completing at-home self-administered rapid HIV testing and collecting/returning urine and rectal samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Compared to those who completed milestones: those not passing milestone 1 were more likely to be non-White and older; those not passing milestone 2 were less likely to have insurance or a primary care physician; and those not passing milestone 3 were less educated, more likely to be bisexual as opposed to gay, more likely to live in the Midwest, had fewer male partners in the past year, and less likely to have tested for HIV in the past year. Effect sizes for significant findings were small. We successfully enrolled a national sample of HIV-negative GBM who completed at-home CASI assessments and at-home self-administered HIV and urine and rectal STI testing. This indicates high feasibility and acceptability of incorporating self-administered biological assays into otherwise fully online studies. Differences in completion of study milestones indicate a need for further investigation into the reasons for lower engagement by certain groups. PMID:26858776

  8. Prediction of Alzheimer dementia with short neuropsychological instruments.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Susanne; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Bauer, Peter; Weissgram, Silvia; Tragl, Karl Heinz; Fischer, Peter

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuropsychological instruments in predicting Alzheimer dementia after 5 years in the context of a longitudinal population-based cohort study. A total of 585 nondemented 75-year-old individuals completed neuropsychological examination at the baseline investigation; 479 subjects were followed after 30 months and 404 after 60 months. Cognition, depression and memory complaints were evaluated with psychometric instruments. Known risk factors for Alzheimer dementia were included in the analyses. Univariate logistic regression analyses and stepwise multiple models were calculated. A combination of reduced verbal memory, reduced visual motor speed, subjective memory complaints and the APOE epsilon4 carriage was best in predicting incident probable Alzheimer dementia (R(2) = 0.42, ROC curve = 0.91). The model achieved a positive predictive value of 23.3%, a negative predictive value of 98.7%, a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 82.4%. Alzheimer dementia can be predicted by neuropsychological instruments measuring episodic memory and motor speed. A high percentage of 98.7% subjects at age 75 years could be predicted as remaining non-demented at age 80 years. The prediction of those unlikely to develop AD would be more important in the future to spare further expensive diagnostic testing and protective therapies in individuals at low risk.

  9. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression.

  10. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  11. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  12. Motivated Assessment: The Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on the Individually-Administered Reading Test Performance of Low, Average, and High IQ Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheady, Larry; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Results indicated that extrinsic rewards improved students' test performances significantly more than no rewards or feedback reward conditions. These improvements in performance were noted for all students under extrinsic reward conditions, thereby extending the effectiveness of these procedures across IQ levels. (Author/CL)

  13. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid psychiatric history and one or more possible precipitating factors for their amnesia. Eight of the 10 patients still had persistent retrograde amnesia at our last contact with them (median = 14 mo after the onset of amnesia). On tests of anterograde amnesia, the patients performed normally as a group, though some patients scored poorly on tests of verbal memory. On tests of retrograde amnesia, all patients had difficulty recollecting well-formed autobiographical memories of specific events from their past. In contrast, patients performed as well as controls at distinguishing the names of cities from fictitious city names. On remote memory tests for past public events and famous faces, different patients exhibited different but internally consistent patterns of impaired and spared performance. The variability in the clinical and neuropsychological findings among our patients may be understood by supposing that memory performance is poor in proportion to how directly a test appears to assess a patient's commonsense concept of memory. The presentation of patients with functional amnesia is as variable as humankind's concept of what memory is and how it works. PMID:15054137

  14. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  15. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    PubMed

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented.

  16. Retinal vessel caliber and lifelong neuropsychological functioning: retinal imaging as an investigative tool for cognitive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wong, Tien Y; Meier, Madeline H; Houts, Renate M; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol Y; Ikram, M Kamran; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-07-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new, noninvasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independently of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain and extended to informants' reports of cohort members' cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The findings indicate that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before the onset of dementing diseases and suggest that digital retinal imaging may be a useful investigative tool for psychological science.

  17. Neuropsychological patterns in magnetic resonance imaging-defined subgroups of patients with degenerative dementia

    PubMed Central

    LISTERUD, JOHN; POWERS, CHIVON; MOORE, PEACHIE; LIBON, DAVID J.; GROSSMAN, MURRAY

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific neuropsychological deficits were associated with specific patterns of atrophy. A magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study and a neuropsychological protocol were obtained for patients with several frontotemporal lobar dementia phenotypes including a social/dysexecutive (SOC/EXEC, n = 17), progressive nonfluent aphasia (n = 9), semantic dementia (n = 7), corticobasal syndrome (n = 9), and Alzheimer’s disease (n = 21). Blinded to testing results, patients were partitioned according to pattern of predominant cortical atrophy; our partitioning algorithm had been derived using seriation, a hierarchical classification technique. Neuropsychological test scores were regressed versus these atrophy patterns as fixed effects using the covariate total atrophy as marker for disease severity. The results showed the model accounted for substantial variance. Furthermore, the “large-scale networks” associated with each neuropsychological test conformed well to the known literature. For example, bilateral prefrontal cortical atrophy was exclusively associated with SOC/EXEC dysfunction. The neuropsychological principle of “double dissociation” was supported not just by such active associations but also by the “silence” of locations not previously implicated by the literature. We conclude that classifying patients with degenerative dementia by specific pattern of cortical atrophy has the potential to predict individual patterns of cognitive deficits. PMID:19402932

  18. Neuropsychological analysis of an idiot savant: A case study.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio E; Heller, Stephanie; Sekely, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Although biological etiologies and diffuse anatomical changes have been provided as plausible explanations for the unusual behaviors observed in idiot savants, no neuropsychological case studies or explanations for these behaviors are found in the literature. We present a case in which the "diagnosis" of idiot savant was based on historical, clinical, and test data. To assess his calendar abilities, this individual was subsequently tested over a period of six months on his ability to determine the day of the week across approximately 1,000 years. For a period of approximately 100 years he was 100% accurate. The neuropsychological tests revealed marked deficits in all areas with performance generally in the lower 1-5th percentile of the population (e.g., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ] = 54). Tests of attention yielded the best scores although still deficient. General learning, coding, and executive function tests proved to be challenging. In contrast, tests of visuo-motor abilities were only of moderate difficulty for the individual. These findings are considered within the theoretical framework of Rimland (autism) and Squyres (memory).

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning in Girls with Premature Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, A.; Dorn, L.D.; Rotenstein, D.; Rose, S.R.; Sontag-Padilla, L.M.; Jillard, C.L.; Witchel, S.F.; Berga, S.L.; Loucks, T.L.; Beers, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. PMID:22114879

  20. Validation of NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols for Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Hui-Mei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yao, Shu-Chih; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the three time-difference neuropsychological protocols developed by the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Canadian Stroke Network for assessment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in Mandarin-speaking subjects and to investigate the clinical application of the shortest form. Methods Patients aged 50 years or older who had a stroke were invited to participate in the study. Clinical diagnosis of VCI was made. The NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols, 60-, 30-, and two 5-minute protocols, were administered. The criteria validities of the cognitive protocols against the diagnoses of stroke and VCI were determined via Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The optimal cut-off point for the 5-minute protocols total score was estimated for clinical use in screening. Results Eighty-three patients and 53 controls were recruited during the study period. Patients with stroke performed more poorly than the control group in the three neuropsychological protocols. Forty-two patients with stroke were diagnosed with VCI. VCI was used as the standard to estimate the criteria validities. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78, 0.80, 0.75, and 0.73 for the 60-, 30-, 5-mintue protocol-A and 5-minute protocol-B, respectively. Conclusion These modified neuropsychological protocols can be used as valid instruments when performing comprehensive cognitive assessment or for screening of VCI in Taiwan. PMID:27249647

  1. Neuropsychological Performance, Postural Stability, and Symptoms After Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Akshay V; Mihalik, Jason P; Notebaert, Andrew J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Prentice, William E

    2007-01-01

    Context: Dehydration and concussion are common in athletic performance. Some experts have speculated that dehydration may negatively influence performance on tests commonly used for concussion assessment. Objective: To determine how the signs and symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and postural stability are affected by dehydration. Design: Repeated-measures design assessing subjects in the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions. Setting: Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four healthy, male recreational athletes participated in the study. Intervention(s): Subjects participated in 2 counterbalanced sessions (euhydrated and dehydrated) separated by at least 7 days. Subjects were dehydrated using fluid restriction and an exercise task. No direct intervention was provided for the euhydrated condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Standardized Assessment of Concussion to test mental status, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) to evaluate neuropsychological performance, the NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test and Balance Error Scoring System to test postural stability, the Graded Symptom Checklist to assess symptom presence and severity in our participants, and urine specific gravity and body mass to determine hydration status. Results: No differences were noted for the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, total Balance Error Scoring System errors, composite Sensory Organization Test, and composite ANAM scores between conditions. Subjects in the dehydrated condition had significant deterioration in visual memory (t23 = 2.130, P < .001) and fatigue measures (t23 = −7.880, P < .001) as assessed by ANAM. The dehydrated condition resulted in subjects reporting a significantly higher number (t23 = −8.585, P < .001) and severity (t23 = −7.673, P < .001) of symptoms than the euhydrated subjects on the Graded Symptom Checklist. Conclusions: Our results suggest that moderate dehydration (−2.5

  2. The neuropsychological profile of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H; Salmon, David P

    2012-04-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from "normal," age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease.

  3. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  4. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  5. Risk factors associated with persistence of neuropsychological deficits in persons with organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1991-09-01

    This study examined neuropsychological prognosis following organic solvent exposure. Twenty-seven persons with evidence of 'mild toxic encephalopathy' were evaluated on two separate occasions with a standard neuropsychological test battery and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Ratings by experienced clinicians revealed that 50% of exposed persons had improved neuropsychological performance at the second evaluation. The other 50% were rated as having no change or a decline in neuropsychological tests scores. While the majority of persons in the good-outcome group were working at the time of the follow-up evaluation, none of the persons in the poor-outcome group was actively employed. Persons rated as having shown no improvement were significantly more likely to have had a peak exposure--an episode in which they were briefly exposed to a larger than normal amount of solvent. In addition, persons in the poor outcome group reported higher levels of psychological distress, both initially and at the follow-up evaluation. Results from this study suggest that the presence of certain risk factors, namely a peak exposure and psychological distress, may be particularly detrimental for long-term neuropsychological outcome in persons with a history of organic solvent exposure.

  6. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  7. Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: cases and questions

    PubMed Central

    van Zomeren, A. H; ten, D; Minderhoud, J.; Sipma, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To objectify neuropsychological impairments in survivors of lightning stroke with lasting complaints about poor concentration and inability to divide their attention.
DESIGN—A series of six cases of lightning stroke were studied. All patients had lost consciousness and reported amnesia of varying length. Assessment took place between one and four years after injury, ensuring that their neurological state had stabilised. They were tested with a neuropsychological battery with an emphasis on attention and memory. Personality and emotional reaction to the accident were assessed with questionnaires and a lightning fear scale. Complaints were recorded by means of a trauma complaints list including 10 questions on symptoms of the post-traumatic stress disorder.
RESULTS—Patients reported fatigue and lack of energy as their main complaints. In addition, poor concentration, irritability, and emotional lability were mentioned often. Neuropsychological tests disclosed mild impairments in memory, attention, and visual reaction times. Two patients could be classified as depressed, and one of these also showed convincing signs of the post-traumatic stress disorder.
CONCLUSION—As the lasting complaints and impairments could not be explained, for all six cases, as resulting from head injury concomitant with lightning stroke, cerebral hypoxia or a post-traumatic stress syndrome, it is concluded that lightning stroke can result in subtle cognitive impairments. It is speculated that most complaints of these survivors are caused by a vegetative dysregulation, a disorder that has often been noted in the literature on the effects of electrical injury to the nervous system. Such a dysregulation might cause both the main complaint of fatigue and the mild cognitive impairments identified with the present test battery.

 PMID:9647306

  8. Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lisa H; Harp, Jordan P; Han, Dong Y

    2014-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  9. Neuropsychological assessment in clinical trials of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Claman, D L; Radebaugh, T S

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental problem in research aimed at developing and testing new treatments for Alzheimer disease (AD) is determining drug efficacy. At the present time, while there are no biological markers for diagnosing or assessing this disease, investigators must rely on clinical judgment and neuropsychological outcome measures to determine if and when a new treatment may be beneficial. The following article provides an overview of the issues involved in conducting a clinical trial in AD when measures of cognitive and behavioral changes are used. It is based on the proceedings from an international workshop on this topic that was convened by the National Institute on Aging in January 1990.

  10. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  11. Empirical Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Case Definition for Neuropsychological Impairment in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brooks, Brian L; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Keightley, Michelle; Anderson, Peter; Yeates, Keith O; Osmond, Martin H; Zemek, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aims to identify individual performance profiles in multiple domains of cognitive functioning; however, substantial variation exists in how deficits are defined and what cutoffs are used, and there is no universally accepted definition of neuropsychological impairment. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a clinical case definition rule to identify neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents. An existing normative pediatric sample was used to calculate base rates of abnormal functioning on eight measures covering six domains of neuropsychological functioning. The dataset was analyzed by varying the range of cutoff levels [1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean] and number of indicators of impairment. The derived rule was evaluated by bootstrap, internal and external clinical validation (orthopedic and traumatic brain injury). Our neuropsychological impairment (NPI) rule was defined as "two or more test scores that fall 1.5 SDs below the mean." The rule identifies 5.1% of the total sample as impaired in the assessment battery and consistently targets between 3 and 7% of the population as impaired even when age, domains, and number of tests are varied. The NPI rate increases in groups known to exhibit cognitive deficits. The NPI rule provides a psychometrically derived method for interpreting performance across multiple tests and may be used in children 6-18 years. The rule may be useful to clinicians and scientists who wish to establish whether specific individuals or clinical populations present within expected norms versus impaired function across a battery of neuropsychological tests.

  12. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  13. Managing Neuropsychological Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephanie; Penner, Iris; Heesen, Christoph; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system of potential autoimmune origin that is frequently associated with psychological disorders and cognitive deficits, as well as with fatigue, stress, and psychosocial burden. These factors often cause decreased quality of life, social withdrawal, and unemployment. We describe the development of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention based on the concept of metacognition and evaluation of the feasibility and acceptance of the program as a rehabilitation tool. Methods: Metacognitive Training in MS (MaTiMS) consists of six modules, each 90 minutes in duration. We tested acceptance and design of the program in six focus groups (entire sample, n = 27). Framework analysis of transcripts was used to identify key topics and categories. Program modules were revised in accordance with appropriate recommendations of focus group members. We subsequently evaluated MaTiMS in two groups (n = 5, n = 6) in a rehabilitation center. Neuropsychological functioning as well as coping self-efficacy, depression, stress, perceived cognitive deficit, fatigue, and quality of life were assessed. Acceptance of MaTiMS from the patient perspective was also studied. Results: The modules were highly accepted by patients. Pre-post assessments showed significant improvements in the Coping Self Efficacy Scale (P = .007), the Würzburger Fatigue Inventory for MS Score (P = .028), and the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire in Multiple Sclerosis Mood subscale (P = .046). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that MaTiMS represents a feasible psychological group training program that may foster improvements in self-efficacy, fatigue, and mood. The next step will be an evaluation of the program in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:26052258

  14. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  15. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  16. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J.E.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N = 133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N = 132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05 – 0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  17. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  18. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  20. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  1. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  2. Play-Based Neuropsychological Assessment of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Standardized psychological assessment provides a precise yet limited view of the neuropsychological status of preschool toddlers, whose brain functioning is only beginning to develop localized functioning. Yet, referrals for preschool evaluation of these early-age children often request a wide variety of information about brain-behavior…

  3. Combining Select Neuropsychological Assessment With Blood-Based Biomarkers to detect Mild Alzheimer’s disease: A Molecular Neuropsychology approach

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Balldin, Valerie Hobson; Hall, James; O’Bryant, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Background The current project sought to create combined biomarker-cognitive profile to detect mild Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Data was analyzed from 266 participants (129 AD cases [Early AD n=93; Very Early AD n=36]; 137 controls) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Non-fasting serum samples were collected from each participant and assayed via a multi-plex biomarker assay platform using electrochmiluminescence (ECL). Logistic Regression was utilized to detect early AD using two serum biomarkers (TNFα and IL7), demographic information (age) and one neuropsychological measure (Clock-4 point) as predictor variable. Disease severity was determined via Clinical Dementia Rating scale global scores. Results In the total sample (all levels of CDR scores), the combination of biomarkers, cognitive test score, and demographics yielded the obtained sensitivity (SN) of 0.94, specificity (SP) of 0.90 and an overall accuracy of 0.92. When examining early AD cases (i.e. CDR=0.5-1), the biomarker-cognitive profile yielded SN of 0.94, SP of 0.85 and an overall accuracy of 0.91. When restricted to very early AD cases (i.e CDR=0.5), the biomarker-cognitive profile yielded SN of 0.97, SP of 0.72 with an overall accuracy of 0.91. Conclusions The combination of demographics + 2 biomarkers + 1 cognitive test created a biomarker-cognitive profile that was highly accurate in detecting AD presence, even in the very early stages. This work demonstrates the complementary nature of each modality (blood biomarkers + neuropsychological assessment) and supports our previously proposed concept for Molecular Neuropsychology. PMID:24916542

  4. Neuropsychological correlates of a right unilateral lacunar thalamic infarction

    PubMed Central

    Werf, Y; Weerts, J; Jolles, J; Witter, M; Lindeboom, J; Scheltens, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To report on a patient with a lacunar infarction in the right intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. The role of the thalamic intralaminar nuclei in cognitive function is as yet insufficiently known. The patient described has shown signs of apathy and loss of initiative, in combination with cognitive deficits, which have persisted essentially unaltered up to the present day since an abrupt onset 17 years ago.
METHODS—High resolution MRI was performed to show the extent of the lesion; a combination of published and experimental neuropsychological techniques was administered to show the nature of the cognitive defects; Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was employed to obtain a measure of cortical perfusion.
RESULTS—Brain MRI disclosed an isolated lacunar infarction in the dorsal caudal intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. Neuropsychological evaluation indicated problems with attention and concentration, executive disturbances, and memory deficits both in the visual and verbal domains. The memory deficits could not be attributed to problems in the early stages of information processing, and are hence regarded as resulting from a failure of retrieval rather than encoding or storage. Brain SPECT disclosed a hypoperfusion of the right frontal cortex.
CONCLUSION—The data indicate that the cognitive profile is the result of a dysfunction of executive functions. This is corroborated by the finding of decreased blood flow in the right frontal cortex, and by evidence from the neuroanatomical literature. Thus the dysexecutive symptoms are thought to be caused by disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the brainstem activating nuclei through the strategic localisation of the right thalamic infarction.

 PMID:9886448

  5. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype.

  6. [Neuropsychological characterization of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in drug addicts: clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a stable correlate throughout the course of drug addiction. However, it has always been studied as a negative condition, linked to psychopathology. Dickman (1990) proposed two subdimensions of impulsivity, dysfunctional (DI) and functional (FI). He defines the latter as the tendency for rapid, goal-oriented decision-making characterized by well calculated risks. Only a few studies have attempted to differentiate between these two subdimensions using classical neuropsychological tests. Fifty two drug addicts in treatment were tested using Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory and a battery of classical neuropsychological tests. FI shows moderate to high correlations with many classical neuropsychological test scores in relation to enhanced executive functioning, whereas DI reveals surprisingly weak and scarce correlations with indicators of impaired executive functioning. DI appears to be a trait related to some difficulties in classical neuropsychological tests, while FI emerges as a consistent and much stronger predictor of higher attention capacity, lower distractibility, better precision, fewer errors, and better maintenance of goal-oriented strategies. Thus, functional impulsivity is related to positive conditions and more efficient cognitive functioning. Implications for the treatment of drug addictions are suggested.

  7. Anatomic, clinical, and neuropsychological correlates of spelling errors in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyungsub; Hurley, Robert S; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words, exception words and nonwords, were recorded. Error types were classified based on phonetic plausibility. In the first analysis, scores were evaluated by clinical diagnosis. Errors in spelling exception words and phonetically plausible errors were seen in PPA-S. Conversely, PPA-G was associated with errors in nonword spelling and phonetically implausible errors. In the next analysis, spelling scores were correlated to other neuropsychological language test scores. Significant correlations were found between exception word spelling and measures of naming and single word comprehension. Nonword spelling correlated with tests of grammar and repetition. Global language measures did not correlate significantly with spelling scores, however. Cortical thickness analysis based on MRI showed that atrophy in several language regions of interest were correlated with spelling errors. Atrophy in the left supramarginal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars orbitalis correlated with errors in nonword spelling, while thinning in the left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus correlated with errors in exception word spelling. Additionally, phonetically implausible errors in regular word spelling correlated with thinning in the left IFG pars triangularis and pars opercularis. Together, these findings suggest two independent systems for spelling to dictation, one phonetic (phoneme to grapheme conversion), and one lexical (whole word retrieval).

  8. Toxocara canis infection of children: epidemiologic and neuropsychologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, M; Glickman, L; Shofer, F; Faich, L A; Rosenberg, C; Cornblatt, B; Friedman, S

    1987-01-01

    Sera from 4,652 children whose blood was submitted to the New York City Department of Health for lead analysis were tested for antibodies to Toxocara canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standardized to the age distribution of the study population, T. canis seropositivity (inverse titers greater than or equal to 16) was 5.7 per cent in males and 5.1 per cent in females. T. canis antibody titers and lead exposures as measured by Centers for Disease Control lead classes were positively correlated. Children who were seropositive to T. canis (cases) were compared to seronegatives (controls) matched on age (+/- 6 months), sex, time-of-screening (+/- 3 months) and CDC lead class. Logistic regression analysis of 155 case-control pairs demonstrated elevated relative risks (RRs) for geophagia (RR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.75, 5.64) and having had a litter of puppies in the home (RR = 5.22; 95% CI = 1.63, 16.71). Compared to controls, cases had increased eosinophil counts, serum immunoglobulin E concentrations, and anti-hemagglutinin-A titers. Small deficits in cases compared to controls were found in performance on several neuropsychological tests after adjustment for potential confounders including case-control differences in race, socioeconomic status, and current blood lead concentrations. The study thus confirmed that T. canis infection is common in urban children and suggested that infection may be associated with adverse neuropsychological effects. PMID:3565646

  9. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits.

  10. The neuropsychological pattern of Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Anna R; Canafoglia, Laura; Reati, Fabiola; Raviglione, Federico; Franceschetti, Silvana

    2009-04-01

    This study determined the neuropsychological pattern of Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and its relationship to disease-related variables. Twenty-one ULD patients were evaluated using neuropsychological tests for abstract reasoning, attention, planning, set-shifting, theory of mind, visual perception, visuomotor coordination, ideomotor, orofacial and constructive praxis, language, learning, and memory. The control groups consisted of 21 healthy subjects and 21 patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Multivariate analysis of variance showed that, in comparison with both control groups, the ULD patients showed significantly impaired abstract reasoning, attention, planning, word fluency, constructive praxis, and visuospatial memory and learning. Factor analysis of the test scores obtained by the ULD and TLE groups identified four factors (processing and execution, praxis, memory, theory of mind), and separate ANOVAs using epilepsy-related and demographic variables as covariates showed that the ULD patients had significantly impaired processing and execution. Correlation and regression analyses showed that processing and execution was significantly associated with diagnosis, disease duration and education, and logistic regression analyses indicated that it significantly predicted a diagnosis of ULD. To conclude, ULD is characterised by impaired processing and execution functions. This impairment is a strong independent predictor of ULD and may contribute to the characterisation of the diagnosis.

  11. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed.

  12. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  13. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  14. Neuropsychological factors related to college ice hockey concussions.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Heather A; Ferraro, F Richard; Himle, Michael; Schultz, Caitlin; Poolman, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed data from 74 male collegiate hockey players. Each athlete's season began with a baseline administration of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychology test battery. Fourteen athletes sustained a sport-related head injury and were readministered the test to assess the impact of the injury. A significant decrease in performance (compared to baseline) on immediate and delayed word recall and designs followed the first concussion. Following a second sport-related concussion, the 4 affected athletes showed significant decrease in visual motor speed. Performance improved on 2 response speed measures (Ps < .01). More errors occurred during a visual processing/discrimination task and immediate recall of designs declined (Ps < .05). We discuss the results in light of recent work related to the impact of early-life concussions and head injury on late-life consequences, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and more immediate issues such as return-to-play decisions for athletes.

  15. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring.

  16. Cognitive reserve and neuropsychological functioning in older HIV-infected people.

    PubMed

    Milanini, Benedetta; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Limiti, Silio; Grima, Pierfrancesco; Rossetti, Barbara; Visconti, Elena; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2016-10-01

    Progress in treatments has led to HIV+ patients getting older. Age and HIV are risk factors for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We explored the role of cognitive reserve (CR) on cognition in a group of virologically suppressed older HIV+ people. We performed a multicenter study, consecutively enrolling asymptomatic HIV+ subjects ≥60 years old during routine outpatient visits. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered. Raw test scores were adjusted based on Italian normative data and transformed into z-scores; NCI was defined according to Frascati criteria. All participants underwent the Brief Intelligence Test (TIB) and the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire as proxies for CR. Relationships between TIB, CRI, and NCI were investigated by logistic or linear regression analyses. Sixty patients (85 % males, median age 66, median education 12, 10 % HCV co-infected, 25 % with past acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining events, median CD4 cells count 581 cells/μL, median nadir CD4 cells count 109 cells/μL) were enrolled. Twenty-four patients (40 %) showed Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment. At logistic regression analysis, only CRI (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.91-0.97; P = 0.001) and TIB (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.71-0.90; P < 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of NCI. Higher CRI and TIB were significantly correlated with a better performance (composite z-score) both globally and at individual cognitive domains. Our findings highlight the role of CR over clinical variables in maintaining cognitive integrity in a virologically suppressed older HIV-infected population. A lifestyle characterized by experiences of mental stimulation may help to cope aging and HIV-related neurodegeneration.

  17. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  18. Effects of heading exposure and previous concussions on neuropsychological performance among Norwegian elite footballers

    PubMed Central

    Straume-Naesheim, T; Andersen, T; Dvorak, J; Bahr, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that neurocognitive performance may be impaired among football players. Heading the ball has been suggested as the cause, but recent reviews state that the reported deficits are more likely to be the result of head injuries. Objective: To examine the association between previous concussions and heading exposure with performance on computer based neuropsychological tests among professional Norwegian football players. Methods: Players in the Norwegian professional football league (Tippeligaen) performed two consecutive baseline neuropsychological tests (Cogsport) before the 2004 season (90.3% participation, n = 271) and completed a questionnaire assessing previous concussions, match heading exposure (self-reported number of heading actions per match), player career, etc. Heading actions for 18 players observed in two to four matches were counted and correlated with their self-reported values. Results: Neither match nor lifetime heading exposure was associated with neuropsychological test performance. Nineteen players scored below the 95% confidence interval for one or more subtasks, but they did not differ from the rest regarding the number of previous concussions or lifetime or match heading exposure. The number of previous concussions was positively associated with lifetime heading exposure (exponent (B) = 1.97(1.03–3.75), p = 0.039), but there was no relation between previous concussions and test performance. Self-reported number of headings correlated well with the observed values (Spearman's ρ = 0.77, p<0.001). Conclusion: Computerised neuropsychological testing revealed no evidence of neuropsychological impairment due to heading exposure or previous concussions in a cohort of Norwegian professional football players. PMID:16046359

  19. Low-dose endotoxemia and human neuropsychological functions.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Karen Suárez; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yirmiya, Raz; Smed, Annelise; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate an association between systemic low-grade inflammation defined as 2- to 3-fold increases in circulating inflammatory mediators and age-related decline in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether small elevations of circulating cytokine levels cause direct effects on human neuropsychological functions. We investigated changes in emotional, cognitive, and inflammatory parameters in an experimental in vivo model of low-grade inflammation. In a double-blind crossover study, 12 healthy young males completed neuropsychological tests before as well as 1.5, 6, and 24 h after an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.2 ng/kg) or saline in two experimental sessions. Endotoxin administration had no effect on body temperature, cortisol levels, blood pressure or heart rate, but circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 increased 2- and 7-fold, respectively, reaching peak values at 3 h, whereas soluble TNF-receptors and IL-1 receptor antagonist peaked at 4.5 h. The neutrophil count increased and the lymphocyte count declined. In this model, low-dose endotoxemia did not affect cognitive performance significantly but declarative memory performance was inversely correlated with cytokine increases. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a negative association between circulating IL-6 and memory functions during very low-dose endotoxemia independently of physical stress symptoms, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  20. A neuropsychological study of active amateur boxers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N; Kupshik, G; Wilson, L; Galbraith, S; Ward, R

    1987-08-01

    Neuropsychological examinations were carried out on 29 amateur boxers and 19 controls matched for age, ethnicity, and education. There was no evidence of significantly impaired performance in the boxers. Within the boxing group, a variety of features of boxing history were examined as possible predictors of cognitive performance (such as number of knockouts, duration of boxing). No feature was a significant predictor of lower cognitive performance.

  1. COMPUTER ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION, ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOPSTEIN, FELIX F.; SEIDEL, ROBERT J.

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASSESS THE ECONOMICS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION (TAI) IN CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNER'S STIMULUS ENVIRONMENT IN TEACHING AND TRAINING SITUATIONS. THERE IS A DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR A SOUND, OBJECTIVE ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF THE VALUE TO SOCIETY OF…

  2. Neuropsychological mechanisms of falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761

  3. Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Serroni, N; Moschetta, F S; Di Giannantonio, M; Ferrara, M; De Berardis, D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological functioning and the effect of antidepressant drug intake on cognitive performance in a group of relatively young generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. Forty patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and 31 healthy subjects participated in the study (Control group, CON). None of the selected subjects had comorbid depression. GAD subjects were divided into two different subgroups: 18 were taking antidepressants [GAD-pharmacotherapy (GAD-p group)] and 22 were treatment-naïve (GAD group). Each group was administered with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention, memory and executive functions. Performance on executive and non-verbal memory tasks of both GAD groups was largely worse than the CON group. However, these deficits seem to be more marked in patients taking antidepressants, especially in the domains of attention, non-verbal memory and executive functions. The present study indicates that GAD is associated with cognitive impairments among young adults. However, the observed association of neuropsychological deficits and the use of pharmacotherapy suggest a possible effect of antidepressant treatment on attention, executive functioning and non-verbal memory.

  4. Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Husain, S G; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, S P; Anand, M; Ali, M M; Seth, P K

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psycho-motor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers.

  5. Pre- and Perinatal Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Does Neuropsychological Weakness Explain the Link?

    PubMed

    Wiggs, Kelsey; Elmore, Alexis L; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-11-01

    Etiological investigations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior problems support multiple causal pathways, including involvement of pre- and perinatal risk factors. Because these risks occur early in life, well before observable ADHD and externalizing symptoms emerge, the relation between risk and symptoms may be mediated by neurodevelopmental effects that manifest later in neuropsychological functioning. However, potential dissociable effects of pre/perinatal risk elements on ADHD and familial confounds must also be considered to test alternative hypotheses. 498 youth aged 6-17 years (55.0 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment including parent and teacher symptom reports of symptoms and parent ratings of pre/perinatal health risk indicators. Youth completed a neuropsychological testing battery. Multiple mediation models examined direct effects of pre- and perinatal health risk on ADHD and other disruptive behavior disorder symptoms and indirect effects via neuropsychological functioning. Parental ADHD symptoms and externalizing status was covaried to control for potential familial effects. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on inattention were mediated by memory span and temporal processing deficits. Further, effects of perinatal health risk on inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and ODD were mediated by deficits in response variability and temporal processing. Further, maternal health risks during pregnancy appeared to exert direct rather than indirect effects on outcomes. Results suggest that after controlling for familial relatedness of ADHD between parent and child, early developmental health risks may influence ADHD via effects on neuropsychological processes underpinning the disorder.

  6. [Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality].

    PubMed

    Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-05-16

    Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the normal range for patients whose daily life difficulties would predict an inferior performance. These discrepancies suggest that classical neuropsychological tests may not adequately reproduce the complexity and dynamic nature of real life situations. Latest developments in the field of virtual reality offer interesting options for the neuropsychological assessment of many cognitive processes. Virtual reality reproduces three-dimensional environments with which the patient interacts in a dynamic way, with a sense of immersion in the environment similar to the presence and exposure to a real environment. Furthermore, the presentation of these stimuli, as well as distractors and other variables, may be controlled in a systematic way. Moreover, more consistent and precise answers may be obtained, and an in-depth analysis of them is possible. The present review shows current problems in neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions and latest advances in the consecution of higher preciseness and validity of the evaluation by means of new technologies and virtual reality, with special mention to some developments performed in Spain.

  7. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD.

  8. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  9. Neuropsychological pattern of striatonigral degeneration: comparison with Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pillon, B; Gouider-Khouja, N; Deweer, B; Vidailhet, M; Malapani, C; Dubois, B; Agid, Y

    1995-01-01

    To study the neuropsychological pattern of striatonigral degeneration (SND), 14 consecutive patients with probable SND were submitted to an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Compared with controls the performance of patients with SND was impaired on category and phonemic fluency, frontal behaviours, trail making test A and B, and free recall of the Grober and Buschke test, but normal on the revised WAIS verbal scale, Raven 47 coloured progressive matrices, Wechsler memory scale, California verbal learning test, Wisconsin card sorting test, and the Stroop interference condition. The performance of patients with SND was also compared with that of 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 14 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) matched for age at onset, duration of disease, severity of intellectual deterioration, and depression. The results showed that the dysexecutive syndrome of SND is similar to that of Parkinson's disease and less severe than in PSP. PMID:7876847

  10. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed.

  11. Administering the Individualized Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James, Jr.

    This book provides discussion and guidelines for administering an individualized instruction program; it is stated, however, that the book is not confined to individualized study units alone but brings in the creation of any educational instrument, a variety of which are illustrated in the appendixes. The following topics are considered in this…

  12. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  13. Neuropsychological Patterns Differ by Type of Left Ventricle Dysfunction in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bratzke-Bauer, Lisa C.; Pozehl, Bunny J.; Paul, Steven M.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive profiles of individuals with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Eighty individuals with heart failure completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test, and letter fluency. Approximately 25% of individuals with systolic dysfunction were impaired on the RBANS Total Scale score, compared with only 3% in the diastolic group. Additionally, individuals with systolic dysfunction scored lower than those with diastolic dysfunction on tests of immediate and delayed memory. The groups did not differ on tests of visuospatial skills, but there were mixed results on the RBANS Attention and Language subtests. Overall, the results of this study suggest that individuals with different types of cardiac dysfunction (systolic and diastolic dysfunction) demonstrate differential patterns of performance on neuropsychological tests. These findings have important clinical implications. PMID:23257366

  14. Memory Testing: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    Neuropsychology combines psychometrics and the study of brain processes. There are two approaches to neuropsychology. The neurologic approach uses brief tests flexibly. The psychometric approach uses standardized graded scales in a set battery. Cortical testing in the form of intellectual abilities testing is 70 years old, yet psychometric…

  15. Incremental validity of neuropsychological evaluations to computed tomography in predicting long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael W; Rapport, Lisa J; Hanks, Robin A; Millis, Scott R; Greene, Hillary A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the incremental utility of neuropsychological tests to computed tomography (CT) in predicting long-term outcomes of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 288 adults with mild complicated, moderate, and severe TBI. Longitudinal data were evaluated during inpatient status in an urban rehabilitation hospital with a TBI Model System, as well as 1 and 2 years post injury. Predictors including demographic characteristics, injury severity, CT characteristics, and neuropsychological evaluations were regressed to outcomes of disability, life satisfaction, and employment at 1 and 2 years post injury. Prediction of life satisfaction was not improved with the use of CT characteristics or neuropsychological tests, but prediction of return to work was improved by these variables at 2 years post injury. Neuropsychological evaluations uniquely contributed to outcome predictions of functional disability, even after considering demographic and injury severity characteristics, including information from CT. In contrast, CT characteristics were not predictive of long-term functional disability at 1 or 2 years post TBI. Taken together, the findings indicate that neuropsychological tests add unique predictive information for long-term functional outcomes after TBI.

  16. Neuropsychological and Emotional Correlates of Personality Traits in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara; Leenders, Klaus L.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is, apart from the well-known motor symptoms, also characterized by neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. However, patients also often present with a personality profile of low Novelty Seeking and high Harm Avoidance. This profile can be identified as the disease emerges, which raises the question whether these traits correlate with more fundamental neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. This study determined the neuropsychological and emotional correlates of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance and two other personality traits that are often considered in PD, i.e. Reward Dependence and Persistence. Forty-three patients and 25 healthy participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, a symptoms of depression questionnaire and neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher Harm Avoidance than healthy participants, which was predicted by symptoms of depression. Groups did not differ regarding Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Persistence. While cognitive flexibility was a predictor of Reward Dependence, Persistence was predicted by divergent thinking and inhibition. Novelty Seeking was not predicted by cognition or emotion. In conclusion, cognition and emotion are selectively related to personality traits in PD. Whereas Harm Avoidance covaries with emotional symptoms, Persistence and Reward Dependence are related to cognition. Alterations in personality, cognition and emotion in PD are thus not independent from each other. PMID:23242356

  17. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Human Factors Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Monitoring Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury Using Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM™ V1.0). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 1997...Bleiberg, J.; Kane, R. ANAM™ Genogram: Historical Perspectives, Description and Current Endeavors. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Supplement

  18. The effects of modafinil treatment on neuropsychological and attentional bias performance during 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Robert; Lee, Nicole; Pennay, Amy; Nielsen, Suzi; Ferris, Jason

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive benefits of modafinil to patients undergoing 7-day inpatient withdrawal from methamphetamine (MA) dependence were examined as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Recent evidence has identified modafinil-related improvements in treatment outcomes for MA-dependent patients; however, the benefits to cognition function, which is critical to treatment success but known to be impaired, has yet to be examined. The first 20 participants recruited to the study were administered either 200 mg of modafinil (once daily) or placebo, and a neuropsychological test battery (including an MA version of the emotional Stroop task) at admission (n = 17) and discharge (n = 14). Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1-month postdischarge (n = 13). After participant withdrawals (3 in each group), treatment was associated with a significant improvement in immediate verbal memory recall and nonsignificant trend toward improvement on executive function and delayed memory tasks. No benefit was seen for measures of verbal learning, visual memory, processing speed, or verbal fluency. All participants showed a significant attentional bias for MA-related stimuli on the emotional Stroop task. The magnitude of bias predicted both retention in treatment and relapse potential at follow-up but was not significantly ameliorated by modafinil treatment. While nonsignificant, the effect sizes of modafinil-related improvements in executive function and memory were consistent with those found in more robustly powered studies of cognitive benefits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, supporting the need for further research.

  19. Noninvasive biomarkers of manganese exposure and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Gustavo F de Sousa; de Carvalho, Chrissie F; Nunes, Lorena S; Rodrigues, Juliana L G; Ribeiro, Nathália S; de Almeida, Diego A; Ferreira, Junia R Dutra; Abreu, Neander; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2014-12-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element to humans, in excess can cause neurotoxic damage. So far, Mn exposure assessment has no ideal biomarker. This study aims to investigate the association between Mn exposure, using noninvasive biomarkers, and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults. The residents of two communities near to a ferromanganese refinery in Bahia, Brazil were evaluated. Volunteers aged 15-55 of both sexes provided scalp hair, axillary hair, fingernail and saliva specimens for Mn determination by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. Several neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate cognitive, attention, memory, motor and executive functions. Significant correlations were observed between Mn in hair (MnH, median 8.95 μg/g), axillary hair (MnAxH,18.49 μg/g) and fingernail (MnFN, 6.91 μg/g) with the performances in several neuropsychological tests. No association was observed between manganese levels in saliva (MnSal, 4.2 μg/L) and any neuropsychological function. Multiple regression analysis detected an inverse association between Log MnH and IQ (β=-4.76 [CI 95% -9.17 to -0.36]) and between Log MnFN and visual working memory (β=-3.33 [CI 95% -6.15 to -0.52]). Direct association was observed between Log MnFN and time of completion in the cognitive flexibility task (β=56.29 [CI 95% 2.41-110.18]). The Mn biomonitoring using noninvasive biomarkers was able to detect high exposure levels, which were associated with detrimental neuropsychological effects in adults exposed to industrial emissions.

  20. Neuropsychological functions and visual contrast sensitivity in schizophrenia: the potential impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Ibolya; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kelemen, Oguz; Benedek, György; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with other severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the neuropsychological and psychophysical correlates of comorbid PTSD are less exactly defined. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate and delayed memory, attention, visuospatial skills, language, and basic visual information processing in patients with schizophrenia with or without PTSD. We recruited 125 patients with schizophrenia and 70 healthy controls matched for visual acuity, age, gender, education, and socioeconomic status. Twenty-one of patients with schizophrenia exhibited comorbid PTSD. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and visual contrast sensitivity tasks for low spatial/high temporal frequency (0.3 cycle/degree and 18 Hz) and high spatial/low temporal frequency (10 cycles/degree and 1Hz) sinusoidal gratings. All patients were clinically stable and received antipsychotic medications. Results revealed that relative to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significant and generalized neuropsychological dysfunctions and reduced visual contrast sensitivity, which was more pronounced at low spatial/high temporal frequency. When we compared schizophrenia patients with and without PTSD, we found that patients with comorbid PTSD displayed lower scores for RBANS attention, immediate and delayed memory, and visuospatial scores. Schizophrenia patients with or without PTSD displayed similar visual contrast sensitivity. In conclusion, comorbid PTSD in schizophrenia may be associated with worse neuropsychological functions, whereas it does not affect basic visual information processing. PMID:23519404

  1. Current standards of neuropsychological assessment in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Viola Lara; Äikiä, Marja; Del Barrio, Antonio; Boon, Paul; Borbély, Csaba; Bran, Ema; Braun, Kees; Carette, Evelien; Clark, Maria; Cross, Judith Helen; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Francione, Stefano; Gersamia, Anna; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Harrison, Sue; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Heminghyt, Einar; Hirsch, Edouard; Javurkova, Alena; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kavan, Nicole; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kirschner, Margarita; Kleitz, Catherine; Kobulashvili, Teia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Kurtish, Selin Yagci; Lesourd, Mathieu; Ljunggren, Sofia; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Martin-Sanfilippo, Patricia; Marusic, Petr; Miatton, Marijke; Özkara, Çiğdem; Pelle, Federica; Rubboli, Guido; Rudebeck, Sarah; Ryvlin, Philippe; van Schooneveld, Monique; Schmid, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Pia-Magdalena; Seeck, Margitta; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Shavel-Jessop, Sara; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Viggedal, Gerd; Wendling, Anne-Sophie; Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup. Strong agreement was found on indications (localization, epileptic dysfunctions, adverse drugs effects, and postoperative monitoring) and the domains to be evaluated (memory, attention, executive functions, language, visuospatial skills, intelligence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life). Although 186 different tests are in use throughout these European centers, a core group of tests reflecting a moderate level of agreement could be discerned. Variability exists with regard to indications, protocols, and paradigms for the assessment of hemispheric language dominance. For the tests in use, little published evidence of clinical validity in epilepsy was provided. Participants in the survey reported a need for improvement concerning the validity of the tests, tools for the assessment of everyday functioning and accelerated forgetting, national norms, and test co-normalization. Based on the present survey, we documented a consensus regarding the indications and principles of neuropsychological testing. Despite the variety of tests in use, the survey indicated that there may be a core set of tests chosen based on experience, as well as on published evidence. By combining these findings with the results of an ongoing systematic literature review, we aim for a battery that can be recommended for the use across epilepsy surgical centers in Europe.

  2. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function-which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry-could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology.

  3. Neuropsychological and cognitive effects of Chinese language instruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Tori, C D

    1993-12-01

    Since little is known concerning the cortical and cognitive effects resulting from the study of a tonal, logographic language which is read from top to bottom and in a right-to-left direction, neuropsychological and intellectual measures on 51 bilingual and 41 monolingual Chinese-American children aged 9 to 12 years were compared. Multivariate statistical analyses yielded significant group differences. As predicted, the over-all mean IQ of bilinguals was higher than that of monolinguals. Other than coding skills, expected superior performance of bilinguals on right-hemisphere or bilaterally sensitive measures was not found; rather, the left-dominant sequential abilities of bilinguals surpassed those of their monolingual peers. English fluency of the two groups was equivalent and monolingual youngsters obtained higher scores on two of five academic achievements tests than bilinguals. The effects of Chinese language instruction among Chinese-American children are discussed in relation to the distinguished educational accomplishments of Asian Americans.

  4. A randomized pilot trial testing the safety and immunologic effects of a MAGE-A3 protein plus AS15 immunostimulant administered into muscle or into dermal/subcutaneous sites

    PubMed Central

    Slingluff, Craig L.; Petroni, Gina R.; Olson, Walter C.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A.; Mauldin, Ileana S.; Smith, Kelly T; Deacon, Donna H.; Varhegyi, Nikole E.; Donnelly, Sean B.; Reed, Caroline M.; Scott, Kristy; Galeassi, Nadejda V.; Grosh, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methods to induce T cell responses to protein vaccines have not been optimized. The immunostimulant AS15 has been administered with the recombinant MAGE-A3 protein (recMAGE-A3) i.m. but not i.d. or s.c. This study tests hypotheses that the i.d./s.c. route is safe and will increase CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to MAGE-A3. Patients and Methods Twenty-five patients with resected stage IIB-IV MAGE-A3+ melanoma were randomized to immunization with recMAGE-A3 combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic) either i.m. (Group A, n=13), or i.d./s.c. (Group B, n=12). Adverse events were recorded. Ab responses to MAGE-A3 were measured by ELISA. T cell responses to overlapping MAGE-A3 peptides were assessed in PBMC and a sentinel immunized node (SIN) after 1 in vitro stimulation with recMAGE-A3, by IFNγ ELISPOT assay and by flow cytometry for multifunctional (TNFα/IFNγ) responses. Results Both routes of immunization were well tolerated without treatment-related grade 3 adverse events. All patients had durable Ab responses. For all 25 patients, the T cell response rate by ELISPOT assay was 30% in SIN (7/23) but only 4% (1/25) in PBMC. By flow cytometry, multifunctional CD8+ T cell responses were identified in 1 patient in each group; multifunctional CD4+ T cell response rates for Groups A and B, respectively, were 31% and 64% in SIN, and 31% and 50% in PBMC. Conclusion The MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was well tolerated after i.d./s.c. administration, with trends to higher CD4+ T cell response rates than with i.m. administration. This study supports further study of AS15 by i.d./s.c. administration. PMID:26581199

  5. [Neuropsychological impairment in the early Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Traykov, L; Rigaud, A-S; Cesaro, P; Boller, F

    2007-01-01

    This analysis is centered on the study of cognitive disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mainly for major neuro-psychological functions. We insist on the heterogeneity of the clinical picture peculiarly in the early stages of the illness, even if the deficits of episodic memory and of attentional/executive capacities are the first to deteriorate, preceding impairment in perceptual and language function and potentially having a substantial impact on the patient's capacity to cope independently. An episodic memory deficit is the hallmark of AD, but it must be stressed that this deficit may take different forms and its origin may be traced back to different cognitive mechanisms. One of the most striking aspects of episodic memory impairment in AD is the rapidity of forgetfulness on which screening and diagnostic tests of AD are based. There is some evidence that the episodic memory deficit in AD is one of learning (encoding and storage) of information rather than to a deficit of retrieval. Furthermore, episodic memory performance in AD depends on the integrity of semantic memory abilities, so giving support to a hierarchical model of organization of human memory. Finally, recent results show that an impairment of conscious recollection is responsible for the poor performance of AD patients in recognition memory. Executive deficits appear predominantly in tasks requiring cognitive flexibility and self-monitoring. With the progression of the disease, additional deficits are observed in the verbal concept formation abilities. These findings might be also very useful in the differential diagnosis between AD and the other cortical and subcortical dementias, as well as in the differentiation between AD and fronto-temporal dementia. We consider that studying early stages of the illness is necessary to delineate the diagnostic signs, to validate the new therapeutic experiments, to predict stages of decline. Recent research suggested that onset of AD is commonly preceded by

  6. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity.

  7. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  8. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  9. Cognitive world: Neuropsychology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-09-20

    It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions. Four neuropsychology cases are presented to illustrate this point: (a) prosopagnosia associated with spatial agnosia; (b) Gerstmann's syndrome; (c) dysexecutive syndrome due to a head injury; and, (d) patient with Capgras' syndrome associated with a left temporal cyst. It is further emphasized that non-brain damaged people present an enormous-but usually overlooked-dispersion in different cognitive domains, resulting in specific and idiosyncratic patterns of cognitive abilities. It is concluded that the concept of "cognitive world" in neuropsychology can parallel the concept of "perceptual world" introduced by von Uexküll in biology, which assumes that different animal species live in idiosyncratic perceptual worlds, available and knowable by the differences in their sensory system abilities. That is, different individuals live in idiosyncratic cognitive worlds, owing to their differences in cognitive abilities.

  10. RECOGNIZING AND IDENTIFYING PEOPLE: A neuropsychological review

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g. face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favour a distributed-only model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a ‘person-hub’ model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  11. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted.

  12. The Influence of Levetiracetam in Cognitive Performance in Healthy Individuals: Neuropsychological, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Julio Cesar; Gongora, Mariana; Vicente, Renan; Bittencourt, Juliana; Tanaka, Guaraci; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Morato, Gledys; Basile, Luis F.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Pompeu, Fernando A.M.S; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to analyze the influence of Levetiracetam (LEV) in cognitive performance by identifying the changes produced by LEV in reaction time, in neuropsychological assessment of attention and memory and in absolute theta power in frontal activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects (5 men and 7 women; mean age, 30.08 years, standard deviation, 4.71) were recruited for this study. The neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit Span (direct and indirect numerical orders/working memory); Stroop test (inhibitory control of attention); Tower of London (planning and decision-making) and a quantitative electroencephalography were applied in 2 different days after and before the participants ingested the capsule of placebo or 500 mg LEV. Results A two-way-ANOVA was implemented to observe the interaction between conditions (placebo or LEV 500 mg) and moments (pre- and post-ingestion of LEV or placebo). The data were analyzed by the SPSS statistical package (p<0.05). For the neuropsychological parameter, the Trail Making Test (A) was the only test that showed significant difference for condition in the task execution time (p=0.026). Regarding the reaction time in the behavioral parameter, an interaction between both factors (p=0.034) was identified through a two-way-ANOVA (condition versus moment). Electrophysiological measures showed a significant interaction for electrodes: F7, F3, and FZ. Conclusion The findings showed that LEV promotes an important cognitive enhancement in the executive functions. PMID:25912541

  13. Meta-analysis of academic interventions derived from neuropsychological data.

    PubMed

    Burns, Matthew K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusion criteria, which resulted in 37 articles that were included in the current study. Each article was coded based on how the data were used (screening-86% or designing interventions-14%), size of the group for which interventions were delivered (small group-45%, individual students-45%, or entire classroom-10%), and type of data collected (cognitive functions-24%, reading fluency-33%, phonemic/phonological awareness-35%, or mixed-8%). A corrected Hedges' g was computed for every study and reported for variables of interest. A Fail-safe N was also computed to determine how many studies with a zero effect would have to be found to change the conclusions. The data resulted in a small effect (g = 0.17) for measures of cognitive functioning, but moderate effects of g = 0.43 and g = 0.48 for measures of reading fluency and phonemic/phonological awareness. There were few studies that examined measures of cognitive functioning within the intervention process. Taken together with previous research, the data do not support the use of cognitive measures to develop interventions but instead favor more direct measures of academic skills (e.g., reading fluency) in a skill-by-treatment interaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  14. Influence of Reading Ability on Neuropsychological Performance in African American Elders

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Use of normative data stratified by education may result in misclassification of African American older adults because reading ability, an estimate of educational attainment, is lower than reported years of education for some African American elders. This study examined the contribution of reading ability versus education to neuropsychological test performance in 86 community-dwelling African American elders ages 56–91 with 8–18 years of education. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that reading ability, but not education, was significantly associated with performances on the Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Digit Span, and the Stroop test. Reading ability was not significantly related to performances on measures of memory. Medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.58–1.41) were found when comparing mean performances on neuropsychological measures in groups with low versus high reading scores. Results indicate that reading ability contributes beyond educational attainment to performances on some neuropsychological measures among African American elders. These findings have implications for reducing misclassification among minority populations through the use of appropriate normative data. PMID:21835850

  15. The Trail Making Test.

    PubMed

    Llinàs-Reglà, Jordi; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; López-Pousa, Secundino; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Torrents Rodas, David; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2017-03-01

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is used as an indicator of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and executive function. The aim of this study was to examine the TMT relationships with several neuropsychological measures and to provide normative data in community-dwelling participants of 55 years and older. A population-based Spanish-speaking sample of 2,564 participants was used. The TMT, Symbol Digit Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Span Test, Verbal Fluency tests, and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest were administered. Exploratory factor analyses and regression lineal models were used. Normative data for the TMT scores were obtained. A total of 1,923 participants (76.3%) participated, 52.4% were women, and the mean age was 66.5 years (Digit Span = 8.0). The Symbol Digit Test, MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest, Stroop Color-Word Test, and Digit Span Test scores were associated in the performance of most TMT scores, but the contribution of each measure was different depending on the TMT score. Normative tables according to significant factors such as age, education level, and sex were created. Measures of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and visuomotor processing speed were more related to the performance of the TMT-A score, while working memory and inhibition control were mainly associated with the TMT-B and derived TMT scores.

  16. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD.

  17. Long-Term Neuropsychological Profiles and Their Role as Mediators of Adaptive Functioning after Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari

    2017-01-15

    The objectives of the study were to characterize long-term neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during early childhood, and determine whether identified neuropsychological impairments mediated the effect of TBI on long-term adaptive functioning. Participants included 16 children with severe TBI, 42 children with moderate TBI, and 72 children with orthopedic injuries (OI) sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. Children completed neuropsychological tests and caregivers completed a structured interview of child adaptive functioning at 6.9 (±1.10) years post-injury. Profile analysis and multiple mediator modeling were employed. Children with severe TBI demonstrated poorer fluid reasoning and inhibitory control than both children with moderate TBI and OI, as well as slower processing speed than the OI group. Both fluid reasoning and processing speed were significant independent mediators of the effect of severe TBI on adaptive functioning. No neuropsychological measure significantly mediated the effect of moderate TBI on adaptive functioning. Children sustaining early severe TBI demonstrate persisting neuropsychological impairments into adolescence and young adulthood. The impact of severe TBI on children's long-term adaptive functioning is mediated in part by its effects on fluid reasoning and processing speed.

  18. Reference values for performance on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics V3.0 in an active duty military sample.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Dennis L; Bleiberg, Joseph; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa; Cernich, Alison N; Schwab, Karen; Ivins, Brian; Salazar, Andres M; Harvey, Sally C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah

    2006-10-01

    The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) is a computerized measure of processing speed, cognitive efficiency, and memory. This study describes performance and psychometric properties of ANAM in an active duty, healthy military sample (N = 2,371) composed primarily of young (18-46 years) adult males. Rarely have neuropsychological reference values for use with individuals in the military been derived from a large, active duty military population, and this is the first computerized neuropsychological test battery with military-specific reference values. Although these results do not provide demographically corrected, formal normative data, they provide reference points for neuropsychologists and other health care providers who are using ANAM data in research or clinical settings, with patients of comparable demographics to the present sample.

  19. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  20. Neuropsychological findings in pediatric maltreatment: relationship of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and abuse/neglect indices to neurocognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Michael D; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Maltreated (n = 38), maltreated + posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 60), and control youth (n = 104) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. The two maltreated groups performed significantly lower on IQ, academic achievement, and nearly all of the neurocognitive domains than controls. Maltreated + PTSD performed significantly worse than maltreated youth without PTSD on a task in the visuospatial domain that assessed higher order visuoconstructive abilities. No group differences were evident on the fine motor domain. PTSD diagnosis duration negatively correlated with the visuospatial, and dissociation negatively correlated with the attention domain. Cumulative lifetime maltreatment types experienced negatively correlated with academic achievement. Sexual abuse negatively correlated with language and memory functions after controlling for other maltreatment types. These data support the adverse effects of maltreatment on neuropsychological functions in youth and suggest that all child protective services identified youth should be comprehensively examined for the integrity of their neuropsychological functioning and academic skills, regardless of the presence or absence of mental health symptoms.

  1. [Proposal for a neuropsychological cognitive evaluation battery for detecting and distinguishing between mild cognitive impairment and dementias].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, Pilar; Azcárate-Jiménez, Leire; Seijas-Gómez, Raquel; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2015-06-16

    The early and etiological diagnosis of dementia syndrome in the clinical practice remains the neuropsychological assessment through the study of the cognitive profile of the patient and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the functions, both impaired and preserved. In this article, we describe a neuropsychological battery of cognitive evaluation to detect mild cognitive impairment in any of its clinical forms and dementia; as well as discriminate between the main profiles of dementia syndrome, based on its topographic and etiological classification (frontotemporal, temporoparietal, subcortical, cortico-subcortical and multifocal). This battery is implemented in the neuropsychological assessment specialized surgery from Navarra Hospital Center Neurology Service. Not only the tests that form the assessment protocol are presented, but also the theoretical models that are considered more appropriate for their interpretation.

  2. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  3. [The twenty-first century as a neuropsychology era].

    PubMed

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Lambert, J; Belleville, S; Platel, H

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews how neuropsychology, in the French-speaking world, has evolved as a discipline focused on research, teaching and clinical work. The article targets the last 30 years as this corresponds to the time at which the Société de Neuropsychologie de Langue Française (French-Speaking Neuropsychological Society) was created. The review addresses how the cognitive neuropsychology approach and the advent of brain imaging have shaped the field of neuropsychology in recent years. It presents the status of the discipline in the main French-speaking countries (where neuropsychology is currently developed) including France, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. It also analyzes a number of indicators that reflect the vitality of the discipline and its cohesion as a science and as a clinical domain. These indicators include the creation of specialized journals, organization of scientific meetings, accessibility to training programs in neuropsychology, development of discipline-oriented clinical programs, and the increase in scientific productivity. The Quebec academic environment is used as an illustration, whereby structured clinical doctoral training programs that meet national standards in neuropsychology were implemented to train clinical neuropsychologists. Finally, the authors emphasize the major role that the discipline is likely to play at different levels of society in the near future.

  4. The Neuropsychological Course of Acute Delirium in Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beglinger, Leigh J.; Mills, James A.; Vik, Stacie M.; Duff, Kevin; Denburg, Natalie L.; Weckmann, Michelle T.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Gingrich, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Although delirium is a common medical comorbidity with altered cognition as its defining feature, few publications have addressed the neuropsychological prodrome, profile, and recovery of patients tested during delirium. We characterize neuropsychological performance in 54 hemapoietic stem cell/bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients shortly before, during, and after delirium and in BMT patients without delirium and 10 healthy adults. Patients were assessed prospectively before and after transplantation using a brief battery. BMT patients with delirium performed more poorly than comparisons and those without delirium on cross-sectional and trend analyses. Deficits were in expected areas of attention and memory, but also in psychomotor speed and learning. The patients with delirium did not return to normative “average” on any test during observation. Most tests showed a mild decline in the visit before delirium, a sharp decline with delirium onset, and variable performance in the following days. This study adds to the few investigations of neuropsychological performance surrounding delirium and provides targets for monitoring and early detection; Trails A and B, RBANS Coding, and List Recall may be useful for delirium assessment. PMID:21183605

  5. Cortisol and self-report measures of anxiety as predictors of neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Shelley; Skeel, Reid

    2012-05-01

    Although increased anxiety and cortisol reactivity can disrupt neural activity and impact cognition, little research has evaluated associations between anxiety, cortisol, and performance on neuropsychological instruments. The current study investigated the relationship between exogenous salivary cortisol activity and self-report state anxiety on measures tapping a variety of cognitive domains. Fifty-eight male participants were randomly assigned to either a control (no stress induction) or an experimental condition simulating testing anxiety. Self-report state anxiety measures and saliva samples were jointly collected on three occasions. The experimental group generally performed worse than controls on declarative memory and working memory tests. Cortisol and self-report anxiety were not correlated. Inverse relationships were demonstrated between self-report anxiety and neuropsychological test scores. Baseline levels of cortisol at session arrival were positively associated with facilitative memory effects, though there was little association between changes in cortisol and cognitive performance. This study highlights the importance of considering the impact of anxiety during neuropsychological evaluations.

  6. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study.

    PubMed

    Battista, Petronilla; Salvatore, Christian; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  7. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency. PMID:28255200

  8. Interictal Epileptiform Discharge Effects on Neuropsychological Assessment and Epilepsy Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Drane, Daniel L.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Kim, Michelle S.; Gross, Robert E.; Miller, John W.; Faught, R. Edward; Loring, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Both animal and human research suggests interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic, and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present an epilepsy patient with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation, and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient’s verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions, and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative neuropsychological

  9. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2016-04-11

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  10. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  12. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance neurospectroscopy and EEG cartography in corticobasal degeneration: correlations with neuropsychological signs

    PubMed Central

    Vion-Dury, J; Rochefort, N; Michotey, P; Planche, D; Ceccaldi, M

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Eight patients with probable CBD were included in the study after full neurological examination and extensive neuropsychological testing, single photon emission computed tomography, anatomical x ray tomodensitometry (TDM), magnetic resonance imaging, and MRS examination. Results: MR spectra were abnormal in all seven patients in whom the examination could be completed. The EEG was also always modified in the CBD patients, and the abnormalities were enhanced by activation procedures. There was a good correlation between MRS anomalies and clinical presentation, between EEG modifications and neuropsychological patterns, and between metabolic (MRS) impairment and electrophysiological (EEG) slowing. Conclusions: These results confirm the asymmetrical features of CBD. Combined EEGq/MRS examinations at disease onset and during its subsequent course could provide strong diagnostic evidence of CBD. PMID:15314134

  14. Validity of the Ward seven-subtest WAIS-III short form in a neuropsychological population.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, B M; Meyers, J E; Bayless, J; Whetstone, M M

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) in a neuropsychological clinic sample finds that the short form retains equivalent psychometric properties to those previously reported for the same short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The correlations found for the 7-subtest form of the WAIS-III were .95 for Performance IQ, .97 for Verbal IQ, and .98 for Full Scale IQ. The 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III was also found to perform similarly to its WAIS-R counterpart on other markers of test accuracy. These results support the continued use of the Ward 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III in a neuropsychological population.

  15. Neuropsychological Function in a Child with 18p Deletion Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian L.; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Braaten, Ellen B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  16. Ecological validity of pediatric neuropsychological measures: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin K; Van Oot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are increasingly requested to identify specific deficits in cognitive abilities and determine the ways in which these deficits will affect a client's everyday functioning. The demand for prescriptive diagnostic endeavors that provide recommendations for rehabilitation has drawn attention to the necessity of considering the ecological validity of instruments. Most of the current knowledge regarding the ecological validity of neuropsychological measures is the result of studies examining adult and older adult populations. The relationship of test performance and everyday functioning in children has been less examined and is, therefore, less understood. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of ecological validity in neuropsychology, discuss why this is an important consideration when working with child populations, and provide suggestions for continued research in this field.

  17. Predictors of Neuropsychological Change in Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Chang, Grace; Jones, Jennifer A.; Antin, Joseph R.; Orav, E. John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the course of neuropsychological functioning in patients with chronic myelogeous leukemia (n = 91) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 15) who underwent standard treatment for their disease or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months post-treatment. At baseline, 23% of the participants (n = 75) in the longitudinal sample had Z-scores on at least one of the neuropsychological tests that were <1.4. Participants in the study showed improvement over baseline at the 12 and 18 months assessments. The average Z-scores for the six cognitive domains in the longitudinal data set over the course of the study ranged from −0.89 to 0.59. Significant predictors of change in neuropsychological test scores included age, with older participants showing less improvement over time. Other predictors included baseline cognitive domains (language, memory, and attention), previous cocaine use, disease status, intelligence quotient, and quality of life measures. Findings support previous studies in patients with hematological malignancies who showed cognitive impairments at baseline prior to HSCT. However, there was little evidence for further cognitive decline over the course of 18 months. PMID:23391504

  18. The management of temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass: effect on neuropsychological outcome.

    PubMed

    Nathan, H J; Munson, J; Wells, G; Mundi, C; Balaa, F; Wynands, J E

    1995-07-01

    Laboratory studies demonstrate that mild degrees of brain cooling (2 degrees C to 5 degrees C) confer substantial protection from ischemic brain injury, and that mild elevation of brain temperature can be markedly deleterious. During hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients are made hypothermic and then rewarmed at a time when they are exposed to neurological insults. Our studies show that during rewarming, peak brain temperatures near 39 degrees C often are achieved inadvertently. We hypothesize that maintaining brain temperature < or = 34 degrees C during and after CPB will reduce the incidence of postoperative neuropsychological deficits. We present safety data from a study of 30 patients assigned either to conventional hypothermic CPB with rewarming or a protocol where brain temperature is raised only to 34 degrees C at the time of separation from CPB. There was no difference in bleeding, cardiac morbidity, or time to extubation between groups. We designed a neuropsychological test battery to detect postoperative neuropsychological deficits and tested its usefulness in a preliminary sample of 15 patients undergoing hypothermic CPB. We found patient acceptability and compliance were good. Sensitivity also seemed adequate in that 30% of patients were identified as having deteriorated at 1 week postoperatively compared to preoperatively, a result similar to that reported by others. Clinical trials of the efficacy of mild hypothermia in modulating brain injury in humans are needed before techniques of CPB can be designed to optimize neuroprotection.

  19. On the use of different methodologies in cognitive neuropsychology: drink deep and from several sources.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Lyndsey; Howard, David; Best, Wendy

    2011-10-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology has championed the use of single-case research design. Recently, however, case series designs that employ multiple single cases have been increasingly utilized to address theoretical issues using data from neuropsychological populations. In this paper, we examine these methodologies, focusing on a number of points in particular. First we discuss the use of dissociations and associations, often thought of as a defining feature of cognitive neuropsychology, and argue that they are better viewed as part of a spectrum of methods that aim to explain and predict behaviour. We also raise issues regarding case series design in particular, arguing that selection of an appropriate sample, including controlling degree of homogeneity, is critical and constrains the theoretical claims that can be made on the basis of the data. We discuss the possible interpretation of "outliers" in a case series, suggesting that while they may reflect "noise" caused by variability in performance due to factors that are not of relevance to the theoretical claims, they may also reflect the presence of patterns that are critical to test, refine, and potentially falsify our theories. The role of case series in treatment research is also raised, in light of the fact that, despite their status as gold standard, randomized controlled trials cannot provide answers to many crucial theoretical and clinical questions. Finally, we stress the importance of converging evidence: We propose that it is conclusions informed by multiple sources of evidence that are likely to best inform theory and stand the test of time.

  20. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  1. Combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of drug effects on groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Ilan, Aaron B; Jiang, An; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Chan, Cynthia S

    2011-08-01

    An initial standardized approach for combining neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in order to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in groups and individuals is introduced. Its application is illustrated with sedatives, antiepileptic drugs, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and intoxicants. Task performance, electroencephalography, and evoked potential measures during computerized attention and memory testing that are most sensitive to drug effects are identified in a sample population and then applied to individuals. In six example exploratory studies, drug effects were detected with an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.97 (p < 0.0001; 95% sensitivity, 96% specificity). In 10 example validation studies with other drugs and/or different subjects and populations, detection was strong in the eight studies with drugs and doses known to have significant neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.83, p < 0.0001; 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity), whereas no effect was detected in the two studies with drugs known to have faint neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.56, p > 0.10). Individual differences in response to different drugs with similar clinical uses, to varying doses of the same drug, and in pharmacodynamic response were then demonstrated. The significant (p < 0.01) increase in sensitivity and specificity of combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures compared with the former alone suggests that fewer subjects may be needed to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in future studies. The findings suggest that the concept of combining neuropsychological testing with simultaneous measures of neurophysiological function is worth further exploration.

  2. Factor structure of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery for children: a brief report supplement.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sylvia An; Allen, Daniel N; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (HRNB) is the first factor-analyzed neuropsychological battery and consists of three batteries for young children, older children, and adults. Halstead's original factor analysis extracted four factors from the adult version of the battery, which were the basis for his theory of biological intelligence. These factors were called Central Integrative Field, Abstraction, Power, and Directional. Since this original analysis, Reitan's additions to the battery, and the development of the child versions of the test, this factor-analytic research continued. An introduction and the adult literature are reviewed in Ross, Allen, and Goldstein ( in press ). In this supplemental article, factor-analytic studies of the HRNB with children are reviewed. It is concluded that factor analysis of the HRNB or Reitan-Indiana Neuropsychological Battery with children does not replicate the extensiveness of the adult literature, although there is some evidence that when the traditional battery for older children is used, the factor structure is similar to what is found in adult studies. Reitan's changes to the battery appear to have added factors including language and sensory-perceptual factors. When other tests and scoring methods are used in addition to the core battery, differing solutions are produced.

  3. Complaints about impairments in executive functions in Parkinson's disease: the association with neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Koerts, Janneke; van Beilen, Marije; Leenders, Klaus L; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Impairments in executive functions are frequently reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about patients' experience regarding these impairments. This knowledge is crucial because if patients do not experience their cognitive impairments they do not report them to their attending neurologist. Consequently, patients might not get appropriate treatment. This study investigated if patients with a mild to moderate PD experience impairments in executive functions in daily life and whether these correspond with impairments as measured in neuropsychological assessments. Forty-three PD patients and 25 healthy participants were included. Groups did not differ in age, sex and education. All participants and their closest relatives completed a standardized questionnaire measuring executive functions in daily life. Furthermore, all participants were assessed with a test battery measuring executive functions. PD patients reported significantly more problems with executive functions in daily life than healthy participants. Furthermore, co-morbid depression had a negative impact on the number of problems with executive functions in daily life as reported by PD patients. The experienced daily life problems in executive functions were not associated with the patients' performance on objective cognitive measures. In conclusion, PD patients were aware of problems with executive functions in daily life and reported considerably more problems than healthy controls. These problems were however not reflected by neuropsychological tests and may indicate a lack of ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment.

  4. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  5. Short-Term Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Neuropsychological-Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Daccò, Silvia; Sacco, Ferdinando; Micieli, Wilma; Cavedini, Paolo; Caldirola, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. Methods Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care. At the beginning and the end of the hospitalization we evaluated: neuropsychological performance (cognitive tests on verbal/visual working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency, and comprehension); psychosocial functioning by the Rehabilitation Areas Form (RAF, handbook VADO); illness severity by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Repeated-measure ANOVA and Pearson's linear correlation were used. Results We found significant improvement (p<0.01) in all the neuropsychological tests except for one, in 4 out of 6 RAF psychosocial areas (“involvement in ward activities”, “autonomies”, “self-care”, and “self-management of health”) and in clinical symptoms severity. No associations were found between the amelioration of clinical symptoms and neuropsychological or psychosocial improvement. Conclusion A S-T PsyRP without specific cognitive remediation trainings may improve several cognitive/functional domains in MDD or BD inpatients, probably by offering opportunities to engage in demanding problem-solving conditions and cognitively stimulating activities. PMID:28096869

  6. Kurt Goldstein's test battery.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures.

  7. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  8. Genetics and neuropsychology: A merger whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the 2 should advance both fields.

  9. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    PubMed

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  10. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  11. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    PubMed Central

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition. PMID:24324246

  12. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas...

  13. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  14. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  15. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  16. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  17. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.