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Sample records for administered neuropsychological tests

  1. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  2. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  3. [Neuropsychological testing in medicolegal cases].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Because the assessment of cognitive function is among the most important diagnostic evaluations in medicolegal cases, neuropsychological testing, the optimal scientific method available to determine the manifestation of brain dysfunction, is a potentially very strong tool in those cases. However, the use of neuropsychological testing in a medicolegal setting should be done with caution. Firstly, the nature of any neuropsychological testing is complex, and cannot be simplified as "Test A measures Function A' ". Oversimplified explanation of a test is misleading, resulting in serious misjudgment in the legal procedure. Secondly, the result of the test shows someone's cognitive function at the time of the test, not the time of the act in question (i. e., a crime). Finally and most importantly, the cognitive function measured by neuropsychological testing does not directly correspond to the legal questions being asked, even when the terms used in the fields of law and neuroscience are similar. In determining whether an individual meets a specified legal standard (e. g., criminal responsibility), the results of neuropsychological testing are far from sufficient and substantial additional information is required. With these caveats in mind, an expert witness should carefully choose the neuropsychological testing battery in each case, which may greatly help to understand the individual's mental state at the time of the act in question. PMID:24341071

  4. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  5. Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Acker, C

    1985-01-01

    Female alcoholics performed significantly less well on neuropsychological tests than matched non-alcoholic controls. The range of performance deficits was similar to that previously reported for male alcoholics despite significantly shorter drinking histories. PMID:4084369

  6. [Normalisation and validation of the Brief Neuropsychological Battery as the reference neuropsychological test in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Duque, P; Ibanez, J; Del Barco, A; Sepulcre, J; de Ramon, E; Fernandez-Fernandez, O

    2012-03-01

    INTRODUCTION. The current batteries such as the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N) for evaluating cognitive decline in patients with multiple sclerosis are complex and time-consuming. AIM. To obtain normative values and validate a new battery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Four neuropsychological tests were finally included (episodic memory, the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, a category fluency test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test). Normative values (overall and by age group) were derived by administering the battery to healthy subjects (5th percentile was the limit of normal). External validity was explored by comparison with the BRB-N. The new battery was also administered to a subsample after 4 weeks to assess reproducibility. RESULTS. To provide normative data, 1036 healthy subjects were recruited. The mean completion time was 18.5 ± 5.2 minutes. For the 229 subjects who were administered the new battery and the BRB-N, no statistically significant differences were found except for mean completion time (19 ± 4 vs 25 ± 5 minutes). In the reproducibility study, there were no significant differences except in the memory tests. CONCLUSION. The scores on the new battery and the BRB-N were strongly correlated although the shorter completion time and ease of administration could make the new battery preferable in clinical practice. PMID:22362474

  7. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  8. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  9. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  10. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  11. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  12. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed. PMID:21846219

  13. Contributions of the Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) for the diagnosis of MCI in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Memória, Cláudia M; Yassuda, Mônica S; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments. Results: The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p < 0.001). A moderate level of concurrent validity was attained relative to the screening test for MCI (MoCA test, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of the original test, i.e., memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness of fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.09). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses suggested high sensitivity and specificity (81% and 73% respectively) to screen for possible MCI cases. Conclusions: The CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required. PMID:24806666

  14. Neuropsychological testing of high school athletes. Preliminary norms and test-retest indices.

    PubMed

    Barr, William B

    2003-01-01

    This study provides preliminary norms and test-retest indices on a brief battery of neuropsychological tests administered to a sample of 60 male and 40 female high school athletes. Forty-eight subjects completed retesting 8 weeks later. Analyses of baseline scores indicate that girls outperform boys on selected measures of processing speed and executive functions [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) Digit Symbol, Trails B, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)]. Test-retest reliability was low and varied widely among the tests. There were no gender differences in test-retest reliability. Reliable Change Indices (RCIs) were computed on the test-retest data for use in clinical interpretation. These preliminary results indicate that caution should be used in interpreting neuropsychological test data from high school athletes. The current findings indicate that separate norms for boys and girls are warranted. Caution should be used in interpreting discrepancies from baseline scores as a result of what may turn out to be poor test-retest reliability in this population. PMID:14591481

  15. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  16. Computerized neuropsychological assessment in aging: testing efficacy and clinical ecology of different interfaces.

    PubMed

    Canini, Matteo; Battista, Petronilla; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Salvatore, Christian; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  17. Predictors of Neuropsychological Test Performance After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus; Nesbit-Greene, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The influence of neurological and demographic variables on neuropsychological test performance was examined in 100 9- to 16-year-old children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of coma, neuroimaging findings, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender to variance in…

  18. Neuropsychological Testing in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What to Do When Baseline Testing Is Not Available.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Peter; Meyer, Jessica; Merritt, Victoria; Guty, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Barth and colleagues' seminal study using baseline neuropsychological testing as a model for sports concussion management serves as the template for many collegiate sports medicine programs. However, there remains a significant need for an evidence-based strategy in cases where no baseline testing has been conducted. In this article, we further articulate such a model based on work with athletes at our Division I university. The foundation of the model involves base rates of impairment in a typical neurocognitive sports concussion battery, with decision rules that differ slightly for males and females. There is flexibility in the model such that its application can start during an acute period postconcussion when athletes are still potentially symptomatic, as well as after athletes self-report being symptom free. We use our population of collegiate athletes and the tests we administer as a framework to provide concrete values to the proposed algorithm based on specific tests, but the logic of our evidence-based model could easily be applied to other sports concussion populations and neurocognitive test batteries. Our proposed neuropsychological concussion management guidelines are evidence based, but also allow for accommodating trends in the literature which suggest that increasingly individualistic clinical concussion management approaches are most prudent. PMID:27482777

  19. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  20. Comparison and Equating of Paper-Administered, Computer-Administered and Computerized Adaptive Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James B.; And Others

    Student achievement test scores were compared and equated, using three different testing methods: paper-administered, computer-administered, and computerized adaptive testing. The tests were developed from third and sixth grade mathematics item banks of the California Assessment Program. The paper and the computer-administered tests were identical…

  1. Importance of a critical reading of neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, M; Baschenis, I M C; Dolci, R; Bejor, M

    2011-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing has become an important part of the diagnostic tools available to assess children's functioning. Tests are routinely use to establish diagnosis, measure patient's impairment and drive rehabilitation. The authors present the clinical case of a eight-year-old girl, sent to our Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit for a suspected Specific Learning Disorder. Peculiar findings regarding attention and reading ability became evident during the initial evaluation; a mistaken diagnosis of dyslexia was avoided by carefully examining her global functioning (in particular sight, as she suffered from hyperopia but more importantly she had an insufficient control of vertical saccadic movements) and the strategies she used during testing. This constitutes a good example of the need to take into consideration the patient as a whole during any assessment, including neuropsychological testing. PMID:21654605

  2. Neuropsychological test norms controlled for physical health: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingvar; Almkvist, Ove

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of physical health on neuropsychological test norms. Medical and neuropsychological data from 118 healthy volunteer controls, aged 26-91 years, were collected during five recruitment occasions. The examinations included a clinical investigation, brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Test-specific statistical regression-weights for age, education and gender were calculated to establish preliminary test norms. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that control in addition for physical health moved best performance from age 60 to 65 for abstraction; replaced a plateau above age 70 for verbal fluency, with a continued rise in performance; eliminated significant negative influences of age on auditory learning, spatial reasoning and complex copying; reduced them on wordlist recall, psychomotor speed, visual scanning and mental shifting; and slightly reduced negative influences of low education on most verbal tests, several memory tests, and psychomotor speed, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.8 SD at age 80 and 0.4 SD at age 60. No differences were found at age 40. Although the sample size is not adequate to be used for normative data, the findings indicate that norms uncontrolled for health overestimate the negative influence of advanced age and low education, implying a risk of drawing false diagnostic conclusions. PMID:25356656

  3. Neuropsychological tests for predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Baerresen, Kimberly M; Miller, Karen J; Hanson, Eric R; Miller, Justin S; Dye, Richelin V; Hartman, Richard E; Vermeersch, David; Small, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine neuropsychological tests likely to predict cognitive decline. Methods A sample of nonconverters (n = 106) was compared with those who declined in cognitive status (n = 24). Significant univariate logistic regression prediction models were used to create multivariate logistic regression models to predict decline based on initial neuropsychological testing. Results Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) Retention predicted conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) while baseline Buschke Delay predicted conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to group sample size differences, additional analyses were conducted using a subsample of demographically matched nonconverters. Analyses indicated RCFT Retention predicted conversion to MCI and AD, and Buschke Delay predicted conversion to AD. Conclusion Results suggest RCFT Retention and Buschke Delay may be useful in predicting cognitive decline. PMID:26107318

  4. Longitudinal neuropsychological test performance among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Skolasky, Richard L; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate longitudinal neuropsychological testing performance over a 12-month period among HIV+individuals, and to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on neuropsychological test changes in Uganda. The study examined 77 HIV+individuals recruited from the Infectious Diseases Clinic at Makerere University, Uganda. They underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, immune status, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and 12 months later. Thirty-one individuals initiated ART (ART group) after their baseline visit, whereas 46 individuals were not placed on ART (no-ART group) during those 12 months. Paired samples t-tests were used to evaluate longitudinal changes in neuropsychological test performance for the entire sample, as well as for groups defined by ART initiation and baseline neurocognitive status. The study evaluated 77 HIV individuals (62 % women, mean age=37 years, mean education=8 years, mean CD4 count=235 cells/μl). Both the ART and no-ART groups showed significant improvements in tests of verbal memory, executive functioning, motor, and psychomotor speed performance, as well as depression symptoms. The ART group had significant improvements in CD4 count over the 12-month period (p<0.001), whereas the no-ART group had no CD4 count improvement. ART use is associated with improvements in cognitive functioning among HIV+individuals in Uganda. However, these improvements did not appear to be higher than those seen among HIV+individuals who did not initiate ART. Possible reasons for this include practice effects among the no-ART group as well as improvements in their mood and overall quality of life. PMID:23315423

  5. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  6. Official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: the utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Robert L; Sweet, Jerry J; Attix, Deborah K; Krull, Kevin R; Henry, George K; Hart, Robert P

    2010-11-01

    Serial assessments are now common in neuropsychological practice, and have a recognized value in numerous clinical and forensic settings. These assessments can aid in differential diagnosis, tracking neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses over time, and managing various neurologic and psychiatric conditions. This document provides a discussion of the benefits and challenges of serial neuropsychological testing in the context of clinical and forensic assessments. Recommendations regarding the use of repeated testing in neuropsychological practice are provided. PMID:21108148

  7. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: a correlational analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillin, R W; Ginn, C E; Strider, M A; Kreuch, T; Golden, C J

    1983-10-01

    A group of 100 neurological, psychiatric, and normal subjects were administered both the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. Correlations between LNNB subtests that tap skills necessary for academic achievement (Reading, Writing, Intellectual Processes, Arithmetic) and corresponding PIAT subtests were high. Correlations between LNNB Localization scales and PIAT scores were also high, with the left Parietal-Occipital Scale showing the highest correlation. Multiple regression analyses generated prediction equations for each PIAT subtest using the LNNB clinical scales. PMID:6671872

  8. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  9. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Bland, Amy R; Roiser, Jonathan P; Mehta, Mitul A; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K; Emsley, Richard A; Munafo, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18-50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  10. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  11. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

  12. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  13. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  14. Reliable change on neuropsychological tests in the Uniform Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Method Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least 3 annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer’s Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Results Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  15. Reliable Change on Neuropsychological Tests in the Uniform Data Set.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S

    2015-08-01

    Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least three annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer's Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A Web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  16. Exploratory factor analysis of neuropsychological tests and their relationship to the Brown-Peterson task.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Valérie B; Gagnon, Michèle; Coulombe, Daniel; Messier, Claude

    2006-10-01

    The interference condition of the Brown-Peterson task and the auditory consonant trigrams test was designed to evaluate working memory in that it required a division of attentional processes to complete two cognitive tasks. However, the specific cognitive functions contributing to the performance of this interference task have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine what other tasks are comparable to the Brown-Peterson task and conduct an exploratory factor analysis that included the measures from the Brown-Peterson task and other neuropsychological measures. A neuropsychological battery was administered to younger participants (n=107, mean age=20.83) and older participants (n=93, mean age=70.14). Factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Performance after the intervening serial subtraction task loaded on an auditory/visual working memory and complex attention factor and had common loadings with working memory subtests of the WAIS-III and the spatial span subtest of the WMS-III. Results suggest that the performance after the intervening serial subtraction task evaluates dual information processing, complex attention, and working memory. PMID:17071363

  17. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery. PMID:25882162

  18. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  19. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121384

  20. Administration of Neuropsychological Tests Using Interactive Voice Response Technology in the Elderly: Validation and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Delyana Ivanova; Talbot, Vincent; Gagnon, Michèle; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Interactive voice response (IVR) systems are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits) and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68–134). Only six participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale fourth edition subtests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93–95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93–95%). The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities subtest was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly. PMID:23950755

  1. Baseline Geography Competency Test Administered in Indiana Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.

    A baseline geography skills test was administered during 1987 to over 3,000 students who were enrolled in freshmen geography courses at 18 Indiana universities. Known as the National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level, Form D, this test was used to measure the students' level of geographic ability in:…

  2. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    PubMed

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings. PMID:19778915

  3. Neuropsychological test performance of patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, Tone; Barroso, Jose; Monton, Fernando; Nieto, Antonieta

    2002-08-01

    Although recognized as one of the most common hereditary diseases of the nervous system, the neuropsychological deficits in Friedreich's ataxia (FA) have rarely been studied. A protocol was constructed to assess the major cognitive areas in patients with FA and pair-matched normal controls. Motor difficulties, dysarthria and fatigability were taken into account. Neuropsychological assessment showed decreased motor and mental reaction times, reduced verbal span, deficits in letter fluency, impaired acquisition and consolidation of verbal information, proactive interference effect, and alterations in complex visuoperceptual and visuoconstructive abilities, in comparison with the control group. Magnetic resonance images showing cerebellar atrophy in the majority of patients suggest that cerebellar degeneration and the interruption of afferent and efferent cerebellar connections could be related to the cognitive deficits shown by our patients. PMID:12187450

  4. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  5. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  6. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population?

    PubMed

    Hestad, Knut A; Menon, J Anitha; Serpell, Robert; Kalungwana, Lisa; Mwaba, Sidney O C; Kabuba, Norma; Franklin, Donald R; Umlauf, Anya; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Healthy Zambian adults (N = 324) were evaluated to determine to what degree a Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery, with African American norms adjusted for age, gender, and education could be used in healthy Zambians, including 157 men (48.46%) and 167 women (51.54%) with an average age of 38.48 (SD = 12.80) years and an average education level of 11.02 (SD = 2.58) years. The NP battery included tests of attention/working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. The Zambian Achievement Test (ZAT) and the U.S. Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) reading subtest also were administered to assess literacy and quality of education. Similar to findings in Western countries, the Zambian results show substantial age and education effects on most tests and smaller, less consistent effects of gender. Beyond the basic demographic effects, urban/rural background had small effects on some cognitive variables, and the ZAT (but not WRAT-4) reading level was a robust predictor of performance on many NP tests, even when other background characteristics were controlled. Women in the United States tend to outperform men on tests of processing speed and episodic memory. However, Zambian women showed modest but statistically significant disadvantages versus their male counterparts. The results show that tests developed in the United States may be used in Zambia. Nevertheless, development and use of local cultural norms remains very important and is a must. New demographically corrected norms were developed for the cohort that was examined. PMID:26146950

  7. Relationship of Temporal Lobe Volumes to Neuropsychological Test Performance in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy…

  8. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  9. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  10. Pediatric Malingering: The Capacity of Children to Fake Believable Deficits on Neuropsychological Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Instructed preadolescents to "fake bad" on comprehensive neuropsychological testing, then had cases reviewed by 42 clinical neuropsychologists. Ninety-three percent of reviewers diagnosed abnormality, most attributing results to cortical dysfunction; no clinician detected malingering. Results are consistent with other studies exploring capacity of…

  11. Influence of negative stereotypes and beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a traumatic brain injury population.

    PubMed

    Kit, Karen A; Mateer, Catherine A; Tuokko, Holly A; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The impact of stereotype threat and self-efficacy beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) population was investigated. A total of 42 individuals with mild-to-moderate TBI and 42 (age-, gender-, educationally matched) healthy adults were recruited. The study consisted of a 2 (Type of injury: control, TBI) × 2 (Threat Condition: reduced threat, heightened threat) between-participants design. The purpose of the reduced threat condition was to reduce negative stereotyped beliefs regarding cognitive effects of TBI and to emphasize personal control over cognition. The heightened threat condition consisted of an opposing view. Main effects included greater anxiety, motivation, and dejection but reduced memory self-efficacy for head-injured-groups, compared to control groups. On neuropsychological testing, the TBI-heightened-threat-group displayed lower scores on Initial Encoding (initial recall) and trended toward displaying lower scores on Attention (working memory) compared to the TBI-reduced-threat-group. No effect was found for Delayed Recall measures. Memory self-efficacy mediated the relation between threat condition and neuropsychological performance, indicating a potential mechanism for the threat effect. The findings highlight the impact of stereotype threat and self-referent beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical TBI population. PMID:24352047

  12. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r = 0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r = 0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n = 26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  13. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  14. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  15. Test-retest reliability of psychological and neurobehavioral tests self-administered by computer.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; Storzbach, D; Binder, L M; Anger, W K; Kovera, C A; Davis, K L; Grossmann, S J

    1999-03-01

    A series of 12 psychological and 7 neurobehavioral performance tests were administered twice to a nonclinical normative sample with 1 week between administrations. The tests were presented in a self-administered computerized format. One week test-retest reliabilities were comparable to conventional administration formats. The results suggest that individual test reliability is not affected when tests are administered as part of an extensive multi-measure battery. Computer administered test reliability coefficients also were compared to a Mixed Format (computer-conventional) administration with mixed format reliabilities generally similar to the reliabilities of published conventional tests but also generally lower than same format testing. Compared to psychological test reliability, neurobehavioral test reliability appeared more vulnerable to decreases with mixed format testing. These conclusions should not be generalized to all computer implemented tests as the qualities of the test implementation will affect the outcome. PMID:9971880

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Psychological and Neurobehavioral Tests Self-Administered by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Keith A.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Storzbach, Daniel; Binder, Laurence M.; Anger, W. Kent; Kovera, Craig A.; Davis, Kelly L.; Grossman, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    Administered 12 psychological and 7 neurobehavioral performance tests twice to nonclinical normative samples of 30 adults (computer format only) and 30 adults (computer and conventional administration) with one week between administrations. Results suggest that individual test-retest reliability is not affected when tests are administered as part…

  17. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  18. Estimating base rates of impairment in neuropsychological test batteries: a comparison of quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Schneider, W Joel; Hale, James B

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychologists frequently rely on a battery of neuropsychological tests which are normally distributed to determine impaired functioning. The statistical likelihood of Type I error in clinical decision-making is in part determined by the base rate of normative individuals obtaining atypical performance on neuropsychological tests. Base rates are most accurately obtained by co-normed measures, but this is rarely accomplished in neuropsychological testing. Several statistical methods have been proposed to estimate base rates for tests that are not co-normed. This study compared two statistical approaches (binomial and Monte Carlo models) used to estimate the base rates for flexible test batteries. The two approaches were compared against empirically derived base rates for a multitest co-normed battery of cognitive measures. Estimates were compared across a variety of conditions including age and different α levels (N =3,356). Monte Carlo R(2) estimates ranged from .980 to .997 across five different age groups, indicating a good fit. In contrast, the binomial model fit estimates ranged from 0.387 to 0.646. Results confirm that the binomial model is insufficient for estimating base rates because it does not take into account correlations among measures in a multitest battery. Although the Monte Carlo model produced more accurate results, minor biases occurred that are likely due to skewess and kurtosis of test variables. Implications for future research and applied practice are discussed. PMID:22172567

  19. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  20. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms. PMID:26883764

  1. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srikanth; Jaleel, Qadir

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Materials and Methods: Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. Results: There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching) and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation), which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. Conclusions: The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere. PMID:25883476

  2. Cortical brain atrophy and intra-individual variability in neuropsychological test performance in HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsay J; Miller, Eric N; Hinkin, Charles H; Alger, Jeffery R; Barker, Peter; Goodkin, Karl; Martin, Eileen M; Maruca, Victoria; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Sanders, Joanne; Selnes, Ola; Becker, James T

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:26303224

  3. Toward a model of neuropsychological activity.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Galeano, L M; Rosselli, M

    1998-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to establish the intercorrelations existing among different psychological and neuropsychological test scores in a normal and homogeneous population. A second purpose was to attempt further step in the component analysis of cognitive activity measured by means of neuropsychological tests. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually administered to a 300-subject sample, aged 17-25 year-old. All of them were right-handed male university students. The battery included some basic neuropsychological tests directed to assess language, calculation abilities, spatial cognition, praxic abilities, memory, perceptual abilities, and executive functions. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered. Forty-one different scores were calculated. Correlations among the different test scores were analyzed. It was found that some of the tests presented a quite complex intecorrelation system, whereas other tests presented few or no significant correlations. Mathematical ability tests and orthography knowledge represented the best predictors of Full Scale IQ. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed five factors (verbal, visuoperceptual, executive function, fine movements, and memory) accounting for 63.6% of the total variance. Implications of these results for a neuropsychological model about brain organization of cognition were analyzed. PMID:9951709

  4. Characterization and Sociocultural Predictors of Neuropsychological Test Performance in HIV+ Hispanic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Ryan, Elizabeth L.; Robbins, Reuben; Monzones, Jennifer; Arentoft, Alyssa; Germano, Kaori Kubo; Henninger, Debra; Morgello, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Hispanic individuals in the U.S. have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, yet little is known regarding the neuropsychological sequelae of HIV within the Hispanic population. This study characterized neuropsychological (NP) test performance of HIV+ English-speaking Hispanic participants (n= 51) and investigated the combined roles of sociocultural factors (e.g., ethnicity, socioeconomic status [SES] proxy, and reading level) on NP test performance among our HIV+ Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants (n=49). Results revealed that the pattern of NP impairment in HIV+ Hispanic participants is consistent with the frontal-striatal pattern observed in HIV-associated CNS sequelae, and the overall prevalence of global NP impairment was high compared to previous reports with more ethnically homogeneous, non-Hispanic White cohorts. Multivariate prediction models that considered both sociocultural factors and CD4 count revealed that reading level was the only unique predictor of global NP functioning, learning, and attention/working memory. In contrast, ethnicity was the only unique predictor of abstraction/executive functioning. This study provides support for the use of neuropsychological evaluation in detecting HIV-associated NP impairment among HIV+ Hispanic participants, and adds to the growing literature regarding the importance of considering sociocultural factors in the interpretation of NP test performance. PMID:18954167

  5. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Aguiar, Wagner; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; de Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Methods A neuropsychological assessment was made in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia, aged over 65 years, literate, with no history of psychiatric or neurological problems and score on the Mini Mental State Examination at or above the cutoff point for the Brazilian population (>18 or >23) according to the schooling level of the subject. Eighty patients were evaluated by a trained team of neuropsychologists up to 24 hours before elective surgery. Results Among the patients evaluated, one was excluded due to score below the cutoff point in the Mini Mental State Examination and two did not complete the test battery, thus remaining 77 patients in the study. The mean age was 69±7.5 years, and 62.34% of the subjects had ±4 years of study. The subjects had significantly lower averages than expected (p<0.001) for normative tables on neuropsychological tests. Conclusion The study demonstrated the applicability of the instruments in the Brazilian elderly and low schooling level population, but suggested the need to determine cutoff points appropriate for these individuals, ensuring the correct interpretation of results. This battery is relevant to postoperative follow-up evaluations, favoring the diagnosis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing different types of surgery and anesthetic techniques. PMID:25993064

  6. Neuropsychological Testing in Interventional Cardiology Staff after Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Demi, Virginia; Campana, Serena; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Guagliumi, Giulio; Conversano, Ciro; Baroni, Stefano; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Picano, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at comparing neuropsychological test scores in 83 cardiologists and nurses (exposed group, EG) working in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and 83 control participants (non exposed group, nEG), to explore possible cognitive impairments. The neuropsychological assessment was carried out by means of a battery called "Esame Neuropsicologico Breve." EG participants showed significantly lower scores on the delayed recall, visual short-term memory, and semantic lexical access ability than the nEG ones. No dose response could be detected. EG participants showed lower memory and verbal fluency performances, as compared with nEG. These reduced skills suggest alterations of some left hemisphere structures that are more exposed to IR in interventional cardiology staff. On the basis of these findings, therefore, head protection would be a mandatory good practice to reduce effects of head exposure to ionizing radiation among invasive cardiology personnel (and among other exposed professionals). PMID:26400563

  7. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. Methods The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. Results The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. PMID:27171377

  8. Diagnosing PD-MCI by MDS Task Force criteria: how many and which neuropsychological tests?

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Holden, Samantha; Ouyang, Bichun; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal properties of a comprehensive (Level II) neuropsychological battery for determining Parkinson’s disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) by Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force criteria remain unresolved. Methods Seventy-six non-demented PD patients underwent PD-MCI classification using a consensus diagnosis and Level II criteria. We examined the optimal number of tests in each of the five designated cognitive domains, identified the best tests within each domain, and determined the best overall battery for PD-MCI Level II diagnosis. Results A battery with two tests per domain provided a highly practical, robust diagnostic assessment. Level II testing with the two best tests and impairment defined as 2 standard deviations below norms was highly sensitive and specific for PD-MCI diagnosis. Conclusions Our findings strongly support the MDS Task Force Level II testing recommendations, provide a framework for creating an optimal, efficient neuropsychological test battery for PD-MCI diagnosis, and offer specific test recommendations. PMID:25449653

  9. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests. PMID:16037652

  10. Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingvar; Johansson, Kurt; Almkvist, Ove; Lundberg, Catarina

    2016-04-01

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1) that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health. PMID:26946452

  11. Effects of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on neuropsychological test performance: complicating an already complicated story.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Jelinek, Lena; Brooks, Amanda M; Scheurich, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result in secondary test impairment and mimic manifestations of neural dysfunction. A total of 60 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls were tested with a multi-functional neuropsychological battery. At the end of the testing participants were asked about their effort and the severity of OCD symptoms during task execution. Up to one fourth of the OCD patients affirmed OCD-related worries and motivational problems during task execution. Poor motivation and checking were significantly associated with enhanced objective performance deficits. Whereas the present study does not negate a role of neurocognitive deficits in the formation of OCD, in our view the reverse relationship should be contemplated as well. We advise researchers to pay closer attention to possible confounds that may mediate the relationship between OCD and neurocognition. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:22166079

  12. Validation of Neuropsychological Tests to Screen for Dementia in Chinese Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of different neuropsychological tests and their combinations for deriving reliable cognitive indices for dementia diagnosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). One hundred forty consecutive patients with PD were recruited and administrated an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Discriminant analysis and receiver-operator characteristic curve were used to evaluate their correct classifications and validity. Patients with PD having dementia (PDD; 23.5%) performed significantly worse in all tests than patients without dementia. Age of onset, disease duration, Hoehn-Yahr grade, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores, and education were associated with dementia in patients with PD. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Block Design (BD) showed better specificity and sensitivity when used alone, and combined use of MMSE and BD further increased the validity. Our results indicated that the accuracy of MMSE was better in dementia diagnosis of Chinese patients with PD, and combined use of MMSE and BD could further increase the validity of dementia diagnosis. PMID:26646116

  13. NES test performance in a large US Army veteran sample: relationships with both demographic factors and traditional neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Letz, R; Pieper, W A; Morris, R D

    1996-01-01

    A large sample of Vietnam-era US Army veterans completed a set of 16 neuropsychological tests, including six computer-based tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), during medical examinations supervised by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Data for 881 participants of the Agent Orange Validation Study (AOV) and Vietnam Experience Study (VES) were available for analysis from public access data tapes provided by CDC. Information was available for several potential covariates from demographic questionnaires, a medical examination, and a medical history. Explorator, principal components factor analysis of 16 test variables yielded four factors, including one on which most of the NES tests loaded. The single best predictor of most neuropsychological performance variables was an index of general intellectual level as measured at entry into the Army almost 20 years before the neuropsychological examinations. Alcohol drinking variables were not related to neuropsychological performance. Several measures of general intelligence were compared for use as covariates of neuropsychological test performance. All were superior to years of education in statistically controlling for general intellectual level. PMID:8866528

  14. Order Effects on Neuropsychological Test Performance of Normal, Learning Disabled and Low Functioning Children: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Adebowale

    2000-01-01

    Investigated possible priming effect of two neuropsychological tests, the Booklet Category Test (BCT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Obtained counterbalanced order effects on like-aged sample of 63 South African elementary school students (normally- achieving, low-functioning, learning-disabled). Found a significant effect of set-shifting…

  15. Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marta Matos; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests has been widely studied, but their reliability has not. This study aimed to estimate the test-retest reliability of these tests in a sample of 34 older adults, aged 69 to 90 years old, without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and living in retirement homes in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The battery was administered twice, with a 4-week interval between sessions. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Rapid Visual Information Processing, and Reaction Time tests revealed measures with high-to-adequate test-retest correlations (.71-.89), although several PAL and SWM measures showed susceptibility to practice effects. Two estimated standardized regression-based methods were found to be more efficient at correcting for practice effects than a method of fixed correction. We also found weak test-retest correlations (.56-.68) for several measures. These results suggest that some, but not all, measures are suitable for cognitive assessment and monitoring in this population. PMID:26574661

  16. Estimating the Impacts of Educational Interventions Using State Tests or Study-Administered Tests. NCEE 2012-4016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Price, Cristofer; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the differences in impact estimates and standard errors that arise when these are derived using state achievement tests only (as pre-tests and post-tests), study-administered tests only, or some combination of state- and study-administered tests. State tests may yield different evaluation results relative to a test that is…

  17. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  18. Development of Teacher-Administered Tests for the SWRL Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    To investigate the type of classroom testing format most appropriate for the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, three types of teacher-administered tests for the SWRL Second-Year Communication Skills Program were developed and tried out during the 1970-71 school year. The tests were administered by the classroom teacher as…

  19. Two baselines are better than one: Improving the reliability of computerized testing in sports neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Tangeman, Lindy; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael; Aubry, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests are frequently used to assist in return-to-play decisions following sports concussion. However, due to concerns about test reliability, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends yearly baseline testing. The standard practice that has developed in baseline/postinjury comparisons is to examine the difference between the most recent baseline test and postconcussion performance. Drawing from classical test theory, the present study investigated whether temporal stability could be improved by taking an alternate approach that uses the aggregate of 2 baselines to more accurately estimate baseline cognitive ability. One hundred fifteen English-speaking professional hockey players with 3 consecutive Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Testing (ImPACT) baseline tests were extracted from a clinical program evaluation database overseen by the National Hockey League and National Hockey League Players' Association. The temporal stability of ImPACT composite scores was significantly increased by aggregating test performance during Sessions 1 and 2 to predict performance during Session 3. Using this approach, the 2-factor Memory (r = .72) and Speed (r = .79) composites of ImPACT showed acceptable long-term reliability. Using the aggregate of 2 baseline scores significantly improves temporal stability and allows for more accurate predictions of cognitive change following concussion. Clinicians are encouraged to estimate baseline abilities by taking into account all of an athlete's previous baseline scores. PMID:26786726

  20. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  1. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  2. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... authorized representative to administer written or oral tests; and (b) Identify personnel by current...

  3. Assessment of neuropsychological function through use of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery: performance in 4- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica; Nelson, Charles A

    2002-01-01

    In this article, children's performance on subtasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) is described. Two samples were recruited, one of which included children who spoke English as a second language. Children in this group also completed subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Revision (WISC-III). Despite the fact that ESL children scored over 1 SD below the norm on the WISC-III Vocabulary subtest, there were no CANTAB performance distinctions between primary versus secondary English-language speakers. In addition, several aspects of CANTAB performance were significantly correlated with verbal and nonverbal IQ. When developmental trends were examined, findings indicated that several aspects of frontal lobe function (memory span, working memory, and planning skills) are not functionally mature, by the age of 12 years. Implications for use of the CANTAB in clinical studies are discussed. PMID:12661972

  4. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Glenn E.; Simone, Christa M.; Ng, Nicole F.; Hardy, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings. PMID:26579035

  5. Using Technology to Create and Administer Accessible Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Technology is transforming many aspects of society including the ways teachers teach and students learn. Although technology has been firmly established as a teaching tool across a range of content areas, educators are realizing that technology also offers innovative ways to help their students take standardized tests that comply with the mandates…

  6. Dynamic feature analysis of vector-based images for neuropsychological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Cervantes, Basilio R.

    1998-07-01

    The dynamic properties of human motor activities, such as those observed in the course of drawing simple geometric shapes, are considerably more complex and often more informative than the goal to be achieved; in this case a static line drawing. This paper demonstrates how these dynamic properties may be used to provide a means of assessing a patient's visuo-spatial ability -- an important component of neuropsychological testing. The work described here provides a quantitative assessment of visuo-spatial ability, whilst preserving the conventional test environment. Results will be presented for a clinical population of long-term haemodialysis patients and test population comprises three groups of children (1) 7-8 years, (2) 9-10 years and (3) 11-12 years, all of which have no known neurological dysfunction. Ten new dynamic measurements extracted from patient responses in conjunction with one static feature deduced from earlier work describe a patient's visuo-spatial ability in a quantitative manner with sensitivity not previously attainable. The dynamic feature measurements in isolation provide a unique means of tracking a patient's approach to motor activities and could prove useful in monitoring a child' visuo-motor development.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing in the spectrum of normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Maria Paula; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Formigheri, Paulo; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Speciali, José Geraldo; Santos, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationships between brain structures and function (behavior and cognition) in healthy aging. METHOD: The study group was composed of 56 healthy elderly subjects who underwent neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Cluster analysis classified the cohort into two groups, one (cluster 1) in which the magnetic resonance imaging metrics were more preserved (mean age: 66.4 years) and another (cluster 2) with less preserved markers of healthy brain tissue (mean age: 75.4 years). RESULTS: The subjects in cluster 2 (older group) had worse indices of interference in the Stroop test compared with the subjects in cluster 1 (younger group). Therefore, a simple test such as the Stroop test could differentiate groups of younger and older subjects based on magnetic resonance imaging metrics. CONCLUSION: These results are in agreement with the inhibitory control hypotheses regarding cognitive aging and may also be important in the interpretation of studies with other clinical groups, such as patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24141834

  8. The Alzheimer’s Disease Centers’ Uniform Data Set (UDS): The Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Salmon, David; Mercaldo, Nathaniel; Ferris, Steven; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Chui, Helena; Cummings, Jeffrey; DeCarli, Charles; Foster, Norman L.; Galasko, Douglas; Peskind, Elaine; Dietrich, Woodrow; Beekly, Duane L.; Kukull, Walter A.; Morris, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropsychological test battery from the Uniform Data Set (UDS) of the Alzheimer’s Disease Centers (ADC) program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) consists of brief measures of attention, processing speed, executive function, episodic memory and language. This paper describes development of the battery and preliminary data from the initial UDS evaluation of 3,268 clinically cognitively normal men and women collected over the first 24 months of utilization. The subjects represent a sample of community-dwelling, individuals who volunteer for studies of cognitive aging. Subjects were considered “clinically cognitively normal” based on clinical assessment, including the Clinical Dementia Rating scale and the Functional Assessment Questionnaire. The results demonstrate performance on tests sensitive to cognitive aging and to the early stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a relatively well-educated sample. Regression models investigating the impact of age, education, and gender on test scores indicate that these variables will need to be incorporated in subsequent normative studies. Future plans include: 1) determining the psychometric properties of the battery; 2) establishing normative data, including norms for different ethnic minority groups; and 3) conducting longitudinal studies on cognitively normal subjects, individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and individuals with AD and other forms of dementia. PMID:19474567

  9. Reproducibility of computer based neuropsychological testing among Norwegian elite football players

    PubMed Central

    Straume-Naesheim, T; Andersen, T; Bahr, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Head injuries account for 4–22% of all football injuries. The rate of brain injuries is difficult to assess, due to the problem of defining and grading concussion. Thus computerised testing programs for cognitive function have been developed. Objective: To assess the reliability of a computerised neuropsychological test battery (CogSport) among Norwegian professional football players. Methods: Norwegian professional football league players (90.3% participation) performed two consecutive baseline Cogsport tests before the 2004 season. CogSport consists of seven different subtasks: simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (ChRT), congruent reaction time (CgRT), monitoring (MON), one-back (OBK), matching (Match) and learning (Learn). Results: There was a small but significant improvement from repeated testing for the reaction time measurements of all seven subtasks (SRT: 0.7%, ChRT: 0.4%, CgRT: 1.2%, MON: 1.3%, OBK: 2.7%, Match: 2.0%, Learn: 1.1%). The coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 1.0% to 2.7%; corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.45 (0.34 to 0.55) to 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84). The standard deviation data showed higher CVs, ranging from 3.7% (Learn) to 14.2% (SRT). Thus, the variance decreased with increasing complexity of the task. The accuracy data displayed uniformly high CV (10.4–12.2) and corresponding low intraclass correlation coefficient (0.14 (0.01 to 0.26) to 0.31 (0.19 to 0.42)). Conclusion: The reproducibility for the mean reaction time measures was excellent, but less good for measures of accuracy and consistency. Consecutive testing revealed a slight learning effect from test 1 to test 2, and double baseline testing is recommended to minimise this effect. PMID:16046358

  10. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  11. Neuropsychological picture of 33 spinocerebellar ataxia cases.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Laura; D'Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Franco, Alessandra; Caglio, Marcella Maria; Avidano, Federica; Manzone, Cristina; Mortara, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    We administered a large battery of neuropsychological tests to an heterogeneous cohort of genetically defined spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients in order to assess their cognitive profile and to compare cognitive impairment among different SCA genotypes, particularly between SCA with the classical pattern of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (SCA1 and SCA2) and those with a relatively "pure" olivo-cerebellar atrophy (SCA6 and SCA8). Our data revealed a neuropsychological picture characterized by fronto-parietal involvement with mnestic, linguistic, visuospatial, attentional, executive, and mood changes, in agreement with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome definition. We found a homogeneous neuropsychological profile among SCA subgroups with a prominent role of frontal dysfunction--particularly, attention, memory, and executive functions. We analyzed the possible interactions between neuropsychological pattern and clinical, demographical, and genetic variables. We found the presence of a cognitive impairment at the early stages of the disease, without visuospatial alterations, which appeared later. Age and education represented the most important demographic factors to predict the neuropsychological performance in SCA and in controls, but their effect in patients had definitely more impact. In our sample education could represent a protective factor and a marker of an enriched environment or a better developmental cognitive differentiation. We demonstrated that in our patients there was a distinct subgroup of high functional subjects and that triplet repeats modulated the effect of aging on cognition and progression of motor disability. PMID:21302172

  12. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  13. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  14. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  17. Virtual reality paced serial assessment test for neuropsychological assessment of a military cohort.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher; Rizzo, Albert A; Armstrong, Christina; Edwards, Joseph; Reger, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a difficult challenge for the DoD medical health system. Clinical neuropsychologists are being asked to make statements regarding a soldier's functional skills, ability to return to active duty, and competence in tasks of community living. Given the increasing prevalence of blast injuries to the head, and the fact that many brain injuries may have no external marker of injury, there is need for researching innovative assessment methods in detecting blast-related brain injury. To address these issues, two virtual reality-based Paced Auditory/Visual Serial Addition Tests (PA/VSAT) were developed that involve the participant being immersed in a Virtual Middle Eastern City as serial addition stimuli are presented. This study is an initial validation of the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT as assessments of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil version of the test, as well as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT appear to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's performance while immersed in a military relevant simulation. PMID:22357013

  18. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  19. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  20. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  1. Effects of microcomputer-administered diagnostic testing on immediate and continuing science achievement and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, Michael Leonard

    This investigation had three purposes: (1) to document any immediate and continuing benefits associated with the use of microcomputer-administered testing; (2) to determine what type of student might benefit most from microcomputer-administered diagnostic testing; and (3) to document the feasibility of microcomputer-administered diagnostic testing. The subjects of the study were enrolled in a biology course based on the BSCS Blue text. A random half of the students received behaviorally-stated performance objectives, while the remaining half received behaviorally-stated performance objectives in conjunction with microcomputer-administered diagnostic testing. The results of this study indicate that microcomputer-administered diagnostic testing can positively influence the immediate, but not the continuing, achievement of students in science. In addition, neither student aptitude nor achievement motivation level were found to interact with treatment or influence achievement. Affective data indicate that students react favorably to the use of objectives, computers, and diagnostic testing. Cost summary data reveal that when the expense of administering diagnostic testing by microcomputer is prorated over a five-year period, the cost of a diagnostic test is reduced to approximately three cents.

  2. Diminished performance on neuropsychological testing in late life depression is correlated with microstructural white matter abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Mettenburg, Joseph M; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Shimony, Joshua S; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Sheline, Yvette I

    2012-01-01

    mechanism for underlying myelin injury is chronic white matter ischemia related to intrinsic cerebrovascular disease. In some regions such as the cingulate bundle, the white matter injury related to late-life depression appears to be independent of and compounded by age-related changes. The correlations with neuropsychological testing indicate the essential effects of white matter injury on functional status. Lastly, response to treatment may depend on the extent of white matter injury, suggesting a need for intact functional networks. PMID:22487548

  3. Quantitative I-123-IMP brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing in AIDS dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; Rhame, F.S.; Meier, M.J.; Foehse, M.C.; Loewenson, R.B.; Lee, B.C.; Boudreau, R.J.; duCret, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    We performed I-123-IMP SPECT brain imaging on seven mildly demented AIDS patients and seven normal subjects. In an attempt to detect and quantitate regions of decreased I-123-IMP uptake, pixel intensity histograms of normalized SPECT images at the basal ganglia level were analyzed for the fraction of pixels in the lowest quartile of the intensity range. This fraction (F) averaged 17.5% (S.D. = 4.6) in the AIDS group and 12.6% (S.D. = 5.1) in the normal group (p less than .05). Six of the AIDS patients underwent neuropsychological testing (NPT). NPT showed the patients to have a variety of mild abnormalities. Regression analysis of NPT scores versus F yielded a correlation coefficient of .80 (p less than .05). We conclude that analysis of I-123-IMP SPECT image pixel intensity distribution is potentially sensitive in detecting abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia and may correlate with the severity of dementia as measured by NPT.

  4. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  5. Neuropsychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrene C.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive batteries for neuropsychological assessment of children with learning problems,such as the Reitan-Indiana and Luria-Nebraska Children's Batteries, have demonstrated diagnostic validity. Guidelines are proposed for the neuropsychological interpretation of assessment instruments commonly used by school psychologists and educational…

  6. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  7. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  8. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  9. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Stakeholder Accounts of Testing Experience with a Computer-Administered Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing…

  10. A Comparative Neuropsychological Test Battery Differentiates Cognitive Signatures of Fragile X and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, C. S.; Boutet, I.; Cornish, K.; Graham, G. E.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Drouin, A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standardised neuropsychological and cognitive measures present some limitations in their applicability and generalisability to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Alternative approaches to defining the cognitive signatures of various forms of ID are needed to advance our understanding of the profiles of strengths and…

  11. Should Creativity Tests Be Administered under Testlike Conditions? An Empirical Study of Three Alternative Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John

    1980-01-01

    Three conditions for administering creativity tests by Torrance and by Wallach and Kogan were compared: (1) untimed, gamelike; (2) conventional testlike; and (3) administration of measures under testlike conditions on two adjacent days, using the second testing as the predictor. The conventional testlike condition seems optimal. (Author/CP)

  12. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  13. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data. PMID:26012851

  14. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment policy; (3)(i) Administer post-tests with a secure, parallel, equated form of the same test—either traditional paper and pencil or computer-administered instruments—for which forms are constructed prior...

  15. [The Value of Neuropsychological Legal Evaluations].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, C W

    2016-07-01

    In the context of neurological assessment, neuropsychological deficits, in particular of attention and memory functions, usually require additional neuropsychological evaluation. Clinical neuropsychology also has at its disposal an inventory of validated and standardized tests for assessing symptom validity. Procedure, test selection, quality criteria and limitations of neuropsychological expert medical evaluations are presented. Independent expert evaluations should be conducted by a qualified clinical neuropsychologist. PMID:27472001

  16. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  17. School Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  18. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  19. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    In self-adapted testing (SAT), examinees select the difficulty level of items administered. This study investigated three variations of prior information provided when taking an SAT: (1) no information (examinees selected item difficulty levels without prior information); (2) view (examinees inspected a typical item from each difficulty level…

  20. Comparability of Computer- and Paper-Administered Multiple-Choice Tests for K-12 Populations: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies of the comparability of computer-administered and paper-administered tests. Not surprisingly (given the variety of measurement and statistical sampling issues that can affect any one study) the results of such studies have not always been consistent. Moreover, the quality of computer-based test administration systems…

  1. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  2. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  3. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  4. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  5. 49 CFR 40.347 - What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? 40.347 Section 40.347 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Agents § 40.347 What functions may C/TPAs perform with respect to administering testing? As a...

  6. Combination analysis of neuropsychological tests and structural MRI measures in differentiating AD, MCI and control groups--the AddNeuroMed study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawu; Paajanen, Teemu; Zhang, Yi; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Tunnard, Catherine; Sobow, Tomasz; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Evans, Alan; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka

    2011-07-01

    To study the ability of neuropsychological tests, manual MRI hippocampal volume measures, regional volume and cortical thickness measures to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Neuropsychological tests, manual hippocampal volume, automated regional volume and regional cortical thickness measures were performed in 120 AD patients, 120 MCI subjects, and 111 controls. The regional cortical thickness and volumes in MCI subjects were significantly decreased in limbic/paralimbic areas and temporal lobe compared to controls. Atrophy was much more extensive in the AD patients compared to MCI subjects and controls. The combination of neuropsychological tests and volumes revealed the highest accuracy (82% AD vs. MCI; 94% AD vs. control; 83% MCI vs. control). Adding regional cortical thicknesses into the discriminate analysis did not improve accuracy. We conclude that regional cortical thickness and volume measures provide a panoramic view of brain atrophy in AD and MCI subjects. A combination of neuropsychological tests and regional volumes are important when discriminating AD from healthy controls and MCI. PMID:19683363

  7. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test's final version Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  8. Development of a self-administered web-based test for longitudinal cognitive assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Luis; Sousa, Andreia; Severo, Milton; Alves, Ivânia; Colunas, Márcio; Barreto, Rui; Mateus, Cátia; Moreira, Sandra; Conde, Eduardo; Bento, Virgílio; Lunet, Nuno; Pais, Joana; Tedim Cruz, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Sequential testing with brief cognitive tools has been recommended to improve cognitive screening and monitoring, however the few available tools still depend on an external evaluator and periodic visits. We developed a self-administered computerized test intended for longitudinal cognitive testing (Brain on Track). The test can be performed from a home computer and is composed of several subtests, expected to evaluate different cognitive domains, all including random elements to minimize learning effects. An initial (A) and a refined version of the test (B) were applied to patients with mild cognitive impairment or early dementia (n = 88) and age and education-matched controls. A subsample of a population-based cohort (n = 113) performed the test at home every three months to evaluate test-retest reliability. The test’s final version Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90, test scores were significantly different between patients and controls (p = 0.001), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 and the smallest real difference (43.04) was lower than the clinical relevant difference (56.82). In the test-retest reliability analysis 9/10 subtests showed two-way mixed single intraclass consistency correlation coefficient >0.70. These results imply good internal consistency, discriminative ability and reliability when performed at home, encouraging further longitudinal clinical and population-based studies. PMID:26743329

  9. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  10. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  11. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  12. The relationship between performances on neuropsychological symptom validity testing and the MCMI-III in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Larry; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Lattie, Emily; Ference, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder that frequently presents with both cognitive complaints and psychiatric symptoms. This study investigated the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) performance and psychiatric symptoms as measured by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), a common measure of psychopathology. A total of 72 fibromyalgia patients at a tertiary care clinic completed the MCMI-III, an embedded cognitive symptom validity test (Reliable Digit Span), and a stand-alone cognitive symptom validity test (the Word Memory Test or Test of Memory Malingering). Of these patients, 21% failed a stand-alone SVT, whereas an additional 15% failed both a stand-alone and embedded SVT. Individuals who failed both stand-alone and embedded cognitive SVTs had higher scores on a number of MCMI-III personality subscales and had elevated scores on MCMI-III modifying indices compared to individuals who passed cognitive SVTs. Moreover, SVT performance was significantly correlated with multiple MCMI-III scores, including modifying indices, as well as the somatoform, depression, and anxiety subscales. In sum, cognitive and psychological symptom validity scores were significantly related. Given the new emphasis on cognitive complaints as part of the fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria, neuropsychological evaluation of both cognitive and psychological symptom validity should be a part of a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. PMID:22420469

  13. The Relationship Between Initial Physical Examination Findings and Failure on Objective Validity Testing During Neuropsychological Evaluation After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Provance, Aaron J.; Terhune, E. Bailey; Cooley, Christine; Carry, Patrick M.; Connery, Amy K.; Engelman, Glenn H.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The symptomatology after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is complex as symptoms are subjective and nonspecific. It is important to differentiate symptoms as neurologically based or caused by noninjury factors. Symptom exaggeration has been found to influence postinjury presentation, and objective validity tests are used to help differentiate these cases. This study examines how concussed patients seen for initial medical workup may present with noncredible effort during follow-up neuropsychological examination and identifies physical findings during evaluation that best predict noncredible performance. Hypothesis: A portion of pediatric patients will demonstrate noncredible effort during neuropsychological testing after mTBI, predicted by failure of certain vestibular and cognitive tests during initial examination. Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants (n = 80) underwent evaluation by a sports medicine physician ≤3 months from injury, were subsequently seen for a neuropsychological examination, and completed the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Variables included results of a mental status examination (orientation), serial 7s examination, Romberg test, and heel-to-toe walking test. The primary outcome variable of interest was pass/fail of the MSVT. Results: Of the participants, 51% were male and 49% were female. Eighteen of 80 (23%) failed the MSVT. Based on univariable logistic regression analysis, the outcomes of the Romberg test (P = 0.0037) and heel-to-toe walking test(P = 0.0066) were identified as significant independent predictors of MSVT failure. In a multivariable model, outcome of Romberg test was the only significant predictor of MSVT failure. The probability of MSVT failure was 66.7% (95% CI, 33.3% to 88.9%) when a subject failed the Romberg test. Conclusion: A meaningful percentage of pediatric subjects present evidence of noncredible performance during neuropsychological examination

  14. Latent Structure and Factorial Invariance of a Neuropsychological Test Battery for the Study of Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, N. Maritza; Hermann, Bruce; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the latent structure of a test battery currently being used in a longitudinal study of asymptomatic middle-aged adults with a parental history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and test the invariance of the factor solution across subgroups defined by selected demographic variables and known genetic risk factors for AD. Method An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a sequence of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted on 24 neuropsychological measures selected to provide a comprehensive estimate of cognitive abilities most likely to be affected in preclinical AD. Once the underlying latent model was defined and the structural validity established through model comparisons, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis model was used to test for factorial invariance across groups. Results The EFA solution revealed a factor structure consisting of 5 constructs: verbal ability, visuo-spatial ability, speed & executive function, working memory, and verbal learning & memory. The CFA models provided support for the hypothesized 5-factor structure. Results indicated factorial invariance of the model across all groups examined. Conclusions Collectively, the results suggested a relatively strong psychometric basis for using the factor structure in clinical samples that match the characteristics of this cohort. This confirmed an invariant factor structure should prove useful in research aimed to detect the earliest cognitive signature of preclinical AD in similar middle aged cohorts. PMID:21038965

  15. Multidimensional effects of acculturation on English-language neuropsychological test performance among HIV+ Caribbean Latinas/os

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Robbins, Reuben N.; Monzones, Jennifer; Miranda, Caitlin; Rosario, Ana; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D’Aquila, Erica; Sheynin, Jake; Fraser, Felicia; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Acculturation has been linked to neuropsychological performance in several ethnic groups. However, research among Latina/o samples has examined primarily Mexican/Mexican Americans, and has not examined Latina/o clinical populations of Caribbean descent. This study examined associations between a multidimensional acculturation measure and neuropsychological performance among 82 HIV+ Caribbean Latina/o adults. Multivariate results showed that U.S. acculturation significantly predicted 11–14% of the variance in Global Neuropsychological functioning, Verbal Fluency, and Processing Speed, whereas Latina/o acculturation predicted 8% of the variance in Executive Function and 6% in Motor Function (trend level associations). Both linguistic and non-linguistic cultural factors had distinct effects on neuropsychological performance. PMID:22624844

  16. Neuropsychological and MMPI correlates of patients' future employment characteristics.

    PubMed

    Newnan, O S; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A

    1978-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that patients' neuropsychological test scores correlate not only with neurologic status but also with their success in coping with some of the demands of daily living. This study investigated the utility of such laboratory test scores in predicting several vocational variables. Patients who had recieved neuropsychological evaluations were recontacted and questioned about their employment over the previous 6 mo. Of the 78 individuals who participated, 25 had been chronically unemployed. The remaining 53 were asked about job stability, hours worked, and wages earned, and were administered the Minnsota Job Requirements Questionnaire. Patients' scores on the Halstead-Reitan Battery, the WAIS and the MMPI were highly correlated with employment status (employed or chronically unemployed), income, and skills required on the jobs held. The results suggest that these tests may have clinical utility in assessing patients' employability, as well as the types of jobs for which they are suited. PMID:662567

  17. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

  18. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: The sample comprised 160 individuals with MS. One group of participants (n = 82) completed a 6MW while wearing a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) in a square hallway with four corridors and performing 90° turns. Another group (n = 78) completed a 6MW while wearing the same metabolic unit in a single corridor and performing 180° turns. Main outcome measures included total distance walked (in feet) and oxygen consumption (in milliliters per minute) expressed as 30-second averages for 1 minute before the 6MW and over the entire 6MW. Disability status was assessed using the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale. Results: Participants undertaking the 6MW in a single corridor (1412 ft) walked 37 ft (2.7%) farther than those undertaking the test in a square hallway (1375 ft), but this difference was not statistically significant (F = 0.45, P = .51). Those completing the 6MW in a single corridor expended more energy than those completing the 6MW in the square hallway with four corridors (F = 3.41, P < .01). Conclusions: Either protocol is acceptable, but researchers should be aware of the additional physiological demands when administering the 6MW in a single corridor with 180° turns. PMID:24688354

  19. Investigating Administered Essay and Multiple-Choice Tests in the English Department of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Lotfollah; Mehrdad, Ali Gholami

    2012-01-01

    This study has attempted to investigate the administered written tests in the language department of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan, Iran from validity, practicality and reliability points of view. To this end two steps were taken. First, examining 112 tests, we knew that the face validity of 50 tests had been threatened, 9 tests lacked…

  20. Evaluating constructs represented by symptom validity tests in forensic neuropsychological assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is

  1. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  2. Neuropsychological functioning following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C E; Borod, J C; Perrine, K; Beric, A; Brin, M F; Rezai, A; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Germano, I; Weisz, D; Olanow, C W

    2004-03-01

    The cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been examined. However, there are no reported studies that evaluate, by incorporating a disease control group, whether neuropsychological performance in surgical patients changes beyond the variability of the assessment measures. To examine this issue, 17 PD patients were tested before and after bilateral STN stimulator implantation, both on and off stimulation. Eleven matched PD controls were administered the same repeatable neuropsychological test battery twice. Relative to changes seen in the controls, the surgery for electrode placement mildly adversely affected attention and language functions. STN stimulation, per se, had little effect on cognition. The STN DBS procedure as a whole resulted in a mild decline in delayed verbal recall and language functions. There were no surgery, stimulation, or procedure effects on depression scale scores. In contrast to these group findings, one DBS patient demonstrated significant cognitive decline following surgery. PMID:15010083

  3. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  4. Neuropsychological Abilities and Academic Gains in Learning Disabled Children: A Follow-up Study over an Academic School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Silver, Cheryl H.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2000-01-01

    Learning disabled students (N=22) with documented learning disabilities on standardized tests at beginning and end of one school year were evaluated. Neuropsychological measures were also administered. Subjects demonstrated impairment on neuropsycholgical measures. By the end of the year subjects had improved in written language. Results suggest…

  5. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  6. Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    1982-01-01

    The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of…

  7. The need for continuous and comprehensive sampling of effort/response bias during neuropsychological examinations.

    PubMed

    Boone, Kyle Brauer

    2009-05-01

    While most neuropsychologists are now administering measures of response bias in neuropsychological evaluations, it is still likely that detection of non-credible test performance is inadequate due to faulty assumptions regarding poor effort, namely that it remains constant across a battery of tests. Four cases are described that illustrate the variability in negative response bias that occurs during neuropsychological evaluations; if effort had not been periodically sampled with heterogeneous types of effort indicators during these examinations, the suspect performance would not have been detected. These examples argue for both continuous and comprehensive sampling of effort, specifically that negative response bias be routinely monitored throughout neuropsychological evaluations, and that effort indicators involving differing cognitive abilities be employed to assess for feigning of selective deficits. PMID:18949583

  8. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels) and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone). Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46) was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance. PMID:22640773

  9. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  10. [Neuropsychological exploration in frontotemporal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, J; Böhm, P

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses the neuropsychological assessment in fronto-temporal lobe degeneration. Having established the neuroanatomical and functional basis for the discussion the major syndromes included in the concept of frontotemporal degeneration are reviewed from a neuropsychological standpoint. With reference to fronto-temporal dementia the different frontal or executive function tests and their limitations are discussed. With reference to progressive aphasia and semantic dementia we differentiate the distinct language profiles as observed in aphasia batteries and general neuropsychological tests. Reference is made to especially useful tests for the differentiation of the two syndromes from each other, as well as from other primary progressive disorders. Concluding remarks postulate a series of axis of cognitive function in fronto-temporal lobe degenerations, which exist at the functional as well as the anatomical level and along which the different syndromes evolve. PMID:10723171

  11. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    PubMed

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  12. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  13. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  14. Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tükel, Raşit; Gürvit, Hakan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oflaz, Serap; Ertekin, Erhan; Baran, Bengi; Kalem, Sükriye Akça; Kandemir, Pınar Elif; Ozdemiroğlu, Filiz Alyanak; Atalay, Figen

    2012-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease characterized by repetitive, unwanted intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, and motor speed. The objective of the present study was to investigate systematically the cognitive functioning of OCD patients who were free of medication and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 72 OCD patients were compared with 54 healthy controls on their performance in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were administered to the patients, and a semistructured interview form was used to evaluate the demographic features of the patients and control subjects. Overall, widespread statistically significant differences were found in tests related to verbal memory, global attention and psychomotor speed, and visuospatial and executive functions indicating a poorer performance of the OCD group. A closer scrutiny of these results suggests that the OCD group has difficulty in using an effective learning strategy that might be partly explained by their insufficient mental flexibility and somewhat poor planning abilities. PMID:21550029

  15. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  16. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  17. Distinguishing between neuropsychological malingering and exaggerated psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas; Chute, Douglas L; Mandel, Steven; Platek, Steven M; Zillmer, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    It is unclear whether symptom validity test (SVT) failure in neuropsychological and psychiatric domains overlaps. Records of 105 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation, who completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Reliable Digit Span (RDS), and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), were examined. TOMM and RDS scores were uncorrelated with MCMI-III symptom validity indices and factor analysis revealed two distinct factors for neuropsychological and psychiatric SVTs. Only 3.5% of the sample failed SVTs in both domains, 22.6% solely failed the neuropsychological SVT, and 6.1% solely failed the psychiatric SVT. The results support a dissociation between neuropsychological malingering and exaggeration of psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting. PMID:17853126

  18. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  19. Bowden, shores, & Mathias (2006): failure to replicate or just failure to notice. Does effort still account for more variance in neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity?

    PubMed

    Rohling, Martin L; Demakis, George J

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a smaller effect on neuropsychological test scores, in contrast to the large effect of poor effort on test performance. Consequently, many authors have concluded that effort needs to be measured routinely and that it is necessary to control for poor effort when measuring the effects of brain disease or injury on performance. Recently, however, Bowden, Shores, and Mathias (2006) have challenged these notions. They argued that the Immediate Recognition subtest of the Word Memory Test (Green & Flaro, 2003), an effort measure, is another verbal memory test rather than a measure of cognitive effort. In this study we re-examine the data from Bowden et al. (2006) and Green, Rohling, Lees-Haley, and Allen (2001) to identify differences between the two studies that might account for their contradictory conclusions. In both sets of data, reanalysis showed that effort explains approximately five times more of the variance in composite neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity. Importantly, scores on the Word Memory Test-Immediate Recognition (WMT-IR) were not correlated with measures of TBI severity, and were not found to correlate with major variables known to be measuring ability (e.g., years of education). These findings challenge the conclusions offered by Bowden and colleagues (2006). PMID:20029718

  20. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  1. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  2. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  3. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Poggesi, Anna; Chabriat, Hugues; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Fazekas, Franz; Hennerici, Michael; O'Brien, John; Pantoni, Leonardo; Salvadori, Emilia; Scheltens, Philip; Visser, Marieke C; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results showed that executive functioning, memory and speed of motor abilities are valid latent variables of neuropsychological performance among older adults, and that this structure is relatively consistent longitudinally, even though performance decreases with time. PMID:23398381

  5. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  6. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  7. Magnitude of cognitive dysfunction in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of six cognitive domains and the most frequently reported neuropsychological tests within domains.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Schneider, Andrea L C; Biessels, Geert Jan; Touradji, Pegah; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to conduct a meta-analysis in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards to determine effect sizes (Cohen's d) for cognitive dysfunction in adults with type 2 diabetes, relative to nondiabetic controls, and to obtain effect sizes for the most commonly reported neuropsychological tests within domains. Twenty-four studies, totaling 26,137 patients (n = 3351 with diabetes), met study inclusion criteria. Small to moderate effect sizes were obtained for five of six domains: motor function (3 studies, n = 2374; d = -0.36), executive function (12 studies, n = 1784; d = -0.33), processing speed (16 studies, n = 3076; d = -0.33), verbal memory (15 studies, n = 4,608; d = -0.28), and visual memory (6 studies, n = 1754; d = -0.26). Effect size was smallest for attention/concentration (14 studies, n = 23,143; d = -0.19). The following tests demonstrated the most notable performance decrements in diabetes samples: Grooved Pegboard (dominant hand) (d = -0.60), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (immediate) (d = -0.40), Trails B (d = -0.39), Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure (delayed) (d = -0.38), Trails A (d = -0.34), and Stroop Part I (d = -0.28). This study provides effect sizes to power future epidemiological and clinical diabetes research studies examining cognitive function and to help inform the selection of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24555960

  8. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the first study, we administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 20 deficit and 25 nondeficit patients with schizophrenia and 25 normal healthy controls. In the second study, a meta-analysis was conducted of 13 separate studies examining the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. There was little evidence from either of the present studies that the deficit syndrome is associated with a selective impairment in frontal and parietal lobe functions. The first study failed to find significant differences in frontal or parietal abilities for deficit vs nondeficit patients. The meta-analytic findings revealed that deficit patients were globally more neuropsychologically impaired than nondeficit patients (effect size [ES] = 0.41). Relative to nondeficit patients, deficit patients performed poorest on tests of olfaction (ES = 1.11), social cognition (ES = 0.56), global cognition (ES = 0.52), and language (ES = 0.51). The neuropsychological impairments associated with the deficit form of schizophrenia do not follow an obvious anatomically defined pattern of impairment. The question of whether deficit patients exhibit a unique cognitive impairment profile will require a more sophisticated and rigorous examination of the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. PMID:17159230

  9. Evaluation of the effect of methylphenidate by computed tomography, electroencephalography, neuropsychological tests, and clinical symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz Oc, Ozlem; Agaoglu, Belma; Sen Berk, Fatma; Komsuoglu, Sezer; Karakaya, Isik; Coskun, Aysen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the mechanism of action of these drugs is still not entirely understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), electrical activity of the brain, and clinical symptoms in children with ADHD using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electroencephalography (EEG), and neuropsychological tests. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, pediatric outpatients received MPH for 3 months at a mean dose of 1 mg/kg · d (range, 0.5–1.5 mg/kg · d). They were then administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), EEG, and SPECT of the brain. The parents and/or teacher of each child were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS), and the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition-based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S). All of the evaluations were performed at baseline and after 3 months of MPH treatment. Each child underwent a Stroop test as an activation method 15 minutes before the SPECT procedure. Results: Sixty patients were assessed for inclusion. Twenty-one children (18 boys [85.7%], 3 girls [14.3%]; mean [SD] age, 9.7 [1.7] years; range, 8–13 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD were included in and completed the study. Mean (SD) BGT scores before MPH treatment compared with after MPH treatment were significantly decreased (9.8 [4.2] vs 6.3 [3.4]; Z = -3.27; P = 0.001). After treatment with MPH, the visual SPECT results suggested that low rCBF was normalized in the right frontotemporal areas in 10 children with ADHD. After treatment, 12 patients (57.1%) had no change in EEG activity, 5 (23.8%) had improvement, and 4 (19

  10. Performance validity test and neuropsychological assessment battery screening module performances in an active-duty sample with a history of concussion.

    PubMed

    Grills, Chad E; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The current retrospective investigation sought to replicate previous findings demonstrating the significant impact of performance validity test (PVT) performance and evaluation context on neuropsychological testing. We examined differences on performance validity testing between active-duty service members undergoing neurocognitive screening for concussion who were seen in a clinical context and those who were seen in a disability-seeking context, as well as the overall impact of PVT performance on a neurocognitive screening battery. Overall, 38.2% of the sample failed the Word Memory Test (WMT). Of those involved in a disability evaluation, the failure rate was 51.9%, which was significantly higher than the 36.8% failure rate among those evaluated in a clinical context. The effect size of WMT performance on a cognitive screening measure was also large. The current retrospective analysis served to replicate previous work. PMID:26943837

  11. Fifteen Year Follow-Up Geography Skills Test Administered in Indiana, 1987 and 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, F. L.; Hayes, James J.; Jones, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    After fifteen years of geographic education efforts, a baseline geography skills test was repeated in Indiana. In 2002, 2,278 students in college freshman geography courses were tested with a revision of the National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level Form II. The test measured geographic ability in…

  12. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS... to administer or witness the testing; (b) Identify personnel by current position, years of...

  13. Test Validity and Performance Validity: Considerations in Providing a Framework for Development of an Ability-Focused Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Larrabee, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. PMID:25280794

  14. Test validity and performance validity: considerations in providing a framework for development of an ability-focused neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J

    2014-11-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. PMID:25280794

  15. Neuropsychological assessment for detecting adverse effects of volatile organic compounds on the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bolla, K.I. )

    1991-11-01

    Because there are no direct biological markers for the substances implicated in indoor air exposure, it is impossible to directly measure if an individual or group of individuals has been exposed to a potentially neurotoxic substance in the workplace. Behavioral changes may be the earliest and only manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) effects and are often too subtle to be revealed by routine physical or neurological examination. Neuropsychological techniques are sensitive to subtle behavioral/cognitive changes that can results from exposure to neurotoxins. These techniques consist of oral and written tests that are administered by a trained examiner on a on-to-one basis. In general, a wide variety of cognitive domains are evaluated. The typical battery generally includes assessing orientation, attention, intelligence, language, visual memory, verbal memory, perception, visuoconstruction, simple motor speed, psychomotor speed, and mood. As with most assessment techniques, the neuropsychological methods have limitations. One major drawback is the availability of appropriate norms that are used to compare the results of a specific individual. Although neuropsychological tests are sensitive to the presence of CNS involvement, they are not specific. Patterns of performance seen with specific instances of neurotoxic exposure may also be seen with a number of other diseases of the CNS such as dementia, cerebrovascular disease, hydrocephalus, or normal aging. Some of the more sensitive neuropsychological tests are presented. Interpretations of test performance as they relate to toxic effects on the CNS are discussed.

  16. Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gjaerum, B

    1997-01-01

    Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M

  17. Development of a menu of performance tests self-administered on a portable microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen cognitive, motor, and information processing performance subtests were screened for self-administration over 10 trials by 16 subjects. When altered presentation forms of the same test were collectively considered, the battery composition was reduced to 10 distinctly different measures. A fully automated microbased testing system was employed in presenting the battery of subtests. Successful self-administration of the battery provided for the field testing of the automated system and facilitated convenient data collection. Total test administration time was 47.2 minutes for each session. Results indicated that nine of the tests stabilized, but for a short battery of tests only five are recommended for use in repeated-measures research. The five recommended tests include: the Tapping series, Number Comparison, Short-term Memory, Grammatical Reasoning, and 4-Choice Reaction Time. These tests can be expected to reveal three factors: (1) cognition, (2) processing quickness, and (3) motor. All the tests stabilized in 24 minutes, or approximately two 12-minute sessions.

  18. Paradigmatic Results of a Word Association Test Administered in English and Farsi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crable, Elaine Ann; Johnson, David

    A study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a difference exists between the results of a paradigmatic/syntagmatic word association test given in an individual's native language and in his second language. The sample used in this study consists of 23 Iranian officers attending a course at Air University in Alabama. Their primary language is…

  19. A neuropsychological approach to intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A

    1999-09-01

    This paper proposes that current psychometric intelligence tests are limited in evaluating cognitive activity. From a neuropsychological perspective, they fail to measure some fundamental cognitive abilities such as executive functions, memory, and visuospatial abilities. The analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale presented shows that the original rationale for selecting the specific subtests included in the WAIS was unclear. The concept of a g factor in cognition is also analyzed, with the conclusion that the g factor continues to be controversial. The value of intelligence tests in predicting school performance is also criticized. It is proposed that the psychometric concept of general intelligence should be deleted from cognitive and neurological sciences. Finally, it is proposed that, in the future, neuropsychological instruments sensitive to more specific cognitive abilities replace current psychometric intelligence tests. PMID:10565673

  20. Choice in HIV testing: the acceptability and anticipated use of a self-administered at-home oral HIV test among South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Cheruvillil, Sonia; Christian, Stephanie; Mantell, Joanne E; Milford, Cecilia; Rambally-Greener, Letitia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Greener, Ross; Smit, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is being widely promoted by funders. This strategy aims to offer HIV prevention choices that can be selected and combined to decrease HIV risk in ways that fit with each individual's situation. Treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis are two new evidence-based strategies to decrease HIV incidence, both of which require high HIV testing rates to be effective, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a goal of 90% of HIV-positive individuals knowing their status by 2030. However, HIV testing rates in many countries remain suboptimal. Just as no single HIV prevention method is ideal for all people in all situations, no single HIV testing modality is likely to be acceptable to everyone. By offering HIV testing choices, we may be able to increase testing rates. However, many low-resourced countries have been slow to take up new HIV testing options such as the self-administered at-home oral HIV test that is currently available in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews, conducted in 2010, documenting opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing, a testing modality still largely unavailable in Africa. Participants were clients of three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. Self-testing was seen as enabling confidentiality/privacy, saving time, and facilitating testing together with partners. However, concerns were raised about psychological distress when testing at home without a counsellor. Some suggested this concern could be minimised by having experienced clinic-based HIV testing and counselling before getting self-testing kits for home use. Thus, self-administered HIV testing could be an option added to the current testing modalities to address some important barriers to testing. PMID:27399040

  1. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices. PMID:26136693

  2. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain…

  3. Ecological validity of neuropsychological and personality measures of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Ready, R E; Stierman, L; Paulsen, J S

    2001-08-01

    Associations between two types of measures of executive functions, namely, neuropsychological and personality, and measures of real-world behavior were investigated. Undergraduate students were administered neuropsychological measures of executive functions and completed a personality questionnaire developed to measure traits central to the construct of executive functions. Participants also reported on their behavior. Hierarchical regressions indicated that neuropsychological and personality measures of executive functions were significant predictors of different types of behavior. Neuropsychological measures predicted work behaviors and personality measures predicted substance use, risk-taking, and aggressive behaviors. Findings highlight the importance of including personality assessment in standard neuropsychological assessment in order to maximize ability to predict real-world behaviors relevant to independent and socially responsible functioning. PMID:11778769

  4. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    PubMed

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's < .05). The two groups performed similarly on tests of executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  5. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone. PMID:26029852

  6. Metallothionein-like cadmium binding protein in rat testes administered with cadmium and selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Seki, Y.; Imamiya, S.

    1988-08-01

    It is well known that the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium toxicity are protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium, and that the cadmium concentration in the testis increases remarkably as compared with that of only cadmium administration. The increased cadmium in the testis was found in the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium, and it has been thought that the shift of cadmium from the low molecular weight fraction to the high molecular weight fraction containing selenium is an important protection mechanism. However, the cadmium concentration in this high molecular weight fraction decreased with time, then re-shifted to the fraction of metallothionein, a low molecular weight protein having a protective effect against cadmium toxicity. While recently studying the cadmium binding protein, like metallothionein, in testes, it has been reported that the amino acid composition of cadmium binding protein in testis is not similar to that of the hepatic metallothionein. The present study was undertaken to clarify the properties of the increased cadmium binding protein in the testis protected by simultaneous selenium administration with cadmium.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  8. A Further Examination of the Effects of Administering the Metropolitan Reading Tests in Spanish and English to Spanish-Speaking School Entrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    In a study designed to assess effects of administering the Metropolitan Reading Test (MRT) in Spanish versus English, 100 Puerto Rican kindergarten pupils were randomly split into two groups. The MRT was administered in English to one group and in a Spanish translation to the other group. The group who took the Spanish version significantly…

  9. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  10. Neuropsychologic evaluation and exposure to neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Lezak, Muriel D

    2015-01-01

    The history of neuropsychologic assessment describes the development of a psychometric approach to neuropsychologic measurement, based on the initial clinical/theoretical approach exemplified by pioneers, who also discussed different brain functions and hypotheses for clinical exploration and treatment. Early neuropsychologic assessment practices in the USA arose out of the need to screen, diagnose, and treat World War II veterans who returned with brain injuries. Clinical testing was used to determine treatment and rehabilitation potential. Clinical psychologists had previously developed educational tests to investigate students' abilities and disabilities. Using population studies, primarily in the USA, Canada and Europe, neuropsychologists developed standardized test scores, permitting comparisons of scores based on the normal curve and evolving knowledge of brain/behavior relationships. In clinical interpretations, neuropsychologists use extensive normative data based on cognitive, mood, executive, neurologic, and motor brain functions of groups with different cultural and educational backgrounds and psychiatric illnesses. Large groups of workers can be screened with a brief neuropsychologic screening test battery to assess the psychologic status of personnel. Commonly used tests by domain are described, as well as patterns of acute and chronic neurotoxicant exposures, treatment, and rehabilitation. Future developments will relate imaging studies to neuropsychologic performance. PMID:26563781

  11. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    No significant differences in performance on a self-adapted test or anxiety were found for college students (n=218) taking a self-adapted test who selected item difficulty without any prior information, inspected an item before selecting, or answered a typical item and received performance feedback. (SLD)

  12. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in assessment of cognitive parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in relation to autoantibody profile

    PubMed Central

    Sobow, Tomasz; Kowalski, Jan; Ząbek, Jakub; Woźniacka, Anna; Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To relate the cognitive parameters of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in remission to their profile of autoantibodies. Material and methods The study included 32 patients with SLE in remission, with mild disease activity as indicated by SELENA-SLEDAI < 6. For neuropsychological assessment, the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was applied, using motor screening (MOT), big little circle (BLC), paired associated learning (PAL), stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and graded naming tests (GNT). Detection of autoantibodies against dsDNA, nucleosome (aNuc), Sm, and anticardiolipin (aCL: IgG and IgM) was performed with immunoassays. Results The SLE patients demonstrated standard scores below norms, matched according to age and gender, in the following tests: GNT (–0.87 ±0.85), SOC PSMM (–0.47 ±0.97), PAL (–1.88 ±3.58), and BLC (–0.31 ±1.90). GNT scores under –0.5 were found significantly more frequently in SLE patients, seen in roughly 66% of test subjects. Values for PAL and mean subsequent thinking time of stockings of Cambridge (SOC MSTT) were found to be lower than –0.5 in approximately half of the patients. Mean error of motor screening (MOT ME) was found to negatively correlate with mean latency of motor screening (MOT ML) (r = –0.55). PAL significantly correlated with SOC MSTT (r = 0.38) and with GNT (r = 0.36). Anti-dsDNA antibody level correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = –0.46). Anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with MOT ML (r = 0.41) but negatively correlated with MOT ME (r = –0.58). The levels of anti-Sm, anti-CL IgM and IgG did not correlate significantly with the outcomes of CANTAB. The age of the patients correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = –0.36), positively with BLC (r = 0.53) and negatively with SOC MSTT (r = –0.43). The level of anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with anti-dsDNA level (r = 0.62) and of anti-CL IgM with anti-Sm (r = 0.39) and anti-CL IgG (r = 0.87). Conclusions CANTAB

  13. Critical tests of the antiparasitic activity of thiabendazole and trichlorfon sequentially administered to horses via stomach tube.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1977-06-01

    Thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. Single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. Parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar Gasterophilus nasalis and 82 to 100% against 3rd instar G intestinals. There were complete removals of mature and immature Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi. Removal efficacies against Strongylus vulgaris were 89 to 100% and against Strongylus edentatus, 82 to 100%. Of 2 horses infected with Strongylus equinus, removals were 72 and 100%. Seven of the 13 horses treated had transient, semi-liquid feces during the posttreatment hours 1 through 24. PMID:879569

  14. Neuropsychological Correlates of Severe Asthma in Children 9-14 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Raymond A.; Baade, Lyle E.

    1980-01-01

    The Halstead Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children profiles revealed that neuropsychological behavior deficits of impaired asthmatic children exist predominantly in visualizing and remembering spatial configurations, in incidental memory, and in planning and executing visual and tactile motor tasks. (Author)

  15. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  16. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Adarsh; Rana, Devender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been encouraged by brain imaging studies suggesting a putative fron to- striatial biological basis of the condition. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, motor speed and memory. The Aim of the present study was to assess neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD. Objectives of the study were to assess and compare the neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty clinically stable outpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD and equal number of normal controls matched for age, education, gender and handedness were studied using a battery of neuropsychological tests. The tests consisted of verbal and performance tests of intelligence, memory, perceptual motor functions, set test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: On perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence and memory patients with OCD did not show impairments comparable to healthy controls. An attempt to correlate the test findings with the duration of illness, stability of illness and the average drug dose was made and it was found that there was no correlation between the two. Conclusion: The present study does not provide evidence for a localized neuropsychological/cognitive impairment in OCD in cases that are stable for at least three months. Absence of impairments in perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence, and memory does not agree with the results of other studies using these tests. PMID:25969608

  18. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  19. Screening for Substance Use Disorder Among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Administered and Interviewer-Administered Modalities.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost-effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2×2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  20. The Indiana University Telephone-Based Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: A new method for large scale neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    UNVERZAGT, FREDERICK W.; MONAHAN, PATRICK O.; MOSER, LYNDSI R.; ZHAO, QIANQIAN; CARPENTER, JANET S.; SLEDGE, GEORGE W.; CHAMPION, VICTORIA L.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive measures of neuropsychological function were adapted to a telephone administration format for use in a large survey of quality of life in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Healthy controls (HC) and BCS were recruited from the community and administered the same neuropsychological test battery on two occasions separated by 1 week. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions, stratified by diagnosis: In-person at Time-1 and In-person at Time-2 (P-P); Telephone at Time-1 and Telephone at Time-2 (T-T); T-P; and P-T. Four cognitive (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Digit Span, Symbol Digit) and two self-report measures (Squire Memory Self-Report Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The 106 subjects were randomized (54 HC and 52 BCS). Test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations) did not differ significantly by condition across the cognitive or self-report measures and ranged from moderate to near perfect (r's .43–.93; p's < .05). Mean scores at Time-1, practice effects (Time-1 to Time-2), and standard errors of measurement were comparable between In-person and Telephone administration formats. Results suggest that memory, attention, information processing speed, verbal fluency, and self-report of mood and memory can be measured reliably and precisely over the telephone. PMID:17697411

  1. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Changes in a "Normal" Elderly Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, William D.; And Others

    Given the methodological problems with generating and using normative data with the elderly, the need for age-related norms on neuropsychological tests is clearly important. A study was conducted to examine a normal elderly group's performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) over time. Subjects were 57 elderly volunteers…

  2. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  3. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed. PMID:18609338

  4. Test-retest bias, reliability, and regression equations for neuropsychological measures repeated over a 12-16-week period.

    PubMed

    Salinsky, M C; Storzbach, D; Dodrill, C B; Binder, L M

    2001-07-01

    The interpretation of neurobehavioral change over time requires knowledge of the test-retest characteristics of the measures. Without this information it is not possible to distinguish a true change (i.e., one reflecting the occurrence or resolution of an intervening process) from that occurring on the basis of chance or systematic bias. We tested a group of 72 healthy young to middle aged adults twice over a 12-to-16-week interval in order to observe the change in scores over time when there was no known intervention. The test battery consisted of seven commonly used cognitive measures and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Test-retest regression equations were calculated for each measure using initial performance, age, education, and a measure of general intellectual function (Wonderlic Personnel Test) as regressors. Test-retest correlations ranged from .39 (POMS Fatigue) to .89 (Digit Symbol). Cognitive measures generally yielded higher correlations than did the POMS. Univariate regressions based only on initial performance adequately predicted retest performance for the majority of measures. Age and education had a relatively minor influence. Practice effects and regression to the mean were common. These test-retest regression equations can be used to predict retest scores when there has been no known intervention. They can also be used to generate statistical statements regarding the significance of change in an individual's performance over a 12-to-16-week interval. PMID:11459111

  5. Normative Data for Eight Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A.; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley 6, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurologic disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61–82 years (mean 71 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education specific mean and −1.5 standard deviation scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Administered Testing, Computer-Based Learning and Lecture Approaches on Learning in an Introductory Biology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, M. A. J.; Earle, P.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of units using computers and computer-administered tests. The greatest benefit was attained by those using the units and attending lectures. Students using both the units and tests did not perform as well as the lecture only group. Explores the correlation between high school grades and the methods. (Author/YP)

  7. The effect of varied test instructions on neuropsychological performance following mild traumatic brain injury: an investigation of "diagnosis threat".

    PubMed

    Blaine, Hannah; Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

    2013-08-15

    Diagnosis threat is a psychosocial factor that has been proposed to contribute to poor outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This threat is thought to impair the cognitive test performance of individuals with mTBI because of negative injury stereotypes. University students (N=45, 62.2% female) with a history of mTBI were randomly allocated to a diagnosis threat (DT; n=15), reduced threat (DT-reduced; n=15), or neutral (n=15) group. The reduced threat condition invoked a positive stereotype (i.e., that people with mTBI can perform well on cognitive tests). All participants were given neutral instructions before they completed baseline tests of objective cognitive function across a number of domains, psychological symptoms, and PCS symptoms, including self-reported cognitive and emotional difficulties. Participants then received either neutral, DT, or DT-reduced instructions before repeating the tests. Results were analyzed using separate mixed model analysis of variances (ANOVAs); one for each dependent measure. The only significant result was for the 2 × 3 ANOVA on an objective test of attention/working memory, Digit Span (p<0.05), such that the DT-reduced group performed better than the other groups, which were not different from each other. Although not consistent with predictions or earlier DT studies, the absence of group differences on most tests fits with several recent DT findings. The results of this study suggest that it is timely to reconsider the role of DT as a unique contributor to poor mTBI outcome. PMID:23410235

  8. Speech and Pause Characteristics in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study of Speakers with High and Low Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenaughty, Lynda; Tjaden, Kris; Benedict, Ralph H. B.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated how cognitive-linguistic status in multiple sclerosis (MS) is reflected in two speech tasks (i.e. oral reading, narrative) that differ in cognitive-linguistic demand. Twenty individuals with MS were selected to comprise High and Low performance groups based on clinical tests of executive function and information…

  9. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  10. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  11. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  12. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  13. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  14. Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Woods, Steven Paul; Zurhellen, Cynthia H; Vertinski, Mary; Narvaez, Jenille M; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2008-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate impairment in prospective memory (ProM), which describes the multifaceted ability to execute a future intention. Despite its clear implications for everyday functioning, the neuropsychological substrates and functional correlates of ProM impairment in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), a standardized measure of ProM, was administered to 72 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric research evaluation. Results showed that ProM was positively correlated with standard clinical tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, learning, and executive functioning, but not delayed recall. In the context of multiple neuropsychological predictors, learning ability was the only domain that independently contributed to ProM. Importantly, better ProM was predictive of higher functional capacity (as measured by the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version), above and beyond the variability explained by demographic and disease factors. Analysis of component processes revealed that event-based ProM, as well as no response (i.e., omission) and task substitution errors were the strongest predictors of everyday functioning. Overall, these findings suggest that ProM impairment in schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive substrates, particularly episodic learning deficits, and plays an important role in everyday living skills. Studies regarding the potential effectiveness of ProM-based remediation strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia are indicated. PMID:18055178

  15. Lack of Neuropsychological Deficits in Generalized Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Sutterby, Scott R.; Bedwell, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few existing studies examining neuropsychological functioning in social phobia (SP), which collectively yield mixed results. Interpretation of results is further complicated by a number of methodological inconsistencies across studies, including the examination of neuropsychological domains in relative isolation from one another. The present study utilized a broader collection of neuropsychological tests to assess nine domains of functioning in 25 individuals diagnosed with generalized SP and 25 nonpsychiatric controls (NC). A mixed ANOVA revealed neither a significant group by domain interaction, nor a significant main effect of group. Furthermore, no significant group differences emerged between the SP and NC groups within each specific neuropsychological domain. These findings suggest that underlying neuropsychological deficits are not likely to account for the information processing biases observed in the empirical literature, and appear to be consistent with current theoretical models which argue for the specificity of these biases to social information. PMID:22880078

  16. Proton MagneƟc Resonance Spectroscopy in Asperger’s Syndrome: CorrelaƟons with Neuropsychological Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    ÖNER, Özgür; ÖZGÜVEN, Halise Devrimci; ÖKTEM, Ferhunde; YAĞMURLU, Banu; BASKAK, Bora; ÖLMEZ, Şenay; MUNiR, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has been shown that autistic spectrum patients have impaired theory of mind (ToM) performance; however, no study has investigated the relationship between ToM performance and brain neurochemistry in these patients. The present study aimed to investigate the correlations between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), and Cho/Cr values based on 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ToM tests. Method The study sample included 13 adult, right-handed, Caucasian males with Asperger’s syndrome (AS) (age range: 17–37 years) and 20 controls matched by age, gender, handedness, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised (WAIS-R) full-scale IQ scores. Results AS cases had significantly lower ToM performance. DLPFC NAA/Cho levels were inversely correlated to ToM scores (r = −0.738, P = 0.004). On the other hand, ToM performance improved as DLPFC Cho/Cr increased (r = 0.656, P = 0.015). ACC MRS variables were not significantly correlated with ToM performance in the AS group. No significant correlation was observed between ACC or DLPFC MRS variables and ToM performance in the control group. Discussion: Because NAA/Cho was inversely correlated with ToM performance and Cho/Cr was correlated with ToM performance, it can be suggested that the Cho level was related to better ToM test performance in the AS group. An increase in the Cho peak was associated with an increase in membrane breakdown or turnover. The Cho peak was also thought to reflect cellular density and astrocytosis. It is suggested that membrane turnover and astrocytosis might affect cognitive functioning. PMID:19306123

  17. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  18. Neuropsychological performance in LRRK2 G2019S carriers with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Mirelman, Anat; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Raymond, Deborah; Palmese, Christina; Caccappolo, Elise; Ozelius, Laurie; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Clark, Lorraine; Giladi, Nir; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) LRRK2 carriers are more likely to manifest the postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) motor phenotype than non-carriers but perform similarly to non-carriers on cognitive screening tests. Objective To compare the cognitive profiles of AJ with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with and without LRRK2 G2019S mutations using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Methods We administered a neuropsychological battery to PD participants in the Michael J. Fox Foundation AJ consortium. Participants (n=236) from Beth Israel Medical Center, NY, Columbia University Medical Center, NY and Tel Aviv Medical Center, Israel included 116 LRRK2 G2019S carriers and 120 non-carriers. Glucocerbrosidase mutation carriers were excluded. We compared performance on each neuropsychological test between carriers and non-carriers. Participants in New York (n=112) were evaluated with the entire battery. Tel Aviv participants (n=124) were evaluated on attention, executive function and psychomotor speed tasks. The association between G2019S mutation status (predictor) and each neuropsychological test (outcome) was assessed using linear regression models adjusted for PIGD motor phenotype, site, sex, age, disease duration, education, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III, levodopa equivalent dose, and Geriatric Depression Score (GDS). Results Carriers had longer disease duration (p<0.001) and were more likely to manifest the PIGD phenotype (p=0.024). In adjusted regression models, carriers performed better than non-carriers in Stroop Word Reading (p<0.001), Stroop Interference (p=0.011) and Category Fluency (p=0.026). Conclusion In AJ-PD, G2019S mutation status is associated with better attention (Stroop Word Reading), executive function (Stroop Interference) and language (Category Fluency) after adjustment for PIGD motor phenotype. PMID:25434972

  19. An exploratory analysis linking neuropsychological testing to quantification of tractography using High Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) in military TBI.

    PubMed

    Presson, Nora; Beers, Sue R; Morrow, Lisa; Wagener, Lauren M; Bird, William A; Van Eman, Gina; Krishnaswamy, Deepa; Penderville, Joshua; Borrasso, Allison J; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava; Fissell, Catherine; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-09-01

    To realize the potential value of tractography in traumatic brain injury (TBI), we must identify metrics that provide meaningful information about functional outcomes. The current study explores quantitative metrics describing the spatial properties of tractography from advanced diffusion imaging (High Definition Fiber Tracking, HDFT). In a small number of right-handed males from military TBI (N = 7) and civilian control (N = 6) samples, both tract homologue symmetry and tract spread (proportion of brain mask voxels contacted) differed for several tracts among civilian controls and extreme groups in the TBI sample (high scorers and low scorers) for verbal recall, serial reaction time, processing speed index, and trail-making. Notably, proportion of voxels contacted in the arcuate fasciculus distinguished high and low performers on the CVLT-II and PSI, potentially reflecting linguistic task demands, and GFA in the left corticospinal tract distinguished high and low performers in PSI and Trail Making Test Part A, potentially reflecting right hand motor response demands. The results suggest that, for advanced diffusion imaging, spatial properties of tractography may add analytic value to measures of tract anisotropy. PMID:25953056

  20. An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Teaching Individuals How to Administer the Revised ABLA Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boris, Ashley L.; Awadalla, Nardeen; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.; Kaminski, Lauren; Miljkovic, Morena

    2015-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tool that is used to assess the learning ability of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and children with autism. The ABLA was recently revised and is now referred to as the ABLA-Revised (ABLA-R). A self-instructional manual was prepared to teach individuals how to administer the…

  1. Comparison Between a Self-Administered and Supervised Version of a Web-Based Cognitive Test Battery: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailet, Marion; Lecoffre, Amandine C; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Amieva, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major public health problem, and repeated cognitive data from large epidemiological studies could help to develop efficient measures of early prevention. Data collection by self-administered online tools could drastically reduce the logistical and financial burden of such large-scale investigations. In this context, it is important to obtain data concerning the comparability of such new online tools with traditional, supervised modes of cognitive assessment. Objective Our objective was to compare self-administration of the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cognitive test battery (NutriCog) with administration by a neuropsychologist. Methods The test battery included four tests, measuring, among others aspects, psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and associative memory. Both versions of the cognitive battery were completed by 189 volunteers (either self-administered version first, n=99, or supervised version first, n=90). Subjects also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Concordance was assessed by Spearman correlation. Results Agreement between both versions varied according to the investigated cognitive task and outcome variable. Spearman correlations ranged between .42 and .73. Moreover, a majority of participants responded that they “absolutely” or “rather” agreed that the duration of the self-administered battery was acceptable (184/185, 99.5%), that the tasks were amusing (162/185, 87.6%), that the instructions were sufficiently detailed (168/185; 90.8%) and understandable (164/185, 88.7%), and that they had overall enjoyed the test battery (182/185, 98.4%). Conclusions The self-administered version of the Web-based NutriCog cognitive test battery provided similar information as the supervised version. Thus, integrating repeated cognitive evaluations into large cohorts via the implementation of self-administered online versions of traditional test batteries appears to be feasible. PMID

  2. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Administered Analytical Questions for the Graduate Record Examinations General Test. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-06P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Rock, Donald A.

    Three new computer-administered item types for the analytical scale of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test were developed and evaluated. One item type was a free-response version of the current analytical reasoning item type. The second item type was a somewhat constrained free-response version of the pattern identification (or…

  3. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  4. Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Workman-Daniels, K L; Hesselbrock, V M

    1987-05-01

    The relationship of childhood hyperkinetic and minimal brain dysfunction (Hk-MBD) to neuropsychological functioning was examined in three groups of young adults. Nonalcoholic offspring of an alcoholic parent (N = 21) and of nonalcoholic parents (N = 21) were examined. A comparison group of similar age alcoholic patients (N = 21) was also studied. Each subject completed a battery of neuropsychological test measures and was administered a checklist on the presence of Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Offspring of an alcoholic parent and offspring of nonalcoholic parents could not be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive abilities or their frequency of reported Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Alcoholic subjects performed more poorly on measures of verbal and performance intelligence and reported a higher frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms. Further, it was found that the frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms was related to poor performance on certain types of cognitive tasks, regardless of group membership. These findings do not support the suggestion that certain cognitive deficits distinguish persons with a family history for alcoholism. However, poor neuropsychological performance in adulthood, at least on certain types of tasks, appears to be associated with the presence of childhood Hk-MBD. PMID:3657159

  5. Neuropsychological correlates of school achievement in young children: longitudinal findings with a construct valid perceptual processing instrument.

    PubMed

    Melamed, L E; Rugle, L

    1989-10-01

    A form discrimination and a form copying test developed using constructs from basic research in form perception were administered to first-, second-, and third-grade children. Relationships between performance on these tests and achievement scores were investigated both concurrently and over a 2-year follow-up period. These analyses demonstrated the relevance of visual-perceptual factors to academic achievement at all grade levels. Additionally, the pattern of relationships obtained substantiated the existence of age trends in the relationship between perceptual processing factors and academic achievement as has been hypothesized in the child neuropsychology literature. PMID:2808662

  6. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  7. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  8. Early neuropsychological characteristics of progranulin mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Bradley J; Jacova, Claudia; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Wittenberg, Dana; Sengdy, Pheth; Bouchard-Kerr, Phoenix; Slack, Penny; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matthew; Chow, Tiffany W; Levine, Brian; Feldman, Howard H; Mackenzie, Ian R

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia. We used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to investigate whether early cognitive changes could be detected in GRN mutation carriers before dementia onset. Twenty-four at-risk members from six families with known GRN mutations underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Group differences were investigated by domains of attention, language, visuospatial function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, working memory and executive function. There was a trend for mutation carriers (n=8) to perform more poorly than non-carriers (n=16) across neuropsychological domains, with significant between group differences for visuospatial function (p<.04; d=0.92) and working memory function (p<.02; d=1.10). Measurable cognitive differences exist before the development of frontotemporal dementia in subjects with GRN mutations. The neuropsychological profile of mutation carriers suggests early asymmetric, right hemisphere brain dysfunction that is consistent with recent functional imaging data from our research group and the broader literature. PMID:24993774

  9. Forensic neuropsychological evaluations in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lauren; Schrift, Michael; Pliskin, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Within the expanding field of clinical neuropsychology, the subspecialty of forensic neuropsychology has developed. Currently, there is considerable diversity within the discipline as to how practitioners approach test selection, reports, and number of hours billed. How individuals handle these issues is subject to debate, but what is clear is that there are no specific guidelines as to how to conduct these evaluations. The current study provides an introduction to the issues faced by clinical neuropsychologists completing forensic evaluations. In addition, the authors present how the relevant issues are addressed in one neuropsychology service housed within a university-affiliated academic medical center. PMID:19333065

  10. Insomnia: Neurophysiological and neuropsychological approaches.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Célyne H

    2011-03-01

    Insomnia is a symptom, a syndrome and a comorbid disorder. Its diagnosis relies on subjective reports from the afflicted individual and is defined as difficulties in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, waking up too early or non-restorative sleep. However, insomnia and especially, primary insomnia, has received much attention in insomnia research with the use of objective measures. Insomnia, its peculiarities, most frequent subtypes and two most prominent models will first be briefly introduced. Then, insomnia will be reviewed according to results obtained with the use of neurophysiological measures as basic/traditional as polysomnography to more sophisticated ones such as power spectral analysis, neuroimaging, cyclic alternating patterns and event-related potentials. In addition, a review of the discrepancies between subjective and objective reports of cognitive alterations through neuropsychological testing is offered. The need to combine measures is then highlighted in conclusion. PMID:21249453

  11. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  12. The Flynn effect in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Mercedes D; Hiscock, Merrill

    2011-04-01

    The Flynn effect refers to the rise in IQ throughout the 20th century. This study examined whether the Flynn effect has also elevated performance on neuropsychological tests. A search of published norms revealed five tests with appropriate normative data available for comparison. These tests were the Trail-Making Test (TMT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Boston Naming Test, Finger Tapping, and Grooved Pegboard. Results indicated a strong Flynn effect for Parts A and B of the TMT and a probable Flynn effect for the oral SDMT. No Flynn effect was evident for the other tests. Implications for clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:21660765

  13. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  14. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  15. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed. PMID:12607152

  16. Neuropsychological Frameworks for Understanding Autism

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological theories have traditionally attempted to provide a unifying account of the complex and diverse behavioral manifestations of autism in terms of their underlying psychological mechanisms and associated brain bases. This article reviews three competing neuropsychological theories of autism: the executive dysfunction hypothesis, the weak central coherence hypothesis, and the limbic system hypothesis. Each theory is evaluated critically with regard to the primary neuropsychological deficit hypothesized and the research findings that have been offered in support of it. In a concluding section, some of the metatheoretical assumptions informing attempts to identify a “core” neuropsychological impairment in autism are outlined and questioned, and new approaches to a neuropsychological understanding of autism are suggested. PMID:16467917

  17. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Savitz, David A.; Bellinger, David C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In animal studies, perfluorinated compounds affect fetal growth, development, viability, and postnatal growth. The limited epidemiologic findings on child neurobehavioral development are mixed. METHODS We recruited and evaluated 320 children who participated in the C8 Health Project, a 2005–2006 survey in a mid-Ohio-Valley community highly exposed to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) through contaminated drinking water. We examined associations between estimated in utero PFOA exposure, measured childhood PFOA serum concentration, and subsequent performance on neuropsychological tests 3–4 years later at ages 6–12 years. We assessed IQ reading and math skills, language, memory and learning, visual-spatial processing, and attention. All multivariable linear-regression models were adjusted for age, sex, home environment, test examiner, and maternal IQ. Models with measured childhood PFOA were additionally adjusted for child body mass index. RESULTS Children in the highest as compared to lowest quartile of estimated in utero PFOA had increases in full scale IQ (β 4.6, 95% CI 0.7, 8.5) and decreases in characteristics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by the Clinical Confidence Index of Connors' Continuous Performance Test-II (β −8.5, 95% CI −16.1, −0.8). There were negligible associations between PFOA and reading or math skills or neuropsychological functioning. CONCLUSION These results do not suggest an adverse association between the levels of PFOA exposure experienced by children in this cohort and their performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:23680941

  18. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  19. Reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children (BENCI).

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Catena-Martinez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (BENCI) is a computerized battery for the neuropsychological evaluation of children. This battery has been used in different studies to evaluate neuropsychological functions and neurodevelopment in children. The objective of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the first Arabic version of the BENCI on an Arabic population where neuropsychological tests are very scarce. We administrate the BENCI to 198 school-age children (98 boys and 100 girls) from Morocco. To examine the test retest reliability of the BENCI battery, we administered the battery 2 times to 43 children (23 boys and 20 girls) with 15 days in between the pre- and posttest. The results revealed good validity and reliability of the battery in Arabic children. Also, the BENCI battery has demonstrated the capacity to differentiate between children by their age group. This battery can be of great use to both the research and clinical areas of Arabic countries and/or in assistance to Arabic immigrants that live outside of their native country. PMID:24697301

  20. Neuropsychological assessment in illiterates: visuospatial and memory abilities.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Rosas, P

    1989-11-01

    A basic neuropsychological battery of visuospatial and memory abilities was administered to extreme educational groups (illiterates and professionals). Subjects were matched according to sex and age. The following visuospatial tasks were included: figure copy (cube, house, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure), telling time, recognition of superimposed figures, recognition of a map, and drawing of the plan of the room. The following memory tasks were used: basic information, digit retention (forward and backward), memory curve, delayed verbal recall, sentence repetition, logical memory, delayed logical memory, immediate recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure, immediate reproduction of a cube, visuospatial memory, and sequential memory. In visuospatial tasks all differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Five of the seven visuospatial tasks (all but telling time and recognition of superimposed figures) showed differences between age groups with a better performance found in the younger groups and four of the tasks (cube, house, Rey-Osterrith complex figure copying, and telling time) were significant between sexes with a better performance in men. In memory tasks, with the exception of the immediate memory of sentences, all tasks showed statistically significant differences between educational groups. Eight of the 13 memory tasks (digits forward and backward, delayed memory of words, immediate and delayed logical memory, Rey-Osterrieth immediate memory, cube immediate memory, and sequential memory) showed significant differences for age while 4 of the tasks (digits backward, memory curve, Rey-Osterrieth immediate memory, and cube immediate memory) were significant for sex. Results are analyzed with regard to current theories in cognitive psychology and anthropology. Emphasis is placed on the finding that cognitive skills usually examined by neuropsychological tests represent learned and highly trained abilities. PMID:2803759

  1. Changing patterns of neuropsychological functioning in children living at high altitude above and below 4000 m: a report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) study.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M

    2011-09-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral autoregulation above this altitude (4000 m) suggests a potential threshold of hypoxia severity over which neuropsychological functioning may be compromised. We conducted physiological and neuropsychological assessments in 62 Bolivian children and adolescents living at La Paz (∼3700 m) and El Alto (∼4100 m) in order to address this issue. Groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender, social class, schooling, parental education and genetic admixture. Apart from percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen in arterial blood (%SpO(2)), participants did not differ in their basal cardiac and cerebrovascular performance as explored by heart rate, mean arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and cerebral blood flow velocity at the basilar, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was administered, including tests of executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor performance. Participants living at extreme altitude showed lower levels of performance in all executive tests (Cohen effect size = -0.91), whereas all other domains remained unaffected by altitude of residence. These results are compatible with earlier physiological evidence of a transitional zone for cerebral autoregulation at an altitude of 4000 m. We now show that above this threshold, the developing brain is apparently increasingly vulnerable to neuropsychological deficit. PMID:21884333

  2. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of bacterial and viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Heimann, B; Djukic, M; Mazurek, C; Fels, C; Wallesch, C-W; Nau, R

    2006-02-01

    Survivors of meningitis often complain about neurological and neuropsychological consequences. In this study, the extent of these sequelae was quantified and correlated to MRI findings. Neurological, neuropsychological and neuroradiological examinations were performed with adult patients younger than 70 years, 1-12 years after recovery from bacterial meningitis (BM; n = 59), or from viral meningitis (VM; n = 59). Patients with other potential causes for neuropsychological deficits (e.g. alcoholism) were carefully excluded. Patients were compared to 30 healthy subjects adjusted for age, gender and length of school education. With the exception of attention functions, both patient groups showed more frequently pathological results than the control group for all domains examined. Applying an overall cognitive sum score, patients after BM did not differ significantly in their performance from patients after VM. Separate analyses of various cognitive domains, however, revealed a higher rate of persistent disturbances in short-term and working memory after BM than after VM. Moreover, patients after BM exhibited greater impairment of executive functions. Associative learning of verbal material was also reduced. These deficits could not be ascribed to impaired alertness functions or decreased motivation in BM patients. Applying a logistic regression model, the neuropsychological outcome was related to the neurological outcome. Patients with a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of <5 had more frequently impaired test results for non-verbal learning and memory. GOS was also correlated with performance in executive functions. Brain volume was lower and ventricular volume was higher in the bacterial than in the VM group, and cerebral volume and the amount of white matter lesions of patients after BM were negatively correlated with short-term and working memory. In conclusion, patients after both BM and VM with favourable outcome showed affected learning and memory functions. More

  4. Neuropsychological advocacy and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Hermann, Bruce P; Cohen, Morris J

    2010-04-01

    Neuropsychologists are in a unique position to be active advocates for patients with epilepsy given their unique understanding of the behavioral and cognitive effects associated the disease, its progression, and its treatment. Neuropsychologists communicate the cognitive and behavioral consequences of epilepsy and its long-term implications to patients, family, school, and employers. In this article we review factors influencing the neuropsychological profile of patients with epilepsy, and discuss common behavioral comorbidities, as well as special issues associated with school placement and long-term planning. We also include a seizure action plan, which is designed to be both an educational tool for individuals with limited epilepsy knowledge, and a way to minimize stigma associated with an event should a seizure occur during school or work. PMID:19214828

  5. Neuropsychologic predictors of operative skill among general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Schueneman, A L; Pickleman, J; Hesslein, R; Freeark, R J

    1984-08-01

    The present study develops a rating scale method for evaluating operative skills, assesses the predictive utility of neuropsychologic tests of nonverbal cognitive and psychomotor abilities in accounting for individual differences in surgical skills, and compares the efficiency of these measures with those of traditional residency selection criteria. According to a multifactorial design, 120 general surgery residents were tested with a neuropsychologic test battery and then rated by attending surgeons on surgical skills exhibited during the course of 1445 surgical procedures. Analysis of the neuropsychologic battery resulted in three factors (complex visuo-spatial organization, stress tolerance, psychomotor abilities) that were statistically unrelated to traditional measures such as Medical College Admission Test and National Board scores. Multiple regression analyses indicated that academic predictors, taken alone, either do not correlate (National Board scores) or correlate negatively (Medical College Admission Test scores) with the surgery ratings. Conversely, neuropsychologic test scores show significant positive correlation (r = 0.68) with the ratings. When both sets of predictor variables are combined, a multiple regression coefficient of 0.80 is found with the ratings, with more than two thirds of the predictive power attributable to the neuropsychologic test scores. These tests may provide a useful addition to traditional methods of predicting operative skills. PMID:6463862

  6. The neuropsychology of sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles. PMID:23567470

  7. Patterns of neuropsychological deficit in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, R R; Acker, C F; Lishman, W A

    1990-05-01

    Twenty-five male and 13 female patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS) were compared with age- and sex-matched non-Korsakoff chronic alcoholics and healthy volunteers in a neuropsychological study, which included computer-administered tests of cognitive function. The performance of male Korsakoff patients was significantly inferior to that of healthy male controls, not only in tests of memory, but also in visuo-perceptual tasks with a speed or motor component, and on category sorting and verbal fluency measures. Compared with male alcoholics, the performance of male Korsakoff patients was again inferior on similar tests. Female Korsakoff patients showed more extensive deficits compared with female controls, but differed less from matched female alcoholics. The results suggest that, in addition to their amnesia, many Korsakoff patients have sustained widespread cognitive deficits, affecting particularly visuo-perceptual and abstracting functions, which are sensitive to cortical lesions. The range of deficits falls short of what may be regarded as 'global' in male, but probably not in female, Korsakoffs. The implications for a dual aetiology of AKS involving thiamine deficiency and other features associated with alcoholism, probably direct alcohol neurotoxicity, are discussed. PMID:2356257

  8. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:22206622

  9. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years.

  10. Concepts and Categories: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    One of the most provocative and exciting issues in cognitive science is how neural specificity for semantic categories of common objects arises in the functional architecture of the brain. More than two decades of research on the neuropsychological phenomenon of category-specific semantic deficits has generated detailed claims about the organization and representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, researchers have sought to test hypotheses developed on the basis of neuropsychological evidence with functional imaging. From those two fields, the empirical generalization emerges that object domain and sensory modality jointly constrain the organization of knowledge in the brain. At the same time, research within the embodied cognition framework has highlighted the need to articulate how information is communicated between the sensory and motor systems, and processes that represent and generalize abstract information. Those developments point toward a new approach for understanding category specificity in terms of the coordinated influences of diverse regions and cognitive systems. PMID:18767921

  11. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  12. Neuropsychological profile of a large kindred with familial Alzheimer's disease caused by the E280A single presenilin-1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Lopera, F; Rosselli, M; Moreno, S; Madrigal, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Arcos, M; Murcia, C; Arango-Viana, J C; Ossa, J; Goate, A; Kosik, K S

    2000-08-01

    It was hypothesized that subjective memory complaints represent the earliest sign of dementia in carriers of the presenilin-1 (PS1) mutation. A total of 122 subjects (44 males, 78 females) were included in this study. Forty of them were positive for the mutation in the PS1 gene (mutation positive, MP) whereas 82 showed negative results (mutation negative, MN). Subjects were active, functionally normal, even though some of them complained of memory difficulties. Two groups of neuropsychological instruments were administered: (a) The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery (Morris et al., 1989), and (b) some additional neuropsychological tests (Raven Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Boston Naming Test, Naming of Categories, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Memory of Three Phrases, Knopman Test, Digit Symbol, and Visual "A" Cancellation Test). Performance in both groups was quite similar. In a secondary analysis, the MP group was subdivided into two subgroups: without and with memory complaints. When comparing both subgroups, a better performance in the first subgroup was found throughout the different subtests. Statistically significant differences were observed in the following test scores: Mini-Mental State Examination, Naming Test (Low Frequency), Memory of Words Test, Recall of Drawings, Wechsler Memory Scale (Logical Memory, Associative Learning, and Total Score), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (Immediate Recall Condition), Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (Complex Ideational Material Subtest), Memory of Three Phrases Test, Serial Verbal Learning (maximum score and Delayed Recall), Knopman Test (First Trial, Second Trial, and Recall after 5 Minutes), Digit Symbol, and Visual "A" Cancellation Test (Additions). Results supported the hypothesis that memory complaints represent the earliest symptom of familial Alzheimer's disease. In addition to the memory difficulties

  13. Age-Related Decrements in Stroop Color Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Nancy B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered a modified Stroop Color-Word Test to healthy males (N=80) aged 21-90 years as part of a study of neuropsychological functioning. Results showed differences on simple reading tasks; however, significant age effects were observed for the color naming and interference tasks. (LLL)

  14. Symptom validity and neuropsychological assessment: a survey of practices and beliefs of neuropsychologists in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Merten, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    During the last decades, symptom validity has become an important topic in the neuropsychological and psychiatric literature with respect to how it relates to malingering, factitious disorder, and somatoform complaints. We conducted a survey among neuropsychologists (N = 515) from six European countries (Germany, Italy, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and the Netherlands). We queried the respondents about the tools they used to evaluate symptom credibility in clinical and forensic assessments and other issues related to symptom validity testing (SVT). Although the majority of the respondents demonstrated technical knowledge about symptom validity, a sizeable minority of the respondents relied on outdated notions (e.g., the idea that clinicians can determine symptom credibility based on intuitive judgment). There is little consensus among neuropsychologists on how to instruct patients when they are administered SVTs and how to handle test failure. Our findings indicate that the issues regarding how to administer and communicate the SVT results to patients warrant systematic research. PMID:24047545

  15. Generation and Optimization of the Self-Administered Bleeding Assessment Tool (Self-BAT) and its Validation as a Screening Test for von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deforest, Meghan; Grabell, Julie; Albert, Shirren; Young, Jane; Tuttle, Angie; Hopman, Wilma M.; James, Paula D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction/Aim Our aim was to generate, optimize and validate a self-administered bleeding assessment tool (BAT) for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Methods In Phase 1, medical terminology in the expert-administered ISTH-BAT was converted to a grade 4 reading level to produce the first version of the Self-BAT which was then optimized to ensure agreement with the ISTH-BAT. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores was determined and test-retest reliability analyzed. In Phase 3, the optimized Self-BAT was tested as a screening tool for first time referrals to the Hematology clinic. Results BS from the final optimized version of the Self-BAT showed an excellent intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 with ISTH-BAT BS in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores for the optimized Self-BAT was determined to be 0 to +5 for females and 0 to +3 for males and excellent test-retest reliability was shown (ICC = 0.95). In Phase 3, we showed that a positive Self-BAT BS (≥ 6 for females, ≥ 4 for males) has a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 23%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.15 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 for VWD; these figures improved when just the females were analyzed; sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 21%, PPV=0.17 and NPV=1.0. Conclusion We show an optimized Self-BAT can generate comparable BS to the expert-administered ISTH-BAT and is a reliable, effective screening tool to incorporate into the assessment of individuals, particularly women, referred for a possible bleeding disorder. PMID:26179127

  16. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  17. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  18. Neuropsychological assessment of an aging population of Great Lakes fisheaters.

    PubMed

    Schantz, S L; Sweeney, A M; Gardiner, J C; Humphrey, H E; McCaffrey, R J; Gasior, D M; Srikanth, K R; Budd, M L

    1996-01-01

    Because of the decline in central nervous system function that occurs with age, older people may be at greater risk of neurological dysfunction following exposure to neurotoxic contaminants in the environment. This study was designed to assess the neuropsychological functioning of a group of 50-90-year-old fisheaters exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through Great Lakes fish consumption, and a group of age- and sex-matched nonfisheaters selected from the Michigan Department of Public Health's established cohort of fisheaters and nonfisheaters. A neuropsychological assessment battery, demographic interview, and fish consumption questionnaire were developed and piloted on similarly aged men and women in the Lansing and Detroit, Michigan, areas. The assessment battery included tests of motor function, memory and learning, executive functions, and visual-spatial functions, and took approximately two hours to administer. Most of the tests included in the battery have been shown to be sensitive to subtle, age-related declines in cognitive and motor function. The demographic questionnaire included questions on a number of important control variables that could influence the neuropsychological end points that were assessed in the study. These included demographic background, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, prescription and nonprescription drug use, medical history (including psychiatric illnesses), employment history, and activity level. The fish consumption questionnaire asked about historical and current consumption of specific fish species from each of the Great Lakes and its tributaries and was based on the fish consumption advisories published in the 1992 Michigan Fishing Guide. The questionnaire also asked about consumption of wild game, fish preparation and cooking methods, serving size, and changes in fish consumption patterns over time. After each subject completed the neuropsychological assessment, demographic interview, and fish consumption

  19. Comparative studies of intracerebroventricularly administered cysteamine and pantethine in different behavioral tests and on brain catecholamines in rats.

    PubMed

    Vécsei, L; Alling, C; Widerlöv, E

    1990-01-01

    In a passive avoidance test, intracerebroventricular administration (post-trial treatment) of the somatostatin-depleting compound cysteamine decreased the avoidance latency of the rats in a dose-related manner, while the effect of pantethine (which is metabolized to cysteamine) was less pronounced. In open-field studies, both compounds decreased the motor activity (ambulation, rearing) of the animals 15 min after the injection followed by a subsequent recuperation of the locomotor depression. Following pantethine, the ambulation increased during the later tests (60 min, 240 min, 24 hr). Cysteamine decreased the noradrenaline and increased the dopamine and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid content in the hypothalamus, whereas the effects of pantethine were less expressed. Both compounds slightly decreased the striatal noradrenaline and increased the dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels at 15 and 60 min after administration. However, contrary to pantethine, 4 hr after treatment with cysteamine, there was a decrease in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid concentration in this brain region. These findings suggest that both pantethine and cysteamine attenuate passive avoidance latency after intracerebroventricular treatment. The different efficiency of pantethine and its metabolite cysteamine might be connected to the low pantetheinase activity of the brain tissue; however, some direct effects of pantethine cannot be excluded. The different effects of the two compounds on the open-field activity are possibly associated with the diverse effects of the compounds on the striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:2241425

  20. Neuropsychological assessment for detecting adverse effects of volatile organic compounds on the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, K I

    1991-01-01

    Because there are no direct biological markers for the substances implicated in indoor air exposure, it is impossible to directly measure if an individual or group of individuals has been exposed to a potentially neurotoxic substance in the workplace. Behavioral changes may be the earliest and only manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) effects and are often too subtle to be revealed by routine physical or neurological examination. Neuropsychological techniques are sensitive to subtle behavioral/cognitive changes that can result from exposure to neurotoxins. These techniques consist of oral and written tests that are administered by a trained examiner on a one-to-one basis. In general, a wide variety of cognitive domains are evaluated. The typical battery generally includes assessing orientation, attention, intelligence, language, visual memory, verbal memory, perception, visuoconstruction, simple motor speed, psychomotor speed, and mood. As with most assessment techniques, the neuropsychological methods have limitations. One major drawback is the availability of appropriate norms that are used to compare the results of a specific individual. Because these tasks are greatly affected by age, intelligence, and in some instances sex, the availability of appropriate norms is mandatory to determine if the CNS has been effected. Although neuropsychological tests are sensitive to the presence of CNS involvement, they are not specific. Patterns of performance seen with specific instances of neurotoxic exposure may also be seen with a number of other diseases of the CNS such as dementia, cerebrovascular disease, hydrocephalus, or normal aging. In addition, neuropsychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and/or depression are often manifested as cognitive difficulties that will mimic the cognitive dysfunction seen with toxicity of the CNS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1821386

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic testing of marbofloxacin administered as a single injection for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Vallé, M; Schneider, M; Galland, D; Giboin, H; Woehrlé, F

    2012-12-01

    New approaches in Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration suggested that marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone already licensed for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease at a daily dosage of 2 mg/kg for 3-5 days, would be equally clinically effective at 10 mg/kg once (Forcyl(®)), whilst also reducing the risk of resistance. This marbofloxacin dosage regimen was studied using mutant prevention concentration (MPC), PK simulation, PK/PD integration and an in vitro dynamic system. This system simulated the concentration-time profile of marbofloxacin in bovine plasma established in vivo after a single 10 mg/kg intramuscular dose and killing curves of field isolated Pasteurellaceae strains of high (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) MIC ≤ 0.03 μg/mL), average (MIC of 0.12-0.25 μg/mL) and low (MIC of 1 μg/mL) susceptibility to marbofloxacin. The marbofloxacin MPC values were 2- to 4-fold the MIC values for all Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida tested. Marbofloxacin demonstrated a concentration-dependent killing profile with bactericidal activity observed within 1 h for most strains. No resistance development (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL) was detected in the dynamic tests. Target values for risk of resistance PK/PD surrogates (area under the curve (AUC) AUC(24 h) /MPC and T(>MPC) /T(MSW) ratio) were achieved for all clinically susceptible pathogens. The new proposed dosing regimen was validated in vitro and by PK/PD integration confirming the single-injection short-acting antibiotic concept. PMID:22126438

  2. Neuropsychological profile in adult schizophrenia measured with the CMINDS.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Turner, Jessica A; Callahan, Shawn; Calhoun, Vince D; Bustillo, Juan R; Lim, Kelvin O; Mueller, Bryon; Brown, Gregory G; Vaidya, Jatin G; McEwen, Sarah; Belger, Aysenil; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Nguyen, Dana; Ford, Judith M; Potkin, Steven G

    2015-12-30

    Schizophrenia neurocognitive domain profiles are predominantly based on paper-and-pencil batteries. This study presents the first schizophrenia domain profile based on the Computerized Multiphasic Interactive Neurocognitive System (CMINDS(®)). Neurocognitive domain z-scores were computed from computerized neuropsychological tests, similar to those in the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), administered to 175 patients with schizophrenia and 169 demographically similar healthy volunteers. The schizophrenia domain profile order by effect size was Speed of Processing (d=-1.14), Attention/Vigilance (d=-1.04), Working Memory (d=-1.03), Verbal Learning (d=-1.02), Visual Learning (d=-0.91), and Reasoning/Problem Solving (d=-0.67). There were no significant group by sex interactions, but overall women, compared to men, showed advantages on Attention/Vigilance, Verbal Learning, and Visual Learning compared to Reasoning/Problem Solving on which men showed an advantage over women. The CMINDS can readily be employed in the assessment of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders; particularly in large-scale studies that may benefit most from electronic data capture. PMID:26586142

  3. Ecstasy (MDMA) exposure and neuropsychological functioning: a polydrug perspective.

    PubMed

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Shear, Paula K; Corcoran, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) is a popular drug that can act as a selective serotonin neurotoxin in several species. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between ecstasy exposure and cognitive functioning after controlling for other drug use and demographic variables. Furthermore, we assessed whether gender was a moderator of the relationship between cognitive functioning and ecstasy use. Data were collected from 31 men and 34 women with a wide range of ecstasy use (17 marijuana users with no ecstasy use and 48 ecstasy users ranging from low to heavy use). Participants were interviewed and administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. The primary finding was that ecstasy exposure was significantly related to poorer verbal learning and memory ability in a dose-dependent manner, while no such relationship was observed between ecstasy exposure and executive functioning or attentional ability. Gender was found to significantly moderate the relationship between ecstasy consumption and design fluency. These results suggest primary memory dysfunction among abstinent recreational ecstasy users. This finding is consistent with reports of hippocampal vulnerability, particularly among heavy users. PMID:16248911

  4. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-04-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties.

  5. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  6. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  7. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  8. Neuropsychological Correlates of Academic Success among Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, B. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Significant differences were found between younger and older children on most neuropsychological tests. Girls were found to be superior to boys in verbal reasoning, language skills, and serial perceptual matching skills, whereas boys were superior on tests of spatial memory and motor skills. (Author)

  9. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p < 0.17). Clinical ADHD cases, including both + comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on continuous performance test (CPT), working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD + comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing, and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and child behavior checklist (CBCL) tests particularly the CBCL-deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD + comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as ODD or with conduct disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L.; McLaren, Donald; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K.; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as valid indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI. PMID:22777078

  11. Hospital-based neuropsychological services.

    PubMed

    Sciara, A D

    1986-01-01

    Hospital-based neuropsychological services may provide the hospital with a new means of interfacing with the general medical community, especially neurologists and neurosurgeons. This could produce increased census through the evaluation and treatment of patients who may not have been referred to the psychiatric hospital previously. Additionally, it is a service that can be marketed to the legal community. The establishment of neuropsychological services is a relatively inexpensive project that requires little in the way of physical plant and personnel needs other than a qualified technician and neuropsychologist. PMID:10279536

  12. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  13. Searching for the Elusive Neural Substrates of Body Part Terms: A Neuropsychological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged patients with lesions distributed throughout the telencephalon. There were two main outcomes. First, impaired oral naming of body parts, attributable to a disturbance of the mapping between lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological structures, was most reliably and specifically associated with lesions in the left frontal opercular and anterior/inferior parietal opercular cortices, and in the white matter underlying these regions (8 patients). Also, one patient with body part anomia had a left occipital lesion that included the “extrastriate body area” (EBA). Second, knowledge of the meanings of body part terms was remarkably resistant to impairment, regardless of lesion site; in fact, we did not uncover a single patient who exhibited significantly impaired understanding of the meanings of these terms. In the 9 patients with body part anomia, oral naming of concrete entities was evaluated, and this revealed that 4 patients had disproportionately worse naming of body parts relative to other types of concrete entities. Taken together, these findings extend previous neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies of body part knowledge, and add to our growing understanding of the nuances of how different linguistic and conceptual categories are operated by left frontal and parietal structures. PMID:18608319

  14. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  15. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  16. Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for the integration of the principles of behavior therapy with those of neuropsychology is provided. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations and future directions pertaining to this area of specialization are discussed, with special reference to the practice of school psychology. (Author/AL)

  17. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  18. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Walsh, V

    2001-02-20

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit. PMID:11250165

  19. What's wrong and what's right in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, M D

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent converging of interests by psychiatrists and psychologists in subjective mental phenomena. Examples of topics where these converging interests arise include the relationship of confabulation and delusional memories, the nature of face-processing deficits in prosopagnosia and the Capgras delusion, and hierarchial models of psychological function. These developments are very much welcomed; but the over-interpretation of neuropsychological test findings in neuropsychiatry, and the occasional failure to take account of clinical context (particularly the psychiatric background) in neuropsychology, are also noted. Cognitive neuropsychiatry appears to have emerged as a label to identify this converging of interests, modelling itself on cognitive neuropsychology. The potential benefits and limitations of such an approach are discussed. PMID:16571493

  20. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Paul G; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward learning may underlie both cognitive and motivation deficits, as expressed by neuropsychological impairment and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:25261881

  1. Neuropsychological performance and solvent exposure among car body repair shop workers.

    PubMed

    Daniell, W; Stebbins, A; O'Donnell, J; Horstman, S W; Rosenstock, L

    1993-04-01

    A cross sectional study to evaluate symptom reporting and neuropsychological test performance among a cohort of car body repair workers (n = 124) was performed using a computer-administered test system. Subjects with high and medium current exposures to solvent and paint (n = 39 and 32), and low exposure subjects who formerly painted (n = 29) reported significantly more acute and chronic neurological symptoms than did low exposure subjects with no history of painting (n = 24). Subjects with higher current exposure performed significantly less well on selected tests of visual perception and memory, but there were no significant exposure related differences in mood state, motor speed, or visuomotor performance. The exposure related effects were most noticeable among subjects 35 years or older. The findings are consistent with age interactive central neurotoxic effects of current exposure to solvents or of cumulative past exposure, although the study is unable to distinguish between these possibilities. The computer administered test system was effective in this field based investigation involving multiple, geographically dispersed worksites. PMID:8494777

  2. Neuropsychological performance and solvent exposure among car body repair shop workers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W; Stebbins, A; O'Donnell, J; Horstman, S W; Rosenstock, L

    1993-01-01

    A cross sectional study to evaluate symptom reporting and neuropsychological test performance among a cohort of car body repair workers (n = 124) was performed using a computer-administered test system. Subjects with high and medium current exposures to solvent and paint (n = 39 and 32), and low exposure subjects who formerly painted (n = 29) reported significantly more acute and chronic neurological symptoms than did low exposure subjects with no history of painting (n = 24). Subjects with higher current exposure performed significantly less well on selected tests of visual perception and memory, but there were no significant exposure related differences in mood state, motor speed, or visuomotor performance. The exposure related effects were most noticeable among subjects 35 years or older. The findings are consistent with age interactive central neurotoxic effects of current exposure to solvents or of cumulative past exposure, although the study is unable to distinguish between these possibilities. The computer administered test system was effective in this field based investigation involving multiple, geographically dispersed worksites. PMID:8494777

  3. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  4. Neuropsychological correlates of chronic alcoholism and aging.

    PubMed

    Blusewicz, M J; Dustman, R E; Schenkenberg, T; Beck, E C

    1977-11-01

    Independent investigations of alcoholism and aging have demonstrated significant parallels between the two phenomena suggesting the possibility of "premature aging" as a result of alcoholism. To test this hypothesis a cross-sectional design was utilized with three groups of 20 male subjects: young normal (mean age 31 years), young alcoholics (mean age 33 years), and elderly normal (mean age 71 years). Eleven objective measures, selected from a battery of sensory and perceptual motor tests routinely used to evaluate cerebral dysfunction in hospitalized patients, were compared for the three groups. The results indicated a definite general decline in neuropsychological functioning with aging and suggested a similar trend with alcoholism. The tendency seen with alcoholism was least apparent with regard to fundamental sensory-motor functions and the perceptual functions of vision and audition and most apparent with regard to short term memory and abstract reasoning, i.e., higher mental processes. The results provided support for the hypothesis that chronic alcoholism causes premature aging of neuropsychological functions and possibly the brain. PMID:915495

  5. Neuropsychological Investigation of Motor Impairments in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Tyler; Trontel, Haley; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5–33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved peg-board test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (pre-central gyrus), somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were non-significant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as region of interest (ROI) volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD. PMID:23985036

  6. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  7. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  8. Attorneys Influence Expert Evidence in Forensic Psychological and Neuropsychological Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees-Haley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that attorneys are influencing data relied on by psychological experts in forensic cases, usually by advising clients how to respond to psychological tests or by prompting them in other ways. This article alerts psychologists to this threat to the validity of psychological and neuropsychological evaluations.…

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinead M; Riby, Deborah M; Matthews, Keith; Coghill, David R

    2011-01-01

    We compared verbally matched attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological tasks included those that assessed short-term memory and executive functions from the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) neuropsychological battery. Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did not differ in severity from ADHD children on the Conners Oppositionality, Cognitive Problems/Inattention, Hyperactivity, and ADHD Index subscales. The WS and ADHD groups also showed similar patterns of neuropsychological functioning, particularly in working memory (WM) strategy use and delayed short-term memory (STM). The findings may have clinical implications for the management of individuals with WS, highlighting the potential significance of behavioral, educational, and pharmacological strategies and treatments known to be useful in the treatment of children with ADHD for individuals with WS. PMID:20700845

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Context: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity

  11. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  12. Intellectual, neuropsychological, and achievement outcomes in children six to eight years after recovery from Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Michaels, R H; Mazur, P M; Bauer, R E; Liden, C B

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-four grade school children who had sustained an earlier episode of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis were tested, along with a group of 24 school-aged siblings. Evaluations consisted of tests of IQ, academic achievement, and neuropsychological skills. Parents completed forms rating each child's behavioral adjustment and temperament. Available school-administered standardized achievement tests were also obtained. Information relating to the episode of meningitis was extracted from the medical charts of each child who had had meningitis in order to investigate the relationship of these parameters to developmental outcome. Results showed that, compared with nearest-age siblings, children who had had meningitis scored lower on performance IQ and full-scale IQ. The group that had had meningitis also performed more poorly on several neuropsychological tasks. However, the groups did not differ in verbal IQ, and they performed comparably on all academic measures. Significant behavioral adjustment problems were absent from both groups, and there were no notable differences in temperament. Although findings support the existence of postmeningitis sequelae, the selective nature of the deficiencies observed indicate that prognosis for children in the age range examined may be better than that suggested by earlier studies. PMID:6611537

  13. [Neuropsychology of normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Merten, T

    1999-06-01

    Although dementia is described as one of the constituent characteristics of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), alongside gait disturbances and urinary incontinence, there is a rather limited number of controlled studies concerning neuropsychological deficits in the disease. A wide range of psychopathologically relevant symptoms have been described, but the common features of most cases include mental and motor slowing, apathy, emotional indifference, anosognosia, memory and attentional impairment. A number of other functional deficits such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, acalculia, apraxia can also frequently be found. Some emphasis is put on the work of J. de Mol (Brussels) which appears to be most important for the study of neuropsychological symptoms in NPH patients. The methodological standard of a number of studies has been found to be rather low, and yet a sound neuropsychological investigation may be of utmost importance for the diagnosis and neurosurgical outcome assessment. Concerning morphological correlates of the functional deficits in NPH, various hypotheses have been formulated, but it is argued that symptoms can neither be described as predominantly "diffuse" in nature, nor can they be reduced to unilocular dysfunctions. Recommendations for future research strategies are formulated. PMID:10412693

  14. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  15. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  16. Measurement in cross-cultural neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  17. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory. PMID:15892899

  18. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices. PMID:25477270

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  20. Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit. PMID:24279481

  1. Depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological performance in mild Alzheimer's and cognitively normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls) from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment) as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition. PMID:21904674

  2. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  3. Neuropsychological development of children born to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Neri, F; Chimini, L; Bonomi, F; Filippini, E; Motta, M; Faden, D; Lojacono, A; Rebaioli, C Biasini; Frassi, M; Danieli, E; Tincani, A

    2004-01-01

    To verify the neuropsychological development in the offspring of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 47 children (23 male and 24 female) from affected women were studied. The tests applied were related to the children's ages: Griffiths scale up to four years, WPPSI and metaphonological tests (MP, evaluating the phonological consciousness) from four to six years of age, WISC-R test and Rey test (evaluating the visual-space abilities) from six years onwards; finally, specific tests for the diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) between the ages of seven and 13. Intelligence levels were always normal (mean IQ score 106.32; median 104; SD 9.05). Three out of eight examined children failed MP, therefore may develop LD and will need further evaluation later. Fourteen children were specifically studied for LD and three reported scores lower than normal, but only two (who were brothers) were defined dyslexic. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were positive in the mothers of the three children with impaired LD tests. Other maternal autoantibodies or drugs administered during pregnancy did not seem to be related to LD. In conclusion, maternal SLE does not impair intelligence levels, but may increase the occurrence of LD particularly in male children (2/8 males examined, 25%). Both maternal aPL and genetic background may have pathogenetic implications. PMID:15540514

  4. Toward a neuropsychology of memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B L; Rosse, R B; Deutsch, S I

    1992-01-01

    Three brain regions that have been the focus of recent interest in the neuropathology of schizophrenia include the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia, and the temporal lobes. We tested patients with chronic schizophrenia on three memory tasks, the successful performance of which depends on the integrity of each of these three brain regions. Comparisons between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal control subjects yielded the following results: (a) patients were impaired in remembering the temporal order of previously presented events; (b) patients were impaired on a motor task of procedural learning; and (c) patients showed normal priming effects in an implicit memory task despite their recall deficit in an explicit memory task. The significance of these findings lies in their relation to neuropsychological findings in patients with dysfunction in frontal cortical, basal ganglia, and medial temporal lobe structures. PMID:1296215

  5. Neuropsychological remediation of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Rao, S L

    1997-10-01

    Hyperkinesis is associated with deficits of attention (poor allocation of attention resources, susceptibility to interference and perseveration); vigilance and perceptual sensitivity. Three boys aged 7-8 years with simple hyperkinesis were given cognitive tasks to improve the above functions in daily one hour sessions for a month. The children improved significantly in the above functions and behaviour. Three other children aged 5-8 years with simple hyperkinesis who were on medication improved only slightly in their behaviour during this period. Behavioural intervention and parental counselling were additional inputs to the children in both groups. Neuropsychological remediation combined with parental counselling and behavioural intervention shows promise in treating hyperactive children. PMID:21584098

  6. Colour vision loss among disabled workers with neuropsychological impairment.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Bowler, R; Cone, J

    1990-01-01

    Test performance on a neurobehavioural battery was examined with respect to acquired colour vision loss among patients with a history of neurotoxin exposure. The study group included 14 men and 7 women with clinically diagnosed neuropsychological impairment (mean age: 41.3 +/- 8.1 years; mean educational level: 13.4 +/- 1.4 years). Verbal and visual ability, memory and psychomotor function were assessed with the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Colour vision was assessed with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated colour arrangement panel. Acquired dyschromatopsia was present in 17 patients (80.9%), 11 of whom manifested patterns of Type II colour vision loss. Simple regression analysis of neuropsychological test performance with respect to colour vision loss, using age-adjusted Z-scores, revealed significant relationships (p less than or equal to 0.05) solely for tests which rely heavily on the visual system. Significant differences in visual task test scores were also observed with the type of dyschromatopsia (Kruskal-Wallis, p less than or equal to 0.05). These findings suggest that poor performance on visual tasks and colour vision loss may both result from damage to neuro-ophthalmic pathways or that loss of integrity of the peripheral visual pathways may affect visual task performance. The authors propose that visual testing should be incorporated into neurobehavioural test batteries. PMID:2255314

  7. Maze Test Performance and Reported Driving Ability in Early Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brian R.; Heindel, William C.; Whelihan, William M.; Caron, Mark. D.; Piatt, Andrea L.; DiCarlo, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    A battery of standard neuropsychological tests examining various features of executive function, attention, and visual perception was administered to 27 subjects with questionable to mild dementia and compared to a 4-point caregiver rating scale of driving ability. Based on the results of this study, a computerized maze task, employing 10 mazes, was administered to a second sample of 40 normal elders and questionable to moderately demented drivers. Comparison was made to the same caregiver rating scale as well as to crash frequency. In the first study of neuropsychological tests, errors on Porteus Mazes emerged as the only significant predictor of driving ability in a stepwise regression analysis. In the follow-up study employing the computerized mazes, all 10 mazes were significantly related to driving ability ratings. Computerized tests of maze performance offer promise as a screening tool to identify potential driving impairment among cognitively impaired elderly and demented drivers. PMID:12967057

  8. ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Dobson-Patterson, Roberta; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2016-08-01

    The study investigated, with an adult sample, the hypothesis that differences between subtypes of ADHD on neuropsychological tests contribute to the poor separation of ADHD and healthy groups on tests of this kind. Groups of ADHD inattentive (n=16) and combined (n=16) subtypes were carefully identified using DSM-IV criteria, and their performance on 14 measures of attention, memory, and executive function (EF) was compared between subtypes and between the two subtypes combined and a group of healthy controls (n=30). Multivariate analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two subtypes, and between the two subtypes combined and the healthy controls. Importantly for the hypothesis, where differences for neuropsychological tests in terms of effect sizes between subtypes were largest, the differences in effect sizes between the two groups combined and controls were smallest (r=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.87]). PMID:27043366

  9. The extent of neurocognitive dysfunction in a multidisciplinary pain centre population. Is there a relation between reported and tested neuropsychological functioning?

    PubMed

    Landrø, Nils Inge; Fors, Egil A; Våpenstad, Lindis L; Holthe, Øyvor; Stiles, Tore C; Borchgrevink, Petter C

    2013-07-01

    Patients with chronic nonmalignant pain syndromes frequently report cognitive dysfunction, in particular with respect to concentration and attention. Such complaints have, in general, been attributed to depressive symptoms. In this study we showed that cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients are significantly associated with objective test performance in the area of inhibitory control after partialling out degree of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, about 20% of the patients performed below cut-off for clinically significant impairment on tests of basic neurocognitive functioning. A larger proportion of patients with generalized and neuropathic pain performed below this cut-off, whereas patients with localized pain exhibited impaired function to a lesser degree. Chronic pain patients receiving opioids did not perform worse than patients off opioid treatment. Systematic assessment of basic neurocognitive functions in centres treating chronic pain patients is warranted. PMID:23473784

  10. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  11. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  12. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    PubMed

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  13. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837

  14. Obesity--a neuropsychological disease? Systematic review and neuropsychological model.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic associated with a series of secondary complications and comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, sleep-breathing disorders, and certain forms of cancer. On the surface, it seems that obesity is simply the phenotypic manifestation of deliberately flawed food intake behavior with the consequence of dysbalanced energy uptake and expenditure and can easily be reversed by caloric restriction and exercise. Notwithstanding this assumption, the disappointing outcomes of long-term clinical studies based on this assumption show that the problem is much more complex. Obviously, recent studies render that specific neurocircuits involved in appetite regulation are etiologically integrated in the pathomechanism, suggesting obesity should be regarded as a neurobiological disease rather than the consequence of detrimental food intake habits. Moreover, apart from the physical manifestation of overeating, a growing body of evidence suggests a close relationship with psychological components comprising mood disturbances, altered reward perception and motivation, or addictive behavior. Given that current dietary and pharmacological strategies to overcome the burgeoning threat of the obesity problem are of limited efficacy, bear the risk of adverse side-effects, and in most cases are not curative, new concepts integratively focusing on the fundamental neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying overeating are urgently required. This new approach to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies would justify assigning obesity to the spectrum of neuropsychological diseases. Our objective is to give an overview on the current literature that argues for this view and, on the basis of this knowledge, to deduce an integrative model for the development of obesity originating from disturbed neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24394671

  15. Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in first-year undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Sher, K J; Martin, E D; Wood, P K; Rutledge, P C

    1997-08-01

    The relation between alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning was examined in 489 first-year undergraduates, approximately half of whom had a history of alcoholism in their biological fathers. Factor analyses of 17 neuropsychological tests and subtests produced the following 5 factors that were the basis of subsequent analyses: Language/Verbal Memory, Visuospatial Ability, Motor Speed, Booklet Category Performance, and Attention. Participants with alcohol use disorders showed deficits in visuospatial ability. Those who had alcohol dependence showed deficits in both visuospatial ability and motor speed relative to participants who abused alcohol. The differences in neuropsychological functioning remained even after several potential confounding variables were controlled statistically. Results suggest that alcohol use disorders in first-year college students are associated with deficits in neuropsychological measures that are not attributable to several potential third-variable explanations. PMID:9260079

  16. Pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes: A review.

    PubMed

    Gerner, Gwendolyn; Baron, Ida Sue

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy complications elevate risk of associated adverse medical, socioenvironmental, and behavioral outcomes in children. These are likely to have a substantial impact on neuropsychological functioning and mental health across the child's lifespan. Thus, an understanding of the complex relationships between pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes is critical for both practitioners and researchers. This review summarizes prevalent pregnancy complications and the associated psychological and neuropsychological findings, highlighting methodological challenges that have restricted investigations of these outcomes and identifying opportune areas for future study. PMID:24801883

  17. Neuropsychological Status in Children After Repair of Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Flynn, Thomas B.; Gaynor, J. William; Zhang, Xuemei; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Nance, Michael L.; Wernovsky, Gil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The majority of previous studies that described the neuropsychological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children were performed after surgery in infancy for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to limit confounding variables and isolate potential independent effects of CPB by describing neuropsychological function in school-aged children after repair of acyanotic CHD. METHODS This was a prospective study of patients who were aged 5 to 18 years and undergoing repair of acyanotic CHD. Neuropsychological testing battery included assessment of intelligence, memory, motor, attention, executive function, and behavior before and 6 months after CPB. The independent effects of anesthesia, surgery, and hospitalization on neuropsychological function were assessed by testing a surgical control group of patients who were undergoing repair of pectus deformities. In addition, an outpatient group of children with mild CHD were enrolled to assess the practice effects of serial testing. RESULTS Patients included CPB (n = 35), surgical control (n = 19), and nonsurgical (n = 12). Groups were comparable in age, gender, and race and demonstrated similar unadjusted group mean scores on baseline and 6-month follow-up neuropsychological testing. When adjusted for practice effects, the CPB group performed similar to the non-CPB groups in all assessed neuropsychological domains, with the exception of 1 of 4 tests of executive function. CONCLUSIONS When controlling for the non-CPB effects of surgery (eg, hospitalization, anesthesia, thoracotomy) and the practice effects of serial testing, there were no consistent independent effects of CPB on neuropsychological status in a cohort of children and adolescents 6 months after repair of acyanotic CHD. PMID:20660542

  18. Neuropsychological functioning in children with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Krueger, Casey E; Burnett, Christiane; Wilson, Christina K

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with deficits in the areas of verbal memory and learning, executive functioning, working memory, and attention in adults. Findings have been less consistent in the few studies examining neuropsychological functioning in childhood PTSD, which are often limited by comparing children with PTSD to children without trauma histories, making it unclear whether observed neuropsychological deficits are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD symptomatology. In an ethnically diverse sample of 62 children who witnessed intimate partner violence (n = 27 PTSD+ and 35 PTSD-), children with PTSD exhibited slower and less effective learning, heightened sensitivity to interference, and impaired effect of rehearsal on memory acquisition on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version, a word list learning task. Both groups performed in the below average range on measures of executive functioning, attention, and intellectual ability. PMID:19787496

  19. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frol, Alan B; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A; Brown, E Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity. PMID:23484893

  20. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  1. Neuropsychology of Arithmetic Disabilities in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M; Loveland, Katherine A.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of arithmetic disabilities in children is discussed first in this review. Then research studies are reported, classified by cognitive and neuropsychological studies and social competency studies. Finally, suggestions for remediation are provided. (MNS)

  2. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as concentration and memory) assessments. Computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological tests may be included as a ... ideally a neuropsychologist should interpret the computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological test components of a baseline exam. ...

  3. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  4. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology. PMID:20582855

  5. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  6. The neuropsychological profile of patients with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Schweiger, A; Blumkin, L; Yahalom, G; Anikster, Y; Lev, D; Ben-Zeev, B; Lerman-Sagie, T; Hassin-Baer, S

    2015-04-01

    Costeff syndrome is a rare genetic neuro-ophthalmological syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy along with a progressive complex motor disorder with elevated levels of urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. While borderline to mild cognitive deficits have been considered to be common in patients with this syndrome, a comprehensive cognitive assessment has never been performed. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive profile associated with Costeff syndrome. Sixteen adult patients diagnosed with Costeff syndrome were administered a neuropsychological test battery that was composed of standardized verbal tests adapted for the blind. General intelligence ranged from average to borderline, with a group mean consistent with intact general cognitive functioning (VIQmean  = 85, z = -1) in the low-average range of the general population. The auditory immediate and delayed memory indexes were in the average range and were significantly higher than the general cognitive functioning, whereas the working memory index was significantly lower than the general cognitive functioning. Adult patients with Costeff syndrome have intact global cognition and learning abilities and strong auditory memory performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25657044

  7. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. PMID:23582098

  8. Neuropsychological Investigation in Chinese Patients with Progressive Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Cui, Liying; Liu, Mingsheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Ma, Junfang; Fang, Jia; Ding, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a rare type of degenerative motor neuron disease (MND) of which the onset happens in adult period. Despite its well-defined clinical characteristics, its neuropsychological profile has remained poorly understood, considering the consensus of cognitive and behavioral impairment reached in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of Chinese PMA patients with a series of comprehensive batteries emphasizing the executive and attention function, and covering other domains of memory, language, visuospatial function, calculation and behavior as well. Their performances were compared with those of age- and education-matched ALS and healthy controls (HC). Results 21 patients newly diagnosed with PMA were consecutively enrolled into our ALS and other MND registry platform, accounting for 14.7% of all the incident MND cases registered during the same period. 20 patients who completed the neuropsychological batteries were included into analysis. Compared with HC, PMA performed significantly worse in maintenance function of attention, while they exhibited quantitative similarity to ALS in all behavioral inventories and neuropsychological tests except the time for Stroop interference effect. Conclusion PMA could display mild cognitive dysfunction in the same frontal-mediated territory of ALS but in a lesser degree, whereas they did not differ from ALS behaviorally. PMID:26042930

  9. Moderators of neuropsychological mechanism in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikolas, Molly A; Nigg, Joel T

    2015-02-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been proposed as both a way to tap mechanisms and as endophenotypes for child ADHD. However, substantial evidence supporting heterogeneity in neuropsychological performance among youth with ADHD as well as apparent effect differences by sex, age, and comorbidity have slowed progress. To address this, it is important to understand sibling effects in relation to these moderators. 461 youth ages 6-17 years (54.8 % male, including 251 youth with ADHD, 107 of their unaffected biological siblings, and 103 non-ADHD controls) completed diagnostic interviews and a theoretically informed battery of neuropsychological functioning. A structural equation model was used to consolidate neuropsychological domains. Group differences between unaffected siblings of youth with ADHD and controls across each domain were first examined as the primary endophenotype test for ADHD. Moderation of these effects was evaluated via investigation of interactions between diagnostic group and both proband and individual level characteristics, including sex, age, and comorbidity status. Unaffected siblings performed worse than control youth in the domains of inhibition, response time variability, and temporal information processing. Individual age moderated these effects, such that differences between controls and unaffected siblings were pronounced among younger children (ages 6-10 years) but absent among older youth (ages 11-17 years). Evidence for moderation of effects by proband sex and comorbidity status produced more variable and smaller effects. Results support the utility of inhibition, response time variability, and temporal processing as useful endophenotypes for ADHD in future genetic associations studies of the disorder, but suggest this value will vary by age among unaffected family members. PMID:25037459

  10. Neuropsychology of childhood arithmetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, E S

    1989-01-01

    The arithmetic learning disability literature was reviewed and critiqued. Due to the paucity of research in this area, few conclusions may be inferred. In general, the available research has provided tentative hypotheses about the nature of arithmetic disabilities. A variety of psychosocial variables notwithstanding, childhood arithmetic disability may directly result from cerebral dysfunction, poor motivation, and emotional/behavioral disturbance. However, further research is necessary in order to clarify the effects of maturation on arithmetic skills acquisition. Indeed, one approach to identification of the disorder would consider individual differences in neuropsychological development and performance affecting arithmetic achievement. It was concluded that a more comprehensive approach to investigating and diagnosing childhood arithmetic disability is needed. Reformulations and methods of study were articulated. Six related lines of research were outlined. A diagnostic rating scale was suggested which would account for type and severity of disorder. Diagnostic criteria were recommended based on the degree and definition of disability. Needs for remediation research were briefly explored. PMID:2485827

  11. 30 CFR 250.1509 - What must I do when MMS administers or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? 250.1509 Section 250.1509 Mineral Resources MINERALS... or requires hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing? If MMS or its authorized representative conducts, or requires you or your contractor to conduct hands-on, simulator, or other types of testing,...

  12. Results of a Pilot Test of a Self-Administered Smartphone-Based Treatment System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Usability and Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Campbell, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides results from a pilot study focused on assessing early-stage effectiveness and usability of a smartphone-based intervention system that provides a stand-alone, self-administered intervention option, the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A). The LBMI-A provided numerous features for intervening with ongoing drinking, craving, connection with supportive others, managing life problems, high risk location alerting and activity scheduling. Methods Twenty-eight participants, ranging in age from 22 to 45, who met criteria for an alcohol use disorder used an LBMI-A enabled smartphone for 6 weeks. Results Participants indicated the LBMI-A intervention modules were helpful in highlighting alcohol use patterns. Tools related to managing alcohol craving, monitoring consumption, and identifying triggers to drink were rated by participants as particularly helpful. Participants also demonstrated significant reductions in hazardous alcohol use while using the system (56% of days spent hazardously drinking at baseline vs. 25% while using the LBMI-A) and drinks per day diminished by 52%. Conclusions Implications for system improvement as well as suggestions for designing ecological momentary assessment and intervention systems for substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:24821354

  13. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid psychiatric history and one or more possible precipitating factors for their amnesia. Eight of the 10 patients still had persistent retrograde amnesia at our last contact with them (median = 14 mo after the onset of amnesia). On tests of anterograde amnesia, the patients performed normally as a group, though some patients scored poorly on tests of verbal memory. On tests of retrograde amnesia, all patients had difficulty recollecting well-formed autobiographical memories of specific events from their past. In contrast, patients performed as well as controls at distinguishing the names of cities from fictitious city names. On remote memory tests for past public events and famous faces, different patients exhibited different but internally consistent patterns of impaired and spared performance. The variability in the clinical and neuropsychological findings among our patients may be understood by supposing that memory performance is poor in proportion to how directly a test appears to assess a patient's commonsense concept of memory. The presentation of patients with functional amnesia is as variable as humankind's concept of what memory is and how it works. PMID:15054137

  14. Neuropsychological evaluation for detecting alterations in the central nervous system after chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolla, K I

    1996-08-01

    Individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) report decreased attention/concentration, memory loss, disorientation, confusion, fatigue, depression, irritability, decreased libido, sleep disturbances, headaches, and weakness. These neurobehavioral symptoms represent possible alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The evaluation of neurobehavioral functioning using neuropsychological techniques provides an indirect method for determining the integrity of the CNS. However, caution must be used in interpreting neuropsychological test results, since this technique is extremely sensitive but is not specific. Clinically significant aberrant test performance may be noted after chemical exposure as well as with other diseases of the CNS. In addition, neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression are often manifested as cognitive difficulties that are similar in pattern to the cognitive dysfunction caused by toxic chemicals. Herein, limitations and cautions in the interpretations of neuropsychological test results are discussed. PMID:8921555

  15. Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning: An Investigative Tool for Cognitive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

  16. Validation of NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols for Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Hui-Mei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yao, Shu-Chih; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the three time-difference neuropsychological protocols developed by the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Canadian Stroke Network for assessment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in Mandarin-speaking subjects and to investigate the clinical application of the shortest form. Methods Patients aged 50 years or older who had a stroke were invited to participate in the study. Clinical diagnosis of VCI was made. The NINDS-VCI Neuropsychology Protocols, 60-, 30-, and two 5-minute protocols, were administered. The criteria validities of the cognitive protocols against the diagnoses of stroke and VCI were determined via Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The optimal cut-off point for the 5-minute protocols total score was estimated for clinical use in screening. Results Eighty-three patients and 53 controls were recruited during the study period. Patients with stroke performed more poorly than the control group in the three neuropsychological protocols. Forty-two patients with stroke were diagnosed with VCI. VCI was used as the standard to estimate the criteria validities. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78, 0.80, 0.75, and 0.73 for the 60-, 30-, 5-mintue protocol-A and 5-minute protocol-B, respectively. Conclusion These modified neuropsychological protocols can be used as valid instruments when performing comprehensive cognitive assessment or for screening of VCI in Taiwan. PMID:27249647

  17. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  18. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification. PMID:20591819

  19. Risk factors associated with persistence of neuropsychological deficits in persons with organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1991-09-01

    This study examined neuropsychological prognosis following organic solvent exposure. Twenty-seven persons with evidence of 'mild toxic encephalopathy' were evaluated on two separate occasions with a standard neuropsychological test battery and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Ratings by experienced clinicians revealed that 50% of exposed persons had improved neuropsychological performance at the second evaluation. The other 50% were rated as having no change or a decline in neuropsychological tests scores. While the majority of persons in the good-outcome group were working at the time of the follow-up evaluation, none of the persons in the poor-outcome group was actively employed. Persons rated as having shown no improvement were significantly more likely to have had a peak exposure--an episode in which they were briefly exposed to a larger than normal amount of solvent. In addition, persons in the poor outcome group reported higher levels of psychological distress, both initially and at the follow-up evaluation. Results from this study suggest that the presence of certain risk factors, namely a peak exposure and psychological distress, may be particularly detrimental for long-term neuropsychological outcome in persons with a history of organic solvent exposure.

  20. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in “Younger” and “Older” Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208

  1. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  2. Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, H K; Prigatano, G P; Pollay, M; Biscoe, C B; Smith, R V

    1985-01-01

    Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second year for strabismus, amblyopia and visual acuity. Their medical records were reviewed for history of ocular motility and/or acuity abnormalities. Hydrocephalic children with normal range IQ were found to have lower verbal IQ, memory, and fine motor skills compared to controls. A history of ocular motility and acuity abnormalities was associated with impaired visuospatial and verbal problem-solving skills. PMID:4005882

  3. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  4. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Lisa H.; Harp, Jordan P.; Han, Dong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored. PMID:24516855

  5. The CERAD Neuropsychological Battery in Patients with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haanpää, Ramona M.; Suhonen, Noora-Maria; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koivisto, Anne M.; Moilanen, Virpi; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hänninen, Tuomo; Remes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is based on neuropsychological examination in addition to clinical symptoms and brain imaging. There is no simple, validated, cognitive tool available in screening for FTLD. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB) was originally devised to identify the early cognitive changes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the utility of the CERAD-NB in FTLD. Methods Patients with FTLD (n = 95) and AD (n = 90) were assessed with the CERAD-NB, Trail Making Test parts A and B and single-letter Phonemic Fluency. Results FTLD patients were more severely impaired in the Verbal Fluency subtest in the CERAD-NB and Trail Making Test part A compared to AD patients. In addition, AD patients were more impaired in memory subtests compared to FTLD patients. Conclusion The CERAD-NB may be a useful tool in screening for FTLD. Impaired performance in Verbal Fluency with moderately well-preserved Delayed Recall and Memory Tests may help in identifying patients with probable FTLD and discriminating FTLD from AD. Adding the Trail Making Test to the battery might enhance its value as a screening instrument for FTLD. PMID:25999981

  6. Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddes, William H.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Neuropsychological classifications of brain function and behavior are discussed in order to help psychologists recognize those cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment.…

  7. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  8. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional. PMID:25540620

  9. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury: acute versus chronic disturbances?

    PubMed

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M; Rödiger, Lars A; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-04-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully understood. As the admission computed tomography (CT) often is normal, perfusion CT imaging may be a useful indicator of brain dysfunction in the acute phase after injury in these patients. In the present study, directly after admission perfusion CT imaging was performed in mild TBI patients with follow-up neuropsychological assessment in those with complaints and a normal non-contrast CT. Neuropsychological tests comprised the 15 Words test Immediate Recall, Trailmaking test part B, Zoo Map test and the FEEST, which were dichotomized into normal and abnormal. Perfusion CT results of patients with normal neuropsychological test scores were compared to those with abnormal test scores. In total eighteen patients were included. Those with an abnormal score on the Zoo Map test had a significant lower CBV in the right frontal and the bilateral parieto-temporal white matter. Patients with an abnormal score on the FEEST had a significant higher MTT in the bilateral frontal white matter and a significant decreased CBF in the left parieto-temporal grey matter. No significant relation between the perfusion CT parameters and the 15 Words test and the Trailmaking test part B was present. In conclusion, impairments in executive functioning and emotion perception assessed with neuropsychological tests during follow up were related to differences in cerebral perfusion at admission in mild TBI. The pathophysiological concept of these findings is discussed. PMID:24556319

  10. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  11. Managing Neuropsychological Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephanie; Penner, Iris; Heesen, Christoph; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system of potential autoimmune origin that is frequently associated with psychological disorders and cognitive deficits, as well as with fatigue, stress, and psychosocial burden. These factors often cause decreased quality of life, social withdrawal, and unemployment. We describe the development of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention based on the concept of metacognition and evaluation of the feasibility and acceptance of the program as a rehabilitation tool. Methods: Metacognitive Training in MS (MaTiMS) consists of six modules, each 90 minutes in duration. We tested acceptance and design of the program in six focus groups (entire sample, n = 27). Framework analysis of transcripts was used to identify key topics and categories. Program modules were revised in accordance with appropriate recommendations of focus group members. We subsequently evaluated MaTiMS in two groups (n = 5, n = 6) in a rehabilitation center. Neuropsychological functioning as well as coping self-efficacy, depression, stress, perceived cognitive deficit, fatigue, and quality of life were assessed. Acceptance of MaTiMS from the patient perspective was also studied. Results: The modules were highly accepted by patients. Pre-post assessments showed significant improvements in the Coping Self Efficacy Scale (P = .007), the Würzburger Fatigue Inventory for MS Score (P = .028), and the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire in Multiple Sclerosis Mood subscale (P = .046). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that MaTiMS represents a feasible psychological group training program that may foster improvements in self-efficacy, fatigue, and mood. The next step will be an evaluation of the program in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:26052258

  12. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  13. The Neuropsychological Status of Adolescent Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, P. H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The neuropsychological status and neuromotor performance of adolescent boys from lower-middle-class social environments who were detained as juvenile delinquents were compared to those of nondelinquent lower- and upper-middle-class controls. Principal aims were to investigate relationships between delinquency and learning disabilities,…

  14. Play-Based Neuropsychological Assessment of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Standardized psychological assessment provides a precise yet limited view of the neuropsychological status of preschool toddlers, whose brain functioning is only beginning to develop localized functioning. Yet, referrals for preschool evaluation of these early-age children often request a wide variety of information about brain-behavior…

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  16. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  17. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  18. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  19. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype. PMID:26292990

  20. Neuropsychological function in children with primary complex motor stereotypies

    PubMed Central

    MAHONE, E. MARK; RYAN, MATTHEW; FERENC, LISA; MORRIS-BERRY, CHRISTINA; SINGER, HARVEY S.

    2014-01-01

    AIM Complex motor stereotypies (CMS) are patterned, repetitive, rhythmic, and involuntary movements that persist over time. They are divided into two subgroups dependent on the presence of other developmental problems: ‘primary’ (development is otherwise typical) or ‘secondary’ (associated with autism, intellectual disability, or sensory deficits). There are no currently published studies that examine neuropsychological function in children with primary CMS. This case–control study examines whether children with primary CMS manifest neurobehavioral deficits. METHOD Fifty-seven children with primary CMS (32 males, 25 females; mean age 6y 8mo, SD 2y 4mo, range 4–12y) with negative screens for autism and 57 comparison participants (32 males, 25 females; mean age 6y 6mo, SD 2y 1mo) completed neuropsychological assessments of IQ, reading ability, attention, language, and motor and executive functions. Parents completed ratings of their child’s repetitive movement severity. RESULTS The CMS group performed significantly less well than comparison participants on motor skills and IQ tests (both p<0.01), although IQ was consistently in the average range. One-third of the CMS group showed signs of developmental motor coordination difficulties. Parent report of stereotypy severity was significantly associated with parent report of inattention and executive dysfunction. INTERPRETATION Children with primary CMS were found to have largely intact neuropsychological profiles. Stereotypy severity appears to be associated with executive dysfunction. Although motor difficulties were observed in children with CMS, these were not correlated with parent report of symptom severity. PMID:24814517

  1. Short term neuropsychological recovery in substance use disordered clients

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Voelbel, Gerald T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Labouvie, Erich W.; Barry, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in clients who enter treatment programs for substance abuse. The potential for early recovery of cognitive abilities is suggested by previous research; however, the extent of improvement and risk factors that may help predict individual differences in rates of recovery remain unclear. This study is a 6-week follow-up and retest of an original sample of 197 men and women who had received a broad neuropsychological assessment at addiction treatment entry. The aim was to examine the potential clinical significance of changes in cognitive functioning and the extent to which differential recovery was predictable from client background information. Methods Fifteen neuropsychological tests were readministered to 169 of 197 clients 6 weeks after treatment entry. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate separately the practice effects and recovery in four cognitive domains: executive function, memory, information processing speed, and verbal ability. Client background information included age, sex, education, substance use and consequences, psychopathology, medical problems, familial alcoholism history, and childhood behavior problems. Results A four-factor model of latent neuropsychological ability that was previously identified at treatment entry was replicated at follow-up. Statistically significant increases in the means of the four latent abilities were found. Memory showed a medium effect size improvement. Executive function, verbal ability, and information processing speed, however, showed only small effect size improvements, suggesting limited clinical significance. Substance use between treatment entry and follow-up, antisocial personality disorder, negative use consequences, less education, and medical problems were modestly predictive of less recovery. Conclusion Cognitive recovery in the first 6 weeks of treatment is possible, but, with the possible exception of memory, improvement may be minor in

  2. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging correlates of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Inglese, Matilde; Adhya, Sumita; Johnson, Glyn; Babb, James S; Miles, Laura; Jaggi, Hina; Herbert, Joseph; Grossman, Robert I

    2008-01-01

    Although cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Abnormalities of cerebral blood flow (CBF) have long been acknowledged in MS and advances in perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for their assessment in vivo. We investigated the relationship between regional perfusion changes and neuropsychological (NP) dysfunctions in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive MS. Absolute CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time were measured in 32 MS patients and 11 healthy controls using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted MRI. A comprehensive NP test battery was administered to all patients. A mixed model analysis of covariance was performed for group comparisons in terms of perfusion measures in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and deep gray matter (GM). Pearson’s correlations were used to describe the association of perfusion metrics with NP Z-scores. CBF and CBV values were significantly decreased in both NAWM and deep GM in MS patients compared with controls (P = 0.01). In all patients, deep GM CBF was significantly associated with Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT)-Copy (r = 0.5; P = 0.001) and deep GM CBV and NAWM CBV were significantly associated with Color-Word Interference Inhibition Switching test (D-KEFSIS) (r = 0.4; P = 0.008 and r = 0.4; P = 0.02). However, the only associations that remained significant after Bonferroni correction were between deep GM CBF and RCFT-Copy (P = 0.006), and deep GM CBV and D-KEFSIS (P = 0.04). Our results suggest a role for tissue perfusion impairment in NP dysfunction in MS. Large-scale studies are needed to characterize better this association. PMID:17473851

  3. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  4. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed. PMID:17194563

  5. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits. PMID:17676531

  6. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  7. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Special Education Students with Serious Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2006-01-01

    Special education, elementary school students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) were investigated for neuropsychological deficits with the NEPSY battery. Over half (54%) scored two or more standard deviations below the test mean on at least one of the four functional domains, especially Language and Attention/Executive Functions. The NEPSY…

  8. Multicultural Neuropsychology: Performance of Mandarin-Speaking Children On Widely Used Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Shaio-Ling Judy; Tori, Christopher D.; Saito, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In order to extend the multicultural horizons of neuropsychological assessment in the Chinese mainland, a battery of eight commonly used neurocognitive tests assessing motor speed, verbal and visual-spatial memory, language fluency, attention, and executive functioning were given to 224 Mandarin-speaking school children (107 boys and 117 girls)…

  9. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  10. Aging and the misinformation effect: a neuropsychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; Geraci, Lisa

    2007-03-01

    Older adults' susceptibility to misinformation in an eyewitness memory paradigm was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that older adults are more susceptible to interfering misinformation than are younger adults on two different tests (old-new recognition and source monitoring). Experiment 2 examined the extent to which processes associated with frontal lobe functioning underlie older adults' source-monitoring difficulties. Older adults with lower frontal-lobe-functioning scores on neuropsychological tests were particularly susceptible to false memories in the misinformation paradigm. The authors' results agree with data from other false memory paradigms that show greater false recollections in older adults, especially in those who scored poorly on frontal tests. The results support a source-monitoring account of aging and illusory recollection. PMID:17352614

  11. Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 μg/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p≤0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p≤0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

  12. Proton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Miller, Eric N; Chang, Linda; Marra, Christina M; Schifitto, Giovanni; Ernst, Thomas; Singer, Elyse; Richards, Todd; Jarvik, G Jeffrey; Price, Richard; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Kolson, Dennis; Ellis, Ronald J; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Lenkinski, Robert E; Cohen, Ronald A; Navia, Bradford A

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have described the metabolic substrates underlying neuropsychological performance in HIV infection or examined the specificity of these relationships. The authors performed magnetic resonance spectroscopic and neuropsychological evaluations on 61 patients with AIDS dementia complex (stages 1-3) and 39 HIV-positive neurologically asymptomatic individuals. N-acetylaspartate, a marker of mature neurons, choline and myoinositol, both markers of gliosis, and creatine, a reference marker, were measured in the basal ganglia, frontal white matter, and parietal cortex. The neuropsychological evaluation consisted of tests that measured gross and fine motor skills, psychomotor function, information processing speed, and verbal memory. The authors examined performance on individual subtests and an aggregate Z score based on eight subtests (NPZ-8), adjusted for age and education. The NPZ-8 was significantly higher in subjects with greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine in the frontal white matter and was lower in subjects with higher myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. Particularly strong associations were found between measures of gross and fine motor function, which correlated positively with N-acetylaspartate/creatine in the frontal white matter and negatively with myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. Similarly, cognitive processing speed was negatively correlated with myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. In contrast, there were no statistically significant relationships between brain metabolite levels in the parietal cortex and neuropsychological function. This study provides convincing evidence that neuropsychological impairment is associated with reduced markers of mature neurons and increased markers of gliosis in the basal ganglia and frontal white matter. Neural changes as reflected by these metabolite levels may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk for neuropsychological impairment. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the

  13. Neurological and neuropsychological characteristics of occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Antje; Grimsen, Cathleen; Kehrer, Stefanie; Bahnemann, Markus; Spang, Karoline; Prass, Maren; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Köhnlein, Martin; Lipfert, Anika; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits after occipital infarction are most often described in case studies and only a small sample of studies has attempted to exactly correlate the anatomical localization of lesions with associated neuropsychological symptoms. The present study investigated a large number of patients (N = 128) in order to provide an overview of neurological and neuropsychological deficits after occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction. A particular approach of the study was to define exact anatomical correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction by using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in 61 patients. In addition to a visual field defect and phosphenes, patients often reported anomia, difficulties in reading and memory deficits. Visual disorders, such as achromatopsia, akinetopsia or prosopagnosia, were rarely reported by the patients. Memory and visual disorders were diagnosed efficiently using simple clinical screening tests, such as the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test for immediate recall, the Demtect and the Lang Stereo Test. Visual field defects, reading disorders and the perception of phosphenes were associated primarily with lesions of the calcarine sulcus. Anomia and memory deficits were related to lesions of the occipital inferior gyrus, the lingual gyrus and hippocampus, as well as to lesions of principal white matter tracts. PMID:23206528

  14. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  15. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. PMID:24105915

  16. Contribution of traumatic head injury to neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics.

    PubMed Central

    Hillbom, M; Holm, L

    1986-01-01

    The contribution of head injuries to neuropsychological deficits was studied in 157 recently detoxified alcoholics and 400 control subjects consisting of age-stratified randomly selected men and women from the same geographical area as the alcoholics. Head injuries had occurred in 41% and 22% of the male and female alcoholics, but only in 15% and 6% of the male and female control subjects. One third of the injured subjects in both groups had been admitted to hospital for treatment of the acute injury. The neuropsychological test results of alcoholics were significantly inferior to those of control subjects. Unexpectedly, alcoholics with head injuries not identified at hospital were significantly inferior in several Halstead-Reitan subtests when compared with uninjured alcoholics with a similar duration of alcoholism and abstinence. By contrast, control subjects who had sustained a head injury not identified at hospital did not show signs of intellectual impairment when compared with uninjured controls. We conclude that traumatic brain injuries that may cause significant intellectual impairment may easily remain unrecognised in alcoholics. PMID:3806110

  17. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis. PMID:26507010

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  19. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition. PMID:19333063

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Serroni, N; Moschetta, F S; Di Giannantonio, M; Ferrara, M; De Berardis, D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological functioning and the effect of antidepressant drug intake on cognitive performance in a group of relatively young generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. Forty patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and 31 healthy subjects participated in the study (Control group, CON). None of the selected subjects had comorbid depression. GAD subjects were divided into two different subgroups: 18 were taking antidepressants [GAD-pharmacotherapy (GAD-p group)] and 22 were treatment-naïve (GAD group). Each group was administered with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention, memory and executive functions. Performance on executive and non-verbal memory tasks of both GAD groups was largely worse than the CON group. However, these deficits seem to be more marked in patients taking antidepressants, especially in the domains of attention, non-verbal memory and executive functions. The present study indicates that GAD is associated with cognitive impairments among young adults. However, the observed association of neuropsychological deficits and the use of pharmacotherapy suggest a possible effect of antidepressant treatment on attention, executive functioning and non-verbal memory. PMID:23796524

  1. Psychosocial, neuropsychological and neurological status in a sample of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Thormann, T; Strenge, H; Biernath, E; Foerst, U; Stauch, C; Torp, U; Bernhard, A; Speidel, H

    1992-04-01

    The sample for this psychosocial follow-up study was formed using the 71 surviving patients from a total of 100 who underwent heart transplantation up until March 1990 at Kiel University Hospital. Forty of these could be investigated comprehensively. The neurological investigation comprised EEG and auditory and visually evoked potentials. The psychological investigation started with several neuropsychological tests; additionally all patients were interviewed and they completed questionnaires concerning anxiety, depression, ways of coping, personality characteristics and life satisfaction. Within the entire sample, there were few indications for specific psychological impairment. The psychosocial status of the patients was not significantly related to the time which had elapsed since they underwent transplantation. There were few associations between neuropsychological and psychosocial data, and several indicators of early postoperative complications which are described in the literature (e.g., length of stay in the intensive care unit). Clinically relevant subgroups (formed on the basis of neuropsychological test results, anxiety and depression) did not differ in terms of these indicators. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of the patients (25%) were characterized by having a higher level of affective and neuropsychological impairment. Although based upon retrospective investigations, the results of this follow-up generally correlate with those gained from Anglo-American countries. In interpreting the results one needs to consider the possible influence of premorbid personality characteristics as well as denial which may be typical for patients undergoing heart transplantation. PMID:1301119

  2. Neuropsychological evaluation and parental assessment of behavioral and motor difficulties in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, V; Kemlin, I; Dorison, N; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, with large inter and intrafamilial clinical variability and uncertain prognosis. In children with NF1 cognitive disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral problems are common. The present study aims to establish the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of 78 patients with NF1, aged between 5 and 18 years, and to examine the relationship between these profiles and the transmission of NF1 (sporadic vs. familial), clinical manifestations, and environmental factors. We used several questionnaires completed by parents and neuropsychological tests. The results confirmed specific neuropsychological disabilities in children with NF1, especially involving visuospatial and fine motor skills, learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Cognitive difficulties were significantly more frequent in patients with familial than in those with sporadic NF1. All parental questionnaires were correlated with each other, but parental reports were not associated with FSIQ, SES, school status, and clinical manifestations of the disease. Neuropsychological tests were poorly related to parental reports of cognitive and behavioral difficulties. PMID:26625207

  3. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  4. Neuropsychological functioning is compromised in binge drinking young adults with depression.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; De Regt, Tamara; Lagopoulos, Jim; Naismith, Sharon L; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-11-30

    For many young people, binge drinking is the most common form of alcohol misuse, particularly in those with a depressive disorder. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the effects that the combination of depression and binge drinking has on neuropsychological outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether binge drinkers with depression show more pronounced neuropsychological dysfunction compared to their peers with depression alone or binge drinking alone. Neuropsychological testing was conducted on help-seeking young people (18-30 years) recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder and classified as either 'binge drinkers' (n=43) or 'non-bingers' (n=48). Two healthy control groups (i.e. binge drinkers, n=24 and non-bingers, n=21) were additionally recruited and also underwent the same testing. Qualitatively, binge-drinking patients with depression performed consistently below controls, depression alone, or binge drinking alone. In keeping with our hypotheses, visual learning and memory was significantly reduced in depressed binge drinkers, whereas mental flexibility was reduced at a trend level. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological performance in depressed alone or binge drinking alone individuals compared to controls. The findings suggest that when treating young people with a depressive disorder, strategies targeting binge drinking may contribute to preventing potential neurobiological changes underlying poorer long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:23721946

  5. Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Husain, S G; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, S P; Anand, M; Ali, M M; Seth, P K

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psycho-motor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers. PMID:11931507

  6. Cognitive and neuropsychological evolution in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Patrini, Mara; Freri, Elena; Ragona, Francesca; Zibordi, Federica; Andreetta, Francesca; Nardocci, Nardo; Granata, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    We describe neurological and cognitive/neuropsychological changes from symptom onset in 13 consecutive children (8 females and 5 males; median age 11 years, range 3-17) with anti-NMDAR-encephalitis. We assessed neurological status using the modified Rankin Scale for children and cognitive/neuropsychological status using a standardized battery that was administered serially in 10 prospective patients, and at latest follow-up in three retrospective patients diagnosed before study initiation. Symptom onset was marked by neurological or psychiatric/behavioural manifestations, which became severe but regressed at variable rates after starting immunotherapy. The 10 prospective patients were able to undergo first standardized cognitive/neuropsychological assessment a median of 3 months (range 1-12) after symptom onset: they had extensive deficits, although severity varied. Subsequent assessment showed marked improvements although the timescale varied. At latest evaluation (median 31 months, range 3-112, after symptom onset), seven patients had no neurological disability, five had improved substantially, and one had persistent behavioural problems. Latest cognitive/neuropsychological assessment in 11 patients with at least a year of follow-up showed normal general intellectual abilities, but over half had residual deficits indicating frontal lobe dysfunction. All patients had resumed normal activities. Our findings suggest that early installation of immunotherapy results in good long-term recovery in most paediatric patients with anti-NMDAR-encephalitis, however, recovery is incomplete and the disease leaves subtle lasting defects that impact quality of life, social relationships, and academic achievement. PMID:26886205

  7. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  8. Neuropsychological Profile in a Large Group of Heart Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Daniela; Bardi, Lara; Mojoli, Marco; Volpe, Biancarosa; Gerosa, Gino; Amodio, Piero; Daliento, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. Methods 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. Results Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%). Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. Conclusions Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence. PMID:22180780

  9. Neurological and neuropsychological effects of cerebral spinal fluid shunting in children with assumed arrested ("normal pressure") hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Torkelson, R D; Leibrock, L G; Gustavson, J L; Sundell, R R

    1985-01-01

    Normocephalic children found to have ventriculomegaly during evaluation of long-standing (4.5-8.5 years) neurological disorder were tested for academic achievement, intellectual quotient and neuropsychological functioning. Radioactive iodinated serum cisternography, pre and post-shunt electrophysiological studies (visual evoked responses, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, sleep electroencephalograms) and radiological studies (skull radiographs computed tomography) were recorded. Four children who have been followed more than one year after insertion of ventricular-peritoneal shunts are presented. All demonstrated improvement in psychometric findings along with some improvement in CT scan and EEG studies. The most marked initial changes were noted on measures of neuropsychological performance, accompanied later by improvement in measures of intelligence. Achievement test scores showed no consistent pattern of change. This sample suggests that there is a group of asymptomatic children with apparent clinically stable (arrested) hydrocephalus in whom abnormal neuropsychological testing indicates the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunting, with subsequent improvement. Images PMID:4031932

  10. Neuropsychological and Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Social Norms Questionnaire in Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Hemali; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Lee, Grace; Carr, Andrew; Barsuglia, Joseph P; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira; Mendez, Mario F

    2016-06-01

    Traditional neuropsychological batteries may not distinguish early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) without the inclusion of a social behavioral measure. We compared 33 participants, 15 bvFTD, and 18 matched patients with early-onset AD (eAD), on the Social Norms Questionnaire (SNQ), neuropsychological tests and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The analyses included correlations of SNQ results (total score, overendorsement or "overadhere" errors, and violations or "break" errors) with neuropsychological results and tensor-based morphometry regions of interest. Patients with BvFTD had significantly lower SNQ total scores and higher overadhere errors than patients with eAD. On neuropsychological measures, the SNQ total scores correlated significantly with semantic knowledge and the overadhere subscores with executive dysfunction. On MRI analysis, the break subscores significantly correlated with lower volume of lateral anterior temporal lobes (aTL). The results also suggest that endorsement of social norm violations corresponds to the role of the right aTL in social semantic knowledge. PMID:26646114

  11. Neuropsychological functions and visual contrast sensitivity in schizophrenia: the potential impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Halász, Ibolya; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kelemen, Oguz; Benedek, György; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with other severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the neuropsychological and psychophysical correlates of comorbid PTSD are less exactly defined. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate and delayed memory, attention, visuospatial skills, language, and basic visual information processing in patients with schizophrenia with or without PTSD. We recruited 125 patients with schizophrenia and 70 healthy controls matched for visual acuity, age, gender, education, and socioeconomic status. Twenty-one of patients with schizophrenia exhibited comorbid PTSD. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and visual contrast sensitivity tasks for low spatial/high temporal frequency (0.3 cycle/degree and 18 Hz) and high spatial/low temporal frequency (10 cycles/degree and 1Hz) sinusoidal gratings. All patients were clinically stable and received antipsychotic medications. Results revealed that relative to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significant and generalized neuropsychological dysfunctions and reduced visual contrast sensitivity, which was more pronounced at low spatial/high temporal frequency. When we compared schizophrenia patients with and without PTSD, we found that patients with comorbid PTSD displayed lower scores for RBANS attention, immediate and delayed memory, and visuospatial scores. Schizophrenia patients with or without PTSD displayed similar visual contrast sensitivity. In conclusion, comorbid PTSD in schizophrenia may be associated with worse neuropsychological functions, whereas it does not affect basic visual information processing. PMID:23519404

  12. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed. PMID:16122901

  13. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology. PMID:24685311

  14. The inheritance of neuropsychological dysfunction in twins discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cannon, T D; Huttunen, M O; Lonnqvist, J; Tuulio-Henriksson, A; Pirkola, T; Glahn, D; Finkelstein, J; Hietanen, M; Kaprio, J; Koskenvuo, M

    2000-08-01

    While genetic influences in schizophrenia are substantial, the disorder's molecular genetic basis remains elusive. Progress has been hindered by lack of means to detect nonpenetrant carriers of the predisposing genes and by uncertainties concerning the extent of locus heterogeneity. One approach to solving this complexity is to examine the inheritance of pathophysiological processes mediating between genotype and disease phenotype. Here we evaluate whether deficits in neurocognitive functioning covary with degree of genetic relationship with a proband in the unaffected MZ and DZ co-twins of patients with schizophrenia. Twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were recruited from a total population cohort and were compared with a demographically balanced sample of control twin pairs, on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The following four neuropsychological functions contributed uniquely to the discrimination of degree of genetic loading for schizophrenia and, when combined, were more highly correlated within MZ pairs than within DZ pairs, in both discordant and control twins: spatial working memory (i.e., remembering a sequence of spatial locations over a brief delay), divided attention (i.e., simultaneous performance of a counting and visual-search task), intrusions during recall of a word list (i.e., "remembering" nonlist items), and choice reaction time to visual targets. Together with evidence from human and animal studies of mediation of these functions by partially distinct brain systems, our findings suggest that there are multiple independently inherited dimensions of neural deficit in schizophrenia and encourage a search for genes contributing to quantitative variation in discrete aspects of disease liability. On tests of verbal and visual episodic memory, but not on the liability-related measures, patients were more impaired than their own MZ co-twins, suggesting a preferential impact of nongenetic influences on long-term memory systems

  15. Memory Testing: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    Neuropsychology combines psychometrics and the study of brain processes. There are two approaches to neuropsychology. The neurologic approach uses brief tests flexibly. The psychometric approach uses standardized graded scales in a set battery. Cortical testing in the form of intellectual abilities testing is 70 years old, yet psychometric…

  16. Comparison of the K-BIT with Short Forms of the WAIS-R in a Neuropsychological Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Norman; Engelhart, Charles I.

    1997-01-01

    The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) (A. S. Kaufman and N. L. Kaufman, 1990) was compared with short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) using results from 64 referrals to a neuropsychology service. Advantages of each test are noted and their use discussed. (SLD)

  17. Neuropsychological Screening with School-Age Children: Rationale and Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recently endorsed definitions of learning disabilities presume that the disability is due to central nervous system dysfunction. To identify those children who should receive a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, an effective approach to neuropsychological screening is needed. Provides a rationale and conceptual framework for development…

  18. Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the neuropsychology of written language is provided. An historical review of language disorders is presented to provide a framework for understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the reading process. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed. Two distinct forms of the disorder are…

  19. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  20. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  1. The Influence of Levetiracetam in Cognitive Performance in Healthy Individuals: Neuropsychological, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Julio Cesar; Gongora, Mariana; Vicente, Renan; Bittencourt, Juliana; Tanaka, Guaraci; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Morato, Gledys; Basile, Luis F.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Pompeu, Fernando A.M.S; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to analyze the influence of Levetiracetam (LEV) in cognitive performance by identifying the changes produced by LEV in reaction time, in neuropsychological assessment of attention and memory and in absolute theta power in frontal activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects (5 men and 7 women; mean age, 30.08 years, standard deviation, 4.71) were recruited for this study. The neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit Span (direct and indirect numerical orders/working memory); Stroop test (inhibitory control of attention); Tower of London (planning and decision-making) and a quantitative electroencephalography were applied in 2 different days after and before the participants ingested the capsule of placebo or 500 mg LEV. Results A two-way-ANOVA was implemented to observe the interaction between conditions (placebo or LEV 500 mg) and moments (pre- and post-ingestion of LEV or placebo). The data were analyzed by the SPSS statistical package (p<0.05). For the neuropsychological parameter, the Trail Making Test (A) was the only test that showed significant difference for condition in the task execution time (p=0.026). Regarding the reaction time in the behavioral parameter, an interaction between both factors (p=0.034) was identified through a two-way-ANOVA (condition versus moment). Electrophysiological measures showed a significant interaction for electrodes: F7, F3, and FZ. Conclusion The findings showed that LEV promotes an important cognitive enhancement in the executive functions. PMID:25912541

  2. Recognizing and identifying people: A neuropsychological review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g., face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favor a 'distributed-only' model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a 'person-hub' model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second question is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  3. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  4. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Chantsoulis, Marzena; Mirski, Andrzej; Rasmus, Anna; Kropotov, Juri D; Pachalska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the 'Academy of Life,' which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy. PMID:26094541

  5. Meta-analysis of academic interventions derived from neuropsychological data.

    PubMed

    Burns, Matthew K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusion criteria, which resulted in 37 articles that were included in the current study. Each article was coded based on how the data were used (screening-86% or designing interventions-14%), size of the group for which interventions were delivered (small group-45%, individual students-45%, or entire classroom-10%), and type of data collected (cognitive functions-24%, reading fluency-33%, phonemic/phonological awareness-35%, or mixed-8%). A corrected Hedges' g was computed for every study and reported for variables of interest. A Fail-safe N was also computed to determine how many studies with a zero effect would have to be found to change the conclusions. The data resulted in a small effect (g = 0.17) for measures of cognitive functioning, but moderate effects of g = 0.43 and g = 0.48 for measures of reading fluency and phonemic/phonological awareness. There were few studies that examined measures of cognitive functioning within the intervention process. Taken together with previous research, the data do not support the use of cognitive measures to develop interventions but instead favor more direct measures of academic skills (e.g., reading fluency) in a skill-by-treatment interaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26192390

  6. Socioeconomic status and neuropsychological functioning: Associations in an ethnically diverse HIV+ cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Rosario, Ana; Miranda, Caitlin; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. Method We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i.e., Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Modified Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results Bivariate analyses showed that adult SES was significantly, positively correlated with neuropsychological performance on specific tests within the domains of verbal fluency, attention/concentration, learning, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and childhood SES was significantly linked to measures of verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning. In a series of linear regressions, controlling for SES significantly attenuated group differences in NP test scores between racial/ethnic minority individuals and non-Hispanic white individuals. Finally, SES scores significantly differed across HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) diagnoses. In a binary logistic regression, SES was the only independent predictor of HAND diagnosis. Conclusions HIV+ individuals with lower SES may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated neuropsychological sequelae due to prominent health disparities, although the degree to which this is influenced by factors such as test bias remains unclear. Overall, our results suggest that SES is significantly linked to neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ individuals, and is an important factor to consider in clinical practice. PMID:25871409

  7. A pilot investigation of the effects of stress on neuropsychological performance in Asian-Indians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nagra, Ayesha; Skeel, Reid L; Sbraga, Tamara Penix

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of stress and the ethnicity of the examiner on neuropsychological performance in a sample of Asian-Indian males in the United States. Participants were 60 Asian-Indian college students randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The first factor was level of stress induction and the second was ethnicity of examiners. Results suggested that both stress inducing instructions and examiner ethnicity impacted highly demanding tasks, while moderately difficult tasks were less sensitive to ethnicity of the examiner. Results also indicate that examiners should recognize the potential impact of ethnicity and heightened level of stress when administering and interpreting neuropsychological measures. PMID:17227177

  8. The relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability in dementia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reger, Mark A; Welsh, Robert K; Watson, G Stennis; Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D; Craft, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 27 primary studies was conducted to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability for adults with dementia. When studies using a control group were included, the relationship between cognitive measures and on-road or non-road driving measures was significant for all reported domains; mean correlations ranged from.35 to.65. Caregiver reports of driving ability and cognitive variables were correlated significantly only on measures of mental status and visuospatial skills. When studies using a control group were excluded, moderate mean correlations were observed for visuospatial skills and on-road or non-road measures, and for mental status with non-road tests. Other effects were small or nonsignificant. Implications for basing driving recommendations on neuropsychological testing are discussed. PMID:14744191

  9. The cognitive impact of sexual abuse and PTSD in children: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Mauricio; Calderón, Liliana; Bell, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Sexual abuse is known to have an impact on both child and adult mental health, but the neuropsychological basis of this effect is still largely unknown. This study compared neuropsychological test results from a group of 76 children, 13 of them sexual abuse victims with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, 26 victims of sexual abuse who showed no symptoms post-traumatic stress disorder, and 37 controls. The groups were matched by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational level. Child sexual abuse was associated with reduced ability to inhibit automatic responses measured by the Stroop test regardless of post-traumatic stress disorder status. These findings indicate possible attentional inhibition difficulties in child victims of sexual abuse, which may help explain psychopathology associated with the experience. PMID:23924174

  10. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD. PMID:27058747

  11. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

    2012-01-01

    Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

  12. Neuropsychological assessments in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, perimesencephalic SAH, and incidental aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Kara; Dombek, Susanne; Martens, Tobias; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Neurosurgical manipulation on the brain itself has been reported to have influence on neuropsychological sequelae. The following is a comparative study on perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as well as elective aneurysm patients that was carried out to determine the isolated and combined impact of surgical manipulation and hemorrhage, respectively, on long-term neuropsychological outcome. Inclusion criteria were good neurological recovery at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) without focal neurological deficit. Standardized psychological testing covered attention, memory, executive functions, and mood. Thirteen aneurysmal SAH patients, 15 patients undergoing elective clipping, and 14 patients with perimesencephalic SAH were analyzed. Standardized neuropsychological testing and social/professional history questionnaires were performed 2 years (mean) after discharge. Memory impairment and slower cognitive processing were found in the aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH groups, while elective aneurysm patients showed signs of impaired attention. However, compared with norm data for age-matched healthy controls, all groups showed no significant test results. In contrast, signs of clinical depression were seen in 9/42 patients, 45 % of all patients complained of stress disorders and 55 % of patients were unable to work in their previous professions. Nearly normal neuropsychological test results on long-term follow-up in SAH patients were unexpected. However, a 50 % rate of unemployment accompanied with stress disorders and depression manifests insufficient social and workplace reintegration. Therefore, even more specific rehabilitation programs are required following inpatient treatment to attain full recovery. PMID:23949148

  13. NAMING DYNAMIC AND STATIC ACTIONS: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Kenneth; Asp, Erik; Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in identifying the neural correlates of action naming, but the bulk of previous work on this topic has utilized static stimuli. Recent research comparing the visual processing of dynamic versus static actions suggests that these two types of stimuli engage largely overlapping neural systems, raising the possibility that the higher-order processing requirements for naming dynamic and static actions might not be very different. To explore this issue in greater depth, we developed the Dynamic Action Naming Test (DANT), which consists of 158 video clips 3–5 sec in length, for each of which the participant is asked to produce the most appropriate verb. We administered the DANT to 78 brain-damaged patients drawn from our Patient Registry, and to a demographically matched group of 50 normal participants. Out of the 16 patients who performed defectively on the DANT, nearly all (15/16) had damage in the left hemisphere. Lesion analysis indicated that the frontal operculum was the most frequent area of damage in the 15 patients; also, damage to the posterolateral temporal-occipital sector (in and near MT) was specifically related to defective dynamic action naming. Most of the brain-damaged participants (n = 71) also received our Static Action Naming Test (SANT), and we found that performances on verb items that were common across the DANT and SANT were highly correlated (R = .91). Moreover, patients who failed the DANT almost invariably also failed the SANT. These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that there is considerable commonality in the neural systems underlying the use of verbs to orally name dynamic and static actions, a conclusion that is in turn compatible with the concept of “representational momentum.” Our results also contribute more generally to the rapidly growing field of research on embodied cognition. PMID:18486456

  14. [Proposal for a neuropsychological cognitive evaluation battery for detecting and distinguishing between mild cognitive impairment and dementias].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, Pilar; Azcárate-Jiménez, Leire; Seijas-Gómez, Raquel; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2015-06-16

    The early and etiological diagnosis of dementia syndrome in the clinical practice remains the neuropsychological assessment through the study of the cognitive profile of the patient and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the functions, both impaired and preserved. In this article, we describe a neuropsychological battery of cognitive evaluation to detect mild cognitive impairment in any of its clinical forms and dementia; as well as discriminate between the main profiles of dementia syndrome, based on its topographic and etiological classification (frontotemporal, temporoparietal, subcortical, cortico-subcortical and multifocal). This battery is implemented in the neuropsychological assessment specialized surgery from Navarra Hospital Center Neurology Service. Not only the tests that form the assessment protocol are presented, but also the theoretical models that are considered more appropriate for their interpretation. PMID:26062828

  15. Neuropsychological findings in pediatric maltreatment: relationship of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and abuse/neglect indices to neurocognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Michael D; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Maltreated (n = 38), maltreated + posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 60), and control youth (n = 104) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. The two maltreated groups performed significantly lower on IQ, academic achievement, and nearly all of the neurocognitive domains than controls. Maltreated + PTSD performed significantly worse than maltreated youth without PTSD on a task in the visuospatial domain that assessed higher order visuoconstructive abilities. No group differences were evident on the fine motor domain. PTSD diagnosis duration negatively correlated with the visuospatial, and dissociation negatively correlated with the attention domain. Cumulative lifetime maltreatment types experienced negatively correlated with academic achievement. Sexual abuse negatively correlated with language and memory functions after controlling for other maltreatment types. These data support the adverse effects of maltreatment on neuropsychological functions in youth and suggest that all child protective services identified youth should be comprehensively examined for the integrity of their neuropsychological functioning and academic skills, regardless of the presence or absence of mental health symptoms. PMID:23886642

  16. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  17. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore‐processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn‐air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn‐air ranged from 0.11–0.46 mg/m3 (55% >0.20 mg/m3). MnB >10 µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p⩽0.05), executive function (p⩽0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p⩽0.04), verbal learning (p

  18. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aouizerate, Jessie; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Gherardi, Romain K.; Ragunathan-Thangarajah, Nilusha; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients. Methods Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y) followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12) were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing. Results SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions) and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated. Conclusions Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients. PMID:26030650

  19. Noncredible effort during pediatric neuropsychological exam: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Michael W; Kirk, John W; Blaha, Robert Z; Wilson, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological test interpretation rests upon the assumption that the examinee has exerted full effort. If an individual provides inadequate effort during exam, the resulting data will be invalid and represent an underestimate of the person's true abilities. Although youth have been assumed historically to be less capable of deception than adults, acts of deception in childhood are not uncommon, even in normative populations. Yet, very few cases of children who have provided suboptimal effort during neuropsychological exam have appeared in the scientific literature. We present six clinical cases illustrating that children down to at least age 8 years can present with noncredible performance. The cases include those in which clear external incentives could be identified to those in which intrinsic or psychological factors were presumed to predominate. The fairly diverse nature of the presented cases, along with other recent work, suggests that suboptimal effort in children is apt to occur more frequently than previously recognized, even if it might occur less often than in comparable adult samples. In most of the presented cases, noncredible performance would not have been detected definitively by clinical judgment alone, reinforcing the value of routinely incorporating symptom validity tests into the neuropsychological assessment of school-aged children. The number of effort tests that have demonstrated utility in children pales in comparison to those available to the adult practitioner, although recent research now supports the use of several standalone measures with pediatric patients. PMID:20628928

  20. Neuropsychological aspects for evaluating learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This review surveys the empirical literature for assessments of learning problems in children from a neuropsychological perspective. An evaluation of children with learning problems must consider measures of working memory, attention, executive function, and comprehension (listening and written), particularly for children who do not respond to intervention. These constructs must be tied to intervention techniques, and their connections must be empirically verified. The response-to-intervention (RTI) perspective provides excellent support for the process in young children but is still developing the process for students above the second grade. This review provides information about the existing research on neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities, possible areas for further evaluation, and the link to the RTI movement. PMID:16392699

  1. Neuropsychology and behavior in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bettina; Yacubian, Elza Marcia; Feucht, Martha; Hermann, Bruce; Trimble, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Following decades of neglect, there has been an increasing interest in the behavioral aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in the recent literature. A number of authors have investigated psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive profiles, and related behavioral features associated with JME. Although these findings are not entirely uniform, most studies suggest an increased incidence in psychiatric comorbidity and specific cognitive deficits that explain some of the clinical observations of poor compliance and other unhealthy behaviors in people suffering from JME. Neuropsychological profiles in JME are suggestive of subtle frontal dysfunctions, and some of the observations have been linked with sophisticated structural and functional imaging findings. Taken together, there is evidence that JME is associated with dysfunctions in networks linking motor and cognitive neuronal centers. Interestingly, there is evidence from family studies that the behavioral abnormalities in JME are genetically determined, suggesting an underlying developmental disorder. PMID:23756486

  2. Neuropsychological outcomes of children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has investigated the consequences of being born very preterm (VP; <32 weeks of gestation), especially in relation to cognitive functioning. While numerous cognitive and neuropsychological outcome studies have been published, it is important to consider methodological issues when reviewing this research, as the generalizability of the studies varies greatly. This article describes the nature of cognitive difficulties confronting VP children, both in terms of the frequency and severity of deficits. The breadth of cognitive difficulties reported in this population implies a generalized cognitive impairment; however, the presence of selective or primary cognitive deficits is discussed. It is concluded that whereas mortality and neonatal morbidity rates have decreased significantly in VP infants in recent decades, these children continue to be at significant risk for cognitive impairments and need to be closely monitored throughout childhood. PMID:24361279

  3. Neuropsychological Effects of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Matthew; Kirshner, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition of the cerebral arterioles and to a lesser extent capillaries and veins, wherein beta-amyloid is deposited. In arterioles, this preferentially targets vascular smooth muscle cells and in the later stages undermines the stability of the vessel. This condition is frequently comorbid with Alzheimer's disease and its role in cognitive impairment and dementia is a topic of considerable recent research. This article reviews recent literature which confirms that CAA independently contributes to cognitive impairment by potentiating the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease, by predisposing to microhemorrhagic and microischemic injury to the brain parenchyma, and by interfering with the autoregulation of CNS blood flow. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with a focus on the neuropsychological manifestations of this vasculopathy. PMID:27357378

  4. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  5. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  6. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  7. Bioavailability of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam.

    PubMed

    Stebler, T; Guentert, T W

    1993-08-01

    Bioavailability of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam relative to single oral and relative to intravenous doses was determined in two separate randomized crossover studies. Twelve healthy volunteers (12 males, age 20-30 years) received a rapid intravenous injection and a single intramuscular dose and 12 other subjects (11 males, 1 female, age 21-25 years) a single oral and a single intramuscular dose of 20 mg of tenoxicam on two different occasions. The wash-out period between the two consecutive treatments was 4 weeks. Plasma concentrations after dosing were determined by a specific HPLC method. Differences in tenoxicam concentration-time profiles after the different routes of administration were limited to the first 2 h after dosing. Later, plasma concentrations were almost superimposable within and across the two studies. The extent of absorption of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam was complete (mean +/- CV per cent: F(abs) 0.99 +/- 20 per cent) with no difference between the two extravascular administrations (F(rel) 0.95 +/- 10 per cent, intramuscular vs oral). After intramuscular administration tenoxicam was more rapidly absorbed compared to the oral dose (Tmax 0.71 h +/- 80 per cent vs 1.4 h +/- 62 per cent; p > 0.05). Peak concentrations after oral and intramuscular administration (Cmax 2.5 mg l-1 +/- 19 per cent vs 2.7 mg l-1 +/- 14 per cent; p < 0.05) were very similar. PMID:8218966

  8. Outcomes assessment for forensic neuropsychology: recommendations and considerations.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, A D; van Gorp, W D

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently retained by attorneys or the courts to assist in the resolution of legal disputes. Yet, an outcomes assessment demonstrating the utility of neuropsychological evaluations in the forensic arena has not been implemented, nor has a method for conducting an outcomes assessment of forensic neuropsychology been delineated. This article offers recommendations and considerations for the formulation of outcomes assessments. These include defining an outcomes assessment, identifying the consumers of forensic neuropsychological assessments, and specifying potential moderator and dependent variables in the context of study designs that may be feasibly implemented. Moreover, the ethical implications of outcomes assessments are discussed. PMID:16318446

  9. Performances on the CogState and Standard Neuropsychological Batteries Among HIV Patients Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Kauwe, John S.K.; Paul, Rob; Tashima, Karen; Tate, David F.; Patel, Pragna; Carpenter, Chuck; Patty, David; Brooks, John T.; Clifford, David B

    2013-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent but challenging to diagnose particularly among non-demented individuals. To determine whether a brief computerized battery correlates with formal neurocognitive testing, we identified 46 HIV-infected persons who had undergone both formal neurocognitive testing and a brief computerized battery. Simple detection tests correlated best with formal neuropsychological testing. By multivariable regression model, 53% of the variance in the composite Global Deficit Score was accounted for by elements from the brief computerized tool (p<0.01). These data confirm previous correlation data with the computerized battery, yet illustrate remaining challenges for neurocognitive screening. PMID:21877204

  10. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with brain tumor: comparison of approaches used in the classification of impairment.

    PubMed

    Dwan, Toni Maree; Ownsworth, Tamara; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G; Shum, David H K

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to classifying neuropsychological impairment after brain tumor vary according to testing level (individual tests, domains, or global index) and source of reference (i.e., norms, controls, and pre-morbid functioning). This study aimed to compare rates of impairment according to different classification approaches. Participants were 44 individuals (57% female) with a primary brain tumor diagnosis (mean age = 45.6 years) and 44 matched control participants (59% female, mean age = 44.5 years). All participants completed a test battery that assesses pre-morbid IQ (Wechsler adult reading test), attention/processing speed (digit span, trail making test A), memory (Hopkins verbal learning test-revised, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure-recall), and executive function (trail making test B, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure copy, controlled oral word association test). Results indicated that across the different sources of reference, 86-93% of participants were classified as impaired at a test-specific level, 61-73% were classified as impaired at a domain-specific level, and 32-50% were classified as impaired at a global level. Rates of impairment did not significantly differ according to source of reference (p > 0.05); however, at the individual participant level, classification based on estimated pre-morbid IQ was often inconsistent with classification based on the norms or controls. Participants with brain tumor performed significantly poorer than matched controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning, including executive function (p = 0.001) and memory (p < 0.001), but not attention/processing speed (p > 0.05). These results highlight the need to examine individuals' performance across a multi-faceted neuropsychological test battery to avoid over- or under-estimation of impairment. PMID:25815271

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  12. Methamphetamine Dependence and Neuropsychological Functioning: Evaluating Change During Early Abstinence*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sara L.; Dean, Andy C.; Cordova, Xochitl; Monterosso, John R.; London, Edythe D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess neuropsychological functioning of individuals in early abstinence from methamphetamine dependence and to test for cognitive change over the first month of abstinence. Method: Methamphetamine-dependent subjects in very early abstinence from methamphetamine (4–9 days; n = 27) were compared with healthy comparison subjects (n = 28) on a test battery that evaluated five cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, learning/memory, working memory, timed executive functioning, and untimed executive functioning). A subsample of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects (n = 18), who maintained abstinence for 1 month, as well as a subsample of the comparison subjects (n = 21), were retested. Results: At the first assessment, the methamphetamine-dependent subjects showed significantly worse performance than the comparison group on a test of processing speed; they also performed 0.31 SDs worse than the control group on a global battery composite score (p < .05). After a month of abstinence, methamphetamine-dependent subjects demonstrated slightly more cognitive improvement than healthy control subjects on the entire cognitive battery, but this difference did not approach statistical significance (p = .33). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that methamphetamine-dependent subjects do not show considerable cognitive gains in the first month of abstinence. A greater length of abstinence may be needed for cognitive improvement. PMID:20409426

  13. Neuropsychological factors related to college ice hockey concussions.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Heather A; Ferraro, F Richard; Himle, Michael; Schultz, Caitlin; Poolman, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed data from 74 male collegiate hockey players. Each athlete's season began with a baseline administration of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychology test battery. Fourteen athletes sustained a sport-related head injury and were readministered the test to assess the impact of the injury. A significant decrease in performance (compared to baseline) on immediate and delayed word recall and designs followed the first concussion. Following a second sport-related concussion, the 4 affected athletes showed significant decrease in visual motor speed. Performance improved on 2 response speed measures (Ps < .01). More errors occurred during a visual processing/discrimination task and immediate recall of designs declined (Ps < .05). We discuss the results in light of recent work related to the impact of early-life concussions and head injury on late-life consequences, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and more immediate issues such as return-to-play decisions for athletes. PMID:24370620

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

  15. Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

  16. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  17. Neuropsychological Function in a Child with 18p Deletion Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian L.; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Braaten, Ellen B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  18. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions. PMID:27617190

  19. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  20. Genetics and Neuropsychology: A Merger Whose Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Kremen, William S.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been two rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the two should advance both fields. PMID:26710091

  1. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  2. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  3. Long-Term Neuropsychological Sequelae in HIV-Seronegative Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Patients with and without Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts: A Cine MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Chen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Hsu, Nai-Wen; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hydrocephalus in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most commonly managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This study applied cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate initial disease severity on long-term cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics and associated neuropsychological sequelae in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients with and without ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Methods. Eighteen human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients (10 with shunts versus 8 without shunts) were compared with 32 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent complete neurologic examination and neuropsychological testing. Cine MRI was conducted to evaluate CSF flow parameters. Initial CSF laboratory analysis and imaging findings were correlated with present CSF flow parameters and neuropsychological scores. Results. Patients without shunts had higher average flow than controls, suggesting chronic hydrocephalus. Initial Evans ratios and CSF glucose levels were associated with CSF peak velocity and flow. Worsening CSF flow parameters correlated with decreased neuropsychological performance. Conclusions. CSF flow parameter differences between the cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients both with and without ventriculoperitoneal shunts could be detected by cine MRI and correlated with acute stage disease severity and chronic stage neuropsychological results. Cine MRI is useful for assessing the chronic hydrocephalus that may lead to neuropsychological deficits in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients. PMID:25948879

  4. Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion

    PubMed Central

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in study of patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicidal Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk. PMID:25555415

  5. Pagophagia improves neuropsychological processing speed in iron-deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Belfer, Samuel; Atuahene, Brittany

    2014-10-01

    Pagophagia (compulsive ice chewing) has long been associated with iron deficiency anemia, but prior attempts to account for this craving have been unsatisfactory. We hypothesize that chewing ice triggers vascular changes that lead to preferential or increased perfusion of the brain. This would result in increased alertness and processing speed in anemic patients, but not in healthy controls who are already at ceiling, and would explain why anemic individuals crave ice. Preliminary support for this hypothesis was found in two studies. In Study 1, non-anemic subjects reported very low rates of pagophagia (only 4%) while anemic subjects reported significantly higher rates (56%). In Study 2, chewing ice dramatically improved response time on a neuropsychological test, but only for anemic individuals. In a small randomized controlled trial, iron deficient anemic subjects and healthy controls were assigned to chew ice or drink tepid water and then took a continuous performance test that measures response time, response time variability, errors of impulsivity and errors of inattention. In the water condition, anemic subjects performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Chewing ice had no effect on the performance of healthy controls, but significantly improved the performance of anemic patients. Potential explanations include activation of the dive reflex, which would lead to peripheral vasoconstriction and preferential perfusion of the brain or, alternatively, sympathetic nervous system activation, which would also increase blood-flow to the brain. PMID:25169035

  6. Identification of an Abbreviated Test Battery for Detection of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in an Early-Managed HIV-Infected Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Roediger, Mollie J. P.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Hale, Braden; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Agan, Brian K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART), and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool. Methods Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test), neuropsychological battery (∼120 min); neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5). Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery. Results Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm3) with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%). The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%); the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%). The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%). Conclusions Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV. PMID:23144815

  7. Time perception and its neuropsychological correlates in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Bhaker, Rajinder S; Mysore, Ashok; Parks, Randolph W; Birkett, Paul B L; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2009-04-30

    Disordered time perception has been reported in schizophrenia. We investigated time perception dysfunction and its neuropsychological correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 38 patients and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers who were compared in an auditory temporal bisection paradigm using two interval ranges (a 400/800 ms condition and a 1000/2000 ms condition). In the temporal bisection, subjects were required to categorise a probe duration as short or long, based upon the similarity with two reference durations. All subjects also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring sustained attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. In the 400/800 ms condition, patients judged durations significantly shorter than did control subjects. Patients also exhibited decreased temporal sensitivity in both conditions. We found in both groups a negative association between temporal sensitivity and sustained attention for the 400/800 ms condition, and between temporal sensitivity and long-term memory for the 1000/200 ms condition. In patients, short-term memory performance was negatively associated with duration judgement in both conditions, while executive dysfunction was correlated to a general performance deficit in the 400/800 ms condition. These findings suggest the possibility that time perception abnormalities in schizophrenia are part of neuropsychological dysfunction and are likely to adversely impact upon activity of daily living. PMID:19278734

  8. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  9. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  10. Longitudinal neuropsychological findings in amyloid beta-related angiitis (AβRA): a case report.

    PubMed

    Omisade, Antonina; Rigby, Heather; Easton, Alexander; Phillips, Stephen J; Carter, Sherri L

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β-related angiitis (AβRA) is a clinicopathological diagnosis of primary central nervous system angiitis theoretically triggered by vascular deposition of amyloid β peptide. Deposits of Aβ are associated with degeneration of the vasculature, thereby increasing risks of a stroke and/or cognitive impairment. Despite this, no prior studies have presented a detailed neuropsychological profile associated with AβRA. We present longitudinal neuropsychological findings for the case of a 58-year-old man with biopsy-diagnosed AβRA. Neuropsychological test results and clinical presentation demonstrated a mild to moderate dysexecutive syndrome implicating dorsolateral frontal and orbitofrontal-subcortical systems involvement. Despite prior reports of cognitive decline following a diagnosis of AβRA, cognitive functioning remained relatively stable over a 15-month period after immunosuppressive treatment. For the most part, objective measures did not demonstrate a measurable change in cognitive functioning, except for a mild decline in memory. There were subjective reports of improvement in cognitive and adaptive functioning from the patient and his spouse over this time period. The clinical significance of these results is discussed in the context of theories of executive dysfunction, and with reference to previously-published cases of AβRA. PMID:23244572

  11. Relations of biomarkers of manganese exposure and neuropsychological effects among welders and ferroalloy smelters

    PubMed Central

    HASSANI, Hamid; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; SHIRKHANLOO, Hamid; TEHRANI-DOUST, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to assess relationship between biomarkers of Manganese (Mn) and neuropsychological effects. The study was carried out on 27 welders and 31 ferroalloy smelters as Mn-exposed groups and 30 office workers as unexposed controls. Air Mn concentrations were determined according to NIOSH method 7300. The biological samples were prepared using microwave assisted acid digestion and all samples were analyzed by graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) in order to determine manganese. Questionnaire 16 (Q16) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to evaluate the neuropsychological effects. The mean concentrations of air Mn for the welder and ferroalloy smelter groups were 0.023 ± 0.012 mg/m3 and 0.008 ± 0.005 mg/m3, respectively. Manganese concentrations in blood, urine, and toenail samples of exposed workers ranged between 1.80–32.60 (µg/l), 1.00–42.50 (µg/l), and 0.10–6.08 (µg/g), respectively. Mean Mn concentrations in all biological samples of cases were significantly higher than unexposed controls (p<0.05). A moderate relationship was observed between biomarkers of Mn exposure, air Mn, Q16 as well as some neurocognitive outcome measures. The present study shows that blood Mn, urine Mn and toenail Mn could be used to distinguish Mn-exposed workers from unexposed population at the group level. PMID:26423330

  12. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  13. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

    PubMed

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  14. Late-onset neuropsychological symptoms in a Japanese patient with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, C; Shiota, M; Maegaki, Y; Yoshida, K; Koeda, T; Kitahara, T; Ohno, K

    2006-10-01

    We herein report a Japanese patient with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) who developed late-onset neuropsychological symptoms. He demonstrated characteristic clinical features of MLC during childhood, such as slowly progressive megalencepaly, motor impairment with ataxia and spasticity, mild mental retardation, and well-controlled epilepsy. Thereafter, he showed specific neuropsychological symptoms, such as motor and vocal tics, compulsive behavior, perseveration, acquired stuttering, and dystonia since the age of 12. His performance abilities had been unchanged but his verbal abilities had degraded during the past 14 years. Higher cortical dysfunction tests revealed a frontal lobe dysfunction. On repeated brain MRI, a leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts remained stationary from infancy. On single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a hypoperfusion in the frontal lobe was detected at the age of 3.5 and 17, but the severity of hypoperfusion was also unchanged, respectively. Our results indicate that the frontal lobe dysfunction may be relevant to the late-onset neuropsychological symptoms with MLC. PMID:17236107

  15. Best practice guidelines for forensic neuropsychological examinations of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Forensic examiners generally agree that their contributions to the forensic process have to be based on scientific principles, high ethical values, and sound clinical skills and judgment. In part I, the challenges of maintaining high ethical standards as a scientist-practitioner are addressed. In part II, the scientific strengths and weaknesses of our neuropsychological assessments are explored within the context of the 4 articles published in this issue. Specifically, Wood points out that while most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) compromise the prefrontal cortex (PFC), traditional neuropsychological examinations do not fully capture to what extent PFC damage disrupts cognitive, emotional, and social regulation. New advances in clinical neuroscience are presented to facilitate a more detailed understanding of PFC functioning. Schwarz et al examine how clinical neuropsychology services can adequately handle forensic consultations. Frederick and Bowden, meanwhile, identify the persistent weaknesses of various Symptom Validity Tests in reliably classifying poor effort and malingering. Bailey et al conclude that the findings from sport concussion studies cannot be generalized to clinical populations, who, as a rule, have more premorbid and comorbid vulnerabilities. Finally, part III provides guidelines based on the introductory article by Bigler and Brooks, as well as a synopsis of the main conclusions offered by the contributors in this journal issue. Guidelines for both the diagnosis of mild TBI and the diagnosis of postconcussional disorder are included. PMID:19333068

  16. Metabolic and neuropsychological phenotype in women heterozygous for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gyato, Kunsang; Wray, J; Huang, Z J; Yudkoff, M; Batshaw, Mark L

    2004-01-01

    We compared neurocognitive indices with clinical status, mutation analysis, and urea synthetic capacity in 19 women heterozygous for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Although as a group, these women had average IQ scores, they displayed a specific neuropsychological phenotype with significant strengths in verbal intelligence, verbal learning, verbal memory, and reading, and significant weaknesses in fine motor dexterity/speed and nonsignificant weaknesses in nonverbal intelligence, visual memory, attention/executive skills, and math. This suggests selective vulnerability of white matter and better preservation of gray matter. When the group was divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups, based on either clinical history or residual urea synthetic capacity, the asymptomatic subgroup outperformed the symptomatic subgroup on all tested domains of neuropsychological functioning. Furthermore, the amount of residual urea synthetic capacity was predictive of several end point cognitive measures. There was no correlation between neonatal versus late-onset mutation or between normal or abnormal allopurinol challenge and neuropsychological outcome. In sum, we identified a specific metabolic and neurocognitive phenotype in women heterozygous for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. The findings support the importance of maintaining meticulous metabolic control in children with urea cycle disorders, because even mildly symptomatic subjects demonstrate cognitive deficits. PMID:14705115

  17. Early Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients With Neuropsychological Impairment Are Associated With Increased Fractional Anisotropy in the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chieh; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Liou, Michelle; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Kao, Hung-Wen; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ma, Hsin I; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the reactive changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived diffusion metrics of the anterior thalamic nucleus (AN), a relaying center for the Papez circuit, in early idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with memory impairment, as well as its correlation with the patients' neuropsychological performances. In total, 28 probable iNPH patients with symptom onset within 1 year and 17 control subjects were prospectively recruited between 2010 and 2013 for this institutional review board-approved study. Imaging studies including DTI and a neuropsychological assessment battery were performed in all subjects. Diffusion metrics were measured from the region of the AN using tract-deterministic seeding method by reconstructing the mammillo-thalamo-cingulate connections within the Papez circuit. Differences in diffusion metrics and memory assessment scores between the patient and control group were examined via the Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between diffusion metrics of AN and neuropsychological tests within the patient group. We discovered that early iNPH patients exhibited marked elevations in fractional anisotropy, pure diffusion anisotropy, and axial diffusivity (all P < 0.01), as well as lower neuropsychological test scores including verbal and nonverbal memory (all P < 0.05) compared with normal control. Spearman rank correlation analyses did not disclose significant correlations between AN diffusion metrics and neuropsychological test scores in the patient group, whereas ranked scatter plots clearly demonstrated a dichotic sample distribution between patient and control samples. In summary, our study highlighted the potential compensatory role of the AN by increasing thalamocortical connectivity within the Papez circuit because memory function declines in early iNPH when early shunt treatment may potentially reverse the memory deficits

  18. Early Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients With Neuropsychological Impairment Are Associated With Increased Fractional Anisotropy in the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Chieh; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Liou, Michelle; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Kao, Hung-Wen; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ma, Hsin I.; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to investigate the reactive changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived diffusion metrics of the anterior thalamic nucleus (AN), a relaying center for the Papez circuit, in early idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with memory impairment, as well as its correlation with the patients’ neuropsychological performances. In total, 28 probable iNPH patients with symptom onset within 1 year and 17 control subjects were prospectively recruited between 2010 and 2013 for this institutional review board-approved study. Imaging studies including DTI and a neuropsychological assessment battery were performed in all subjects. Diffusion metrics were measured from the region of the AN using tract-deterministic seeding method by reconstructing the mammillo–thalamo–cingulate connections within the Papez circuit. Differences in diffusion metrics and memory assessment scores between the patient and control group were examined via the Mann–Whitney U test. Spearman correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between diffusion metrics of AN and neuropsychological tests within the patient group. We discovered that early iNPH patients exhibited marked elevations in fractional anisotropy, pure diffusion anisotropy, and axial diffusivity (all P < 0.01), as well as lower neuropsychological test scores including verbal and nonverbal memory (all P < 0.05) compared with normal control. Spearman rank correlation analyses did not disclose significant correlations between AN diffusion metrics and neuropsychological test scores in the patient group, whereas ranked scatter plots clearly demonstrated a dichotic sample distribution between patient and control samples. In summary, our study highlighted the potential compensatory role of the AN by increasing thalamocortical connectivity within the Papez circuit because memory function declines in early iNPH when early shunt treatment may potentially reverse the

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  20. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile Virus Infection: An Extensive Neuropsychiatric Assessment of 49 Cases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie; Bawor, Monica; Potter, Tammy Hlywka; Eskandarian, Sasha; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection. Methods Patients from Ontario Canada with a diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis) and non-neuroinvasive disease who had participated in a cohort study were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory were collected, as well as demographics and medical history. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Data from 49 individuals (32 with West Nile fever and 17 with West Nile neuroinvasive disease) were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment were comparable across participants with both neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection on all cognitive measures. Neuropsychiatric impairment was also observed more frequently at two to four years post-infection compared to earlier stages of illness. Conclusions Our data provide objective evidence for cognitive difficulties among patients who were infected with West Nile virus; these deficits appear to manifest regardless of severity of West Nile virus infection (West Nile fever vs. West Nile neuroinvasive disease), and are more prevalent with increasing illness duration (2–4 years vs. 1 month). Data from this study will help inform patients and healthcare providers about the expected course of recovery, as well as the need to implement effective treatment strategies that

  1. Third party observation during neuropsychological evaluation: an update on the literature, practical advice for practitioners, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laura L S; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    A clash between neuropsychology and the law may exist when a demand is made for third party observation during forensic neuropsychological evaluation. Third party observation includes any person or observational process present during a neuropsychological evaluation aside from the psychologist and the examinee, including electronic devices (e.g., video and audio recordings). The goal of this paper includes succinctly providing to practitioners the scientific, ethical, and pragmatic (i.e., test security and coaching) reasons to not allow third party observation. Practitioners at the individual level need to be aware of the reasoning and be willing and able to advocate protecting the boundaries of neuropsychological practice and test security. We present practitioners with options when confronted with a request, provide a list of resources to educate the legal system and submit with motions, provide responses for some of the more common myths/reasoning used to support a request for a TPO, and encourage more global solutions such as state-by-state legislation. PMID:20373223

  2. Progressive associative phonagnosia: a neuropsychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Hailstone, Julia C; Crutch, Sebastian J; Vestergaard, Martin D; Patterson, Roy D; Warren, Jason D

    2010-03-01

    There are few detailed studies of impaired voice recognition, or phonagnosia. Here we describe two patients with progressive phonagnosia in the context of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Patient QR presented with behavioural decline and increasing difficulty recognising familiar voices, while patient KL presented with progressive prosopagnosia. In a series of neuropsychological experiments we assessed the ability of QR and KL to recognise and judge the familiarity of voices, faces and proper names, to recognise vocal emotions, to perceive and discriminate voices, and to recognise environmental sounds and musical instruments. The patients were assessed in relation to a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. QR exhibited severe impairments of voice identification and familiarity judgments with relatively preserved recognition of difficulty-matched faces and environmental sounds; recognition of musical instruments was impaired, though better than recognition of voices. In contrast, patient KL exhibited severe impairments of both voice and face recognition, with relatively preserved recognition of musical instruments and environmental sounds. Both patients demonstrated preserved ability to analyse perceptual properties of voices and to recognise vocal emotions. The voice processing deficit in both patients could be characterised as associative phonagnosia: in the case of QR, this was relatively selective for voices, while in the case of KL, there was evidence for a multimodal impairment of person knowledge. The findings have implications for current cognitive models of voice recognition. PMID:20006628

  3. A neuropsychological investigation of decisional certainty

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Aaron M.; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The certainty that one feels following a decision increases decision-making efficiency, but can also result in decreased decision accuracy. In the current study, a neuropsychological approach was used to examine the impact of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on core psychological processes promoting decision certainty: selective exposure, overconfidence, and decisiveness. Given previous research demonstrating that vmPFC damage disrupts the generation of negative emotional (somatic) states that have been associated with selective exposure and overconfidence, it was hypothesized that damage to the vmPFC would disrupt engagement in selective exposure, decrease overconfidence, and increase indecision. Individuals with vmPFC damage exhibited increased indecision, but contrary to our hypothesis, engaged in similar levels of selective exposure and overconfidence as the comparison groups. These results indicate that indecision may be an important psychological mechanism involved in decision-making impairments associated with vmPFC injury. The results also suggest that the vmPFC may not be critical for selective exposure or overconfidence, which provides support for a recent “desirability” account of selective exposure. PMID:25725416

  4. A neuropsychological investigation of decisional certainty.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Aaron M; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The certainty that one feels following a decision increases decision-making efficiency, but can also result in decreased decision accuracy. In the current study, a neuropsychological approach was used to examine the impact of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on core psychological processes promoting decision certainty: selective exposure, overconfidence, and decisiveness. Given previous research demonstrating that vmPFC damage disrupts the generation of negative emotional (somatic) states that have been associated with selective exposure and overconfidence, it was hypothesized that damage to the vmPFC would disrupt engagement in selective exposure, decrease overconfidence, and increase indecision. Individuals with vmPFC damage exhibited increased indecision, but contrary to our hypothesis, engaged in similar levels of selective exposure and overconfidence as the comparison groups. These results indicate that indecision may be an important psychological mechanism involved in decision-making impairments associated with vmPFC injury. The results also suggest that the vmPFC may not be critical for selective exposure or overconfidence, which provides support for a recent "desirability" account of selective exposure. PMID:25725416

  5. The affective neuropsychology of confabulation and delusion.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the scientific understanding of the role of emotion in confabulation and delusion. I argue that the significance of emotion in the pathogenesis of these symptoms was obscured by academic polarisation between psychodynamic and neurocognitive traditions and was also often obfuscated by rigid distinctions between psychogenic and neurogenic explanations. This tradition of epistemic dualism was implicitly maintained in the fields of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry. This paper focuses on memory-related confabulation following ventromedial frontal lobe lesions, awareness-related confabulation following right perisylvian lesions, and delusions of various aetiologies. Ambiguity regarding the definition and taxonomy of symptoms renders direct comparison difficult, but certain overriding principles are becoming discernible. Recent findings suggest that emotion and motivation influence both confabulation and delusion. These influences may be instigated directly by neural dysfunction or indirectly by life changes and altered social circumstances, or by a combination of these. Importantly, the rejection of epistemic dualism in the conceptualisation of both symptoms can allow us to study them in parallel and draw conclusions about the relation between cognition and emotion. Specifically, confabulation and delusion can be described as faulty attempts to balance the conflicting demands of accurate and self-serving reality representation. PMID:19823958

  6. Progressive associative phonagnosia: A neuropsychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Patterson, Roy D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    There are few detailed studies of impaired voice recognition, or phonagnosia. Here we describe two patients with progressive phonagnosia in the context of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Patient QR presented with behavioural decline and increasing difficulty recognising familiar voices, while patient KL presented with progressive prosopagnosia. In a series of neuropsychological experiments we assessed the ability of QR and KL to recognise and judge the familiarity of voices, faces and proper names, to recognise vocal emotions, to perceive and discriminate voices, and to recognise environmental sounds and musical instruments. The patients were assessed in relation to a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. QR exhibited severe impairments of voice identification and familiarity judgments with relatively preserved recognition of difficulty-matched faces and environmental sounds; recognition of musical instruments was impaired, though better than recognition of voices. In contrast, patient KL exhibited severe impairments of both voice and face recognition, with relatively preserved recognition of musical instruments and environmental sounds. Both patients demonstrated preserved ability to analyse perceptual properties of voices and to recognise vocal emotions. The voice processing deficit in both patients could be characterised as associative phonagnosia: in the case of QR, this was relatively selective for voices, while in the case of KL, there was evidence for a multimodal impairment of person knowledge. The findings have implications for current cognitive models of voice recognition. PMID:20006628

  7. The neuropsychology of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Katherine L; Demakis, George J

    2007-03-01

    Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) is a psychological disorder most commonly associated with the legal and criminal justice systems, as many persons arrested for the commission of illegal acts meet the diagnostic criteria for this disorder, such as deception, manipulation, disregard for the rights of others, and a lack of remorse for their behavior. Most researchers agree that this disorder stems from brain abnormalities, including the theories of frontal lobe dysfunction and differences in the autonomic nervous systems in individuals diagnosed with APD. The Integrated Emotional Systems (IES) model, a third model of APD, is itself not a brain abnormality, but provides an understanding of antisocial characteristics based on dysfunctions in select parts of the brain. Based on research using neuropsychological assessments and other techniques, several cognitive characteristics appear to exist among these individuals. Examples include cognitive inflexibility, attention deficits, and inappropriate processing of contextual cues in the environment, sometimes leading to poor behavioral choices. Further research is needed to help identify the cause of this disorder so that the most appropriate treatments can be made available to these individuals. PMID:17544650

  8. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  9. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  10. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  11. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  12. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  13. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N; Alfradique, G M; Pereira, C C; Porto, C M; Santos, T R

    1998-03-01

    Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed) of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8), who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children. PMID:9698790

  14. The DRESS trial: a feasibility randomized controlled trial of a neuropsychological approach to dressing therapy for stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, Alan; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Drummond, Avril; Logan, Pip; Edmans, Judi A; Garvey, Katherine; Dineen, Robert A; Ince, Paul; Horne, Jane; Fisher, Rebecca J; Taylor, Jenny L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate two approaches to treating patients with persistent dressing problems and cognitive difficulties following stroke. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation service. Subjects: Seventy consecutive stroke patients with persistent dressing problems and accompanying cognitive difficulties at two weeks after their stroke. Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated to six weeks of either a systematic neuropsychological approach, based on analysis of dressing problems and further cognitive testing, or to the control group who received conventional (functional) dressing practice. Both groups received treatment three times a week in accordance with two separately prepared manuals. Main measures: Nottingham Stroke Dressing Assessment (NSDA), Line Cancellation, 10-hole peg transfer test, Object Decision, Gesture Imitation. Patients were assessed at six weeks after randomization by an independent assessor masked to group allocation. Results: Both neuropsychological and functional groups improved performance on the NSDA over the treatment period (31% and 22%, respectively) but there was no significant difference between groups at six weeks. However, the neuropsychological group showed a significantly greater improvement on a line cancellation test of visual neglect (t(62) = 2.1, P < 0.05) and a planned subanalysis for those with right hemisphere damage showed a trend towards better dressing outcome (P = 0.07, one-tailed). Conclusions: Results demonstrate the potential benefits of a systematic neuropsychological approach to dressing therapy, particularly for patients with right hemisphere damage. This study suggests the need for a phase III study evaluating the efficacy of a systematic neuropsychological approach in treating dressing difficulties, targeting patients with right hemisphere stroke and visuospatial impairments. PMID:22180445

  15. Probing prefrontal function in schizophrenia with neuropsychological paradigms.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T E; Weinberger, D R

    1988-01-01

    In a recent series of studies we have attempted to clarify the nature of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia, and in particular, how patterns of dysfunction implicate specific neural systems. First, we found that acute psychotic adolescent patients displayed the same pattern of IQ scores (Performance less than Verbal) as adult chronic schizophrenic patients. We explored this deficit in problem solving by studying the performance of schizophrenic patients after receiving concrete and explicit instructions on how to do the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a task thought to be mediated by prefrontal cortex. We then studied the differential impact such a deficit in problem-solving strategies might have on a task thought to elicit both cognitive (prefrontal) and procedural or motor-skill (basal ganglia) processing. Procedural components appeared to be relatively more intact. We also addressed schizophrenic patients' ability to learn in other (extrafrontal) cognitive domains through verbal memory tasks and block design puzzles. Learning occurred under both conditions. We believe the overall pattern of deficit implicates primarily prefrontal neural systems, though a number of other neuropsychological functions are yet to be surveyed. PMID:3059467

  16. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight <750 g, 64 with birth weight 750-1499 g, and 67 term-born controls. Growth modeling of raw scores from mean ages 7-14 years revealed persistent VLBW sequelae. Even when adjusting for IQ, the <750 g group scored more poorly than the term-born group on measures of language processing, verbal list learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  17. Relationship between functional and neuropsychological performance in early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Hodges, J R

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects with Alzheimer disease underwent cognitive and functional assessment. Functional assessment by caregivers consisted of a 25-item bipolar analog scale measuring activities of daily living and social behaviors divided into four functional domains: memory, attention/executive abilities, everyday skills, and self-care. Cognitive assessment consisted of standardized neuropsychological tests designed to evaluate five cognitive domains: episodic memory, attention/executive function, semantic memory, visuospatial function, and auditory-verbal short-term (working) memory. Functional assessment correlated well with overall severity as measured by Mini Mental State Examination (r = -0.733). Analysis of individual cognitive and functional domains revealed no significant correlation between episodic memory and functional performance. By contrast, functional ability correlated strongly with the cognitive domains of visuospatial function and semantic memory, being significantly greater than the correlation of functional ability with any other cognitive domain. These results were supported by multiple regression analyses that showed visuospatial function to be the sole cognitive predictor of functional abilities. These findings have implications for the evaluation of drug therapies in Alzheimer disease, in particular the effect of current cholinergic therapies on activities of daily living. PMID:10718199

  18. Heterogeneity of schizophrenia: a study of individual neuropsychological profiles.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Seidman, Larry J; Faraone, Stephen V; Toomey, Rosemary; Tsuang, Ming T

    2004-12-01

    Based on a strategy developed by Seidman et al. (Seidman, L.J., Faraone, S.V., Kremen, W.S., Pepple, J.R., Lyons, M.J., Tsuang, M.T., 1993. Neuropsychological dysfunctions in the non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients, Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research and Psychopathology. Chicago, IL) we examined neuropsychological heterogeneity in schizophrenia using clinical neuropsychological descriptions of individual cases as the starting point. We blindly rated neuropsychological profiles of 74 schizophrenia patients and 91 normal controls based primarily on prototypes from the clinical literature in neuropsychology. Patients were classified as having the following profile types: within normal limits (WNL) (23%, n=17), frontal/abstraction (46%, n=34), widespread/diffuse (14%, n=10), left temporal/verbal memory (8%, n=6) and other (9%, n=7). As expected based on our classification scheme, the groups had different profile shapes (group x function interactions). They were also significantly different from one another in terms of overall severity (main effects); however, severity differences were not inherent in the definition of all groups. Longer duration of illness and greater overall cognitive impairment were observed as one went from the left temporal to the frontal to the widespread groups. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the different neuropsychological profiles reflect true subgroup differences or within-person change over time. Further research-probably including neuroimaging and genetic studies-will also be needed to determine the validity and the utility of this strategy for identifying neuropsychological profile types. PMID:15474901

  19. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atiea, J A; Moses, J L; Sinclair, A J

    1995-08-01

    Neuropsychological function was compared in three well-matched groups of subjects: Group 1, 20 diabetic patients with hypertension, mean age 69.1 +/- 4.8 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 2, 20 normotensive diabetic patients, mean age 69.0 +/- 6.2 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 3, 20 healthy community controls, mean age 68.1 +/- 4.5 years, 13 males and 7 females. There were no significant differences between the groups in education or estimated IQ using the NART (National Adult Reading Test). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in duration of diabetes (mean 10.6 and 9.5 years, respectively), or mean glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1 (mean 9.8 and 10.6%, respectively), or mean blood glucose before and after testing. On a battery neuropsychological tests, sensitive to cognitive impairment in older subjects, analysis of covariance using estimated IQ as the covariate showed no significant differences between the groups on tests of recall, with (Brown-Peterson Test) and without (Kendrick Object Learning Test) interference, forward and backward digit span, concentration (serial subtraction), verbal fluency, immediate and delayed prose recall, digit symbol substitution or psychomotor speed (Kendrick Digit Copying Test). These results provide no support for an association between cognitive deficits and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older subjects or for the view that such deficits may also be mediated by hypertension. PMID:7587006

  20. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems. PMID:22690655

  1. Examination of postconcussion-like symptoms in healthy university students: relationships to subjective and objective neuropsychological function performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Deng, Yongyu

    2006-05-01

    This study examined postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of university students and explored their relationships to neuropsychological function performance. A sample of 124 students was recruited. All of the participants received the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and completed a comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests. They reported a relatively high base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms. The most frequently endorsed items were "fatigue" (76.9%), "longer time to think" (60.3%), "poor concentration" (58.7%), "sleep disturbance" (50.4%), and "frustration" (46.3%). There were no significant differences between low symptom reporters and high symptom reporters, except for self-reported dysexecutive problems. A comparison of the healthy high symptom reporters and a convenient sample of traumatic brain injury patients revealed that the patients performed significantly worse on neuropsychological functions than the high symptom reporters, despite non-significant differences between symptom endorsement. Our findings demonstrate that: (a) the base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of healthy university students is relatively high and (b) postconcussion symptom (PCS) is not related to neuropsychological functions in normal people. PMID:16765018

  2. Long-Term Impact of Efavirenz on Neuropsychological Performance and Symptoms in HIV-Infected Individuals (ACTG 5097s)

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, David B.; Evans, Scott; Yang, Yijun; Acosta, Edward P.; Ribaudo, Heather; Gulick, Roy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Efavirenz (EFV) is an antiretroviral (ARV) drug associated with neuropsychological effects. Limited data describing the long-term impact of EFV-based regimens on neuropsychological performance over more than 3 years are available. Methods We enrolled a subset of participants from a large initially EFV placebo-controlled trial of therapies for HIV subjects naïve to ARV treatment (A5095). Clinical follow-up continued for 184 weeks of study. Subjects were assessed with brief neuropsychological testing, a symptom questionnaire of EFV-associated symptoms, the Pittsburgh Sleep Index, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, and an anxiety rating interview. Results Over 184 weeks on EFV, the median NPZ3 score in 86 evaluable patients improved from baseline by +0.5 (p < .01); all components improved, although higher EFV levels were associated with slightly lower responses. Overall symptom scores did not change, while EFV-associated CNS symptoms increased (p = .01). Median change of bad dream sleep scores and anxiety increased from the baseline while global depression score decreased. Conclusions In participants who continued EFV-based regimens, neuropsychological performance improvement from baseline was maintained over 3 years. EFV-based treatment was generally well tolerated, but small increases from baseline in EFV-associated symptoms, bad dreams, and anxiety were detected. PMID:20133265

  3. The neuropsychology of repeated 1- and 3-meter springboard diving among college athletes.

    PubMed

    Zillmer, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the neuropsychological effects of repeated springboard diving. It was hypothesized that the impact velocity, which can range from 20 to 30 mph, and accompanying deceleration in the water may lead to concussions and affect the diver's cognitive function. Six varsity National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 springboard divers participated in the study. Each diver performed a total of 50 practice dives from either the 1- or 3-m springboard. After each set of 10 dives, the participants were immediately evaluated at poolside using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color Word Test, and the Trail Making Test B. Baseline testing revealed, consistent with their athletic specialty, clear neurocognitive strengths among the divers on tests sensitive to proprioception, motor speed, and visual-spatial organization. Results from the serial assessments indicated no detectable neuropsychological deficits among competitive divers compared to baseline testing. Skilled diving at the collegiate level appears to be a safe sport and water appears to present the perfect medium for gradual deceleration. More studies, however, are warranted for 5-, 7.5-, and 10-m platform diving since the impact velocity of the diver from these heights is higher. PMID:12734072

  4. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  5. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Gil, Fernando; Lorca, Andres; Alguacil, Juan; Rohlman, Diane S; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Mendoza, Ramón; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6-9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: -3.8 to -0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=-2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=-1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=-1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. PMID:25046814

  6. Dental Composite Restorations and Neuropsychological Development in Children: Treatment Level Analysis from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Hauser, Russ; McKinlay, Sonja; Shrader, Peter; Bellinger, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Resin-based dental restorations may intra-orally release their components and bisphenol A. Gestational bisphenol A exposure has been associated with poorer executive functioning in children. Objectives To examine whether exposure to resin-based composite restorations is associated with neuropsychological development in children. Methods Secondary analysis of treatment level data from the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial, a 2-group randomized safety trial conducted from 1997–2006. Children (N=534) aged 6–10 y with >2 posterior tooth caries were randomized to treatment with amalgam or resin-based composites (bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-dimethacrylate-composite for permanent teeth; urethane dimethacrylate-based polyacid-modified compomer for primary teeth). Neuropsychological function at 4- and 5-year follow-up (N=444) was measured by a battery of tests of executive function, intelligence, memory, visual-spatial skills, verbal fluency, and problem-solving. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to examine the association between composite exposure levels and changes in neuropsychological test scores from baseline to follow-up. For comparison, data on children randomized to amalgam treatment were similarly analyzed. Results With greater exposure to either dental composite material, results were generally consistent in the direction of slightly poorer changes in tests of intelligence, achievement or memory, but there were no statistically significant associations. For the four primary measures of executive function, scores were slightly worse with greater total composite exposure, but statistically significant only for the test of Letter Fluency (10-surface-years β= −0.8, SE=0.4, P=0.035), and the subtest of color naming (β= −1.5, SE=0.5, P=0.004) in the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Multivariate analysis of variance confirmed that the negative associations between composite level and executive function were not

  7. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognition disorders. Neuropsychological study of a population of 26 patients].

    PubMed

    Dary-Auriol, M; Ingrand, P; Bonnaud, V; Dumas, P; Neau, J P; Gil, R

    1997-05-01

    Typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is described as a motoneuron disease which spared cognitive functions. Recent studies reported cognitive impairement associated with classical ALS. Gallasi and al. (1985) detect subtle cognitive impairement sparing memory in a population of 22 patients affected with sporadic motoneuron disease. Iwasaki and al. (1990) finds lower scores, including memory tests. Our study evaluated 26 patients compared with 26 control subjects with neurospychological tests (rapid evaluation of cognitive function fluency, Weschler adult intelligence scale, Wisconsin cards, Rey scheme, memory tests - Luria -, trail making, visual retentional test of Benton Violon Seyll test). All the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the patients group. The cognitive impairement is global: memory and frontal functions were not spared and this impairement is also subtle. It may easily go undetected without tests. We cannot isolate a cortical or subcortical profile of the deterioration. PMID:9296142

  8. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

    PubMed

    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted. PMID:1844712

  9. Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder Are Not Distinguishable by Their Neuropsychological Performance: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mensebach, Christoph; Wingenfeld, Katja; Rullkoetter, Nina; Schlosser, Nicole; DiplPsych; Driessen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibit a broad range of neuropsychological deficits. Studies in both groups of patients point to differences but also similarities. However, studies that compare both patient groups are missing from the literature. The present study aimed to compare neuropsychological functioning in BPD and MDD patients. Method: Eighteen patients with BPD, 27 patients with MDD, 17 patients with BPD and MDD, and 76 healthy control subjects were included in the case-control study. Patients were treated for their disorders as inpatients of the Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Bethel, Ev. Hospital Bielefeld (Bielefeld, Germany). All patients met DSM-IV diagnoses as assessed by trained psychotherapists within the first week of their admission. In addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, the inhibitory control of emotional stimuli was assessed. Data were collected between June 2004 and June 2007. Results: Patients showed only a few impairments and no increased distractibility toward emotionally negative stimuli. Patients with BPD and patients with MDD were not distinguishable by the neuropsychological test results. Conclusions: These data did not support the notion of specific neuropsychological profiles in BPD and MDD. Future research needs to clarify the overlap of symptoms between both disorders. PMID:21731834

  10. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  11. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  12. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (< 10%tile) to calculate rates of impairment. Results There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP, and 7% of controls were neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  13. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted. PMID:26732392

  14. History of neuropsychological study of sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Webbe, Frank M; Zimmer, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Although the medical literature has a long history of description and comment on concussion, the occurrence of concussion within the context of sports other than boxing was not judged to be problematic until the 1980s. Neuropsychological assessment played a critical and integral role in identifying the cognitive sequelae of concussion and mapping out the short- and long-term vagaries in recovery. This paper captures that history and expands upon current applications of neuropsychological assessment in the diagnosis and management of sport-related concussion. PMID:25093375

  15. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Gil, Fernando; Lorca, Andres; Alguacil, Juan; Rohlman, Diane S.; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Mendoza, Ramón; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  16. Neuropsychological follow-up in early-treated congenital hypothyroidism: a problem-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Bargagna, S; Canepa, G; Costagli, C; Dinetti, D; Marcheschi, M; Millepiedi, S; Montanelli, L; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    2000-03-01

    Screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) dramatically improved the neuropsychological prognosis in affected children. However, mild impairments in cognitive performances, poorer motor skills, defective language abilities, and learning problems have been reported in some studies of early-treated CH children. The occurrence of these defects makes neuropsychological follow-up mandatory. The aim of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological functions that are more frequently affected in early-treated CH children and that might require prompt rehabilitation treatment to prevent permanent defects. The study group involved 24 CH children. Levothyroxine (LT4) treatment (initial dose 8-10 microg/kg per day) was started at mean age of 28 days (range 15-45) and was then adjusted with the goal to keep thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroid hormone levels in the normal range. Cognitive evaluation was performed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age and did not significantly differ from that of controls. Mean neurological scores were lower in children 5 years of age than in controls. Children with severe neonatal hypothyroidism (serum thyroxine [T4] < 2 microg/dL) had significantly lower neurological scores compared to less affected CH children and normal controls. The most affected functions were balance, extremity coordination, fine motricity, quality of movements, associated movements, and head movements. Language disorders were observed in half of CH children at 3 and 5 years of age, but moderately severe defects were restricted to those with severe neonatal hypothyroidism. In conclusion, a problem-oriented, simplified neuropsychological follow-up of early-treated children with CH should not systematically include the frequent repetition of time-consuming and expensive psychometric tests because individual IQ scores are in the normal range of tests in almost all CH children and can be differentiated from those of normal controls only on a population

  17. Neuropsychological Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Students on the LNNB and LNNB-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Charles W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological performance of 65 emotionally disturbed students on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Form I (LNNB) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Children's Revision (LNNB-C). Results indicated that approximately 42 percent of younger group (99-154 months) and 38 percent of older group (156-226 months)…

  18. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  19. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....

  20. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....