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Sample records for administration attribution process

  1. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  2. Experimental modification of attribution processes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kelly D; Constans, Joseph I; Mathews, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Attributional style is hypothesized to be a causative factor in depression vulnerability; however, no studies to date have examined whether manipulation of attributional style influences depressed mood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether computer-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) procedures could modify attributional style and influence stress vulnerability. Participants were provided with multiple training trials that were intended to promote the use of either a positive or a negative attributional style. Compared with individuals in the negative attributional style condition, individuals in the positive attributional style condition showed decreased tendency to make self-deficient causal attributions for poor performance on a difficult anagram test. Furthermore, individuals in the positive attributional style condition reported less depressed mood in response to this academic stressor. These results suggest that attributional style is not invariable and can potentially be modified with CBM approaches. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. AVID Teacher Leadership: Administrator and Teacher Perceptions of Leadership Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shirley J.; Huerta, Jeffery J.; Watt, Karen M.; Martinez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and administrators with regard to AVID (Advancement via Individual Determination) teacher leaders. The purpose was to compare whether teachers and administrators agree on the types of attributes needed for teacher leaders involved in implementing AVID as a school reform effort. Results revealed that…

  4. AVID Teacher Leadership: Administrator and Teacher Perceptions of Leadership Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shirley J.; Huerta, Jeffery J.; Watt, Karen M.; Martinez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and administrators with regard to AVID (Advancement via Individual Determination) teacher leaders. The purpose was to compare whether teachers and administrators agree on the types of attributes needed for teacher leaders involved in implementing AVID as a school reform effort. Results revealed that…

  5. Attributes of an Effective Feedback Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Not all feedback is created equal. It is actually quite uneven in its design and effectiveness. Feedback forms typically used by educators and the feedback process used to support learning have markedly different attributes. Understanding the key attributes of effective feedback is important for those involved in the feedback process. The tools…

  6. Race, Class, and the Attributional Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Long, Anna

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to examine the process of attributional thinking in Black and White children who differed in social class. Blacks did not display a less adaptive attributional pattern than did whites following actual performance on exams, and no differences existed in children's understanding of the meaning of causes. (Author/LMO)

  7. Race, Class, and the Attributional Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Long, Anna

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to examine the process of attributional thinking in Black and White children who differed in social class. Blacks did not display a less adaptive attributional pattern than did whites following actual performance on exams, and no differences existed in children's understanding of the meaning of causes. (Author/LMO)

  8. Attributional and Relational Processing in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Garlick, Dennis; Gant, Dana J.; Brakel, Linda A. W.; Blaisdell, Aaron P.

    2011-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color) and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation) dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing. PMID:21713177

  9. Preference for pharmaceutical formulation and treatment process attributes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Katie D; Johnston, Joseph A; Matza, Louis S; Curtis, Sarah E; Havel, Henry A; Sweetana, Stephanie A; Gelhorn, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pharmaceutical formulation and treatment process attributes, such as dose frequency and route of administration, can have an impact on quality of life, treatment adherence, and disease outcomes. The aim of this literature review was to examine studies on preferences for pharmaceutical treatment process attributes, focusing on research in diabetes, oncology, osteoporosis, and autoimmune disorders. Methods The literature search focused on identifying studies reporting preferences for attributes of the pharmaceutical treatment process. Studies were required to use formal quantitative preference assessment methods, such as utility valuation, conjoint analysis, or contingent valuation. Searches were conducted using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Health Economic Evaluation Database, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (January 1993–October 2013). Results A total of 42 studies met inclusion criteria: 19 diabetes, nine oncology, five osteoporosis, and nine autoimmune. Across these conditions, treatments associated with shorter treatment duration, less frequent administration, greater flexibility, and less invasive routes of administration were preferred over more burdensome or complex treatments. While efficacy and safety often had greater relative importance than treatment process, treatment process also had a quantifiable impact on preference. In some instances, particularly in diabetes and autoimmune disorders, treatment process attributes had greater relative importance than some or all efficacy and safety attributes. Some studies suggested that relative importance of treatment process depends on disease (eg, acute vs chronic) and patient (eg, injection experience) characteristics. Conclusion Despite heterogeneity in study methods and design, some general patterns of preference clearly emerged. Overall, the results of this review suggest that treatment process has a quantifiable impact on preference and willingness to pay for

  10. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  11. The Administrator Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael F.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)

  12. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  13. Career and Technical Education Administrators' Perceptions of Secondary Teachers' Attire as Indicated by Selected Professional Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) administrators toward secondary teachers' attire as indicated by 10 occupational attributes. The population consisted of CTE administrators employed by West Virginia Department of Education during 2006-2007 academic school year. The top three attributes…

  14. Cynicism about organizational change: an attribution process perspective.

    PubMed

    Wanous, John P; Reichers, Arnon E; Austin, James T

    2004-06-01

    The underlying attribution process for cynicism about organizational change is examined with six samples from four different organizations. The samples include hourly (n=777) and salaried employees (n= 155) from a manufacturing plant, faculty (n=293) and staff (n=302) from a large university, managers from a utility company (n=97), and young managers (n=65) from various organizations who were attending an evening MBA program. This form of cynicism is defined as the combination of Pessimism (about future change efforts) and a Dispositional attribution (why past efforts to change failed). Three analyses support this definition. First, an exploratory factor analysis (from the largest sample) produced two factors, one composed of Pessimism and the Dispositional attribution items and the second of the Situational attribution items. Second, the average correlation (across several samples) between Pessimism and Dispositional attribution is much higher (.59) than the average correlation between Pessimism and Situational attribution (.17). Third, scores on two different trait-based measures of cynicism correlate highest with the Dispositional attribution component of cynicism. A practical implication is that organizational leaders may minimize cynicism by managing both employees' pessimism about organizational change and employees' attributions about it. Specific suggestions for how this might be done are offered.

  15. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    PubMed Central

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2016-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples’ future marital quality. Spouses’ attributions about a partner’s behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. Using couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the first four years of marriage, results from actor-partner interdependence modeling demonstrated that early marriage responsibility attributions were associated with marital quality four years later, after controlling for initial marital quality. Further, couple’s warm and hostile behavior two years into the marriage mediated the attribution-marital quality association. The results suggest that interventions designed to facilitate change in romantic relationships may benefit from addressing attributions for the partner’s behavior, in addition to changing behaviors, as part of a dyadic process unfolding across time. PMID:27087728

  16. The precuneus and the insula in self-attributional processes.

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Maurice; Pyka, Martin; Mehl, Stephanie; Müller, Bernhard W; Loos-Jankowiak, Stephanie; Winterer, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Musso, Francesco; Klingberg, Stefan; Rapp, Alexander M; Langohr, Karin; Wiedemann, Georg; Herrlich, Jutta; Walter, Henrik; Wagner, Michael; Schnell, Knut; Vogeley, Kai; Kockler, Hanna; Shah, Nadim J; Stöcker, Tony; Thienel, Renate; Pauly, Katharina; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-06-01

    Attributions are constantly assigned in everyday life. A well-known phenomenon is the self-serving bias: that is, people's tendency to attribute positive events to internal causes (themselves) and negative events to external causes (other persons/circumstances). Here, we investigated the neural correlates of the cognitive processes implicated in self-serving attributions using social situations that differed in their emotional saliences. We administered an attributional bias task during fMRI scanning in a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 71). Eighty sentences describing positive or negative social situations were presented, and subjects decided via buttonpress whether the situation had been caused by themselves or by the other person involved. Comparing positive with negative sentences revealed activations of the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Self-attribution correlated with activation of the posterior portion of the precuneus. However, self-attributed positive versus negative sentences showed activation of the anterior portion of the precuneus, and self-attributed negative versus positive sentences demonstrated activation of the bilateral insular cortex. All significant activations were reported with a statistical threshold of p ≤ .001, uncorrected. In addition, a comparison of our fMRI task with data from the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire, Revised German Version, demonstrated convergent validity. Our findings suggest that the precuneus and the PCC are involved in the evaluation of social events with particular regional specificities: The PCC is activated during emotional evaluation, the posterior precuneus during attributional evaluation, and the anterior precuneus during self-serving processes. Furthermore, we assume that insula activation is a correlate of awareness of personal agency in negative situations.

  17. Team Attributes, Processes, and Values: A Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann; Beck, Stephenson J.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogical framework to help students analyze their group and team interactions. Intersecting five fundamental group attributes (group size, group goal, group member interdependence, group structure, and group identity) with three overarching group processes (leadership, decision making, and conflict management) creates an…

  18. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  19. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  20. Team Attributes, Processes, and Values: A Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann; Beck, Stephenson J.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogical framework to help students analyze their group and team interactions. Intersecting five fundamental group attributes (group size, group goal, group member interdependence, group structure, and group identity) with three overarching group processes (leadership, decision making, and conflict management) creates an…

  1. Processing companies' preferences for attributes of beef in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess processing companies' preferences for attributes of Swiss beef. To this end, qualitative interviews were used to derive product attributes that determine the buying decision. Through an adaptive-choice based conjoint analysis survey and latent class analysis of choice data, we compute class preferences. Results show that there are two distinct classes. A smaller class emphasizes traceability back to the birth farm and low producer price, a larger class focuses on environmental effects and origin. Additionally we see that larger companies are more price-sensitive and smaller companies are more sensitive to origin of the animals. The results outlined in this paper may be used to target market segments and to derive differentiation strategies based on product characteristics.

  2. The Underlying Processes of Athletic Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    1983-01-01

    Athletic administration is a diverse subject area requiring competence in many skills. The process of administration refers to the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling that takes place to accomplish objectives. This paper examines these four elements and suggests how using these principles will result in more efficient athletic…

  3. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  4. Anxiety, attributional thinking,and the primary process.

    PubMed

    Brakel, Linda A W; Shevrin, Howard

    2005-12-01

    In earlier publications, experimental evidence was provided for the existence of the primary vs. secondary process mental organization posited by Freud. A well-established cognitive categorization test based on attributional and relational similarity was found to map on to primary and secondary principles of mental organization respectively, thus offering the opportunity to test hypotheses drawn from psychoanalytic theory independent of the clinical situation. In prior work, primary process shifts occurred under three different conditions--all predicted by psychoanalytic theory: (1) when stimuli were (subliminal) unconscious; (2) when participants were 3-5 years of age; and (3) when tasks were implicit. In the current study, a fourth condition is examined dealing with the relationship of conscious anxiety to primary and secondary processes. In a naturalistic study, 120 patients waiting in medical center waiting rooms rated how anxious they felt on a 10-point scale and then completed a version of the categorization test alluded to above. Those who reported any anxiety at all showed a significant shift toward primary process categorization over those participants who rated themselves as calm. The implications of this fourth finding are discussed with respect to signal anxiety and symptom formation.

  5. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  6. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle

    2016-04-01

    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  7. Assessing Effective Attributes of Followers in a Leadership Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelo, Absael; Prilipko, Evgenia V.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Followership, being an understudied concept, raises fundamental questions: How did followership develop? Why do people submit into becoming followers? The developmental trajectory for the development of individual attributes is as yet, uncharted. Current study provides an overview of assessed attributes of followers, as proposed by Antelo (2010).…

  8. Hydrodynamic pressure processing: Impact on the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) as an innovative, postharvest technology for enhancing the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products. A variety of meat products have been tested for their response to the high pressure shockwaves of HDP. The st...

  9. The Role of Attribution Processes in Conformity and Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    One of the purposes of the study is to persuade the reader that the Asch experiments showed not the tyranny of the group over the individual, but the consequences of unresolved and unresolvable problems of interpersonal perception and attribution. (Author/AM)

  10. Software development process using virtual entities, relationships and attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Messa, K.C.; Czejdo, B.D.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper a methodology based on a prototyping paradigm for software development is described. In our methodology as in other approaches, application development begins with the analysis stage and progresses through design, prototype building, testing and application generation. However, in most of those stages we are using an extended ER model with virtual entities, relationships and attributes to capture the static information about the modeled enterprise. Dynamic aspects of the application are captured by creating interface forms with buttons corresponding to operations and various fields corresponding to arguments and results. There are many software tools that support our methodology. Here we will concentrate on an EER tool that allows for EER schema creation, integration with an interface builder, and graphical operations specifications. All of those activities might involve virtual components.

  11. Attributes of Success in a Challenging Information Processing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Organizational theorists choose to deconstruct and analyze organizations in many ways, including in terms of structure and macro level design features. While...3 D. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS .............................3 II. LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................5 A. ORGANIZATIONAL ...IMPLICATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN ............41 C. IMPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY ....42 D. IMPLICATIONS FOR USING NETWORK

  12. Managing a new medication administration process.

    PubMed

    Englebright, Jane D; Franklin, Michelle

    2005-09-01

    The national focus on medication errors has stimulated rapid adoption of medication administration technologies with bar code verification. The effectiveness of these technologies in preventing errors is directly related to how consistently practitioners use the technology to verify both patient identity and drug identity with each administration. The authors discuss management strategies that have proven effective at increasing staff compliance with using bar code-enabled medication systems.

  13. An Integrated Delivery and Assessment Process to Address the Graduate Attribute Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Mark; Ranmuthugala, Dev; Chin, Christopher; Carew, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In the past, engineering programmes were developed with separate technical learning outcomes supplemented by generic attributes. The latter were in most cases a standalone set of attributes developed by academic institutions or professional societies overseeing engineering accreditation processes. Although the technical learning outcomes were well…

  14. The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Didem; Altunay, Esen; Yalçinkaya, Mu¨nevver

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the administration experiences of female administrators, find out the troubles they have had during their administration process, and suggest some solutions according to these experiences. The qualitative method was used in this research and data was collected via the semi-structured interview form…

  15. Epidemiologic and Economic Burden Attributable to First Spinal Fusion Surgery: Analysis From an Italian Administrative Database.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Paolo A; Assietti, Roberto; Cuzzocrea, Fabrizio; Prestamburgo, Domenico; Pluderi, Mauro; Cozzolino, Paolo; Tito, Patrizia; Vanelli, Roberto; Cecconi, Davide; Borsa, Stefano; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Lorenzo G

    2017-09-15

    Retrospective large population based-study. Assessment of the epidemiologic trends and economic burden of first spinal fusions. No adequate data are available regarding the epidemiology of spinal fusion surgery and its economic impact in Europe. The study population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI), which matches clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases of the Italian Lombardy Region. The study population consisted of all subjects, resident in Lombardy, who, during the period January 2001 to December 2010, underwent spinal fusion surgery (ICD-9-CM codes: 81.04, 81.05, 81.06, 81.07, and 81.08). The first procedure was used as the index event. We estimated the incidence of first spinal fusion surgery, the population and surgery characteristics and the healthcare costs from the National Health Service's perspective. The analysis was performed for the entire population and divided into the main groups of diagnosis. The analysis identified 17,772 [mean age (SD): 54.6 (14.5) years, 55.3% females] spinal fusion surgeries. Almost 67% of the patients suffered from a lumbar degenerative disease. The incidence rate of interventions increased from 11.5 to 18.5 per 100,000 person-year between 2001 and 2006, and was above 20.0 per 100,000 person-year in the last 4 years. The patients' mean age increased during the observational time period from 48.1 to 55.9 years; whereas the median hospital length of stay reported for the index event decreased. The average cost of the spinal fusion surgery increased during the observational period, from &OV0556; 4726 up to &OV0556; 9388. The study showed an increasing incidence of spinal fusion surgery and costs from 2001 to 2010. These results can be used to better understand the epidemiological and economic burden of these interventions, and help to optimize the resources available considering the different clinical approaches accessible today. 4.

  16. Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jessica A; Mundy, Peter C; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2006-07-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children's emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes. They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience.

  17. Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2009-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes.They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience. PMID:16908481

  18. Cancer incidence attributable to red and processed meat consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of red and processed meats has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to the consumption of red and processed meat. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta that were attributable to red and processed meat consumption were estimated using population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on Colorectal Cancer, and the prevalence of red and processed meat consumption was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Among participants in Alberta's Tomorrow Project, 41%-61% of men and 14%-25% of women consumed more than 500 g of red and processed meat per week, which exceeds World Cancer Research Fund cancer prevention guidelines. For red meat consumption, population attributable risks for colorectal cancer were substantially higher for men (13.6%-17.9%) than for women (1.6%-2.1%). For processed meat consumption, the population attributable risks were also higher for men (3.2%-4.8%) than for women (1.5%-2.1%). Overall, about 12% of colorectal cancers, or 1.5% of all cancers, in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat. Interpretation: Red and processed meat consumption is estimated to acount for about 12% of colorectal cancers in Alberta. Decreasing its consumption has the potential to reduce to Alberta's cancer burden. PMID:28018893

  19. Attributing Meanings to Representations of Data: The Case of Statistical Process Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Bakker, Arthur; Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meanings that employees in industry attribute to representations of data and the contingencies of these meanings in context. Our primary concern is to more precisely characterize how the context of the industrial process is constitutive of the meaning of graphs of data derived from this process. We draw on data…

  20. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes :

    SciTech Connect

    Beyeler, Walter E; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  1. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Christina M; Wilson, Louise F; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Miura, Kyoko; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to consuming red/processed meat. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with red/processed meat consumption (colon, rectum) using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of consumption (1995 National Nutrition Survey), relative risks associated with consumption and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical interventions whereby Australian adults reduced their consumption of red/processed meat from prevailing levels to ≤100 g or ≤65 g per day, respectively. An estimated 2,614 cases (18%) of colorectal cancer occurring in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption (16% of colon cancers; 23% of rectal cancers). We estimated that if all Australian adults had consumed ≤65 g/day or ≤100 g/day of red/processed meat, then the incidence of colorectal cancer would have been 5.4% (798 cancers) or 1.4% (204 cancers) lower, respectively. About one in six colorectal cancers in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption. Reducing red/processed meat intake may reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but must be balanced against nutritional benefits of modest lean meat consumption. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Christina M; Wilson, Louise F; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Miura, Kyoko; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to consuming red/processed meat. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with red/processed meat consumption (colon, rectum) using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of consumption (1995 National Nutrition Survey), relative risks associated with consumption and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical interventions whereby Australian adults reduced their consumption of red/processed meat from prevailing levels to ≤100 g or ≤65 g per day, respectively. Results An estimated 2,614 cases (18%) of colorectal cancer occurring in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption (16% of colon cancers; 23% of rectal cancers). We estimated that if all Australian adults had consumed ≤65 g/day or ≤100 g/day of red/processed meat, then the incidence of colorectal cancer would have been 5.4% (798 cancers) or 1.4% (204 cancers) lower, respectively. Conclusions About one in six colorectal cancers in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption. Implications Reducing red/processed meat intake may reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but must be balanced against nutritional benefits of modest lean meat consumption. PMID:26437727

  3. Valuation of Mortality Risk Attributable to Climate Change: Investigating the Effect of Survey Administration Modes on a VSL

    PubMed Central

    Ščasný, Milan; Alberini, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The health impact attributable to climate change has been identified as one of the priority areas for impact assessment. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the monetary value of one key health effect, which is premature mortality. Specifically, our goal is to derive the value of a statistical life from people’s willingness to pay for avoiding the risk of dying in one post-transition country in Europe, i.e., the Czech Republic. We carried out a series of conjoint choice experiments in order to value mortality risk reductions. We found the responses to the conjoint choice questions to be reasonable and consistent with the economic paradigm. The VSL is about EUR 2.4 million, and our estimate is comparable with the value of preventing a fatality as used in one of the integrated assessment models. To investigate whether carrying out the survey through the internet may violate the welfare estimate, we administered our questionnaire to two independent samples of respondents using two different modes of survey administration. The results show that the VSLs for the two groups of respondents are €2.25 and €2.55 million, and these figures are statistically indistinguishable. However, the key parameters of indirect utility between the two modes of survey administration are statistically different when specific subgroups of population, such as older respondents, are concerned. Based on this evidence, we conclude that properly designed and administered on-line surveys are a reliable method for administering questionnaires, even when the latter are cognitively challenging. However, attention should be paid to sampling and choice regarding the mode of survey administration if the preference of specific segments of the population is elicited. PMID:23249861

  4. Word Processing: The Air Force Administrators’ Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    LEYEL > WORD PROCESSING ERRORCOP Qis 4 pL THE? ~ AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATOR$.! ’--s..HANDBOOK 400 Zi LUPRED F~ Fiir [rLT The views and opinions...INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER .O.Vk Er.;. NO. R CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. ’TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED WORD ...Accession No. ADB 040882 L 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and identify by block number) Administration / / Administrative Systems

  5. The Effect of Attributional Processes Concerning Medication Taking on Return of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Whitley, Diana; Bystritsky, Alexander; Telch, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear following exposure-based treatment. Participants (87% undergraduate students and 13% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (N = 95) were randomly allocated to a waitlist condition, a psychological…

  6. Social Attribution Processes and Comorbid Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2006-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children's emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with…

  7. Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations with Adolescents' Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…

  8. Understanding the Process Model of Leadership: Follower Attribute Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelo, Absael; Henderson, Richard L.; St. Clair, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Early leadership studies produced significant research findings that have helped differentiate between leader and follower personal attributes and their consequent behaviors (SEDL, 1992), but little attention was given to the follower's contribution to the leadership process. This study represents a continuation of research by Henderson, Antelo, &…

  9. Social Attribution Processes and Comorbid Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2006-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children's emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with…

  10. Understanding the Process Model of Leadership: Follower Attribute Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelo, Absael; Henderson, Richard L.; St. Clair, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Early leadership studies produced significant research findings that have helped differentiate between leader and follower personal attributes and their consequent behaviors (SEDL, 1992), but little attention was given to the follower's contribution to the leadership process. This study represents a continuation of research by Henderson, Antelo, &…

  11. The Effect of Attributional Processes Concerning Medication Taking on Return of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Whitley, Diana; Bystritsky, Alexander; Telch, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear following exposure-based treatment. Participants (87% undergraduate students and 13% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (N = 95) were randomly allocated to a waitlist condition, a psychological…

  12. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively.

  13. Medication administration process assessment: applying lessons learned from commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Moreen; Brown, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2009-02-01

    Medication administration is a major safety issue for patients and providers. The authors describe a commercial aviation-based system safety assessment conducted on the medication administration process for a community teaching hospital in the northeast United States. Processes on 2 medical units and 1 surgical unit were assessed. A sampling of qualitative outcomes is presented in a risk prioritization framework, along with practical recommendations predicated on the valuable lessons learned in commercial aviation.

  14. Analysis of extreme rainfall events using attributes control charts in temporal rainfall processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeta, María; Valencia, Jose Luis; Saá-Requejo, Antonio; María Tarquis, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of most intense rainfall events on agriculture and insurance industry can be very severe. This research focuses in the analysis of extreme rainfall events throughout the use of attributes control charts, which constitutes a usual tool in Statistical Process Control (SPC) but unusual in climate studios. Here, series of daily precipitations for the years 1931-2009 within a Spanish region are analyzed, based on a new type of attributes control chart that takes into account the autocorrelation between the extreme rainfall events. The aim is to conclude if there exist or not evidence of a change in the extreme rainfall model of the considered series. After adjusting seasonally the precipitation series and considering the data of the first 30 years, a frequency-based criterion allowed fixing specification limits in order to discriminate between extreme observed rainfall days and normal observed rainfall days. The autocorrelation amongst maximum precipitation is taken into account by a New Binomial Markov Extended Process obtained for each rainfall series. These modelling of the extreme rainfall processes provide a way to generate the attributes control charts for the annual fraction of rainfall extreme days. The extreme rainfall processes along the rest of the years under study can then be monitored by such attributes control charts. The results of the application of this methodology show evidence of change in the model of extreme rainfall events in some of the analyzed precipitation series. This suggests that the attributes control charts proposed for the analysis of the most intense precipitation events will be of practical interest to agriculture and insurance sectors in next future.

  15. Multi-attribute, multi-alternative models of choice: Choice, reaction time, and process tracing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew L; Kang, Namyi; Leise, Tanya L

    2017-11-01

    The first aim of this research is to compare computational models of multi-alternative, multi-attribute choice when attribute values are explicit. The choice predictions of utility (standard random utility & weighted valuation), heuristic (elimination-by-aspects, lexicographic, & maximum attribute value), and dynamic (multi-alternative decision field theory, MDFT, & a version of the multi-attribute linear ballistic accumulator, MLBA) models are contrasted on both preferential and risky choice data. Using both maximum likelihood and cross-validation fit measures on choice data, the utility and dynamic models are preferred over the heuristic models for risky choice, with a slight overall advantage for the MLBA for preferential choice. The response time predictions of these models (except the MDFT) are then tested. Although the MLBA accurately predicts response time distributions, it only weakly accounts for stimulus-level differences. The other models completely fail to account for stimulus-level differences. Process tracing measures, i.e., eye and mouse tracking, were also collected. None of the qualitative predictions of the models are completely supported by that data. These results suggest that the models may not appropriately represent the interaction of attention and preference formation. To overcome this potential shortcoming, the second aim of this research is to test preference-formation assumptions, independently of attention, by developing the models of attentional sampling (MAS) model family which incorporates the empirical gaze patterns into a sequential sampling framework. An MAS variant that includes attribute values, but only updates the currently viewed alternative and does not contrast values across alternatives, performs well in both experiments. Overall, the results support the dynamic models, but point to the need to incorporate a framework that more accurately reflects the relationship between attention and the preference-formation process

  16. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    performance alone could not explain the observed positivity bias. Furthermore, participants’ behavior in our task was linked to the most widely used measure of attribution style. In sum, our findings suggest that positive and negative performance feedback influences the evaluation of task-related stimuli, as predicted by attribution theory. Therefore, our study points to the relevance of attribution theory for feedback processing in decision-making and provides a novel outlook for decision-making biases. PMID:26849646

  17. Dyadic Event Attribution in Social Networks with Mixtures of Hawkes Processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangda; Zha, Hongyuan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications in social network analysis, it is important to model the interactions and infer the influence between pairs of actors, leading to the problem of dyadic event modeling which has attracted increasing interests recently. In this paper we focus on the problem of dyadic event attribution, an important missing data problem in dyadic event modeling where one needs to infer the missing actor-pairs of a subset of dyadic events based on their observed timestamps. Existing works either use fixed model parameters and heuristic rules for event attribution, or assume the dyadic events across actor-pairs are independent. To address those shortcomings we propose a probabilistic model based on mixtures of Hawkes processes that simultaneously tackles event attribution and network parameter inference, taking into consideration the dependency among dyadic events that share at least one actor. We also investigate using additive models to incorporate regularization to avoid overfitting. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets on international armed conflicts suggest that the proposed new method is capable of significantly improve accuracy when compared with the state-of-the-art for dyadic event attribution. PMID:24917494

  18. Patients' Preferences for Outcome, Process and Cost Attributes in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review of Discrete Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniela R; Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Civello, Daniele; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2017-03-31

    As several studies have been conducted to elicit patients' preferences for cancer treatment, it is important to provide an overview and synthesis of these studies. This study aimed to systematically review discrete choice experiments (DCEs) about patients' preferences for cancer treatment and assessed the relative importance of outcome, process and cost attributes. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE to identify all DCEs investigating patients' preferences for cancer treatment between January 2010 and April 2016. Data were extracted using a predefined extraction sheet, and a reporting quality assessment was applied to all studies. Attributes were classified into outcome, process and cost attributes, and their relative importance was assessed. A total of 28 DCEs were identified. More than half of the studies (56%) received an aggregate score lower than 4 on the PREFS (Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, Significance) 5-point scale. Most attributes were related to outcome (70%), followed by process (25%) and cost (5%). Outcome attributes were most often significant (81%), followed by process (73%) and cost (67%). The relative importance of outcome attributes was ranked highest in 82% of the cases where it was included, followed by cost (43%) and process (12%). This systematic review suggests that attributes related to cancer treatment outcomes are the most important for patients. Process and cost attributes were less often included in studies but were still (but less) important to patients in most studies. Clinicians and decision makers should be aware that attribute importance might be influenced by level selection for that attribute.

  19. Social information processing, moral reasoning, and emotion attributions: relations with adolescents' reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William F; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated. Reactive aggression was uniquely related to expected ease in enacting aggression, lower verbal abilities, and hostile attributional biases, and most of these connections were mediated by adolescents' attention problems. In contrast, proactive aggression was uniquely related to higher verbal abilities and expectations of more positive emotional and material outcomes resulting from aggression. Discussion focused on the utility of assessing both moral and SIP-related cognitions, and on the potential influence of low-SES, high-risk environments on these findings.

  20. Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Process: Perceptions of Parents, Teachers, and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeyer, Judith A.; Scott-Little, Catherine; Hussey, Susan

    Kindergarten readiness assessment is considered important for identifying and facilitating successful school experiences for young children. However, little is known about the assessment process schools are using. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers', parents', and administrators' perceptions of the kindergarten readiness assessment…

  1. 10 CFR 782.6 - Processing of administrative claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., organization, office, or field establishment within the Department of Energy, it should be forwarded to the... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of administrative claims. 782.6 Section 782.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures...

  2. 10 CFR 782.6 - Processing of administrative claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., organization, office, or field establishment within the Department of Energy, it should be forwarded to the... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of administrative claims. 782.6 Section 782.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures...

  3. 10 CFR 782.6 - Processing of administrative claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., organization, office, or field establishment within the Department of Energy, it should be forwarded to the... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of administrative claims. 782.6 Section 782.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures...

  4. What is the source of cultural differences? -- Examining the influence of thinking style on the attribution process.

    PubMed

    Jen, Chun-Hui; Lien, Yunn-Wen

    2010-02-01

    The present research is intended to find out whether individuals with analytic or holistic thought have different attribution processes. Cross-cultural research has suggested that East Asians, who tend to have a holistic thought pattern, differ in cognitive process from Westerners, who tend to engage in analytic thought. However, studies that found cultural difference in attribution process may have non-equivalence problems that make it hard to interpret the causal relationship between thinking style and attribution process. The present research extends this by measuring participants' thinking style within a single culture in order to ensure equivalence on potentially confounding variables such as prior knowledge and cognitive capacity. Two experiments demonstrate that both types of thinkers have identical attribution processes and suggest different thinking styles might relate to different tendencies toward situational information, but not to the attribution process itself.

  5. Demystifying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection process.

    PubMed

    Price, Lowell L; Goodman, Terri

    2006-04-01

    Being prepared for an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection can save a facility money, as well as potentially protect employees from serious illness or injury. This article explains the OSHA inspection process, types of violations that may be cited and the appeals process for employers and employees. Actual citations given in four recent OSHA health care facility inspections are discussed and general recommendations to prepare for an OSHA site visit are given.

  6. The effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear.

    PubMed

    Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J; Whitley, Diana; Bystritsky, Alexander; Telch, Michael J

    2008-06-01

    In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear following exposure-based treatment. Participants (87% undergraduate students and 13% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (N = 95) were randomly allocated to a waitlist condition, a psychological placebo condition, a 1-session exposure-based treatment, or the same exposure treatment given in conjunction with an inactive pill. Attributions concerning medication taking were manipulated by further randomly assigning participants in the exposure-based treatment plus pill condition to 1 of 3 instructional sets immediately following treatment completion and posttreatment assessment: (1) The pill was described as a sedating herb that likely made exposure treatment easier; (2) the pill was described as a stimulating herb that likely made exposure treatment more difficult; or (3) the pill was described as a placebo that had no effect on exposure treatment. Return of fear rates for the 3 conditions were 39%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Moreover, the deleterious effects of the sedation instructions were mediated by reduced self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing patient attributions regarding the improvements achieved with combined exposure-based and pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  7. The Dean as Administrator: Roles, Functions and Attributes. A Compilation of Presentations from the Executive Development Series I: "Have You Ever Thought of Being a Dean?" (1980-1981). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    The role and attributes of deans of nursing as administrators of baccalaureate or higher degree programs are considered by six deans who contributed to a continuing education workshop series. In addition to outlining skills and attributes needed by administrators, Elizabeth Grossman examines five basic administrative functions: planning,…

  8. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations of....38b Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits...

  9. Evaluating Teacher-Leaders for Careers as Administrators: Effects of Job Attributes, Teacher Leader Role, and Teaching Assignment Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumate, Brian T.; Munoz, Marco A.; Winter, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Recruitment of public school administrators is an important issue due to the shortage of qualified job applicants nationwide. The shortage of applicants requires school districts to evaluate their internal pools of potential applicants for administrative vacancies. This evaluation research addressed the recruitment of teacher-leaders to serve as…

  10. A computational model associating learning process, word attributes, and age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach.

  11. A Computational Model Associating Learning Process, Word Attributes, and Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach. PMID:24223699

  12. Microbial stability, phytochemical retention, and organoleptic attributes of dense phase CO2 processed muscadine grape juice.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Insfran, David; Balaban, Murat O; Talcott, Stephen T

    2006-07-26

    Dense phase CO2 processing (DP-CO2) is a promising alternative to thermal pasteurization potentially inactivating microorganisms without affecting food phytochemicals or organoleptic characteristics. To demonstrate these effects, studies were conducted by changing processing pressure and CO2 concentration in relation to microbial destruction. Subsequent storage stability (10 weeks at 4 degrees C) of muscadine grape juice processed by DP-CO2 (34.5 MPa at 8% or 16% CO2) was evaluated and compared to a heat-pasteurized juice (75 degrees C, 15 s). Thermal pasteurization decreased anthocyanins (16%), soluble phenolics (26%), and antioxidant capacity (10%) whereas no changes were observed for both DP-CO2 juices. DP-CO2 juices also retained higher anthocyanins (335 mg/L), polyphenolics (473 mg/L), and antioxidant capacity (10.9 micromol of Trolox equivalents/mL) than thermally pasteurized juices at the end of storage. Insignificant differences in sensory attributes (color, flavor, aroma, and overall likeability) were observed between unprocessed and DP-CO2 juices, while significant differences were observed between unprocessed and heat-pasteurized juices. Panelists preferred DP-CO2 over heat-pasteurized juices throughout the first 6 weeks of storage, whereby the growth of yeast and mold adversely affected the juice aroma. Comparable microbial counts were observed between DP-CO2 and thermally pasteurized juices during the first 5 weeks of storage. DP-CO2 protected phytochemicals in muscadine juice during processing and storage without compromising microbial stability or sensory attributes over 5 weeks of storage.

  13. Long term trend and interannual variability of land carbon uptake—the attribution and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zheng; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuke; Stoy, Paul C.; Niu, Shuli

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem carbon (C) uptake in terrestrial ecosystems has increased over the past five decades, but with large interannual variability (IAV). However, we are not clear on the attribution and the processes that control the long-term trend and IAV of land C uptake. Using atmospheric inversion net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data, we quantified the trend and IAV of NEE across the globe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and the Southern Hemisphere (SH), and decomposed NEE into carbon uptake amplitude and duration during each year from 1979–2013. We found the NH rather than the SH determined the IAV, while both hemispheres contributed equivalently to the global NEE trend. Different ecosystems in the NH and SH had differential relative contributions to their trend and IAV. The long-term trends of increased C uptake across the globe and the SH were attributed to both extended duration and increasing amplitude of C uptake. The shortened duration of uptake in the NH partly offsets the effects of increased NEE amplitude, making the net C uptake trend the same as that of the SH. The change in NEE IAV was also linked to changes in the amplitude and duration of uptake, but they worked in different ways in the NH, SH and globe. The fundamental attributions of amplitude and duration of C uptake revealed in this study are helpful to better understand the mechanisms underlying the trend and IAV of land C uptake. Our findings also suggest the critical roles of grassland and croplands in the NH in contributing to the trend and IAV of land C uptake.

  14. Assessment of the Nurse Medication Administration Workflow Process

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Rita; Vidal, José M.; Sharif, Omor; Cai, Bo; Parsons, Bridgette; Bennett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings of an observational study of the Registered Nurse (RN) Medication Administration Process (MAP) conducted on two comparable medical units in a large urban tertiary care medical center in Columbia, South Carolina. A total of 305 individual MAP observations were recorded over a 6-week period with an average of 5 MAP observations per RN participant for both clinical units. A key MAP variation was identified in terms of unbundled versus bundled MAP performance. In the unbundled workflow, an RN engages in the MAP by performing only MAP tasks during a care episode. In the bundled workflow, an RN completes medication administration along with other patient care responsibilities during the care episode. Using a discrete-event simulation model, this paper addresses the difference between unbundled and bundled workflow and their effects on simulated redesign interventions.

  15. Emotional response to virtual reality exposure across different cultures: the role of the attribution process.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mosso, José Luis; Mosso, Dejanira; Pineda, Erika; Ruíz, Norma Leticia; Ramíez, Miriam; Morales, José Luis; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have shown the ability of media--television, movies, and virtual reality (VR) experiences--to elicit emotions. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how the different factors involved--user related and medium related--play a role in producing an emotional response during a VR experience. We investigate this issue, analyzing the role played by the cultural and technological backgrounds of the users in the emotional responses to VR. Specifically, we use the "core affect" model of emotions developed by Russell (2003) to explore how these factors influence the way in which participants experience virtual worlds. Our sample includes 20 Mexican participants: 8 living in El Tepeyac, a small rural and isolated Mexican village characterized by a very primitive culture, and 12 high civilized inhabitants of Mexico City. The "Green Valley," a noninteractive, relaxing immersive environment showing a mountain landscape around a calm lake, was used to induce relaxation in the two groups during an ambulatory surgical operation. To investigate the effects of VR on the relaxation process, we measured participants' physiological (heart rate) and emotional (VAS-A) responses before, during, and after the operation. The results show that VR significantly modified the core affect (reduced arousal) in all participants but that the final emotional response produced by this change was influenced by the attribution process: the civilized inhabitants of Mexico City, who were able to attribute the reduced arousal to the VR experience, reported a significant reduction in the self-reported level of anxiety, while people from El Tepeyac showed a reduction in their physiological reactions but not in their perceived anxiety.

  16. A new method for selectively enhancing hemisphere processing: voice frequency amplification influences the strength of attribute framing.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-01-01

    An attribute framing effect occurs when positive or negative associations produced by positive or negative frames are mapped onto evaluations resulting in a more favourable evaluation for the positively framed attribute. We used a new voice frequency manipulation to differentially enhance right versus left hemisphere processing. In doing so we found a strong attribute framing effect when a speaker with a low-frequency voice enhanced the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere. However, a framing effect was not obtained when a speaker with a high-frequency voice enhanced the inferential/analytical processing style of the left hemisphere. At the theoretical level our results provide evidence that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially susceptible to associative implications, such as those found in attribute framing manipulations. At the applied level we provide a simple method for altering the effectiveness of persuasion messages.

  17. Human cortical organization for processing vocalizations indicates representation of harmonic structure as a signal attribute.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James W; Talkington, William J; Walker, Nathan A; Spirou, George A; Jajosky, Audrey; Frum, Chris; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A

    2009-02-18

    The ability to detect and rapidly process harmonic sounds, which in nature are typical of animal vocalizations and speech, can be critical for communication among conspecifics and for survival. Single-unit studies have reported neurons in auditory cortex sensitive to specific combinations of frequencies (e.g., harmonics), theorized to rapidly abstract or filter for specific structures of incoming sounds, where large ensembles of such neurons may constitute spectral templates. We studied the contribution of harmonic structure to activation of putative spectral templates in human auditory cortex by using a wide variety of animal vocalizations, as well as artificially constructed iterated rippled noises (IRNs). Both the IRNs and vocalization sounds were quantitatively characterized by calculating a global harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR). Using functional MRI, we identified HNR-sensitive regions when presenting either artificial IRNs and/or recordings of natural animal vocalizations. This activation included regions situated between functionally defined primary auditory cortices and regions preferential for processing human nonverbal vocalizations or speech sounds. These results demonstrate that the HNR of sound reflects an important second-order acoustic signal attribute that parametrically activates distinct pathways of human auditory cortex. Thus, these results provide novel support for the presence of spectral templates, which may subserve a major role in the hierarchical processing of vocalizations as a distinct category of behaviorally relevant sound.

  18. Human cortical organization for processing vocalizations indicates representation of harmonic structure as a signal attribute

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James W.; Talkington, William J.; Walker, Nathan A.; Spirou, George A.; Jajosky, Audrey; Frum, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and rapidly process harmonic sounds, which in nature are typical of animal vocalizations and speech, can be critical for communication among conspecifics and for survival. Single-unit studies have reported neurons in auditory cortex sensitive to specific combinations of frequencies (e.g. harmonics), theorized to rapidly abstract or filter for specific structures of incoming sounds, where large ensembles of such neurons may constitute spectral templates. We studied the contribution of harmonic structure to activation of putative spectral templates in human auditory cortex by using a wide variety of animal vocalizations, as well as artificially constructed iterated rippled noises (IRNs). Both the IRNs and vocalization sounds were quantitatively characterized by calculating a global harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR). Using fMRI we identified HNR-sensitive regions when presenting either artificial IRNs and/or recordings of natural animal vocalizations. This activation included regions situated between functionally defined primary auditory cortices and regions preferential for processing human non-verbal vocalizations or speech sounds. These results demonstrate that the HNR of sound reflects an important second-order acoustic signal attribute that parametrically activates distinct pathways of human auditory cortex. Thus, these results provide novel support for putative spectral templates, which may subserve a major role in the hierarchical processing of vocalizations as a distinct category of behaviorally relevant sound. PMID:19228981

  19. Eye-tracking reveals a slowdown of social context processing during intention attribution in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Paul; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with poor theory of mind (ToM), particularly in the attribution of intentions to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviours and contextual processing. This study investigated to what extent impaired ToM in patients with schizophrenia is related to abnormal processing of social context. Methods We evaluated ToM using a nonverbal intention attribution task based on comic strips depicting social/nonsocial and contextual/noncontextual events while eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking was used to assess processing time dedicated to visual cues contained in regions of interest identified in a pilot study. We measured cognitive contextual control on a separate task. Results We tested 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 controls. Compared with controls, patients were slower in intention attribution but not in physical reasoning. They looked longer than controls at contextual cues displayed in the first 2 context pictures of the comic strips, and this difference was greater for intention attribution than for physical reasoning. We found no group difference in time spent looking at noncontextual cues. Patients’ impairment in contextual control did not explain their increased reaction time and gaze duration on contextual cues during intention attribution. Limitations Difficulty may not have been equivalent between intention attribution and physical reasoning conditions. Conclusion Overall, schizophrenia was characterized by a delay in intention attribution related to a slowdown of social context processing that was not explained by worse executive contextual control. PMID:26836621

  20. Fermentanomics: Relating quality attributes of a monoclonal antibody to cell culture process variables and raw materials using multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kumar Singh, Sumit; Pathak, Mili; Read, Erik K; Brorson, Kurt A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Khan, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Fermentanomics is an emerging field of research and involves understanding the underlying controlled process variables and their effect on process yield and product quality. Although major advancements have occurred in process analytics over the past two decades, accurate real-time measurement of significant quality attributes for a biotech product during production culture is still not feasible. Researchers have used an amalgam of process models and analytical measurements for monitoring and process control during production. This article focuses on using multivariate data analysis as a tool for monitoring the internal bioreactor dynamics, the metabolic state of the cell, and interactions among them during culture. Quality attributes of the monoclonal antibody product that were monitored include glycosylation profile of the final product along with process attributes, such as viable cell density and level of antibody expression. These were related to process variables, raw materials components of the chemically defined hybridoma media, concentration of metabolites formed during the course of the culture, aeration-related parameters, and supplemented raw materials such as glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. This article demonstrates the utility of multivariate data analysis for correlating the product quality attributes (especially glycosylation) to process variables and raw materials (especially amino acid supplements in cell culture media). The proposed approach can be applied for process optimization to increase product expression, improve consistency of product quality, and target the desired quality attribute profile.

  1. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Attributional Processes in Behavior Change and Maintenance: Smoking Cessation and Continued Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of attributions in initial and long-term smoking behavior change. Manipulated the externality of treatment. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were superior to the intrinsic self-help group in initial cessation but were inferior in maintaining abstinence. Subjects in the intrinsic self-help group made fewer external attributions for…

  3. Inferring social attributes from different face regions: evidence for holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isabel M; Young, Andrew W

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments investigated the role that different face regions play in a variety of social judgements that are commonly made from facial appearance (sex, age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, approachability, trustworthiness, and intelligence). These judgements lie along a continuum from those with a clear physical basis and high consequent accuracy (sex, age) to judgements that can achieve a degree of consensus between observers despite having little known validity (intelligence, trustworthiness). Results from Experiment 1 indicated that the face's internal features (eyes, nose, and mouth) provide information that is more useful for social inferences than the external features (hair, face shape, ears, and chin), especially when judging traits such as approachability and trustworthiness. Experiment 2 investigated how judgement agreement was affected when the upper head, eye, nose, or mouth regions were presented in isolation or when these regions were obscured. A different pattern of results emerged for different characteristics, indicating that different types of facial information are used in the various judgements. Moreover, the informativeness of a particular region/feature depends on whether it is presented alone or in the context of the whole face. These findings provide evidence for the importance of holistic processing in making social attributions from facial appearance.

  4. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of the... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c...

  5. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  6. Step change point estimation in the multivariate-attribute process variability using artificial neural networks and maximum likelihood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amirhossein; Mousavi, Seyed Meysam

    2015-07-01

    In some statistical process control applications, the combination of both variable and attribute quality characteristics which are correlated represents the quality of the product or the process. In such processes, identification the time of manifesting the out-of-control states can help the quality engineers to eliminate the assignable causes through proper corrective actions. In this paper, first we use an artificial neural network (ANN)-based method in the literature for detecting the variance shifts as well as diagnosing the sources of variation in the multivariate-attribute processes. Then, based on the quality characteristics responsible for the out-of-control state, we propose a modular model based on the ANN for estimating the time of step change in the multivariate-attribute process variability. We also compare the performance of the ANN-based estimator with the estimator based on maximum likelihood method (MLE). A numerical example based on simulation study is used to evaluate the performance of the estimators in terms of the accuracy and precision criteria. The results of the simulation study show that the proposed ANN-based estimator outperforms the MLE estimator under different out-of-control scenarios where different shift magnitudes in the covariance matrix of multivariate-attribute quality characteristics are manifested.

  7. 25 CFR 224.183 - What other administrative appeals processes also apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What other administrative appeals processes also apply... DETERMINATION ACT General Appeal Procedures § 224.183 What other administrative appeals processes also apply? The administrative appeal processes in 25 CFR part 2 and 43 CFR part 4, subject to the limitations...

  8. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  9. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  10. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  11. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  12. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  13. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  14. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  15. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  16. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  17. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  18. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  19. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  20. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  1. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  2. Exploring the Contribution of Attribution Retraining to Student Perceptions and the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodkiewicz, Alicia R.; Boyle, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at current research into how thinking influences learning. How people explain to themselves "why" they fail and succeed inevitably impacts on how well they learn new skills. Researchers have been developing attribution retraining programmes targeted at improving student academic achievement and learning experience…

  3. Culture and the Attribution Process: Techniques for Tapping the Cognitive Bases of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhaus, Peter

    How people organize sensory data is influenced not only by their role as actor observer; the extent of their empathy for other actors; and the vividness, availability, representativeness, and negative impact of the data; but also by the culture from which it springs. To determine how the attributions people make are affected by culture, which can…

  4. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    PubMed

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  5. Robustness testing in pharmaceutical freeze-drying: inter-relation of process conditions and product quality attributes studied for a vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.

  6. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations of... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for...

  7. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of the... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c Statistical sampling procedures for...

  8. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of the... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c Statistical sampling procedures for...

  9. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and Drug...

  10. Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J W; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Haub, M D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of sodium citrate (CIT) or acetate (ACE) to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, pH decline, and quality attributes of pork. Previous studies have shown that CIT has the potential to inhibit phosphofructokinase (PFK), a key enzyme in postmortem muscle glycolysis. In Exp. 1, CIT, ACE, or water was orally administered (0.75 g/kg of BW) to 24 pigs. After a 30-min rest, pigs were exercised, and blood samples were taken at 45 and 75 min after oral treatment. Citrate and ACE tended (P = 0.08) to increase blood pH and increased (P = 0.02) bicarbonate levels immediately after exercise. After a 30-min rest, blood pH of pigs administered ACE tended (P = 0.09) to remain higher, whereas blood pH of CIT-treated pigs was similar to that of control pigs. Bicarbonate levels in ACE- and CIT-treated pigs were still greater (P < 0.05) than those of control pigs at 75 min after oral treatment. In Exp. 2, 30 pigs were administered CIT, ACE, or water 45 min before stunning (electric plus captive bolt). Antemortem treatments had no effect (P > 0.10) on muscle pH or postmortem concentrations of the glycolytic metabolites of glucose-6 phosphate, fructose-6 phosphate, fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, or lactate. Minor, but inconsistent, differences in quality attributes were found in LM chops, and no differences in quality attributes were found between control and CIT- or ACE-treated pigs for inside and outside semimembranosus muscles (P > 0.10). There was no significant inhibition of the PFK enzyme by orally administered CIT or ACE; however, the PFK glycolytic metabolite data analysis indicated that PFK was a main regulatory enzyme in postmortem muscle.

  11. 78 FR 18481 - Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... must be based on previously submitted specific written comments regarding the proposed project or... written comments regarding the proposed project and activity and attributed to the objector, unless the... land management plans. The Department invited the public to provide written comments...

  12. A Quadrupole Dalton-based multi-attribute method for product characterization, process development, and quality control of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weichen; Jimenez, Rod Brian; Mowery, Rachel; Luo, Haibin; Cao, Mingyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Ramos, Irina; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, Jihong

    2017-08-14

    During manufacturing and storage process, therapeutic proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, disulfide bond modifications and glycosylation. Certain PTMs may affect bioactivity, stability or pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics profile and are therefore classified as potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs). Identifying, monitoring and controlling these PTMs are usually key elements of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Traditionally, multiple analytical methods are utilized for these purposes, which is time consuming and costly. In recent years, multi-attribute monitoring methods have been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, these methods combine high-end mass spectrometry with complicated data analysis software, which could pose difficulty when implementing in a quality control (QC) environment. Here we report a multi-attribute method (MAM) using a Quadrupole Dalton (QDa) mass detector to selectively monitor and quantitate PTMs in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody. The result output from the QDa-based MAM is straightforward and automatic. Evaluation results indicate this method provides comparable results to the traditional assays. To ensure future application in the QC environment, this method was qualified according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline and applied in the characterization of drug substance and stability samples. The QDa-based MAM is shown to be an extremely useful tool for product and process characterization studies that facilitates facile understanding of process impact on multiple quality attributes, while being QC friendly and cost-effective.

  13. 32 CFR 513.2 - Administrative procedures for processing complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS INDEBTEDNESS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL § 513.2 Administrative... through proper channels to the soldier's commander for action. (2) If the soldier is a patient attached to...

  14. Evaluating the Performance of Administrators: The Process and the Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the various roles (monitor, information gatherer, communicator and feedback provider, clarifier, coanalyzer, assister, resource provider, and motivator) played by the supervisor when evaluating administrators. Presents a sample evaluation instrument assessing five major performance areas (management, professionalism, leadership,…

  15. Using Word Processing to Implement an Effective Administrative Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendy

    1978-01-01

    Describes the steps taken to reorganize the Administrative Support System of Houston Independent School District, to make it more efficient. A more flexible multi-function support team replaced the traditional private secretaries arrangement. (GA)

  16. 32 CFR 513.2 - Administrative procedures for processing complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS INDEBTEDNESS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL § 513.2 Administrative... affects the Army's public image. Also, explain that the willful failure to resolve unpaid debts may...

  17. Moving Heaven and Earth: Administrative Search and Selection Processes and the Experience of an African American Woman Senior Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett-Johnson, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case/phenomenological study was to examine a collegiate administrative search and selection process and the experience of an African American woman who was selected to the position of chancellor. A case concerning the search process of a regional campus of Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana was identified and chosen.…

  18. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review? 418.3625 Section 418.3625 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  19. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review? 418.3625 Section 418.3625 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  20. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review? 418.3625 Section 418.3625 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  1. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review? 418.3625 Section 418.3625 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  2. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling.

  3. The identification and validation process of proportional reasoning attributes: an application of a cognitive diagnosis modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjoe, Hartono; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the process of identifying and validating students' abilities to think proportionally. More specifically, we describe the methodology we used to identify these proportional reasoning attributes, beginning with the selection and review of relevant literature on proportional reasoning. We then continue with the deliberation and resolution of differing views by mathematics researchers, mathematics educators, and middle school mathematics teachers of what should be learned theoretically and what can be taught practically in everyday classroom settings. We also present the initial development of proportional reasoning items as part of the two-phase validation process of the previously identified attributes. In particular, we detail in the first phase of the validation process our collaboration with middle school mathematics teachers in the creation of prototype items and the verification of each item-attribute specification in consideration of the most common ways (among many different ways) in which middle school students would have solved these prototype items themselves. In the second phase of the validation process, we elaborate our think-aloud interview procedure in the search for evidence of whether students generally solved the prototype items in the way they were expected to.

  4. Evaluating mid-infrared spectroscopy as a new technique for predicting sensory texture attributes of processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Fagan, C C; Everard, C; O'Donnell, C P; Downey, G; Sheehan, E M; Delahunty, C M; O'Callaghan, D J

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of mid-infrared spectroscopy for determination of selected sensory attributes in a range of experimentally manufactured processed cheese samples. This study also evaluates mid-infrared spectroscopy against other recently proposed techniques for predicting sensory texture attributes. Processed cheeses (n = 32) of varying compositions were manufactured on a pilot scale. After 2 and 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C, mid-infrared spectra (640 to 4,000 cm(-1)) were recorded and samples were scored on a scale of 0 to 100 for 9 attributes using descriptive sensory analysis. Models were developed by partial least squares regression using raw and pretreated spectra. The mouth-coating and mass-forming models were improved by using a reduced spectral range (930 to 1,767 cm(-1)). The remaining attributes were most successfully modeled using a combined range (930 to 1,767 cm(-1) and 2,839 to 4,000 cm(-1)). The root mean square errors of cross-validation for the models were 7.4 (firmness; range 65.3), 4.6 (rubbery; range 41.7), 7.1 (creamy; range 60.9), 5.1 (chewy; range 43.3), 5.2 (mouth-coating; range 37.4), 5.3 (fragmentable; range 51.0), 7.4 (melting; range 69.3), and 3.1 (mass-forming; range 23.6). These models had a good practical utility. Model accuracy ranged from approximate quantitative predictions to excellent predictions (range error ratio = 9.6). In general, the models compared favorably with previously reported instrumental texture models and near-infrared models, although the creamy, chewy, and melting models were slightly weaker than the previously reported near-infrared models. We concluded that mid-infrared spectroscopy could be successfully used for the nondestructive and objective assessment of processed cheese sensory quality.

  5. 29 CFR 4041.42 - Administration of plan during termination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of plan during termination process. 4041.42... TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.42 Administration of plan during termination process. (a) General rule. Except to the extent specifically prohibited by this...

  6. On the Estimation of Process Parameters in the Taguchi's Approach to the On-line Control Procedure for Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Wagner S.; Esteves, Luis Gustavo; Wechsler, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Under the model proposed by Nayebpour and Woodall [5] for Taguchi's on-line control procedure for attributes, estimators for the process parameter vector are derived both from the Classical (maximum likelihood) and Bayesian standpoints. The likelihood function is generated by the detection time of the first defective item under the control procedure. Under the Classical standpoint, a case of nonidentifiability is disclosed. Under the Bayesian standpoint, posterior probability distributions for the process parameters are determined by taking into account independent beta prior distributions.

  7. 20 CFR 655.1220 - Who can appeal the Administrator's findings and what is the process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in writing to the Chief Administrative Law Judge at the address stated in the notice of determination... be received by the Chief Administrative Law Judge, at the address stated in the Administrator's... and what is the process? 655.1220 Section 655.1220 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  8. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet.

  9. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. PMID:27932865

  10. Tangent linear super-parameterization: attributable, decomposable moist processes for tropical variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapes, B. E.; Kelly, P.; Song, S.; Hu, I. K.; Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    An economical 10-layer global primitive equation solver is driven by time-independent forcing terms, derived from a training process, to produce a realisting eddying basic state with a tracer q trained to act like water vapor mixing ratio. Within this basic state, linearized anomaly moist physics in the column are applied in the form of a 20x20 matrix. The control matrix was derived from the results of Kuang (2010, 2012) who fitted a linear response function from a cloud resolving model in a state of deep convecting equilibrium. By editing this matrix in physical space and eigenspace, scaling and clipping its action, and optionally adding terms for processes that do not conserve moist statice energy (radiation, surface fluxes), we can decompose and explain the model's diverse moist process coupled variability. Recitified effects of this variability on the general circulation and climate, even in strictly zero-mean centered anomaly physic cases, also are sometimes surprising.

  11. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  12. Lay psychology of the hidden mental life: attribution patterns of unconscious processes.

    PubMed

    Maor, Ofri; Leiser, David

    2013-06-01

    In spite of extensive research on theory of mind, lay theories about the unconscious have scarcely been investigated. Three questionnaire studies totaling 689 participants, examined to what extent they thought that a range of psychological processes could be unconscious. It was found that people are less willing to countenance unconscious processes in themselves than in others, regardless of the time period considered--present, past or future. This is especially true when specific experience-like situations are envisioned, as opposed to considering the question in abstract or generic terms. In addition, the notion of unconscious psychological processes is resisted for certain domains in particular: intending, sensing, believing, and thinking. We interpret this pattern by positing the existence of two conceptions about the unconscious that are differentially applied according to circumstances: one originating in prevalent social representations about the unconscious, the other based on self-model of the person as an intentional actor.

  13. Source attribution and process analysis for atmospheric mercury in eastern China simulated by CMAQ-Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Wang, T.; Bieser, J.; Matthias, V.

    2015-08-01

    The contribution from different emission sources and atmospheric processes to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and mercury deposition in eastern China were quantified using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ-Hg) modeling system run with a nested domain. Natural sources (NAT) and six categories of anthropogenic mercury sources (ANTH) including cement production (CEM), domestic life (DOM), industrial boilers (IND), metal production (MET), coal-fired power plants (PP) and traffic (TRA) were considered for source apportionment. NAT were responsible for 36.6 % of annual averaged GEM concentration, which was regarded as the most important source for GEM in spite of obvious seasonal variation. Among ANTH, the influence of MET and PP on GEM were most evident especially in winter. ANTH dominated the variations of GOM and PBM concentrations with contributions of 86.7 and 79.1 %, respectively. Among ANTH, IND were the largest contributor for GOM (57.5 %) and PBM (34.4 %) so that most mercury deposition came from IND. The effect of mercury emitted from out of China was indicated by a > 30 % contribution to GEM concentration and wet deposition. The contributions from nine processes - consisting of emissions (EMIS), gas-phase chemical production/loss (CHEM), horizontal advection (HADV), vertical advection (ZADV), horizontal advection (HDIF), vertical diffusion (VDIF), dry deposition (DDEP), cloud processes (CLDS) and aerosol processes (AERO) - were calculated for process analysis with their comparison in urban and non-urban regions of the Yangtze River delta (YRD). EMIS and VDIF affected surface GEM and PBM concentrations most and tended to compensate each other all the time in both urban and non-urban areas. However, DDEP was the most important removal process for GOM with 7.3 and 2.9 ng m-3 reduced in the surface of urban and non-urban areas, respectively, in 1 day. The diurnal profile variation of

  14. Source attribution and process analysis for atmospheric mercury in East China simulated by CMAQ-Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Wang, T.; Bieser, J.; Matthias, V.

    2015-04-01

    The contribution from different emission sources and atmospheric processes to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and mercury deposition in East China were quantified using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ-Hg) modeling system run with nested grid resolution of 27 km. Natural source (NAT) and six categories of anthropogenic mercury sources (ANTH) including cement production (CEM), domestic life (DOM), industrial boilers (IND), metal production (MET), coal-fired power plants (PP) and traffic (TRA) were considered for source apportionment. NAT was responsible for 36.6% of annual averaged GEM concentration which was regard as the most important source for GEM in spite of obvious seasonal variation. Among ANTH, the influence of MET and PP on GEM were most evident especially in winter. ANTH dominated the variations of GOM and PBM concentration with a contribution of 86.7 and 79.1% respectively. Among ANTH, IND was the largest contributor for GOM (57.5%) and PBM (34.4%) so that most mercury deposition came from IND. The effect of mercury emitted from out of China was indicated by > 30% contribution to GEM concentration and wet deposition. The contribution from nine processes consisting of emissions (EMIS), gas-phase chemical production/loss (CHEM), horizontal advection (HADV), vertical advection (ZADV), horizontal advection (HDIF), vertical diffusion (VDIF), dry deposition (DDEP), cloud processes (CLDS) and aerosol processes (AERO) were calculated for processes analysis with their comparison in urban and non-urban regions of Yangtze River Delta (YRD). EMIS and VDIF affected surface GEM and PBM concentration most and tended to compensate each other all the time in both urban and non-urban areas. However, DDEP was the most important removal process for GOM with 7.3 and 2.9 ng m-3 reduced in the surface of urban and non-urban areas respectively in a whole day. Diurnal profile variation of processes

  15. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process.

  16. Veterans Benefits Administration Compensation Claims Processing (Briefing charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Now what” ASPEN system focuses VSRs on gaining points Misguided incentive, should focus on completing claims Update ASPEN point system to focus VSRs ...processing time Reevaluate wait time needed before rating a claim Train VSRs in specific claim types to improve processing accuracy, consistency...and timeliness Assign work based on capability of workers rather than point requirement Terminal Digit system used to assign claims to VSRs “Cross

  17. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section 905.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If...

  18. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section 905.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If...

  19. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section 905.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If...

  20. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section 905.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations ER28MR00...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Permit Denials and Proffered Permits A Appendix A to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. A Appendix A to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits ER28MR00.000...

  5. 77 FR 21991 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)-Lender and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)--Lender and Underwriter Eligibility Criteria and Credit Watch for MAP Lenders AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... processes for determining lender and underwriter eligibility and tier qualification for MAP participation...

  6. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James W; Talkington, William J; Tallaksen, Katherine C; Frum, Chris A

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and "auditory objects" can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more "object-like," independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds-a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time-and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages of the

  7. Comparison of potential method in analytic hierarchy process for multi-attribute of catering service companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Siti Salwana; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-08-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method used in structuring, measuring and synthesizing criteria, in particular ranking of multiple criteria in decision making problems. On the other hand, Potential Method is a ranking procedure in which utilizes preference graph ς (V, A). Two nodes are adjacent if they are compared in a pairwise comparison whereby the assigned arc is oriented towards the more preferred node. In this paper Potential Method is used to solve problem on a catering service selection. The comparison of result by using Potential method is made with Extent Analysis. The Potential Method is found to produce the same rank as Extent Analysis in AHP.

  8. Encoding, metacognitive, auto attributional processes and memory in mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baldi, P L

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the capability to retain sets of names after a training programme administered to 38 (20 men, 18 women) mentally retarded adolescents aged 14-19 years (mean IQ = 57) who underwent training for 31 weeks. A single-case research design was used because the subjects varied in age, IQ, and pathological origin of retardation. Data confirm the results of a 1994 study and demonstrate the utility of systematic, diversified training in improving information-processing strategies on the one hand, and raising meta-mnemonic and autoattributional awareness on the other.

  9. Cooper Screening of Information Processing (C-SIP). Administrator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This document is designed to assist individuals administering the Cooper Screening of Information Processing (C-SIP), which is intended as a diagnostic teaching tool that allows teachers or others to determine, in a conversational setting, whether a person manifests any common characteristics of learning problems. After a brief introduction, a…

  10. Handbook of Data Processing Administration, Operations, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Shirley R.

    This book provides a professional and comprehensive approach to solving the problems inherent in computer software development, operations, and maintenance. The information is structured and written so that people with varying experience in data processing can benefit from it. It is intended for executives whose activities interrelate with data…

  11. Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Training on Clinical Psychology Trainee Stress, Therapist Skills and Attributes, and ACT Processes.

    PubMed

    Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing uptake of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) by mental health practitioners, few studies have investigated the effects of ACT training on trainees. Clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) are susceptible to high stress such that their training represents a teachable moment for personal application of the therapy skills they learn for clinical practice. This study investigates the effects of ACT training on stress, therapist skills and attributes, and the personal acquisition of ACT strategies in CPTs. Thirty-two CPTs completed questionnaires before and after university-based ACT training that consisted of 12 2-h weekly workshops. Pairwise t-tests showed that CPTs reported improvements from before to after training on measures of counselling self-efficacy, client-therapist alliance, self-kindness, acceptance, defusion, mindfulness and values, and a marginally significant improvement on somatic symptoms, despite a trend towards increased work-related stress. As predicted, each of the ACT process variables was related to one or more of the therapist stress, skill and attribute variables, such that greater levels of mindfulness, values and acceptance, and less thought suppression were related to better trainee outcomes. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for CPTs related to receiving ACT training that interweaves instruction in competencies acquisition with self-care. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for clinical psychology trainees related to receiving ACT training that integrates training in competencies acquisition with self-care. The ACT training offers a framework for integrating the acquisition of clinical competencies and self-care skills and positive therapist attributes in trainees. Findings support a strong positive union between the ACT processes and better trainee personal and professional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John

  12. Process-oriented administration of the picture arrangement test does not affect the quantitative outcome.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, M D; Smith, J A

    1998-01-01

    Extracting the maximum amount of qualitative information of cognitive functioning from tests is one of the major goals, of the process approach to neuropsychological assessment. This study examined whether there is a difference in score in the Picture Arrangement (PA) test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for participants who completed the standardized versus a process-oriented administration (i.e., asking the person to "tell the story" immediately following each item). Eighteen traumatic brain injury patients and 20 control participants (i. e., non-brain-injury volunteers) were randomly assigned to the standardized administration or the process-oriented administration of the PA test. A 2 x 2 (Group x Type of Administration) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant interaction effect or main effect for type of administration. Therefore, the process of maximizing the elicitation of qualitative information does not appear to affect the quantitative outcome of the PA test.

  13. Attributed Translations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. M.; Rosenkrantz, D. J.; Stearns, R. E.

    Attributed translation grammars are introduced as a means of specifying a translation from strings of input symbols to strings of output symbols. Each of these symbols can have a finite set of attributes, each of which can take on a value from a possibly infinite set. Attributed translation grammars can be applied in depth to practical compiling problems.

  14. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  15. The Use of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL THE USE OF SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SECTION 8(a) CONTRACTORS IN AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING ACQUISITIONS...CENTER Department of Defensei^KS™"* WASHINGTON D.C. 20301-7100 053,35 The following acronyms are used in this report. ADP Automatic Data Processing...Of The Inspector General: The Use Of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions Corporate

  16. Applying the Principles of the Assessment Center in the Selection Process of Senior Administrators in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ron

    While senior administrators in all educational institutions have highly complex positions and are very expensive to train and replace, human resources departments have always been challenged to find competent administrators that fit well into the organization. Four main variables in the selection process are: the organization's self-awareness of…

  17. Calloway & Pletcher, Inc. A Word Processing Administrative Support Secretary Position Simulation. Employer's Manual. [and] Forms Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savannah Area Vocational-Technical School, GA.

    This word processing administrative support secretary position simulation has been developed for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. Its purpose is to give the student an opportunity to become familiar with the tasks and duties that may be performed by an administrative support secretary. This employer manual…

  18. Calloway & Pletcher, Inc. A Word Processing Administrative Support Secretary Position Simulation. Employer's Manual. [and] Forms Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savannah Area Vocational-Technical School, GA.

    This word processing administrative support secretary position simulation has been developed for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. Its purpose is to give the student an opportunity to become familiar with the tasks and duties that may be performed by an administrative support secretary. This employer manual…

  19. Constructing a New Taxonomy of Change: Michigan Administrators' Perspectives on Current Change Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Kinnucan-Welsch, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perspectives of administrators in Michigan school districts engaged in change processes. Responses from 83 administrators suggest a framing mechanism, or taxonomy, that represents the current state of change efforts in the state. First-wave, or state-mandated, change is driving most reform in Michigan at present. (SLD)

  20. Effects of the preventive and corrective adjustments in economical designs for online process control for attributes with misclassification errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Ho, Linda Lee

    2010-01-01

    The procedure for online process control by attributes consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items. It is decided on the basis of the inspection result whether the process is in-control (the conforming fraction is stable) or out-of-control (the conforming fraction is decreased, for example). Most articles about online process control have cited the stoppage of the production process for an adjustment when the inspected item is non-conforming (then the production is restarted in-control, here denominated as corrective adjustment). Moreover, the articles related to this subject do not present semi-economical designs (which may yield high quantities of non-conforming items), as they do not include a policy of preventive adjustments (in such case no item is inspected), which can be more economical, mainly if the inspected item can be misclassified. In this article, the possibility of preventive or corrective adjustments in the process is decided at every m produced item. If a preventive adjustment is decided upon, then no item is inspected. On the contrary, the m-th item is inspected; if it conforms, the production goes on, otherwise, an adjustment takes place and the process restarts in-control. This approach is economically feasible for some practical situations and the parameters of the proposed procedure are determined minimizing an average cost function subject to some statistical restrictions (for example, to assure a minimal level-fixed in advance-of conforming items in the production process). Numerical examples illustrate the proposal.

  1. The art of improvisation: the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Littike, Denilda; Sodré, Francis

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital (HUF). It includes research with a qualitative approach conducted through interviews with twelve administrators. The work process, the work tools and the human activity per se are understood to be under scrutiny. Work is acknowledged as a category that analyzes the management methods used by professional health workers. The HUFs are responsible for two social policies, namely education and health. The aim of the administrators' work is an organizational issue, and the administration tools used are bureaucratic and out-of-date for the current political context of hospital management. The most significant feature of this hospital administration is improvisation, which reduces the potential of the administrators in such a way that, instead of introducing innovative changes into their work process, they prefer to leave their jobs. Improvisation is caused by the production of sequential obstacles in management decision-making at this teaching hospital. In short, the transfer of administration at the HUF, from direct government administration by the University to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), was analyzed on the grounds that this would establish a "new" management model.

  2. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    PubMed

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  3. Real-time determination of critical quality attributes using near-infrared spectroscopy: a contribution for Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcel; González, Josep M; Alcalà, Manel

    2012-08-15

    Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is playing a central role in current regulations on pharmaceutical production processes. Proper understanding of all operations and variables connecting the raw materials to end products is one of the keys to ensuring quality of the products and continuous improvement in their production. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used to develop faster and non-invasive quantitative methods for real-time predicting critical quality attributes (CQA) of pharmaceutical granulates (API content, pH, moisture, flowability, angle of repose and particle size). NIR spectra have been acquired from the bin blender after granulation process in a non-classified area without the need of sample withdrawal. The methodology used for data acquisition, calibration modelling and method application in this context is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented by most pharmaceutical laboratories. For this purpose, Partial Least-Squares (PLS) algorithm was used to calculate multivariate calibration models, that provided acceptable Root Mean Square Error of Predictions (RMSEP) values (RMSEP(API)=1.0 mg/g; RMSEP(pH)=0.1; RMSEP(Moisture)=0.1%; RMSEP(Flowability)=0.6 g/s; RMSEP(Angle of repose)=1.7° and RMSEP(Particle size)=2.5%) that allowed the application for routine analyses of production batches. The proposed method affords quality assessment of end products and the determination of important parameters with a view to understanding production processes used by the pharmaceutical industry. As shown here, the NIRS technique is a highly suitable tool for Process Analytical Technologies.

  4. Safeguarding the process of drug administration with an emphasis on electronic support tools

    PubMed Central

    Seidling, Hanna M; Lampert, Anette; Lohmann, Kristina; Schiele, Julia T; Send, Alexander J F; Witticke, Diana; Haefeli, Walter E

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this work is to understand the process of drug administration and identify points in the workflow that resulted in interventions by clinical information systems in order to improve patient safety. Methods To identify a generic way to structure the drug administration process we performed peer-group discussions and supplemented these discussions with a literature search for studies reporting errors in drug administration and strategies for their prevention. Results We concluded that the drug administration process might consist of up to 11 sub-steps, which can be grouped into the four sub-processes of preparation, personalization, application and follow-up. Errors in drug handling and administration are diverse and frequent and in many cases not caused by the patient him/herself, but by family members or nurses. Accordingly, different prevention strategies have been set in place with relatively few approaches involving e-health technology. Conclusions A generic structuring of the administration process and particular error-prone sub-steps may facilitate the allocation of prevention strategies and help to identify research gaps. PMID:24007450

  5. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  6. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    PubMed

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    /s. Differences in oral processing were not correlated with any macronutrients specifically. Expected satiation was positively related to protein and the sensory attributes chewiness and saltiness. Foods that consumed in smaller bites, were chewed more and for longer and expected to impart a higher satiation. This study shows a large and reliable variation in oral exposure time, number of required chews before swallowing and expected satiation across a wide variety of foods. We conclude that bite size and oral-sensory exposure time could contribute to higher satiation within a meal for equal calories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gluon attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, T.

    1981-10-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good.

  8. The Accreditation Process in Mississippi from the Perspective of Community College Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Stacey Smith

    2010-01-01

    Research studies show that potential barriers may hinder a successful accreditation process. This research study examined perceptions of Mississippi's community/junior college administrators relating to the accreditation process in general, their communication with the regional accrediting agency, and their institution's facilitation of the…

  9. The Documentation Process: The Administrator's Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Donna; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Traditional teacher documentation procedures pit the administrator against the teacher. The process is adversarial and erodes the quality of the intervention. Teachers who are unsuccessful in meeting campus/school district expectations can be successfully acclimatized to the campus culture through a documentation process that combines affective…

  10. The Accreditation Process in Mississippi from the Perspective of Community College Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Stacey Smith

    2010-01-01

    Research studies show that potential barriers may hinder a successful accreditation process. This research study examined perceptions of Mississippi's community/junior college administrators relating to the accreditation process in general, their communication with the regional accrediting agency, and their institution's facilitation of the…

  11. Beyond the Process of Teaming: Administrative Support, Classroom Practices, and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan B.; Peterson, Gary W.

    This paper examines the relationships among administrative support, interdisciplinary team functioning, classroom practices, and student outcomes. It is premised on the need to move beyond examinations of the team process and explore the effects of processes on student learning. The report is based on a systemic research project that studied 60…

  12. Preferences of processing companies for attributes of Swiss milk: a conjoint analysis in a business-to-business market.

    PubMed

    Boesch, I

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine key attributes of milk that drive a processor's supply decisions and possibilities for differentiation based on these product attributes. Feedback-driven exploration was applied to derive product attributes relevant to the buying decision. Conjoint analysis with hierarchical Bayes estimation methods was used to determine the relative importance of attributes. Results show that the technical aspects of milk, as well as the price and country of origin, dominate the buying decision. Potential for differentiation was found for environmental and societal attributes as well as freedom from genetically modified products. Product and supplier criteria also provide the potential to segment the market if the price premium is held within limits.

  13. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics Technology Evaluation and Selection Using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making Process and Non-Deterministic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Cecile M.; Hill, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Geiselhart, Karl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has investigated revolutionary Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) technologies and configurations for a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) type aircraft as part of its research for NASA s Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project. Within the context of the long-term NASA goal of reducing the perceived aircraft noise level by a factor of 4 relative to 1997 state of the art, major configuration changes in the propulsion airframe integration system were explored with noise as a primary design consideration. An initial down-select and assessment of candidate PAA technologies for the BWB was performed using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) process consisting of organized brainstorming and decision-making tools. The assessments focused on what effect the PAA technologies had on both the overall noise level of the BWB and what effect they had on other major design considerations such as weight, performance and cost. A probabilistic systems analysis of the PAA configurations that presented the best noise reductions with the least negative impact on the system was then performed. Detailed results from the MADM study and the probabilistic systems analysis will be published in the near future.

  14. Corticosterone Administration to Promote Fear Memory Forgetting Process in an Animal Model of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    pharmacologic intervention to promote the memory forgetting process requires that it be introduced in an appropriate time window and in an optimized...TITLE: Corticosterone Administration to Promote Fear Memory Forgetting Process in an Animal Model of PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:He Li, M.D...NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0064 Forgetting Process in an Animal Model of PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) He Li, M.D

  15. Effect of A-TIG Welding Process on the Weld Attributes of Type 304LN and 316LN Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, M.

    2017-03-01

    The specific activated flux has been developed for enhancing the penetration performance of TIG welding process for autogenous welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels through systematic study. Initially single-component fluxes were used to study their effect on depth of penetration and tensile properties. Then multi-component activated flux was developed which was found to produce a significant increase in penetration of 10-12 mm in single-pass TIG welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels. The significant improvement in penetration achieved using the activated flux developed in the present work has been attributed to the constriction of the arc and as well as reversal of Marangoni flow in the molten weld pool. The use of activated flux has been found to overcome the variable weld penetration observed in 316LN stainless steel with <50 ppm of sulfur. There was no degradation in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the A-TIG welds compared to that of the welds produced by conventional TIG welding on the contrary the transverse strength properties of the 304LN and 316LN stainless steel welds produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base metals. Improvement in toughness values were observed in 316LN stainless steel produced by A-TIG welding due to refinement in the weld microstructure in the region close to the weld center. Thus, activated flux developed in the present work has greater potential for use during the TIG welding of structural components made of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels.

  16. Effect of A-TIG Welding Process on the Weld Attributes of Type 304LN and 316LN Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, M.

    2017-02-01

    The specific activated flux has been developed for enhancing the penetration performance of TIG welding process for autogenous welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels through systematic study. Initially single-component fluxes were used to study their effect on depth of penetration and tensile properties. Then multi-component activated flux was developed which was found to produce a significant increase in penetration of 10-12 mm in single-pass TIG welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels. The significant improvement in penetration achieved using the activated flux developed in the present work has been attributed to the constriction of the arc and as well as reversal of Marangoni flow in the molten weld pool. The use of activated flux has been found to overcome the variable weld penetration observed in 316LN stainless steel with <50 ppm of sulfur. There was no degradation in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the A-TIG welds compared to that of the welds produced by conventional TIG welding on the contrary the transverse strength properties of the 304LN and 316LN stainless steel welds produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base metals. Improvement in toughness values were observed in 316LN stainless steel produced by A-TIG welding due to refinement in the weld microstructure in the region close to the weld center. Thus, activated flux developed in the present work has greater potential for use during the TIG welding of structural components made of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels.

  17. Application of In-line Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement to Brivanib Alaninate Wet Granulation Process to Enable Scale-up and Attribute-based Monitoring and Control Strategies.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Stevens, Timothy; Macias, Kevin; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Gao, Zhihui; Badawy, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-line real-time process monitoring using a process analytical technology for granule size distribution can enable quality-by-design development of a drug product and enable attribute-based monitoring and control strategies. In this study, an in-line laser focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) C35 probe was used to investigate the effect of formulation and process parameters on the granule growth profile over time during the high shear wet granulation of a high drug load formulation of brivanib alaninate. The probe quantitatively captured changes in the granule chord length distribution (CLD) with the progress of granulation and delineated the impact of water concentration used during granulation. The results correlated well with offline particle size distribution measured by nested sieve analyses. An end point indication algorithm was developed that was able to successfully track the process time needed to reach the target CLD. Testing of the brivanib alaninate granulation through 25-fold scale-up of the batch process indicated that the FBRM CLD profile can provide a scale-independent granule attribute-based process fingerprint. These studies highlight the ability of FBRM to quantitate a granule attribute of interest during wet granulation that can be used as an attribute-based scale-up and process monitoring and control parameter.

  18. Implementing an Enterprise Information System to Reengineer and Streamline Administrative Processes in a Distance Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2009-01-01

    During the past three years, we have developed and implemented an enterprise information system (EIS) to reengineer and facilitate the administrative process for preparing and teaching distance learning courses in a midsized-to-large university (with 23,000 students). The outcome of the implementation has been a streamlined and efficient process…

  19. Guidelines for the Administration and Accreditation of the Standardized Craft Training Process. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Construction Education and Research, Gainesville, FL.

    This document contains guidelines for the administration and accreditation of the standardized craft training process that was developed by the National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) in partnership with various sectors of the construction and maintenance industries. The following are among the topics discussed in Chapters…

  20. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  1. Creating an Administrative Structure to Support Faculty Governance: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Vivian M.

    1989-01-01

    Principles of organizational change are examined as they apply to academic units in general, and the way in which one well-established academic department in nursing changed its administrative structure is described. The process used faculty participation in decision-making. (Author/MSE)

  2. Educational Data Processing Directors' Perceptions of Technological Training Priorities for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, W. C.; Spuck, D. W.

    Results of a survey of school district data processing directors' attitudes toward the content of technology curriculum in educational administrator training programs are presented in this paper. Questionnaires sent to 152 large school districts yielded 78 usable returns, a 51 percent response rate. Respondents rated the following topics as most…

  3. Experimental Studies of the Influence of Organizational Effectiveness and Succession on the Administrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusky, Oscar

    The present study, part of a larger investigation, attempted to examine the separate and joint effects of succession and effectiveness on administrative processes in laboratory-created 3-level formal organizations. Specifically, the investigation concerned itself with the impact of these two elements on communication relationships between managers…

  4. Connecting the Library's Patron Database to Campus Administrative Software: Simplifying the Library's Accounts Receivable Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Dahlquist, Janet; Tankersley, Jan; Emrich, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the processes that occurred when the Library, Controller's Office, and Information Technology Department agreed to create an interface between the Library's Innovative Interfaces patron database and campus administrative software, Banner, using file transfer protocol, in an effort to streamline the Library's accounts…

  5. The Teacher Screening and Selection Process: A Decision Making Model for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses a conceptual model for understanding, describing, and explaining personnel selection processes and activities. Four theoretical strands--decision theory, impression formation, inference theory, and rating theory--are woven together as the basis for a proposed model to be used by administrators who are selecting teachers. (CB)

  6. Administrators and Principals and the Implementation Process of the Leader in Me Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Naarah

    2016-01-01

    Principals and administrators are crucial to the success of an initiative such as the Leader in Me. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to identify the strategies, practices, and processes utilized by elementary school principals to initiate and implement initiatives or programs such as the Leader in Me. Eight elementary school…

  7. 76 FR 12279 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Application Processing, Issuance, and Denial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by clarifying the Application Processing, Issuance, and Denial..., and Denial Part 750 of the EAR provides for the revision, suspension or revocation of licenses whenever it is known that the EAR have been violated or that a violation is about to occur. In this...

  8. Connecting the Library's Patron Database to Campus Administrative Software: Simplifying the Library's Accounts Receivable Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Dahlquist, Janet; Tankersley, Jan; Emrich, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the processes that occurred when the Library, Controller's Office, and Information Technology Department agreed to create an interface between the Library's Innovative Interfaces patron database and campus administrative software, Banner, using file transfer protocol, in an effort to streamline the Library's accounts…

  9. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Agency's belief that a formal administrative appeals process is not appropriate in this context has... contrast, Forest Service decisions involving a written authorization concern the holder's, operator's, or... another part. A permit holder who claims an interest relating to a decision regarding another holder's...

  10. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schroeder, Carl M; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Hartnett, Emma; Naugle, Alecia; Harman, Jane; Bennett, Patricia; Cieslak, Paul; Scallan, Elaine; Rose, Bonnie; Holt, Kristin G; Kissler, Bonnie; Mbandi, Evelyne; Roodsari, Reza; Angulo, Frederick J; Cole, Dana

    2011-04-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (<1%) across 109 Salmonella serotypes found in food commodities at point of processing. While interpretation of the attribution estimates is constrained by data inputs, the adapted model shows promise and may serve as a basis for a common approach to attribution of human salmonellosis and food safety decision-making in more than one country. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  11. Quality Attributes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    FMEA ) that uses a more formal criticality analysis. fault — the adjudged or hypothesized cause of an error. fault avoidance — see fault prevention ...Communities Have Addressed Quality Attributes There are different schools /opinions/traditions concerning the properties of critical systems and the best...Analysis Performance analysis methods seem to have grown out of two separate schools of thought, queueing theory and scheduling theory. Queueing theory

  12. Effect of excessive saccharose administration on metabolic processes in the liver of rabbits with restricted mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rylnikov, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The administration of saccharose (3 g per 1 kg for 2 months) intensified changes encountered in hypokinesia. There was a more marked increase in the content of cholesterol, pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins, phospholipids, and glycosaminoglycans in the blood. At the same time, the administration of saccharose improved the course of metabolic processes in the liver of immobilized rabbits, restored to normal levels the reduced glycogen level, the rate of glycolysis and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their discharge in the cystic bile.

  13. Development of chicken meat caruncles on the basis of sensory attributes: process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Sahoo, Jhari; Talwar, Gopika; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K

    2015-03-01

    A three factor Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize spent hen meat level (600-700 g kg(-1)), oil level (25-75 g kg(-1)) and cooking time (3-5 min) for development of ready-to-eat chicken meat caruncles on the basis of sensory attributes - colour/appearance, flavour, crispiness, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability. The analysis of variance showed that meat and cooking time interaction showed significant effect (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on colour/appearance and crispiness of chicken meat caruncles. Quadratically meat level showed significantly higher effect (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on crispiness; and oil level and cooking time (p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on after-taste of chicken meat caruncles. Linearly meat level showed significantly higher (p < 0.05; p < 0.1) effect on colour/appearance, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability of chicken meat caruncles. The optimized conditions were: 650 g kg(-1) meat level, 50 g kg(-1) oil level and cooking time as 4 min. Among all sensory parameters, crispiness is one of the most important sensory parameters for meat snacks, which was highest (6.68) at the optimized conditions in the final product. The other sensory parameters ranged from 6.33 to 6.68 on an eight point scale. Box-Behnken design of RSM performed well in the optimization process of development of chicken meat caruncles to produce product with very high degree of acceptability. 650 g kg(-1) of spent hen meat level produced the most acceptable product in terms of sensory profile.

  14. Acute citalopram administration may disrupt contextual information processing in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S; Glahn, D C; Argyropoulos, S V; Frangou, S

    2010-03-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. It has been suggested however that SSRI administration may affect response inhibition and contextual processing but the available evidence is minimal. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the effect size of acute (within 24 hours) and chronic (28 days) administration of the highly selective SSRI, Citalopram, compared to placebo on response inhibition (measured by the Degraded Symbol Continuous Performance Task [DS-CPT]) and contextual processing (assessed using a Delayed Non-Matching to Sample Task [DNMS]) in healthy males (n=20) using a randomised double-blind design. We found no effect of Citalopram on participants' performance on the DS-CPT which suggests either that SSRIs do not affect response inhibition or that this measure is insensitive to any potential disinhibition effects of SSRI. Acute, but not chronic, Citalopram administration was associated with a measurable decrement in the DNMS suggestive of a negative impact of SSRI administration on contextual processing at least during treatment initiation. These findings provide a useful guide for designing future studies in clinical populations. 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure Through Theory Elaboration: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…

  16. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  17. Using mobile devices to improve the safety of medication administration processes.

    PubMed

    Navas, H; Graffi Moltrasio, L; Ares, F; Strumia, G; Dourado, E; Alvarez, M

    2015-01-01

    Within preventable medical errors, those related to medications are frequent in every stage of the prescribing cycle. Nursing is responsible for maintaining each patients safety and care quality. Moreover, nurses are the last people who can detect an error in medication before its administration. Medication administration is one of the riskiest tasks in nursing. The use of information and communication technologies is related to a decrease in these errors. Including mobile devices related to 2D code reading of patients and medication will decrease the possibility of error when preparing and administering medication by nurses. A cross-platform software (iOS and Android) was developed to ensure the five Rights of the medication administration process (patient, medication, dose, route and schedule). Deployment in November showed 39% use.

  18. Use of failure mode, effect and criticality analysis to improve safety in the medication administration process.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Carmen Guadalupe; Martin-Barbero, Maria Luisa; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Durango-Limarquez, Maria Isabel; Hernandez-Sampelayo, Paloma; Sanjurjo-Saez, Maria

    2015-08-01

    To critically evaluate the causes of preventable adverse drug events during the nurse medication administration process in inpatient units with computerized prescription order entry and profiled automated dispensing cabinets in order to prioritize interventions that need to be implemented and to evaluate the impact of specific interventions on the criticality index. This is a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) study. A multidisciplinary consensus committee composed of pharmacists, nurses and doctors evaluated the process of administering medications in a hospital setting in Spain. By analysing the process, all failure modes were identified and criticality was determined by rating severity, frequency and likelihood of failure detection on a scale of 1 to 10, using adapted versions of already published scales. Safety strategies were identified and prioritized. Through consensus, the committee identified eight processes and 40 failure modes, of which 20 were classified as high risk. The sum of the criticality indices was 5254. For the potential high-risk failure modes, 21 different potential causes were found resulting in 24 recommendations. Thirteen recommendations were prioritized and developed over a 24-month period, reducing total criticality from 5254 to 3572 (a 32.0% reduction). The recommendations with a greater impact on criticality were the development of an electronic medication administration record (-582) and the standardization of intravenous drug compounding in the unit (-168). Other improvements, such as barcode medication administration technology (-1033), were scheduled for a longer period of time because of lower feasibility. FMECA is a useful approach that can improve the medication administration process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Biomarker qualification pilot process at the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Goodsaid, Federico; Frueh, Felix

    2007-03-23

    New biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming powerful tools in drug development. Their application can be accelerated if a consensus can be reached about their qualification for regulatory applications. This consensus requires a review structure within the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that can evaluate qualification data for these biomarkers and determine whether these biomarkers can be qualified. A pilot process and corresponding Biomarker Qualification Review Team have been developed to test how the FDA can work on biomarker qualification.

  20. Patient advocacy: one agency's positive results with the administrative law judge process.

    PubMed

    Kimaid, Y; Votava, K M; Myers, E

    1994-01-01

    The Visiting Nurse Service of Rochester and Monroe County, Inc., is a progressive, certified home health agency that is committed to providing a broad range of specialized high-quality care services. To assist in meeting this goal, the Visiting Nurse Service has developed a Network of Support to maximize the patients' access to Medicare home care benefits. This commitment as a patient advocate follows through to the process of dealing with Medicare denials up to the level of the Administrative Law Judge.

  1. An administrative marketing strategy: a different perspective on the nursing process.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, B A

    1988-11-01

    Through the methods of the nursing process, nurse administrators were able to sell nursing to nurses. The use of marketing to link the business world with nursing stimulated professional dedication, skill, and responsibility. The program helped to encourage habits of flexibility, ensure continuous learning, acceptance of change, and the opportunity for individuals and institutions to grow and advance. It promoted autonomous, collaborative, and consultative practice. Nurturing the nurse had become a reality.

  2. Multimedia applications in nursing curriculum: the process of producing streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    PubMed

    Sowan, Azizeh K

    2014-07-01

    Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucocorticoid Administration Improves Aberrant Fear-Processing Networks in Spider Phobia.

    PubMed

    Nakataki, Masahito; Soravia, Leila M; Schwab, Simon; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Heinrichs, Markus; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Federspiel, Andrea; Morishima, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in patients with anxiety disorders. Previous studies have shown that fear-related activation of the amygdala can be mediated through the visual cortical pathway, which includes the fusiform gyrus, or through other pathways. However, it is not clear which of the pathways that activate the amygdala is responsible for the pathophysiology of a specific phobia and how glucocorticoid treatment alleviates fear processing in these neural networks. We recorded the brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spider phobia, who received either 20 mg of cortisol or a placebo while viewing pictures of spiders. We also tested healthy participants who did not receive any medication during the same task. We performed dynamic causal modelling (DCM), a connectivity analysis, to examine the effects of cortisol on the networks involved in processing fear and to examine if there was an association between these networks and the symptoms of the phobia. Cortisol administration suppressed the phobic stimuli-related amygdala activity to levels comparable to the healthy participants and reduced subjective phobic fear. The DCM analysis revealed that cortisol administration suppressed the aberrant inputs into the amygdala that did not originate from the visual cortical pathway, but rather from a fast subcortical pathway mediated by the pulvinar nucleus, and suppressed the interactions between the amygdala and fusiform gyrus. This network changes were distinguishable from healthy participants and considered the residual changes under cortisol administration. We also found that the strengths of the aberrant inputs into the amygdala were positively correlated with the severity of spider phobia. This study demonstrates that patients with spider phobia show an aberrant functional connectivity of the amygdala when they are exposed to phobia-related stimuli and that cortisol administration can alleviate this fear-specific neural

  4. The "Depressive" Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle T; Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the "depressive attributional style." Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism's view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the "depressive" attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all.

  5. The freezing step in lyophilization: physico-chemical fundamentals, freezing methods and consequences on process performance and quality attributes of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Julia Christina; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Lyophilization is a common, but cost-intensive, drying process to achieve protein formulations with long-term stability. In the past, typical process optimization has focused on the drying steps and the freezing step was rather ignored. However, the freezing step is an equally important step in lyophilization, as it impacts both process performance and product quality. While simple in concept, the freezing step is presumably the most complex step in lyophilization. Therefore, in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of the processes that occur during freezing, the physico-chemical fundamentals of freezing are first summarized. The available techniques that can be used to manipulate or directly control the freezing process in lyophilization are also reviewed. In addition, the consequences of the freezing step on quality attributes, such as sample morphology, physical state of the product, residual moisture content, reconstitution time, and performance of the primary and secondary drying phase, are discussed. A special focus is given to the impact of the freezing process on protein stability. This review aims to provide the reader with an awareness of not only the importance but also the complexity of the freezing step in lyophilization and its impact on quality attributes of biopharmaceuticals and process performance. With a deeper understanding of freezing and the possibility to directly control or at least manipulate the freezing behavior, more efficient lyophilization cycles can be developed, and the quality and stability of lyophilized biopharmaceuticals can be improved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality-by-design III: application of near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor roller compaction in-process and product quality attributes of immediate release tablets.

    PubMed

    Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat M; Claycamp, Gregg; Polli, James E; Martinez, Marilyn; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with multivariate chemometric models to monitor granule and tablet quality attributes in the formulation development and manufacturing of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) immediate release tablets. Critical roller compaction process parameters, compression force (CFt), and formulation variables identified from our earlier studies were evaluated in more detail. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) models were developed during the development stage and used as a control tool to predict the quality of granules and tablets. Validated models were used to monitor and control batches manufactured at different sites to assess their robustness to change. The results showed that roll pressure (RP) and CFt played a critical role in the quality of the granules and the finished product within the range tested. Replacing binder source did not statistically influence the quality attributes of the granules and tablets. However, lubricant type has significantly impacted the granule size. Blend uniformity, crushing force, disintegration time during the manufacturing was predicted using validated PLS regression models with acceptable standard error of prediction (SEP) values, whereas the models resulted in higher SEP for batches obtained from different manufacturing site. From this study, we were able to identify critical factors which could impact the quality attributes of the CIP IR tablets. In summary, we demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics as a powerful tool to monitor critical quality attributes (CQA) identified during formulation development.

  7. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content.

  8. Performance-based quality specifications: the relationship between process critical control parameters, critical quality attributes, and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Cogdill, Robert P; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2011-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products is currently evaluated through a series of tests that do not explicitly communicate the clinical consequences of product variability. A previously published risk simulation platform was used to generate quantitative estimates of inefficacy and toxicity for 288 uniform lots of extended-release theophylline tablets displaying various levels of content uniformity and dissolution variability. These data were used to evaluate the univariate specifications utilized in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <711> and <905>. Simulation revealed that the specifications are too lenient for content uniformity, both in terms of inefficacy and toxicity, whereas the criteria for dissolution testing are too strict for inefficacy and inaccurate for toxicity. The USP tests also failed to pinpoint the clinical interaction between content uniformity and dissolution variability. Additionally, the simulation platform was used to define the underlying relationship between product quality attributes and clinical performance. Here, content uniformity and Weibull dissolution time constants were used as inputs to the design spaces, which were conditioned on quantitative estimates of inefficacy and toxicity. This methodology enhances the information content of the design space by omitting quality surrogates (e.g., dissolution, moisture content) that are utilized in current design space practices.

  9. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  10. Different dosing regimens of repeated ketamine administration have opposite effects on novelty processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Anett; Sivanandan, Brindan; Tolledo, Edgor Cole; Woldegabriel, Jacob; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-08-01

    Repeated exposure to sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine in rats has been shown to induce cognitive deficits, as well as behavioral changes akin to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, giving much face validity to the use of ketamine administration as a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. This study sought to further characterize the behavioral effects of two different ketamine pre-treatment regimens, focusing primarily on the effects of repeated ketamine administration on novelty processing, a capacity that is disrupted in schizophrenia. Rats received 5 or 14 intra-peritoneal injections of 30mg/kg ketamine or saline across 5 or 7days, respectively. They were then tested in an associative mismatch detection task to examine their ability to detect novel configurations of familiar audio-visual sequences. Furthermore, rats underwent a sequential novel object and novel object location exploration task. Subsequently, rats were also tested on the delayed matching to place T-maze task, sucrose preference task and locomotor tests involving administering a challenge dose of amphetamine (AMPH). The high-dose ketamine pre-treatment regimen elicited impairments in mismatch detection and working memory. In contrast, the low-dose ketamine pre-treatment regimen improved performance of novelty detection. In addition, low-dose ketamine pre-treated rats showed locomotor sensitization following an AMPH challenge, while the high-dose ketamine pre-treated rats showed an attenuated locomotor response to AMPH, compared to control rats. These findings demonstrate that different regimens of repeated ketamine administration induce alterations in novelty processing in opposite directions, and that differential neural adaptations occurring in the mesolimbic dopamine system may underlie these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive mechanisms of diazepam administration: a healthy volunteer model of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Pringle, A; Warren, M; Gottwald, J; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2016-06-01

    Benzodiazepine drugs continue to be prescribed relatively frequently for anxiety disorders, especially where other treatments have failed or when rapid alleviation of anxiety is imperative. The neuropsychological mechanism by which these drugs act to relieve symptoms, however, remains underspecified. Cognitive accounts of anxiety disorders emphasise hypervigilance for threat in the maintenance of the disorders. The current study examined the effects of 7- or 8-day administration of diazepam in healthy participants (n = 36) on a well-validated battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including measures of vigilance for threat and physiological responses to threat. Compared to placebo, diazepam reduced vigilant-avoidant patterns of emotional attention (p < 0.01) and reduced general startle responses (p < .05). Diazepam administration had limited effects on emotional processing, enhancing the response to positive vs negative words in the emotional categorisation task (p < .05), modulating emotional memory in terms of false accuracy (p < .05) and slowing the recognition of all facial expressions of emotion (p = .01). These results have implications for our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of benzodiazepine treatment. The data reported here suggests that diazepam modulates emotional attention, an effect which may be involved in its therapeutic actions in anxiety.

  12. Environmental considerations in Swedish Forestry: A study of the administrative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerberg, Katarina

    1985-01-01

    This report briefly describes the implementation process involving nature conservation considerations in forestry, according to a recently passed law in Sweden. Described are the forestry and political systems in Sweden regarding nature conservation in forestry, as well as of the administrative process involved when a forest is going to be clearcut. Conclusions are based upon the conditions and outcome of two clearcutting cases outlined in this report, and are focused on the interactions and control functions among various agencies and levels of government. The policy on the consideration of nature in forestry is, to a large extent, formed at a very low level in the bureaucracy and is subject to negotiation from case to case. Checkups between different agencies as a form of concurrent government become important means of implementing environmental considerations in forestry, having the split roles and interests of the authorities in mind.

  13. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  15. Facilitating Administrative Decision-Making and Organizational Change via a Decision-Making Process as Social Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur S.; And Others

    This paper develops a theory-practice view of administrative and organizational decision making. Its goals are to improve administrative decision-making processes, facilitate organizational change through faculty involvement, and increase the potential for success in education reform efforts. The first sections discuss the nature of theory and…

  16. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  17. Effects of Escitalopram Administration on Face Processing in Intermittent Explosive Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Henk; Lee, Royce; Keedy, Sarah; Phan, K Luan; Coccaro, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiological underpinnings of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) are traditionally linked to deficiencies in the serotonergic system. In this study, we investigated the effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on brain activation during face processing. We expected that escitalopram would reduce amygdala activity in IED and in addition, we explored the effect in other social–emotional-related brain regions. A total of 17 subjects with current IED and 14 healthy controls participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced fMRI face processing study. The analysis focused on the faces compared to a fixation baseline contrast, and a factorial model with Group as between-subject and Drug as within-subject factor was tested. Group × Drug interaction effects were found in the amygdala (small volume corrected) and the left temporal parietal junction (TPJ; whole-brain corrected). Escitalopram increased amygdala activation in controls, but surprisingly not in IED. However, the TPJ showed increased activity in IED on escitalopram compared with placebo. The TPJ is associated with social–cognitive processes, such as perspective taking and empathy. The TPJ findings suggest that SSRI administration may reduce aggressive tendencies towards other people by enhancing these social–cognitive processes. Future research should further elucidate the long-term effects of SSRIs on various social–emotional tasks in IED. PMID:26105140

  18. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  19. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration improves action selection processes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish a task goal, real-life environments require us to develop different action control strategies in order to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli. When engaging in complex scenarios, it is essential to prioritise and cascade different actions. Recent studies have pointed to an important role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the specific causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by administering 800 mg of synthetic GABA or 800 mg oral of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo). In a double-blind, randomised, between-group design, 30 healthy adults performed a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that the administration of GABA, compared to placebo, increased action selection when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, and when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. These findings, involving the systemic administration of synthetic GABA, provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. PMID:26227783

  20. Enhancing the retention of phytochemicals and organoleptic attributes in muscadine grape juice through a combined approach between dense phase CO2 processing and copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Insfran, David; Balaban, Murat O; Talcott, Stephen T

    2006-09-06

    This study evaluated the phytochemical stability and organoleptic attributes of an ascorbic acid-fortified muscadine grape juice as affected by dense phase CO2 processing (DP-CO2) and addition of thyme polyphenolic cofactors (Thymus vulgaris; 1:100 anthocyanin-to-cofactor molar ratio) in efforts to prevent phytochemical losses that occur during storage of anthocyanin-containing beverages, especially in the presence of carbonyl compounds commonly produced during thermal processing and storage. DP-CO2 processing insignificantly altered initial juice phytochemical and antioxidant content, whereas thermal pasteurization reduced anthocyanins (263 mg/L), ascorbic acid (42 mg/L), soluble phenolics (266 mg/L), and antioxidant capacity (6 microM Trolox equivalents/mL). Similar trends were observed during storage, and data showed that increasing the CO2 level from 8 to 16% during DP-CO2 was instrumental in reducing juice phytochemical and antioxidant degradation. Copigmentation was instrumental in retaining higher anthocyanin, soluble phenolics, and antioxidant capacity during storage without affecting initial juice aroma and flavor characteristics. Moreover, on the basis of overall likeability scores, panelists preferred copigmented juices, which had increased juice color intensity and masked the detrimental color fading that occurred during storage, especially when compared to thermally pasteurized juices. DP-CO2 and copigmentation were effective strategies to reduce phytochemical and color deterioration that occurred in muscadine juice during storage without affecting their organoleptic attributes.

  1. Profiling and sorting Mangifera Indica morphology for quality attributes and grade standards using integrated image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Fausto, Janette C.; Janabajab, John Michael M.; Malicdem, Daryl James L.; Marcelo, Reginald N.; Santos, Jan Jeffrey Z.

    2017-06-01

    Mango production is highly vital in the Philippines. It is very essential in the food industry as it is being used in markets and restaurants daily. The quality of mangoes can affect the income of a mango farmer, thus incorrect time of harvesting will result to loss of quality mangoes and income. Scientific farming is much needed nowadays together with new gadgets because wastage of mangoes increase annually due to uncouth quality. This research paper focuses on profiling and sorting of Mangifera Indica using image processing techniques and pattern recognition. The image of a mango is captured on a weekly basis from its early stage. In this study, the researchers monitor the growth and color transition of a mango for profiling purposes. Actual dimensions of the mango are determined through image conversion and determination of pixel and RGB values covered through MATLAB. A program is developed to determine the range of the maximum size of a standard ripe mango. Hue, light, saturation (HSL) correction is used in the filtering process to assure the exactness of RGB values of a mango subject. By pattern recognition technique, the program can determine if a mango is standard and ready to be exported.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure processing affects the phenolic profile, preserves sensory attributes and ensures microbial quality of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) juice.

    PubMed

    Inada, Kim Op; Torres, Alexandre G; Perrone, Daniel; Monteiro, Mariana

    2017-06-05

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) is a Brazilian fruit rich in phenolic compounds and much appreciated for its sweet and slightly tangy taste. However, the high perishability of this fruit impairs its economic exploitation, creating an opportunity for the development of innovative products, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processed juices. We investigated the effect of HHP (200, 350 and 500 MPa for 5, 7.5 and 10 min) on phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and microbiological quality of jabuticaba juice and the effect of the most effective HHP condition on its sensory acceptance. Pressurization increased total phenolic compound content (up to 38%) and antioxidant activity by FRAP assay (up to 46%), probably by increasing phenolic compound extractability due to tissue damage. Pressurization progressively decreased microbial counts, and colony growth was undetectable at pressures of 350 MPa or 500 MPa. With the exception of aroma, which was 10% lower in pressurized juice at 350 MPa for 7.5 min in relation to unprocessed juice, HHP did not affect sensory acceptance scores. Our results show that HHP was effective in ensuring microbiological quality, increasing bioactive potential and maintaining overall acceptance of jabuticaba juice, reinforcing the potential application of this processing technology in bioactive-rich foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    PubMed

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  4. Food and Drug Administration process validation activities to support 99Mo production at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.J.; Bourcier, S.C.; Talley, D.G.

    1997-07-01

    Prior to 1989 {sup 99}Mo was produced in the US by a single supplier, Cintichem Inc., Tuxedo, NY. Because of problems associated with operating its facility, in 1989 Cintichem elected to decommission the facility rather than incur the costs for repair. The demise of the {sup 99}Mo capability at Cintichem left the US totally reliant upon a single foreign source, Nordion International, located in Ottawa Canada. In 1992 the DOE purchased the Cintichem {sup 99}Mo Production Process and Drug Master File (DMF). In 1994 the DOE funded Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to produce {sup 99}Mo. Although Cintichem produced {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc generators for many years, there was no requirement for process validation which is now required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition to the validation requirement, the requirements for current Good manufacturing Practices were codified into law. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process validation being conducted at SNL for the qualification of SNL as a supplier of {sup 99}Mo to US pharmaceutical companies.

  5. Studies of protein oxidation as a product quality attribute on a scale-down model for cell culture process development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nacole D; Kondragunta, Bhargavi; Uplekar, Shaunak; Vallejos, Jose; Moreira, Antonio; Rao, Govind

    2015-01-01

    Of importance to the biological properties of proteins produced in cell culture systems are the complex post-translational modifications that are affected by variations in process conditions. Protein oxidation, oxidative modification to intracellular proteins that involves cleavage of the polypeptide chain, and modifications of the amino acid side chains can be affected by such process variations. Dissolved oxygen is a parameter of increasing interest since studies have shown that despite the necessity of oxygen for respiration, there may also be some detrimental effects of oxygen to the cell. Production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species can cause damage to proteins as a result of oxidation of the cell and cellular components. Variation, or changes to cell culture products, can affect function, clearance rate, immunogenicity, and specific activity, which translates into clinical implications. The effect of increasing dissolved oxygen on protein oxidation in immunoglobulin G3-producing mouse hybridoma cells was studied using 50 mL high-throughput mini-bioreactors that employ non-invasive optical sensor technology for monitoring and closed feedback control of pH and dissolved oxygen. Relative protein carbonyl concentration of proteins produced under varying levels of dissolved oxygen was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and used as an indicator of oxidative damage. A trend of increasing protein carbonyl content in response to increasing dissolved oxygen levels under controlled conditions was observed. Protein oxidation, oxidative modification to intracellular proteins that involves cleavage of the polypeptide chain, and modifications of the amino acid side chains can be affected by variations in dissolved oxygen levels in cell culture systems. Studies have shown that despite the necessity of oxygen for respiration, there may be detrimental effects of oxygen to the cell. Production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species can cause damage to

  6. Effects of anandamide administration on components of reward processing during free choice.

    PubMed

    Zona, Luke C; Fry, Benjamin R; LaLonde, Jacob A; Cromwell, Howard C

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1 receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios. The research presented here tested the hypothesis that anandamide would augment motivation and reward processing via appetitive and consummatory measures during an operant, foraging task. A three-box design was used in order to provide the animals with a free choice, exploratory foraging environment. Discrimination, preference, and incentive contrast were analyzed as discrete measures of decision-making in the three-box paradigm. Anandamide administration (1mg/kg) was found to significantly increase motivation for the optimal foraging outcome and alter basic processing of reward information involved in discrimination and relative valuation. The positive effects of anandamide on eating behavior and motivation have implications toward possible treatment modalities for patient populations presenting with disorders of motivation. These findings suggest the need for continued investigation of the endocannabinoid system as a central component of motivated behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    PubMed

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. 29 CFR 4041.42 - Administration of plan during termination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... benefits attributable to employer contributions, other than death benefits, in any form other than as an... rate or rates prescribed under § 4022.81(c)(3) of this chapter. (e) Effect of subsequent...

  9. 29 CFR 4041.42 - Administration of plan during termination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benefits attributable to employer contributions, other than death benefits, in any form other than as an... rate or rates prescribed under § 4022.81(c)(3) of this chapter. (e) Effect of subsequent...

  10. Exploring a geophysical process-based attribution technique for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer depth using aerosol lidar and near-surface meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sandip; Haeffelin, Martial; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2013-08-01

    A new objective method for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth using routine vertically pointing aerosol lidar measurements is presented. A geophysical process-based analysis is introduced to improve the attribution of the lidar-derived aerosol gradients, which is so far the most challenging part in any gradient-based technique. Using micrometeorological measurements of Obukhov length scale, both early morning and evening transition periods are determined which help separate the turbulence regimes during well-mixed convective ABL and nocturnal/stable ABL. The lidar-derived aerosol backscatter signal intensity is used to determine the hourly-averaged vertical profiles of variance of the fluctuations of particle backscatter signal providing the location of maximum turbulent mixing within the ABL; thus, obtained mean ABL depth guides the attribution by searching for the appropriate minimum of the gradients. An empirical classification of the ABL stratification patterns into three different types is proposed by determining the changes in the near-surface stability scenarios. First results using the lidar observations obtained between March and July in 2011 at SIRTA atmospheric observatory near Palaiseau (Paris suburb) in France demonstrate that the new attribution technique makes the lidar estimations of ABL depth more physically reliable under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. While comparing lidar and nearby radiosonde measurements of ABL depths, an excellent concordance was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.968 and 0.927 for daytime and nighttime measurements, respectively. A brief climatology of the characteristics of the ABL depth, its diurnal cycle, a detailed discussion of the morning and evening transitions are presented.

  11. Attributing analysis on the model bias in surface temperature in the climate system model FGOALS-s2 through a process-based decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ren, Rongcai; Cai, Ming; Rao, Jian

    2015-04-01

    This study uses the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) to analyze the surface temperature biases in the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model, spectral version 2 (FGOALS-s2) in January and July. The process-based decomposition of the surface temperature biases, defined as the difference between the model and ERA-Interim during 1979-2005, enables us to attribute the model surface temperature biases to individual radiative processes including ozone, water vapor, cloud, and surface albedo; and non-radiative processes including surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and dynamic processes at the surface and in the atmosphere. The results show that significant model surface temperature biases are almost globally present, are generally larger over land than over oceans, and are relatively larger in summer than in winter. Relative to the model biases in non-radiative processes, which tend to dominate the surface temperature biases in most parts of the world, biases in radiative processes are much smaller, except in the sub-polar Antarctic region where the cold biases from the much overestimated surface albedo are compensated for by the warm biases from nonradiative processes. The larger biases in non-radiative processes mainly lie in surface heat fluxes and in surface dynamics, which are twice as large in the Southern Hemisphere as in the Northern Hemisphere and always tend to compensate for each other. In particular, the upward/downward heat fluxes are systematically underestimated/overestimated in most parts of the world, and are mainly compensated for by surface dynamic processes including the increased heat storage in deep oceans across the globe.

  12. Cairo source attribution study

    SciTech Connect

    Gertler, A.W.; Lowenthal, D.H.; Howes, J.E. Jr.; Sagebiel, J.C.; Labib, M.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Samaha, N.

    1999-07-01

    The greater Cairo area suffers from high ambient concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, including particulates (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). In order to develop and implement a strategy to reduce the health impact of air pollution in Cairo, USAID awarded to Chemonics International, Inc., the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). One component of the CAIP is to conduct source attribution studies. The purpose of these studies is to identify the relative contributions of various sources to ambient pollutant levels in the greater Cairo area. Of special interest to the CAIP is the contribution from mobile sources and lead processing industries to the observed ambient air quality levels. This paper describes the approach to attribute the observed levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} to sources in the greater Cairo area. Particular emphasis is placed on quantifying the contributions from lead sources in the area and developing a baseline against which changes in industrial and mobile source emissions attributable to CAIP programs can be evaluated. Also included are methods to apportion the sources of hydrocarbons in the region and additional analytical methods to reduce the uncertainty in the source attributions.

  13. Due Process and Teacher/Administrator Responsibilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunniff, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addressed the need for continued awareness on the part of Educational Administrators as to their legal responsibilities as instructional leaders and custodians of the students under their supervision. Research revealed that school administrators unknowingly are violating the law everyday. Courts are keeping a close eye on school…

  14. The Process of Establishing a New Master of Research Administration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jo Ann; Torres, Laurianne

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the second largest university in the nation was awarded a grant from NCURA to initiate a new fully-online graduate program in research administration. The Master of Research Administration (MRA) was approved by the institution's Board of Trustees in March 2011 and the first classes will begin August 2011. Currently the research literature…

  15. Paediatric nurses' adherence to the double-checking process during medication administration in a children's hospital: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Alsulami, Zayed; Choonara, Imti; Conroy, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate how closely double-checking policies are followed by nurses in paediatric areas and also to identify the types, frequency and rates of medication administration errors that occur despite the double-checking process. Double-checking by two nurses is an intervention used in many UK hospitals to prevent or reduce medication administration errors. There is, however, insufficient evidence to either support or refute the practice of double-checking in terms of medication error risk reduction. Prospective observational study. This was a prospective observational study of paediatric nurses' adherence to the double-checking process for medication administration from April-July 2012. Drug dose administration events (n = 2000) were observed. Independent drug dose calculation, rate of administering intravenous bolus drugs and labelling of flush syringes were the steps with lowest adherence rates. Drug dose calculation was only double-checked independently in 591 (30%) drug administrations. There was a statistically significant difference in nurses' adherence rate to the double-checking steps between weekdays and weekends in nine of the 15 evaluated steps. Medication administration errors (n = 191) or deviations from policy were observed, at a rate of 9·6% of drug administrations. These included 64 drug doses, which were left for parents to administer without nurse observation. There was variation between paediatric nurses' adherence to double-checking steps during medication administration. The most frequent type of administration errors or deviation from policy involved the medicine being given to the parents to administer to the child when the nurse was not present. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  17. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrative Section at Fort Stewart or Hunter Army Airfield and can either be delivered or post marked within... driving under the influence (DUI) based in part on a blood alcohol content (BAC) test which has...

  18. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrative Section at Fort Stewart or Hunter Army Airfield and can either be delivered or post marked within... driving under the influence (DUI) based in part on a blood alcohol content (BAC) test which has...

  19. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrative Section at Fort Stewart or Hunter Army Airfield and can either be delivered or post marked within... driving under the influence (DUI) based in part on a blood alcohol content (BAC) test which has...

  20. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrative Section at Fort Stewart or Hunter Army Airfield and can either be delivered or post marked within... driving under the influence (DUI) based in part on a blood alcohol content (BAC) test which has...

  1. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Section at Fort Stewart or Hunter Army Airfield and can either be delivered or post marked within... driving under the influence (DUI) based in part on a blood alcohol content (BAC) test which has...

  2. Design of experiments-based monitoring of critical quality attributes for the spray-drying process of insulin by NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-09-01

    Moisture content and aerodynamic particle size are critical quality attributes for spray-dried protein formulations. In this study, spray-dried insulin powders intended for pulmonary delivery were produced applying design of experiments methodology. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in combination with preprocessing and multivariate analysis in the form of partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) were used to correlate the spectral data with moisture content and aerodynamic particle size measured by a time of flight principle. PLS models predicting the moisture content were based on the chemical information of the water molecules in the NIR spectrum. Models yielded prediction errors (RMSEP) between 0.39% and 0.48% with thermal gravimetric analysis used as reference method. The PLS models predicting the aerodynamic particle size were based on baseline offset in the NIR spectra and yielded prediction errors between 0.27 and 0.48 μm. The morphology of the spray-dried particles had a significant impact on the predictive ability of the models. Good predictive models could be obtained for spherical particles with a calibration error (RMSECV) of 0.22 μm, whereas wrinkled particles resulted in much less robust models with a Q (2) of 0.69. Based on the results in this study, NIR is a suitable tool for process analysis of the spray-drying process and for control of moisture content and particle size, in particular for smooth and spherical particles.

  3. Optimization of some processing parameters and quality attributes of fried snacks from blends of wheat flour and brewers' spent cassava flour.

    PubMed

    Omidiran, Adebukola T; Sobukola, Olajide P; Sanni, Ajoke; Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Obadina, Olusegun A; Sanni, Lateef O; Tomlins, Keith; Wolfgang, Tosch

    2016-01-01

    The effect of some processing parameters (frying temperature [140-160°C], frying time [2-4 min], level of brewers' spent cassava flour (BSCF) [20-40%], and thickness [2-4 mm]) on some quality attributes of wheat-BSCF fried snack was investigated. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the effect of process parameters on product quality. Sensory evaluation of the optimized sample to determine its level of acceptability was carried out as well as the comparison with fried snack from 100% wheat flour. Increasing temperature had significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on the texture. Based on the desirability (0.771) concept, a frying temperature of 140 °C, frying time of 4 min, 32% level of BSCF, and 2 mm thickness was obtained as the optimized conditions. Sensory analyses showed that the optimized sample was preferred in terms of texture and its oiliness to fried snack prepared from 100% wheat flour, but, the aroma, taste and appearance of the wheat snack were preferred.

  4. Commentary on AAPS Workshop: dissolution testing for the twenty-first century: linking critical quality attributes and critical process parameters to clinically relevant dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheng; D'Souza, Susan S; Parker, Jan E; Mirza, Tahseen

    2007-09-01

    This is a summary report of the workshop entitled "Dissolution Testing for the Twenty-first Century: Linking Critical Quality Attributes and Critical Process Parameters to Clinically Relevant Dissolution," organized by the In Vitro Release and Dissolution Testing Focus Group of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Participants from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia in the US, Europe, and Japan attended this workshop to review, discuss, and explore the role of traditional dissolution testing in the new arena of Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT). Other areas of discussion were the use of the dissolution test to evaluate drug release from novel dosage forms, challenges in dissolution testing and specification setting, and dissolution apparatus calibration using performance verification tablets versus mechanical calibration. The workshop identified areas where further research and collaboration are needed to advance knowledge and understanding of the science of dissolution. Views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the FDA and USP.

  5. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill Acquisition model,…

  6. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill Acquisition model,…

  7. An Ethnographic Case Study of the Administrative Organization, Processes, and Behavior in a Model Comprehensive High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimman, Richard N.

    Using ethnographic case study methodology (involving open-ended interviews, participant observation, and document analysis) theories of administrative organization, processes, and behavior were tested during a three-week observation of a model comprehensive (experimental) high school. Although the study is limited in its general application, it…

  8. Ensuring Program Uniformity at the Hearing and Appeals Council Levels of the Administrative Review Process. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-16

    We are revising our rules so that more of our procedures at the hearing and Appeals Council levels of our administrative review process are consistent nationwide. We anticipate that these nationally consistent procedures will enable us to administer our disability programs more efficiently and better serve the public.

  9. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  10. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation process for an electronic bar code medication administration information system in an acute care unit.

    PubMed

    Bargren, Michelle; Lu, Der-Fa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present an evaluation process and recommendations for addressing the gaps found with the implementation of a new bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology in a busy acute care hospital unit. The case study analyzes workflow procedures associated with administration of medications in an inpatient labor and delivery care unit before and one year after implementation of BCMA technology. The comparison reveals a twofold increase in workflow procedures for nursing staff because of the new technology. System gaps are identified from a nursing user's perspective, and recommendations are offered to close those gaps.

  12. Enhancing Administrators' Capacity for Leadership by Improving Evaluation Practices and Processes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Staci M.

    2009-01-01

    This problem-based learning project focused on the need to enhance the capacity for leadership of building administrators in order to effectively evaluate teachers. Federal and state guidelines mandate highly qualified teachers in every classroom, and teacher evaluation is an important component to ensure qualified teachers are in the classroom.…

  13. School Leadership: Development of an Evaluation Instrument and Process for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    This action research study was conducted for purposes of changing the formal evaluation for school administrators to one constructed around the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) 2008 standards, inclusive of multifaceted components aimed to increase the active participation of both the evaluator and the individual being…

  14. School Leadership: Development of an Evaluation Instrument and Process for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    This action research study was conducted for purposes of changing the formal evaluation for school administrators to one constructed around the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) 2008 standards, inclusive of multifaceted components aimed to increase the active participation of both the evaluator and the individual being…

  15. The Impact of Word Processing on Office Administration in the Medical and Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Naomi Dornfeld

    The effect of word processing equipment on the future medical secretarial science curriculum was studied. A literature search focused on word processing and the medical and allied health professions, word processing and business education, and futuring of and changes in the secretarial science curriculum. Questionnaires to identify various aspects…

  16. Follow-up process evaluation of Bonneville Power Administration's energy savings plan program

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.G.; Peters, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Energy $avings Plan (E$P) program has been operated by the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) since late fall 1987. The program is designed to build capability in the acquisition of conservation resources in the non-aluminum industrial sector in the Pacific Northwest. According to the Northwest Power Planning Council, the non-aluminum industrial sector accounts for about 23% of the total regional electricity consumption. Five non-aluminum industries consume 85% of this total. Three major industries --- chemical producers, pulp and paper plants, and lumber mills --- account for around 68% of non-aluminum industrial consumption (i.e., 16% of the total regional electricity consumption). 1 ref.

  17. The “Depressive” Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michelle T.; Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the “depressive attributional style.” Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism’s view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the “depressive” attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all. PMID:28701970

  18. Implementing a bar-code assisted medication administration system: effects on the dispensing process and user perceptions.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Cheng, K; Lai, K; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the effects of a bar-code assisted medication administration system used without the support of computerised prescribing (stand-alone BCMA), on the dispensing process and its users. The stand-alone BCMA system was implemented in one ward of a teaching hospital. The number of dispensing steps, dispensing time and potential dispensing errors (PDEs) were directly observed one month before and eight months after the intervention. Attitudes of pharmacy and nursing staff were assessed using a questionnaire (Likert scale) and interviews. Among 1291 and 471 drug items observed before and after the introduction of the technology respectively, the number of dispensing steps increased from five to eight and time (standard deviation) to dispense one drug item by one staff personnel increased from 0.8 (0.09) to 1.5 (0.12) min. Among 2828 and 471 drug items observed before and after the intervention respectively, the number of PDEs increased significantly (P<0.001). 'Procedural errors' and 'missing drug items' were the frequently observed PDEs in the after study. 'Perceived usefulness' and 'job relevance' of the technology decreased significantly (P=0.003 and P=0.004 respectively) among users who participated in the before (N=16) and after (N=16) questionnaires surveys. Among the interviewees, pharmacy staff felt that the system offered less benefit to the dispensing process (9/16). Nursing staff perceived the system as useful in improving the accuracy of drug administration (7/10). Implementing a stand-alone BCMA system may slow down and complicate the dispensing process. Nursing staff believe the stand-alone BCMA system could improve the drug administration process but pharmacy staff believes the technology would be more helpful if supported by computerised prescribing. However, periodical assessments are needed to identify weaknesses in the process after implementation, and all users should be educated on the benefits of using this technology. Copyright © 2014

  19. Processes and Outcomes of the Veterans Health Administration Safe Patient Handling Program: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Toyinbo, Peter; Patel, Nitin; Powell-Cope, Gail; Hahm, Bridget; Elnitsky, Christine; Besterman-Dahan, Karen; Campbell, Robert; Sutton, Bryce

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care workers, such as nurses, nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants, who manually move patients, are consistently listed in the top professions for musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These MSIs are typically caused by high-risk patient caregiving activities. In 2008, a safe patient handling (SPH) program was implemented in all 153 Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs) throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Objective The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program. The primary objectives of the research were to determine the effectiveness of the SPH program in improving direct care nursing outcomes and to provide a context for understanding variations in program results across sites over time. Secondary objectives of the present research were to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in reducing direct and indirect costs associated with patient handling, to explore the potential mediating and moderating mechanisms, and to identify unintended consequences of implementing the program. Methods This 3-year longitudinal study used mixed methods of data collection at 6- to 9-month intervals. The analyses will include data from surveys, administrative databases, individual and focus group interviews, and nonparticipant observations. For this study, a 3-tiered measurement plan was used. For Tier 1, the unit of analysis was the facility, the data source was the facility coordinator or administrative data, and all 153 VAMCs participated. For Tier 2, frontline caregivers and program peer leaders at 17 facilities each completed different surveys. For Tier 3, six facilities completed qualitative site visits, which included individual interviews, focus groups, and nonparticipant observations. Multiple regression models were proposed to test the effects of SPH components on nursing outcomes related to

  20. Assessment of Intelligent Processing Equipment in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized here is an assessment of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) within NASA. An attempt is made to determine the state of IPE development and research in specific areas where NASA might contribute to the national capability. Mechanisms to transfer NASA technology to the U.S. private sector in this critical area are discussed. It was concluded that intelligent processing equipment is finding extensive use in the manufacture of space hardware, especially in the propulsion components of the shuttle. The major benefits are found in improved process consistency, which lowers cost as it reduces rework. Advanced feedback controls are under development and being implemented gradually into shuttle manufacturing. Implementation is much more extensive in new programs, such as in the advanced solid rocket motor and the Space Station Freedom.

  1. Assessment of intelligent processing equipment in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. S.

    1992-04-01

    Summarized here is an assessment of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) within NASA. An attempt is made to determine the state of IPE development and research in specific areas where NASA might contribute to the national capability. Mechanisms to transfer NASA technology to the U.S. private sector in this critical area are discussed. It was concluded that intelligent processing equipment is finding extensive use in the manufacture of space hardware, especially in the propulsion components of the shuttle. The major benefits are found in improved process consistency, which lowers cost as it reduces rework. Advanced feedback controls are under development and being implemented gradually into shuttle manufacturing. Implementation is much more extensive in new programs, such as in the advanced solid rocket motor and the Space Station Freedom.

  2. Using administrative data to assess the process of treatment services for adolescents with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Doreen A; Doucette, Ann

    2004-12-01

    In 1998, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened an expert panel comprised of a multidisciplinary group of providers, researchers, managed care representatives and public policymakers known as the Washington Circle (WC) to improve the quality and effectiveness of treatment for substance use disorders through the use of performance measures. The initial goals of the panel included developing, testing and implementing performance measures in health plans and encouraging collaboration with key stakeholders to ensure widespread adoption of the measures. The WC focused its initial efforts on the prevention, recognition and treatment of adults with alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorders who receive health care through private and/or public sector health plans (McCorry et al. 2000). In 2002, CSAT, aware of the need to improve access and quality of treatment for adolescents, supported the Washington Circle in the establishment of a special subcommittee focused specifically on adolescent treatment issues. This article introduces the work of the Washington Circle and describes the Adolescent Subcommittee's progress in developing performance measures for the treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders.

  3. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    PubMed

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  4. Association of Evidence-Based Care Processes With Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia at Veterans Health Administration Hospitals, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Goto, Michihiko; Schweizer, Marin L; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Perencevich, Eli N; Livorsi, Daniel J; Diekema, Daniel J; Richardson, Kelly K; Beck, Brice F; Alexander, Bruce; Ohl, Michael E

    2017-09-05

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is common and frequently associated with poor outcomes. Evidence indicates that specific care processes are associated with improved outcomes for patients with S aureus bacteremia, including appropriate antibiotic prescribing, use of echocardiography to identify endocarditis, and consultation with infectious diseases (ID) specialists. Whether use of these care processes has increased in routine care for S aureus bacteremia or whether use of these processes has led to large-scale improvements in survival is unknown. To examine the association of evidence-based care processes in routine care for S aureus bacteremia with mortality. This retrospective observational cohort study examined all patients admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) acute care hospitals who had a first episode of S aureus bacteremia from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Use of appropriate antibiotic therapy, echocardiography, and ID consultation. Thirty-day all-cause mortality. Analyses included 36 868 patients in 124 hospitals (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [12.5] years; 36 036 [97.7%] male), including 19 325 (52.4%) with infection due to methicillin-resistant S aureus and 17 543 (47.6%) with infection due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus. Risk-adjusted mortality decreased from 23.5% (95% CI, 23.3%-23.8%) in 2003 to 18.2% (95% CI, 17.9%-18.5%) in 2014. The number of patients who received appropriate antibiotic 10 therapy Rates of appropriate antibiotic prescribing increased from 2467 (66.4%) to 1991 (78.9%), echocardiography from 1256 (33.8%) to 1837 (72.8%), and ID consultation from 1390 (37.4%) to 1717 (68.0%). After adjustment for patient characteristics, cohort year, and other care processes, receipt of care processes was associated with lower mortality, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68-0.79) for appropriate antibiotics, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.68-0.78) for echocardiography, and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.56-0.65) for ID consultation. Mortality

  5. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  6. The Challenges of Creating a Benchmarking Process for Administrative and Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri M.

    2007-01-01

    In the current climate of emphasis on outcomes assessment, colleges and universities are working diligently to create assessment processes for student learning outcomes, competence in general education, student satisfaction with services, and electronic tracking media to document evidence of competence in graduates. Benchmarking has become a…

  7. The Teacher Screening and Selection Process: A Decision Making Model for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    This paper presents and discusses a conceptual model for understanding, describing, and explaining personnel selection processes and activities. Four theoretical strands--decision theory, impression formation, inference theory, and rating theory--are briefly discussed and woven together as the basis for the proposed model. The model is then used…

  8. Are School Administrators' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion Influenced by the Change Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goley, Barry Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between the change process for inclusive teaching practices and the' attitudes of educators toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the general educational setting. This research study was based upon the theoretical construct of Rogers' (2003) "Diffusion of…

  9. Transfer from high-shear batch to continuous twin screw wet granulation: a case study in understanding the relationship between process parameters and product quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Beer, Paul; Wilson, David; Huang, Zhenyu; De Matas, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    A twin screw to high-shear batch granulation technology switch was evaluated for a pharmaceutical development project. Differences in granule (particle size distribution and porosity) and tablet (dissolution) quality attributes were analysed for both continuous and batch technologies. Liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, screw configuration and screw speed parameters on the twin screw granulator were varied, with output granule and tablet properties characterised. L/S and screw configuration were found to influence the granule particle size distribution, porosity and tablet dissolution. At 0.15 L/S, the particle size distribution showed a significant proportion of ungranulated material in the output granule. As the L/S is increased, the level of ungranulated material decreased. An increase in L/S and the number of kneader elements caused a decrease in granule porosity and tablet dissolution. Twin screw and batch granulation technologies generated different granule properties (size and shape) at a constant L/S. A lower L/S in twin screw granulation was needed to achieve similar tablet attributes. It is concluded that differences in liquid addition and therefore initial granule nucleation caused differences in granule properties, which impacted tablet attributes and manufacturability.

  10. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.

  11. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  12. How We Attribute (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Challenges in attribution science are discussed. At its simplest, attribution is about saying that one thing results from something else. Compelled by innate desire for clarity and urgency to know what to expect in the future, it is common to draw prompt conclusions about causes for climate events. Such immediacy sometimes leads to simplistic attribution statements, for instance claiming that one thing would not have happened were it not for another thing. Invariably true for any chaotic system, it begs the critical attribution question of how much of the magnitude can be ascribed to a particular factor, and how its likelihood of occurrence was affected. How these and related questions are addressed is what can distinguish scientific methods of attribution from mere testimonials. The essence of attribution science is positing cause-effect relationships, deriving predictions as logical consequences, and performing experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original conjecture was correct. One particular experimental method used for event attribution, focused on the role of human-induced climate change, is discussed. This involves conducting model experiments to derive climate statistics for a counterfactual Earth system devoid of the cumulative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols, and comparing those to statistics in model experiments subjected to actual climate forcings. The challenge raised hereby concerns understanding the character of overall change in boundary forcings, especially sea surface temperatures over the world oceans, as a consequence of external radiative forcing. The implications that existing gaps in understanding ocean changes pose for event attribution are addressed. A second topic to be discussed is the relationship between how we attribute and how we define climate events. The current challenge addressed hereby is how society is to be best informed by the results of attribution science.

  13. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses’ Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study)

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Monsey; Barber, Nicholas; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2015-01-01

    Context Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety. Aim To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions. Methods We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures. Findings Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1) system configurations and features, (2) behaviour types among nurses, and (3) patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses’ inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into ‘task focused’, and ‘patient-interaction focused’. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1) an active resource of information, (2) a passive information resource, and/or (3) a

  14. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  15. Metadata-driven comparative analysis tool for sequences (meta-CATS): an automated process for identifying significant sequence variations that correlate with virus attributes.

    PubMed

    Pickett, B E; Liu, M; Sadat, E L; Squires, R B; Noronha, J M; He, S; Jen, W; Zaremba, S; Gu, Z; Zhou, L; Larsen, C N; Bosch, I; Gehrke, L; McGee, M; Klem, E B; Scheuermann, R H

    2013-12-01

    The Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; www.viprbrc.org) and Influenza Research Database (IRD; www.fludb.org) have developed a metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS), which performs statistical comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data to identify correlations between sequence variations and virus attributes (metadata). Meta-CATS guides users through: selecting a set of nucleotide or protein sequences; dividing them into multiple groups based on any associated metadata attribute (e.g. isolation location, host species); performing a statistical test at each aligned position; and identifying all residues that significantly differ between the groups. As proofs of concept, we have used meta-CATS to identify sequence biomarkers associated with dengue viruses isolated from different hemispheres, and to identify variations in the NS1 protein that are unique to each of the 4 dengue serotypes. Meta-CATS is made freely available to virology researchers to identify genotype-phenotype correlations for development of improved vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

  16. Metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS): an Automated Process for Identifying Significant Sequence Variations that Correlate with Virus Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, BE; Liu, M; Sadat, EL; Squires, RB; Noronha, JM; He, S; Jen, W; Zaremba, S; Gu, Z; Zhou, L; Larsen, CN; Bosch, I; Gehrke, L; McGee, M; Klem, EB; Scheuermann, RH

    2016-01-01

    The Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; www.viprbrc.org) and Influenza Research Database (IRD; www.fludb.org) have developed a metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS), which performs statistical comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data to identify correlations between sequence variations and virus attributes (metadata). Meta-CATS guides users through: selecting a set of nucleotide or protein sequences; dividing them into multiple groups based on any associated metadata attribute (e.g. isolation location, host species); performing a statistical test at each aligned position; and identifying all residues that significantly differ between the groups. As proofs of concept, we have used meta-CATS to identify sequence biomarkers associated with dengue viruses isolated from different hemispheres, and to identify variations in the NS1 protein that are unique to each of the 4 dengue serotypes. Meta-CATS is made freely available to virology researchers to identify genotype-phenotype correlations for development of improved vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. PMID:24210098

  17. Multifractal analysis of information processing in hippocampal neural ensembles during working memory under Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol administration.

    PubMed

    Fetterhoff, Dustin; Opris, Ioan; Simpson, Sean L; Deadwyler, Sam A; Hampson, Robert E; Kraft, Robert A

    2015-04-15

    Multifractal analysis quantifies the time-scale-invariant properties in data by describing the structure of variability over time. By applying this analysis to hippocampal interspike interval sequences recorded during performance of a working memory task, a measure of long-range temporal correlations and multifractal dynamics can reveal single neuron correlates of information processing. Wavelet leaders-based multifractal analysis (WLMA) was applied to hippocampal interspike intervals recorded during a working memory task. WLMA can be used to identify neurons likely to exhibit information processing relevant to operation of brain-computer interfaces and nonlinear neuronal models. Neurons involved in memory processing ("Functional Cell Types" or FCTs) showed a greater degree of multifractal firing properties than neurons without task-relevant firing characteristics. In addition, previously unidentified FCTs were revealed because multifractal analysis suggested further functional classification. The cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) partial agonist, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), selectively reduced multifractal dynamics in FCT neurons compared to non-FCT neurons. WLMA is an objective tool for quantifying the memory-correlated complexity represented by FCTs that reveals additional information compared to classification of FCTs using traditional z-scores to identify neuronal correlates of behavioral events. z-Score-based FCT classification provides limited information about the dynamical range of neuronal activity characterized by WLMA. Increased complexity, as measured with multifractal analysis, may be a marker of functional involvement in memory processing. The level of multifractal attributes can be used to differentially emphasize neural signals to improve computational models and algorithms underlying brain-computer interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multifractal analysis of information processing in hippocampal neural ensembles during working memory under Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration

    PubMed Central

    Fetterhoff, Dustin; Opris, Ioan; Simpson, Sean L.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Hampson, Robert E.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multifractal analysis quantifies the time-scale-invariant properties in data by describing the structure of variability over time. By applying this analysis to hippocampal interspike interval sequences recorded during performance of a working memory task, a measure of long-range temporal correlations and multifractal dynamics can reveal single neuron correlates of information processing. New method Wavelet leaders-based multifractal analysis (WLMA) was applied to hippocampal interspike intervals recorded during a working memory task. WLMA can be used to identify neurons likely to exhibit information processing relevant to operation of brain–computer interfaces and nonlinear neuronal models. Results Neurons involved in memory processing (“Functional Cell Types” or FCTs) showed a greater degree of multifractal firing properties than neurons without task-relevant firing characteristics. In addition, previously unidentified FCTs were revealed because multifractal analysis suggested further functional classification. The cannabinoid-type 1 receptor partial agonist, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), selectively reduced multifractal dynamics in FCT neurons compared to non-FCT neurons. Comparison with existing methods WLMA is an objective tool for quantifying the memory-correlated complexity represented by FCTs that reveals additional information compared to classification of FCTs using traditional z-scores to identify neuronal correlates of behavioral events. Conclusion z-Score-based FCT classification provides limited information about the dynamical range of neuronal activity characterized by WLMA. Increased complexity, as measured with multifractal analysis, may be a marker of functional involvement in memory processing. The level of multifractal attributes can be used to differentially emphasize neural signals to improve computational models and algorithms underlying brain–computer interfaces. PMID:25086297

  19. A Process Model of Attachment-Friend Linkages: Hostile Attribution Biases, Language Ability, and Mother-Child Affective Mutuality as Intervening Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wu, Xiaoying; Dyer, W. Justin

    2008-01-01

    This study identified mechanisms through which child-mother attachment security at 36 months was associated with mother- and teacher-reported friendship quality at third grade. Data from a subsample of 1071 children (536 boys) participating in the NICHD SECCYD were utilized. Separate structural equation models were tested for mother and teacher reports of peer functioning. For both models, the total indirect effect between attachment security and friendship quality was significant. Tests of specific indirect effects indicated that attachment security was associated with friendship quality via greater mother-child affective mutuality and better language ability at 54 months, and fewer hostile attributions (teacher model only) and greater peer competence at first grade. The findings highlight interpersonal and intrapersonal mechanisms of attachment-friend linkages. PMID:19037956

  20. Food and Drug Administration process for development and approval of drugs and radiopharmaceuticals: treatments in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yang-Min; Maher, V Ellen

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory advice and assessment play an important role in the successful development of new drugs and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of urologic malignancies. Cooperation between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the pharmaceutical industry has led to the approval of more than 20 new urologic oncology products in the last 2 decades. Despite these advances, more effective treatments need to be developed and approved for the treatment of urologic malignancies. This review provides general information about the FDA's role in the development of investigational new drugs, with an emphasis on the regulatory process and the requirements for marketing approval. In addition, this review summarizes the products for the treatment of urologic malignancies that were approved by the FDA in the last 30 years and the key issues concerning urologic oncology products that were discussed publicly at Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee meetings in the past 10 years.

  1. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  2. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  3. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    has a larger CPU run-time, resulting from the necessary matrix inversion. Barnes, Arthur E. "The calculation of instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth.", Geophysics, 57.11 (1992): 1520-1524. Fomel, Sergey. "Local seismic attributes.", Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33. Fomel, Sergey. "Shaping regularization in geophysical-estimation problems." , Geophysics, 72.2 (2007): R29-R36. Stockwell, Robert Glenn, Lalu Mansinha, and R. P. Lowe. "Localization of the complex spectrum: the S transform."Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 44.4 (1996): 998-1001. Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. "Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063. Cohen, Leon. "Time frequency analysis theory and applications."USA: Prentice Hall, (1995). Margrave, Gary F., Michael P. Lamoureux, and David C. Henley. "Gabor deconvolution: Estimating reflectivity by nonstationary deconvolution of seismic data." Geophysics, 76.3 (2011): W15-W30.

  4. Performance qualification of a new hypromellose capsule: part I. Comparative evaluation of physical, mechanical and processability quality attributes of Vcaps Plus, Quali-V and gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Sherry Ku, M; Li, Weiyi; Dulin, Wendy; Donahue, Fran; Cade, Dominique; Benameur, Hassan; Hutchison, Keith

    2010-02-15

    This Part I paper describes the qualification of a new high performance hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) capsule shell which contains no gelling agent and is dissolution friendly. The development history and the test results for a series of quality attributes including scanning electron microscopy, hygroscopicity, machineability, weight variation, powder leakage, mechanical strength, stability, cross-linking, animal and human pharmacokinetic results are reported. Comparisons to gelatin and HPMC capsule containing carrageenan showed the new HPMC capsule is superior in terms of mechanical strength, hygroscopicity and compatibility with a wide range of drugs. Specifically, the new HPMC capsule demonstrated improved weight variation, machineability and powder leakage than the HPMC capsule containing carrageenan. And the new capsule demonstrated a broader applicability than gelatin capsule for new drug development due to its inertness and compatibility for a wide range of excipients including those used for liquid fill formulations. In the second phase of qualification, disintegration and dissolution properties of the new HPMC were evaluated and reported in a Part II paper for 10 new clinical compounds with a variety of formulations optimized based on the biopharmaceutical classification system of solubility and permeability. Based on the superior performance, the new HPMC capsule is satisfactorily qualified and has since been used successfully for nearly 20 investigational new drug (IND) compounds.

  5. The Integration Process for Incorporating Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research Results into the National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    GALLEGOS, DAVID P.; CARR, DORTHE B.; HERRINGTON, PRESTON B.; HARRIS, JAMES M.; EDWARDS, C.L.; TAYLOR, STEVEN R.; WOGMAN, NED A.; ANDERSON, DALE N.; CASEY, LESLIE A.

    2002-09-01

    The process of developing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Knowledge Base (KB) must result in high-quality Information Products in order to support activities for monitoring nuclear explosions consistent with United States treaty and testing moratoria monitoring missions. The validation, verification, and management of the Information Products is critical to successful scientific integration, and hence, will enable high-quality deliveries to be made to the United States National Data Center (USNDC) at the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). As an Information Product passes through the steps necessary to become part of a delivery to AFTAC, domain experts (including technical KB Working Groups that comprise NNSA and DOE laboratory staff and the customer) will provide coordination and validation, where validation is the determination of relevance and scientific quality. Verification is the check for completeness and correctness, and will be performed by both the Knowledge Base Integrator and the Scientific Integrator with support from the Contributor providing two levels of testing to assure content integrity and performance. The Information Products and their contained data sets will be systematically tracked through the integration portion of their life cycle. The integration process, based on lessons learned during its initial implementations, is presented in this report.

  6. Attribution as Effect: An Outsider Principal's Succession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    1988-01-01

    Administrator succession can have varied effects on organizational performance. Although most studies have focused on performance outcomes, this paper reports the personal sense making of a successor to the principalship. The successor found that leadership validation and attribution influenced her transformation from an interloper to an effective…

  7. Caregiver Attributions as Moderators of Child Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    A model of caregiver-child interaction processes is proposed in which adult attributions are conceptualized as moderator variables. Adult attributions are seen as acting in either a sensitizing or a buffering role in determining the extent to which child behavior or characteristics influence adult affect and behavior. In earlier research (Bugental…

  8. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  9. An assessment of the impact of pulsed electric fields processing factors on oxidation, color, texture, and sensory attributes of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Cristina; Eslami, Sara; Brunton, Nigel P; Arimi, Joshua M; Noci, Francesco; Lyng, James G

    2015-05-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel nonthermal technology that has the potential to cause physical disruption to muscle tissue which in turn could alter the sensorial aspects of meat in both a positive (e.g., enhanced tenderization) and a negative way (e.g., off-flavor development). If there is a risk of off-flavor development it should be identified prior to embarking on an extensive investigation on PEF in meat tenderization and turkey meat was chosen for this purpose as it is particularly prone to oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various PEF treatments on the quality attributes of turkey breast meat. Turkey breast meat obtained 1 d postslaughter was treated in a batch PEF chamber with increasing electric field strength up to 3 kV/cm and analyzed for lipid oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) with up to 5 d storage at 4°C in aerobic conditions. In a separate experiment, turkey breast meat samples were exposed to PEF under various combinations of pulse number, frequency, and voltage. Following PEF treatments weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color were assessed by instrumental methods. A sensory analysis was also performed to determine consumer acceptability for color, texture, and odor of the samples. Lipid oxidation in all PEF-treated samples progressed at the same rate with storage as the untreated samples and was not found to be significantly different to the control. Under the conditions examined PEF treatments did not induce differences in instrumentally measured weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color (raw and cooked) either on fresh or frozen samples. However, the sensory evaluation suggested that panelists could detect slight differences between the PEF-treated samples and the controls in terms of texture and odor.

  10. Document recognition: an attribute grammar approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Mahesh; Green, Edward; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai

    1996-03-01

    A formulation of a hierarchical page decomposition technique for technical journal pages using attribute grammars is presented. In this approach, block-grammars are recursively applied until a page is classified into its most significant sub-blocks. While a grammar devised for each block depends on its logical function, it is possible to formulate a generic description for all block grammars using attribute grammars. This attribute grammar formulation forms a generic framework on which this syntactic approach is based, while the attributes themselves are derived from publication-specific knowledge. The attribute extraction process and the formulation itself are covered in this paper. We discuss an application of attribute grammars to a document analysis problem, the extraction of logical, relational information from the image of tables.

  11. Privacy Protection on Multiple Sensitive Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun

    In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.

  12. "Leader Attributes Inventory" Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…

  13. Attribution Studies: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogove, Linda

    1972-01-01

    Stylistic analysis or attribution study is a very different kind of indexing. Instead of indexing subjects, it measures such things as the frequencies of common words such as and" and the". These studies reveal a great deal about consistency, methodology, and the approaches used for documents in the humanities. (41 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  15. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal treatment on quality attributes and nutritional compounds of "Songold" plum purée.

    PubMed

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; García-Parra, Jesús; Contador, Rebeca; Tabla, Rafael; Ramírez, Rosario

    2012-08-01

    The application of hydrostatic high pressure on a "Songold" plum purée was assessed in comparison with heat pasteurization. To simulate industrial conditions, one-half of the total purée was manufactured with a pretreatment of thermal blanching (TB) and the other half without it (nonthermally blanched, NTB). Changes after thermal treatment and high-pressure processing (HPP: 400, 600 MPa) and after 20 d of refrigerated storage were evaluated. HPP maintained the microbial stability of the purées until the end of the storage period. Polyphenol oxidase activity was lower in TB purées than NTB purées. No treatment was completely effective to stop the enzyme activity, although a significant reduction was reached. Thermally treated purées showed more intense color changes after processing and storage than HP-treated purées. After processing, high-pressure (HP) purées treated at 600 MPa (TB and NTB) increased the extractability of carotenoids compared with initial untreated purée. Nevertheless, at the end of the storage, the highest carotenoid content was found in the TB purée treated at 400 MPa. After processing, total polyphenol levels were similar in all purées. TB and 600 MPa processing was more effective in the maintenance of the polyphenols than the other purées. TB increased the level of antioxidants after storage, compared to NTB purées. A previous TB step is necessary to inactivate browning enzymes before HPP to maintain the levels of bioactive compounds. HPP of plum purée could be a suitable alternative to traditional thermal processing, but more studies are necessary to ensure a major inactivation of polyphenol oxidase. High-pressure processing is one of the most successful technologies to obtain high-quality fruit purées without appreciable losses in taste, flavor, color, and nutritive value. However, for the introduction of a new technology, some advantages compared to the traditional thermal treatment need to be emphasized. The application of

  16. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  17. That's nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Brown, Roger L; Alper, Samuel J; Scanlon, Matthew C; Patel, Neal R; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-07-01

    Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses' perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses' perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations.

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... include? a. You must file your request for waiver of mandatory separation in writing with the Air Traffic...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... include? a. You must file your request for waiver of mandatory separation in writing with the Air Traffic...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... include? a. You must file your request for waiver of mandatory separation in writing with the Air Traffic...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... include? a. You must file your request for waiver of mandatory separation in writing with the Air Traffic...

  2. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... include? a. You must file your request for waiver of mandatory separation in writing with the Air Traffic...

  3. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  4. Study of the pigments elementary chemical composition of a painting in process of attribution to Gainsborough employing a portable X-rays fluorescence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Blonski, M. S.; Parreira, P. S.; Souza, L. A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The investigated painting, named as "The woodman" by its owners, is in process of authenticity verification as a Thomas Gainsborough (XVIII century) painting and is under investigation at the Laboratory of Conservation Science (LACICOR), CECOR/EBA/UFMG. The authentication process is still in course. The measurements were carried out in the place where the painting was on custody, with a portable X-rays fluorescence (XRF) system constituted of a X-rays tube with Ag anode, a Si-PIN diode detector, nuclear electronic chain and a specially designed mechanical system for the detector and X-rays tube positioning, that enables angular and XYZ movements of the excitation-detection system. The employed voltage and current intensity of the X-rays tube were 17 kV and 3 μA, respectively. The time of acquisition for each measurement was 500 s. XRF spectra were analyzed using the AXIL-WinQXAS software. Three measurements in each of the following regions of the painting were done: face, leaves, arm, sky and firewood. The carried out analysis indicated the following pigments: White (lead white and calcium sulfate, identified by the elements Pb, Ca and S), Blue (Prussian blue, identified by the key element Fe), Red (Vermilion, identified by the elements Hg and S) and Brown (mixture of Fe and Mn oxides, identified by the elements Fe and Mn). Elements belonging to modern pigments (after XVIII century) corresponding to the same colors were absent in the analyzed spectra.

  5. Statistical analysis and comparison of a continuous high shear granulator with a twin screw granulator: Effect of process parameters on critical granule attributes and granulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Kotamarthy, Lalith; Panikar, Savitha; Sen, Maitraye; Pradhan, Shankali; Marc, Michaelis; Litster, James D; Muzzio, Fernando J; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2016-11-20

    This study is concerned with identifying the design space of two different continuous granulators and their respective granulation mechanisms. Performance of a continuous high shear granulator and a twin screw granulator with paracetamol formulations were examined by face-centered cubic design, which focused on investigating key performance metrics, namely, granule size, porosity, flowability and particle morphology of granules as a function of essential input process parameters (liquid content, throughput and rotation speed). Liquid and residence time distribution tests were also performed to gain insights into the liquid-powder mixing and flow behavior. The results indicated that continuous high shear granulation was more sensitive to process variation and produced spherical granules with monomodal size distribution and distinct internal structure and strength variation. Twin screw granulation with such a particular screw configuration showed narrower design space and granules were featured with multimodal size distribution, irregular shape, less detectible porosity difference and tighter range of strength. Granulation mechanisms explored on the basis of nucleation and growth regime maps revealed that for most cases liquid binder was uniformly distributed with fast droplet penetration into the powder bed and that granule consolidation and coalescence mainly took place in the nucleation, steady growth and rapid growth regimes.

  6. [Self-selection processes in the choice of the therapeutic training approach: differences in therapeutic attitudes, personality traits and attributional complexity].

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; Munder, Thomas; Möller, Heidi; Hanke, Wiebke; Klasen, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Treatment approaches differ to a great extent in terms of basic psychological assumptions and practical procedures. This creates questions about the fitting of therapist and therapeutic approach. This paper examines the influence of therapeutic attitudes, mentalization interest and personality traits on the decision for an approach. 184 participants of training programs in one of the 3 licensed treatment approaches in Germany were examined with questionnaires at the beginning of their training. Participants significantly differed in terms of therapeutic attitudes and the metallization interest but not in personality traits except openness. Satisfaction with training was not related to the individual fit of participants to the therapeutic attitudes typical for their approach. Therapeutic attitudes, the extent of mentalization interest, and openness may play a role in self-selection processes in the choice of the approach. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Impact of high pressure processing on color, bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase activity, and microbiological attributes of pumpkin purée.

    PubMed

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; Durán, Rocío; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Bernabé, Rosario Ramírez

    2016-04-01

    Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds' content (carotenoids and total phenols), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after high pressure processing (HPP) on a pumpkin purée (cv. 'Butternut'). Three pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were combined with three holding times (200, 400, and 600 s). The applied treatments reduced the levels of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (TPP), and molds and yeasts (M&Y). All applied treatments did not affect enzymatic activity of PPO. Pressure level increased CIE L* values, which could enhance the lightness perception of high pressure (HP)-treated purées. No differences were found between the untreated and HP-treated purées regarding total phenols and carotenoids content (lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene) and total antioxidant activity. HPP did not affect most quality parameters and maintained the levels of bioactive compounds. However, it did not achieve the complete inhibition of PPO, which could reduce the shelf-life of the pumpkin purée. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of ripening stage and steaming time on quality attributes of fat free banana snack obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing.

    PubMed

    Prachayawarakorn, Somkiat; Raikham, Chonlada; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2016-02-01

    Healthy snacks have increasingly been interested in consumers. Puffing technique is an alternative to produce healthy snacks. Effects of ripening stage of banana and steaming time on quality of banana slices obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing were investigated. Bananas at the ripening stages 1 and 3 were steamed at 100 °C for 30 s up to 2 min and dried at 90 °C to moisture content of 25 % dry basis (d.b.). The samples were then puffed by fluidized bed dryer at 160 °C for 2 min and dried at the same temperature as the first stage drying. The experimental results showed that shrinkage, drying time, color, glycemic index and textural properties were affected by steaming time and ripening stage. Steaming provided more uniformity of banana color. Steaming positively or negatively affected the degree shrinkage of banana depending on the ripening stage. The banana texture in particular crispiness could be improved by the steaming for the ripening stage 1 banana whilst it did not improve for the ripening stage 3. During steaming, the C-type crystalline structure of banana starch disappeared and thus the value of glycemic index was increased. The ripening stage 1 banana was recommended for producing healthy snack in order to control glycemic response.

  9. Questions of attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Jo

    2009-06-01

    In your March issue (pp60-61), eclipse expert John Steele reviewed my book Decoding the Heavens about the century-long effort to reconstruct an ancient Greek astronomical computer called the Antikythera Mechanism. Steele's comments were generally very positive; he described the book as "almost addictive reading". However, he stated that it is flawed by several errors of attribution, which he called "particularly unfortunate" as they could easily become sore points between rival researchers. The implication is that the book's inaccuracy is a significant problem.

  10. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  11. The Existence of Trust in the Relationship of Parents and District Administration in the Placement Process of 3- to 8-Year-Old Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which trust-building variables exist between public school districts and parents of 3- to 8-year-old children with autism during the initial placement process in the perception of special education administration. Additional purposes of the study were to identify barriers and…

  12. The Administration of Service Delivery Programs in Special Education in Five Connecticut Towns: The Organization and Coordination of the Planning and Placement Team Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Hugh A.

    Reported is a study of the administration of special education service delivery programs in five randomly selected Connecticut towns. The study was intended to provide background information necessary for state legislative decisions, and it focused on the process of the identification, prescription, planning, placement, evaluation, and followup of…

  13. Perceptions of Administrators, Special Education Teachers, and General Education Teachers Concerning the Diploma Decision-Making Process for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hybl, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of secondary IEP team members (i.e., administrators, special education teachers, and general education teachers) from one Virginia school district regarding the diploma decision-making process for students with disabilities. Using a qualitative, multi-case approach incorporating three phases of analysis (i.e.,…

  14. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    2013-02-01

    Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. That’s nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Brown, Roger L.; Alper, Samuel J.; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Patel, Neal R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses’ perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses’ perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations. PMID:21686318

  16. The Design and Testing of an Integrated Computer System for the Administrative Processes of the University. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    This is the third in a series of reports on the activity carried out under Project INFO auspices at Stanford, and covers the period March 1971 - April 1972. During this time, the project has been principally engaged in continued development of the OASIS (Online Administrative Information System) data base management system and its implementation…

  17. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total project based on the REAC's physical inspection findings. The owner must mitigate all EHS items... and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. 200.857 Section 200.857 Housing... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Physical Condition of Multifamily Properties § 200.857 Administrative...

  18. Enforcing Equality in Housing and Employment Through State Civil Rights Laws. The Administrative Process Project (1969-1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumrosen, Alfred W.; And Others

    This is both a report of two years of cooperative activity between the New Jersey Division on Civil Rights and Rutgers Law School and a manual for Federal and State officials concerned with equal housing and employment opportunity. In addition, it carries forward an experiment in legal education: to teach law students the administrative process…

  19. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  20. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, A. J.; Zeissler, C. J.; Newbury, D. E.; Davis, J.; Lindstrom, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the “Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act,” scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material. PMID:21059943

  1. Causal Attributions in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Robert D.; Dalenberg, Constance J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the causal explanations children use to account for common experiences. In the study, 60 preschoolers watched videotaped puppet shows designed to elicit causal attributions. Most children predominantly used internal, unstable, and specific attributions. (CB)

  2. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    PubMed

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  3. Causal Attributions in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Robert D.; Dalenberg, Constance J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the causal explanations children use to account for common experiences. In the study, 60 preschoolers watched videotaped puppet shows designed to elicit causal attributions. Most children predominantly used internal, unstable, and specific attributions. (CB)

  4. Conceptualizing Leadership and Assessing Leader Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; Johansen, Barry-Craig

    Leadership may be defined as both a process and a property. Research shows that some attributes common to successful leaders (characteristics, knowledge, and skills) can be significantly influenced by planned education or training. In the process of developing a leadership assessment instrument, a study specified four broad tasks that leaders are…

  5. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  6. An implementation-focused process evaluation of an incentive intervention effectiveness trial in substance use disorders clinics at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Hildi J; Stetler, Cheryl B; Bangerter, Ann; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kivlahan, Daniel

    2014-07-09

    One of the pressing concerns in health care today is the slow rate at which promising interventions, supported by research evidence, move into clinical practice. One potential way to speed this process is to conduct hybrid studies that simultaneously combine the collection of effectiveness and implementation relevant data. This paper presents implementation relevant data collected during a randomized effectiveness trial of an abstinence incentive intervention conducted in substance use disorders treatment clinics at two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers. Participants included patients entering substance use disorders treatment with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and/or stimulant dependence that enrolled in the randomized trial, were assigned to the intervention arm, and completed a post intervention survey (n = 147). All staff and leadership from the participating clinics were eligible to participate. A descriptive process evaluation was used, focused on participant perceptions and contextual/feasibility issues. Data collection was guided by the RE-AIM and PARIHS implementation frameworks. Data collection methods included chart review, intervention cost tracking, patient and staff surveys, and qualitative interviews with staff and administrators. Results indicated that patients, staff and administrators held generally positive attitudes toward the incentive intervention. However, staff and administrators identified substantial barriers to routine implementation. Despite the documented low cost and modest staff time required for implementation of the intervention, securing funding for the incentives and freeing up any staff time for intervention administration were identified as primary barriers. Recommendations to facilitate implementation are presented. Recommendations include: 1) solicit explicit support from the highest levels of the organization through, for example, performance measures or clinical practice guideline recommendations; 2

  7. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  8. Hierarchical competitions subserving multi-attribute choice

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Laurence T; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy EJ

    2015-01-01

    Valuation is a key tenet of decision neuroscience, where it is generally assumed that different attributes of competing options are assimilated into unitary values. Such values are central to current neural models of choice. By contrast, psychological studies emphasize complex interactions between choice and valuation. Principles of neuronal selection also suggest competitive inhibition may occur in early valuation stages, before option selection. Here, we show behavior in multi-attribute choice is best explained by a model involving competition at multiple levels of representation. This hierarchical model also explains neural signals in human brain regions previously linked to valuation, including striatum, parietal and prefrontal cortex, where activity represents competition within-attribute, competition between attributes, and option selection. This multi-layered inhibition framework challenges the assumption that option values are computed before choice. Instead our results indicate a canonical competition mechanism throughout all stages of a processing hierarchy, not simply at a final choice stage. PMID:25306549

  9. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  10. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  11. Cortical organization of environmental sounds by attribute.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2011-05-01

    Semantic knowledge is supported by a widely distributed neuronal network, with differential patterns of activation depending upon experimental stimulus or task demands. Despite a wide body of knowledge on semantic object processing from the visual modality, the response of this semantic network to environmental sounds remains relatively unknown. Here, we used fMRI to investigate how access to different conceptual attributes from environmental sound input modulates this semantic network. Using a range of living and manmade sounds, we scanned participants whilst they carried out an object attribute verification task. Specifically, we tested visual perceptual, encyclopedic, and categorical attributes about living and manmade objects relative to a high-level auditory perceptual baseline to investigate the differential patterns of response to these contrasting types of object-related attributes, whilst keeping stimulus input constant across conditions. Within the bilateral distributed network engaged for processing environmental sounds across all conditions, we report here a highly significant dissociation within the left hemisphere between the processing of visual perceptual and encyclopedic attributes of objects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  13. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process.

  14. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... radiogenic cancer (see § 30.213). DOE and DOJ must, among other things, notify potential claimants and submit...

  15. Multi-Attribute Consensus Building Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…

  16. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  17. The Food and Drug Administration advisory committees and panels: how they are applied to the drug regulatory process.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Arthur A; Karlstadt, Robyn G; Pambianco, Daniel J; Woods, Karen L; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2014-10-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panels and committees play a critical role in advising the FDA on the safety and efficacy of medical devices and drugs marketed in the US. Advisory panel recommendations are used by the FDA to make decisions regarding medical products. Currently, the FDA utilizes over 50 advisory panels that serve the three major FDA centers, including the Centers for Biologics, Drugs and Device Products. Members of an advisory panel typically include academicians, clinicians, consumers, patients, and industry representatives. The FDA establishes the schedules for advisory panel meetings on an annual basis and a panel usually meets several times a year for two consecutive days in Washington, DC. Typically, the advisory panel discusses issues highlighted by the FDA and is then asked to vote a response to the questions posed in advance by the FDA. Advisory panel recommendations have a strong influence on FDA's decision to approve a product, as evidenced by the 214 Advisory Panels FDA convened between January 2008 to November 2012, during which advisory panel members voted to approve the product (or use of the product) ∼74% of the time, with FDA ultimately approving the medical product (or use of the product) ∼79% of the time. The ACG membership are encouraged to consider serving the public's interest by participating in an FDA advisory panel utilizing their expertise for the evaluation of a new drug or medical device, and providing advice about whether the product should be sold in the US.

  18. Developing attributes and attribute-levels for a discrete choice experiment on micro health insurance in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are attribute-driven experimental techniques used to elicit stakeholders’ preferences to support the design and implementation of policy interventions. The validity of a DCE, therefore, depends on the appropriate specification of the attributes and their levels. There have been recent calls for greater rigor in implementing and reporting on the processes of developing attributes and attribute-levels for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This paper responds to such calls by carefully reporting a systematic process of developing micro health insurance attributes and attribute-levels for the design of a DCE in rural Malawi. Methods Conceptual attributes and attribute-levels were initially derived from a literature review which informed the design of qualitative data collection tools to identify context specific attributes and attribute-levels. Qualitative data was collected in August-September 2012 from 12 focus group discussions with community residents and 8 in-depth interviews with health workers. All participants were selected according to stratified purposive sampling. The material was tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and coded by three researchers to identify context-specific attributes and attribute-levels. Expert opinion was used to scale down the attributes and levels. A pilot study confirmed the appropriateness of the selected attributes and levels for a DCE. Results First, a consensus, emerging from an individual level analysis of the qualitative transcripts, identified 10 candidate attributes. Levels were assigned to all attributes based on data from transcripts and knowledge of the Malawian context, derived from literature. Second, through further discussions with experts, four attributes were discarded based on multiple criteria. The 6 remaining attributes were: premium level, unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, transportation coverage and copayment levels. A final

  19. Developing attributes and attribute-levels for a discrete choice experiment on micro health insurance in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Leppert, Gerald; Mbera, Grace Bongololo; Robyn, Paul J; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-05-22

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are attribute-driven experimental techniques used to elicit stakeholders' preferences to support the design and implementation of policy interventions. The validity of a DCE, therefore, depends on the appropriate specification of the attributes and their levels. There have been recent calls for greater rigor in implementing and reporting on the processes of developing attributes and attribute-levels for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This paper responds to such calls by carefully reporting a systematic process of developing micro health insurance attributes and attribute-levels for the design of a DCE in rural Malawi. Conceptual attributes and attribute-levels were initially derived from a literature review which informed the design of qualitative data collection tools to identify context specific attributes and attribute-levels. Qualitative data was collected in August-September 2012 from 12 focus group discussions with community residents and 8 in-depth interviews with health workers. All participants were selected according to stratified purposive sampling. The material was tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and coded by three researchers to identify context-specific attributes and attribute-levels. Expert opinion was used to scale down the attributes and levels. A pilot study confirmed the appropriateness of the selected attributes and levels for a DCE. First, a consensus, emerging from an individual level analysis of the qualitative transcripts, identified 10 candidate attributes. Levels were assigned to all attributes based on data from transcripts and knowledge of the Malawian context, derived from literature. Second, through further discussions with experts, four attributes were discarded based on multiple criteria. The 6 remaining attributes were: premium level, unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, transportation coverage and copayment levels. A final step of revision and piloting

  20. Intranasal oxytocin enhances positive self-attribution in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Colonnello, Valentina; Heinrichs, Markus

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of studies consistently demonstrates that social responsiveness toward others is influenced by the neurohormone oxytocin. However, the potential role of oxytocin for self-perception remains relatively unexplored. Thus, we investigated whether oxytocin administration influences the self-attribution of positive and negative adjectives at the early, effortful stage of self-related information processing. Sixty healthy male participants received either 24I.U. oxytocin or a placebo in a randomized double-blind study before completing a sorting task, in which they were instructed to co-classify, as fast as possible, positive and negative adjectives into either self or non-self categories. Oxytocin-treated participants reported stronger positive attitudes toward themselves compared to placebo. The present findings demonstrate that oxytocin administration influences the early stage of self-related information processing and suggests that the oxytocinergic system might be involved in psychopathological conditions characterized by a negative representation of self. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological Weapons Attribution: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    THE NATURE OF THE AGENT: THE IMPORTANCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR DISEASE INVESTIGATION AND ATTRIBUTION...specifics of disease ecology and the importance of understanding the epidemiology of a suspected agent in order to successfully attribute a disease outbreak... Epidemiology is the branch of medicine and scientific research that deals with the detection of the source and cause of infectious disease

  2. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  3. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  4. Causal Attributions of Shy Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Causal attributions of shy students (N=36) were compared with those of a comparison group of students (N=36) in ten situations. Significant differences between the two groups emerged when explaining outcomes of situations considered to be problematic for shy individuals. Causal attributions may reflect realistic and situation-specific…

  5. An implementation-focused process evaluation of an incentive intervention effectiveness trial in substance use disorders clinics at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the pressing concerns in health care today is the slow rate at which promising interventions, supported by research evidence, move into clinical practice. One potential way to speed this process is to conduct hybrid studies that simultaneously combine the collection of effectiveness and implementation relevant data. This paper presents implementation relevant data collected during a randomized effectiveness trial of an abstinence incentive intervention conducted in substance use disorders treatment clinics at two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers. Methods Participants included patients entering substance use disorders treatment with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and/or stimulant dependence that enrolled in the randomized trial, were assigned to the intervention arm, and completed a post intervention survey (n = 147). All staff and leadership from the participating clinics were eligible to participate. A descriptive process evaluation was used, focused on participant perceptions and contextual/feasibility issues. Data collection was guided by the RE-AIM and PARIHS implementation frameworks. Data collection methods included chart review, intervention cost tracking, patient and staff surveys, and qualitative interviews with staff and administrators. Results Results indicated that patients, staff and administrators held generally positive attitudes toward the incentive intervention. However, staff and administrators identified substantial barriers to routine implementation. Despite the documented low cost and modest staff time required for implementation of the intervention, securing funding for the incentives and freeing up any staff time for intervention administration were identified as primary barriers. Conclusions Recommendations to facilitate implementation are presented. Recommendations include: 1) solicit explicit support from the highest levels of the organization through, for example, performance measures or clinical

  6. An Exploration of Teachers' and Administrators' Perspectives: The Collaborative Process Using the Danielson Framework for Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Adrienne M.

    2016-01-01

    As accountability measures continue to increase within education, public school systems have integrated standards-based evaluation systems to formally assess professional practices among educators. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent in which the communication process between evaluators and teachers impacts teacher performance…

  7. An Exploration of Teachers' and Administrators' Perspectives: The Collaborative Process Using the Danielson Framework for Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Adrienne M.

    2016-01-01

    As accountability measures continue to increase within education, public school systems have integrated standards-based evaluation systems to formally assess professional practices among educators. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent in which the communication process between evaluators and teachers impacts teacher performance…

  8. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretaries of Labor, HHS and Energy, and the Attorney General. In light of the fact that the Secretary of... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... radiogenic cancer (see § 30.213). DOE and DOJ must, among other things, notify potential claimants and submit...

  9. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretaries of Labor, HHS and Energy, and the Attorney General. In light of the fact that the Secretary of... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... radiogenic cancer (see § 30.213). DOE and DOJ must, among other things, notify potential claimants and submit...

  10. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Secretaries of Labor, HHS and Energy, and the Attorney General. In light of the fact that the Secretary of... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... radiogenic cancer (see § 30.213). DOE and DOJ must, among other things, notify potential claimants and submit...

  11. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Secretaries of Labor, HHS and Energy, and the Attorney General. In light of the fact that the Secretary of... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... radiogenic cancer (see § 30.213). DOE and DOJ must, among other things, notify potential claimants and submit...

  12. Property attribution in combined concepts.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2015-05-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns (baby ducks have webbed feet) is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns (ducks have webbed feet). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit properties from their constituent concepts. Experiments 1 and 2 replicate this effect and demonstrate a reversed modification effect with false properties. That is, false properties are judged more likely with modification (e.g., purple candles have teeth is judged more likely than candles have teeth). These experiments also show that properties that are neither generically true nor false are unaffected by modification. Experiments 3 and 4 manipulate participants' expectation of contrast by showing modified and unmodified nouns that either match or mismatch in terms of a property and show that the judged likelihood of properties depends on the expectations of contrast set up by the manipulation. These results show that the modification effect is primarily driven by participants' understanding of the relation of subcategories to categories, rather than by the features of the concepts being combined, suggesting that the process of property attribution in combined concepts is strongly affected by pragmatic factors and is less strongly dependent on conceptual content than most theories of conceptual combination would suggest. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Impression Formation and the Attribution of Attitudes: A "Sleeper" Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxton, Jack S.; Miller, Arthur G.

    Recent studies indicate that investigators are now focusing on the cognitive determinants of the attribution process; however, few researchers are looking specifically at the attribution process over time. The impact of attitudinal and behavioral information on impression formation was studied to determine how impressions change over time. The…

  14. Effect of a single vaginal administration of levonorgestrel in Carraguard® gel on the ovulatory process: a potential candidate for “dual protection” emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Brache, Vivian; Croxatto, Horacio; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Maguire, Robin; Montero, Juan Carlos; Kumar, Narender; Salvatierra, Ana Maria; Tejada, Ana Sofia; Cochón, Leila; Forcelledo, María Luisa; Lahteenmaki, Pekka; Alvarez, Francisco; Faundes, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Objective The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Carraguard vaginal gel containing 0.75 mg of levonorgestrel (CARRA/LNG gel) administered in a single dose at different stages of follicle development, over subsequent follicle rupture and hormonal levels. Method Randomized, blinded, cross-over study comparing the effects of a single administration of CARRA/LNG gel or Carraguard (CARRA) gel. Twenty-four healthy women were enrolled in two centers. The gels were administered when the follicle had reached diameters of 12-14, 15-17 and ≥18 mm in 8 women each. Volunteers were followed for one treatment, one washout cycle and a second treatment cycle. Follicle rupture or non-rupture was assessed by transvaginal ultrasound. LH, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured daily for the 5 days following treatment, and 3 times per week until menses. Results No follicular rupture within the 5-day period following administration was observed in 74% and 30% of the CARRA/LNG and CARRA gel treatment cycles, respectively, while ovulation was documented in 4% and 61%, respectively. The overall proportion of cycles with lack of follicular rupture or ovulatory dysfunction (follicle rupture preceded by an inadequate LH surge) was 96% for CARRA/LNG and 39% in the CARRA gel cycles. Conclusion Single vaginal administration of 0.75 mg levonorgestrel in CARRA gel in the late follicular phase, is effective for interfering with the ovulatory process. PMID:17656180

  15. Interpersonal reactivity and the attribution of emotional reactions.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

    2015-06-01

    The ability to identify the cause of another person's emotional reaction is an important component associated with improved success of social relationships and survival. Although many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in emotion recognition, very little is currently known regarding the processes involved during emotion attribution decisions. Research on complementary "emotion understanding" mechanisms, including empathy and theory of mind, has demonstrated that emotion understanding decisions are often made through relatively emotion- or cognitive-based processing streams. The current study was designed to investigate the behavioral and brain mechanisms involved in emotion attribution decisions. We predicted that dual processes, emotional and cognitive, are engaged during emotion attribution decisions. Sixteen healthy adults completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to characterize individual differences in tendency to make emotion- versus cognitive-based interpersonal decisions. Participants then underwent functional MRI while making emotion attribution decisions. We found neuroimaging evidence that emotion attribution decisions engage a similar brain network as other forms of emotion understanding. Further, we found evidence in support of a dual processes model involved during emotion attribution decisions. Higher scores of personal distress were associated with quicker emotion attribution decisions and increased anterior insula activity. Conversely, higher scores in perspective taking were associated with delayed emotion attribution decisions and increased prefrontal cortex and premotor activity. These findings indicate that the making of emotion attribution decisions relies on dissociable emotional and cognitive processing streams within the brain.

  16. Conceptualizing withdrawal-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration as a learned, plasticity-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brendan M

    2012-06-01

    This article represents one of five contributions focusing on the topic "Plasticity and neuroadaptive responses within the extended amygdala in response to chronic or excessive alcohol exposure" that were developed by awardees participating in the Young Investigator Award Symposium at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3-6, 2011 that was organized/chaired by Drs. Antonio Noronha and Fulton Crews and sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This review discusses the dependence-induced neuroadaptations in affective systems that provide a basis for negative reinforcement learning and presents evidence demonstrating that escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal is a learned, plasticity-dependent process. The review concludes by identifying changes within extended amygdala dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems that could serve as the foundation for the occurrence of negative reinforcement processes. While some evidence contained herein may be specific to alcohol dependence-related learning and plasticity, much of the information will be of relevance to any addictive disorder involving negative reinforcement mechanisms. Collectively, the information presented within this review provides a framework to assess the negative reinforcing effects of alcohol in a manner that distinguishes neuroadaptations produced by chronic alcohol exposure from the actual plasticity that is associated with negative reinforcement learning in dependent organisms.

  17. Attribute preference and selection in multi-attribute decision making: implications for unconscious and conscious thought.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Mukherjee, Sumitava

    2010-06-01

    Unconscious thought theory (UTT) states that all information is taken into account and the attributes are weighted optimally resulting in better decisions in complex decision problems during unconscious thought. Very few studies have investigated the actual amount of information processed in the unconscious thought condition. We hypothesized that only a small subset of information might be considered during unconscious thought (like conscious thought). To test this possibility and to explore the way attribute information is selected and combined, we performed computer simulations on the datasets used by previous researchers. The simulations showed that considering a small subset (3-4) of attributes, yields results comparable to previous studies. There is no need to posit infinite capacity in the unconscious thought condition. The results also suggest that weight information is used for attribute selection that could potentially explain the difficulties in replicating the deliberation-without-attention effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  19. Recursive neural network rule extraction for data with mixed attributes.

    PubMed

    Setiono, R; Baesens, B; Mues, C

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present a recursive algorithm for extracting classification rules from feedforward neural networks (NNs) that have been trained on data sets having both discrete and continuous attributes. The novelty of this algorithm lies in the conditions of the extracted rules: the rule conditions involving discrete attributes are disjoint from those involving continuous attributes. The algorithm starts by first generating rules with discrete attributes only to explain the classification process of the NN. If the accuracy of a rule with only discrete attributes is not satisfactory, the algorithm refines this rule by recursively generating more rules with discrete attributes not already present in the rule condition, or by generating a hyperplane involving only the continuous attributes. We show that for three real-life credit scoring data sets, the algorithm generates rules that are not only more accurate but also more comprehensible than those generated by other NN rule extraction methods.

  20. Graduate Attributes and Their Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz; Harvey, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors argue that alignment of higher education with workforce needs should be based on careful action by institutions to embed skills and attributes within instructional programs. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  1. Leadership Behaviors of Successful Vocational Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.; And Others

    The first part of a research effort to examine the utility of a leadership model (Moss and Liang 1990) identified leadership attributes needed by successful vocational administrators. In a follow-up to this research, state-level administrators in seven states were interviewed to nominate successful administrators. The top "ranked" administrators…

  2. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  3. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  4. The AMÉLIE project: failure mode, effects and criticality analysis: a model to evaluate the nurse medication administration process on the floor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christina; Côté, Justine; Lebel, Denis; Caron, Elaine; Genest, Christine; Mallet, Monia; Phan, Véronique; Bussières, Jean-François

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the causes of adverse drug events during the nurse medication administration process in paediatric care units in order to identify and prioritize interventions that need to be implemented. This is a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) study. A multidisciplinary committee composed of nurses, pharmacists, physicians and risk managers evaluated through consensus the process of administering medications at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sainte-Justine. By mapping the process, all the failure modes were identified and associated with at least one cause each. Using a summary grid, each failure mode was evaluated by rating frequency (from 1 to 9), likelihood of failure detection (from 0 to 100%) and severity (from 1 to 9) using adapted versions of already published scales. A 10-member committee was set up, and it met eight times between January and April 2010. In the two specialized paediatric units selected (n = 38 beds), an average number of approximately 20 000 drug doses was administered monthly from about 400 non-proprietary names. Through consensus, the committee identified 16 processes and 53 failure modes. While frequency and severity were based on perceptions that could be objectivized with local data and scientific documentation, the likelihood of detection was mainly based on individual perception. FMECA is a useful approach to improve the medication process. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an "evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan" in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines.

  6. High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Vieira de Sousa, Paula Viviane; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Vieira de Brito, Joíse Marques; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Salu, Bruno Ramos; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2015-10-01

    During the epileptogenic process, several events may occur, such as an important activation of the immune system in the central nervous system. The response to seizure activity results in an inflammation in the brain as well as in the periphery. Moreover, CRP and cytokines may be able to interact with numerous ligands in response to cardiac injury caused by sympathetic stimulation in ictal and postictal states. Based on this, we measured the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines during acute, silent, and chronic phases of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. We have also analyzed the effect of a chronic treatment of these rats with omega-3 fatty acid in CRP and cytokine levels, during an epileptic focus generation. C-reactive protein and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α presented high concentration in the blood of rats, even well after the occurrence of SE. We found reduced levels of CRP and all proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of animals with chronic seizures, treated with omega-3, when compared with those treated with vehicle solution. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the omega-3 is an effective treatment to prevent SUDEP occurrence due to its capability to act as an anti-inflammatory compound, reducing the systemic inflammatory parameters altered by seizures.

  7. Biodegradable PLGA microspheres loaded with ganciclovir for intraocular administration. Encapsulation technique, in vitro release profiles, and sterilization process.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Vanrell, R; Ramirez, L; Fernandez-Carballido, A; Refojo, M F

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a sterilized formulation consisting of biodegradable microspheres of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for intraocular sustained release of ganciclovir. Microspheres were prepared using a dispersion of ganciclovir in fluorosilicone oil (FSiO) that was further dispersed in an acetone solution of PLGA [50/50 and inherent viscosity 0.41 dl/g], and emulsified in silicone oil with a surfactant. Once prepared, the formulation was exposed with an effective gamma radiation dose of 2.5 megarads. The release rate data of ganciclovir from the sterilized and nonsterilized batches were compared using the similarity factor (f2). The dispersion of the drug in FSiO contributed to achieving a drug payload of up to 95% of the theoretical in the 300-500 microm microspheres. Ten mg released ganciclovir in vitro at 1.3 microg/h for the first 21 days, but decreased to approximately 0.2 microg/h from day 25 until the end of the release study (42 days). No significant differences in the amounts of encapsulated drug (alpha = 0.05) were observed between the sterilized and nonsterilized microspheres. Furthermore, dissolution profiles of formulations behaved similarly before and after gamma radiation exposure. The technique of microsphere preparation described resulted in high ganciclovir loading (95%) and prolonged drug release. The ganciclovir formulation behaved similarly before and after the sterilization process.

  8. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an “evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan” in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines. PMID:27610178

  9. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  10. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people’s behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person’s actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture’s influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes. PMID:20460302

  11. Theatre Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patti P., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this special journal issue is theatre administration. The journal is divided into four parts: a short introduction and three major sections on the role of the theatre chair, theatre administration in the 1980's, and evaluating creative work. Among others, topics covered in the issue's 13 articles include (1) the changing nature of the…

  12. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  13. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  14. Short-term, low-dose varenicline administration enhances information processing speed in methamphetamine-dependent users.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, Ari D; Mahoney, James J; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Long-term, high-dose methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with decrements in neurocognition and, given the association between impaired neurocognition and poorer treatment outcomes in individuals dependent on alcohol and drugs, it is considered to be a neglected area of critical concern. The objective of this study was to determine whether varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2- and a full agonist at α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, enhances attention/information processing speed, episodic memory, and working memory in non-treatment seeking METH-dependent participants. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or oral varenicline (titrated up to 1 mg) over 5 days during three separate inpatient phases, and 17 completed each inpatient phase. Participants were predominately male (71%) and Caucasian (71%). Varenicline significantly improved reaction time on the n-back for visual stimuli (F(1,47)=5.369, p=0.025, η2=0.103), and a trend was observed for improvement in reaction time for auditory stimuli (F(1,47)=3.141, p=0.083, η2=0.063). For those study participants whose reaction time was in the lower half of the distribution at baseline, the effect was even more pronounced for auditory (F(1,22)=5.287, p=0.031, η2=0.194) and visual (F(1,22)=11.981, p=0.002, η2=0.353) stimuli relative to placebo. In contrast, varenicline did not modulate mean or maximum span of working memory or performance on tests of episodic memory or attention (p's>0.05). Given the potential importance of this finding, it should be replicated in a larger sample over a longer treatment period with a higher dose of varenicline (2 mg). clinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01571167. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  16. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  17. Brain Activation Associated with Automatic Processing of Alcohol-Related Cues in Young Heavy Drinkers and Its Modulation by Alcohol Administration.

    PubMed

    Kreusch, Fanny; Goffaux, Valerie; Siep, Nicolette; Houben, Katrijn; Quertemont, Etienne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    While the automatic processing of alcohol-related cues by alcohol abusers is well established in experimental psychopathology approaches, the cerebral regions involved in this phenomenon and the influence of alcohol intake on this process remain unknown. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of task-irrelevant alcohol-related stimuli in young heavy drinkers and their modulation by alcohol administration. Twelve heavy drinking male participants were scanned on 2 separate days; once after a low dose of alcohol intake (0.4 g/kg), and once after a placebo intake, in balanced order. Images of alcoholic drinks, soft drinks, or neutral objects were shown while participants' neural activity was recorded through fMRI. Moreover, participants' attentional focus was manipulated using a task which required them to process the central images of interest (focus alcohol condition) or a center unattended task (focus not on alcohol condition). Results indicated that an explicit judgment on beverage-related cues increased activation in the prefrontal area compared with the judgment of neutral objects. By comparison with that of task-irrelevant neutral cues, the processing of task-irrelevant alcohol-related cues increased the activation in a large network of cerebral areas including visual and temporal regions, the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the putamen. Moreover, in the condition with focus not on alcohol, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was particularly activated by the presentation of (task-irrelevant) alcohol-related cues compared to task-irrelevant soft-drink-related cues. The VTA was especially involved in the automatic processing of alcohol-related cues in young heavy drinkers. Low dose of alcohol did not modulate the neural substrates involved in the processing of salient alcohol-related cues. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society

  18. Health Care Expenditures Attributable to Smoking in Military Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The health effects of cigarette smoking have been estimated to account for between 6%–8% of U.S. health care expenditures. We estimated Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care costs attributable to cigarette smoking. Methods: VHA survey and administrative data provided the number of Veteran enrollees, current and former smoking prevalence, and the cost of 4 types of care for groups defined by age, gender, and region. Cost and smoking status could not be linked at the enrollee level, so we used smoking attributable fractions estimated in sample of U.S. residents where the linkage could be made. Results: The 7.7 million Veterans enrolled in VHA received $40.2 billion in VHA provided health services in 2010. We estimated that $2.7 billion in VHA costs were attributable to the health effects of smoking. This was 7.6% of the $35.3 billion spent on the types of care for which smoking-attributable fractions could be determined. The fraction of inpatient costs that was attributable to smoking (11.4%) was greater than the fraction of ambulatory care cost attributable to smoking (5.3%). More cost was attributable to current smokers ($1.7 billion) than to former smokers ($983 million). Conclusions: The fraction of VHA costs attributable to smoking is similar to that of other health care systems. Smoking among Veterans is slowly decreasing, but prevalence remains high in Veterans with psychiatric and substance use disorders, and in younger and female Veterans. VHA has adopted a number of smoking cessation programs that have the potential for reducing future smoking-attributable costs. PMID:25239960

  19. 76 FR 80873 - Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease...

  20. Understanding What We Mean by the Generic Attributes of Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrie, Simon C.

    2006-01-01

    One way in which universities have sought to articulate the outcomes of a university education is through a description of the attributes of their graduates. Recent calls for universities to demonstrate the quality of their outcomes and processes have prompted a re-examination of the generic graduate attribute outcomes many Australian universities…

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  2. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  3. Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to anti-depressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Methods Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, healthy women completed 2 sessions of treatment administration and fMRI scanning separated by a 1-week washout period. Results We enrolled 36 women in our study. When participants were administered escitalopram relative to placebo, left amygdala activity was increased and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity was decreased during presentation of positive pictures (potentiation of positive emotion processing). In contrast, escitalopram was associated with decreased left amygdala and increased right IFG activity during presentation of negative pictures (attenuation of negative emotion processing). In addition, escitalopram decreased right IFG activity during the processing of neutral stimuli, akin to the effects on positive stimuli (decrease in negative appraisal). Limitations Although we used a women-only sample to reduce heterogeneity, our results may not generalize to men. Potential unblinding, which was related to the subjective occurrence of side effects, occurred in the study; however, manipulation check analyses demonstrated that results were not impacted. Conclusion These novel findings demonstrate that a single dose of the commonly prescribed escitalopram facilitates a positive information processing bias. These findings provide an important lead for better understanding effects of antidepressant medication. PMID:24690370

  4. Self-image bias in drug use attributions.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine the degree to which people's personal drug use affects how they perceive other drug users, with a view to investigating the possibility that drug use attributions are a function of self-image bias. University students (n = 60), categorized post hoc as drug users or nonusers, completed questionnaires assessing locus, control, and stability attributions about their own personal drug use or imagined drug use. Attributions pertaining to presented vignettes of light and heavy drug use by others were also assessed. Heavy drug use elicited the most "addicted" attributions (dispositional locus, low control, and high stability) and drug-using participants made more addicted attributions about their own personal drug use than did nonusing participants about their imagined use. Additionally, attributions made by non-drug users regarding their imagined personal drug use were similar to those they made for the light drug use described in presented vignettes. Conversely, drug users made attributions which were similar for their personal drug use and for the heavy drug-use vignette. These data lend support to conceptualizing addiction as a product of the functional attribution process-"addict" attributions being applied mainly where drug use is more problematic (heavy) and thus in need of explanation. The data also lend support to the notion that a self-image bias is operating in drug use attributions when people can identify with the behavior of others.

  5. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-23

    JMS) – CORBA … • Infrastructure services available to service providers and/or service consumers to perform common tasks or satisfy QoS requirements...Services is one technology for SOA implementation SOA and Quality Attributes SOA WS* Web Services CORBA REST Services and POX Key Class Realization

  6. Criterial Attributes of Interpersonal Solidarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisbell, Marshall

    An investigation was undertaken to further the conceptual and operational nature of interpersonal solidarity. Specifically, the investigation considered additional criterial attributes of solidarity to those previously studied by L. R. Wheeless. The sample consisted of 162 adults drawn from elementary and secondary school teachers, college…

  7. Hemispheric Asymmetries and Cognitive Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    Visual, auditory, and bimodal event-related potentials were recorded from 50 males, and lateral asymmetry indices were derived. Eleven psychometric tests of different cognitive attributes were also administered to them. This area of research has been labeled aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI). The emphasis of ATI research is on identification of…

  8. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social…

  9. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  10. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  11. 76 FR 1182 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... supply chain. On September 27, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) (Pub... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  12. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  13. A quality-by-design study for an immediate-release tablet platform: examining the relative impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient properties, processing methods, and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph; Langdon, Beth A; Hicks, Ian; Song, Daniel; Li, Fasheng; Kathiria, Lalji; Kane, Anil; Ranade, Gautam; Agarwal, Kam

    2014-02-01

    The impact of filler-lubricant particle size ratio variation (3.4-41.6) on the attributes of an immediate-release tablet was compared with the impacts of the manufacturing method used (direct compression or dry granulation) and drug loading (1%, 5%, and 25%), particle size (D[4,3]: 8-114 μm), and drug type (theophylline or ibuprofen). All batches were successfully manufactured, except for direct compression of 25% drug loading of 8 μm (D[4,3]) drug, which exhibited very poor flow properties. All manufactured tablets possessed adequate quality attributes: tablet weight uniformity <4% RSD, tablet potency: 94%-105%, content uniformity <6% RSD, acceptance value ≤ 15, solid fraction: 0.82-0.86, tensile strength >1 MPa, friability ≤ 0.2% weight loss, and disintegration time < 4 min. The filler-lubricant particle size ratio exhibited the greatest impact on blend and granulation particle size and granulation flow, whereas drug property variation dominated blend flow, ribbon solid fraction, and tablet quality attributes. Although statistically significant effects were observed, the results of this study suggest that the manufacturability and performance of this immediate-release tablet formulation is robust to a broad range of variation in drug properties, both within-grade and extra-grade excipient particle size variations, and the choice of manufacturing method.

  14. Barrier Effects in Non-retinotopic Feature Attribution

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Murat; Herzog, Michael H.; Öğmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    When objects move in the environment, their retinal images can undergo drastic changes and features of different objects can be inter-mixed in the retinal image. Notwithstanding these changes and ambiguities, the visual system is capable of establishing correctly feature-object relationships as well as maintaining individual identities of objects through space and time. Recently, by using a Ternus-Pikler display, we have shown that perceived motion correspondences serve as the medium for non-retinotopic attribution of features to objects. The purpose of the work reported in this manuscript was to assess whether perceived motion correspondences provide a sufficient condition for feature attribution. Our results show that the introduction of a static “barrier” stimulus can interfere with the feature attribution process. Our results also indicate that the barrier stops feature attribution based on interferences related to the feature attribution process itself rather than on mechanisms related to perceived motion. PMID:21767561

  15. Industry Initiated Core Safety Attributes for Human Spaceflight for the 7th IAASS Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Now that the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is beginning its full certification contract for crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), is it time for industry to embrace a minimum set of core safety attributes? Those attributes can then be evolved into an industry-led set of basic safety standards and requirements. After 50 years of human space travel sponsored by governments, there are two basic conditions that now exist within the international space industry. The first, there is enough of a space-faring history to encourage the space industry to design, develop and operate human spaceflight systems without government contracts for anything other than services. Second, industry is capable of defining and enforcing a set of industry-based safety attributes and standards for human spaceflight to low-Earth orbit (LEO). This paper will explore both of these basic conditions with a focus on the safety attributes and standards. In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is now starting to dialogue with industry about the basic safety principles and attributes needed for potential future regulatory oversight. This process is not yet formalized and will take a number of years once approval is given to move forward. Therefore, throughout the next few years, it is an excellent time and opportunity for industry to collaborate together and develop the core set of attributes and standards. As industry engages and embraces a common set of safety attributes, then government agencies, like the FAA and NASA can use that industry-based product to strengthen their efforts on a safe commercial spaceflight foundation for the future. As the commercial space industry takes the lead role in establishing core safety attributes, and then enforcing those attributes, the entire planet can move away from governmental control of design and development and let industry expand safe and successful space operations in LEO. At that point the

  16. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  17. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  18. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  19. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  20. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  1. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  2. Attempting measurement of psychological attributes.

    PubMed

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predictions; and content validity becomes a matter of highly subjective judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  3. A comparative analysis of user preference-based and existing knowledge management systems attributes in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Nishad G.

    Knowledge management (KM) exists in various forms throughout organizations. Process documentation, training courses, and experience sharing are examples of KM activities performed daily. The goal of KM systems (KMS) is to provide a tool set which serves to standardize the creation, sharing, and acquisition of business critical information. Existing literature provides numerous examples of targeted evaluations of KMS, focusing on specific system attributes. This research serves to bridge the targeted evaluations with an industry-specific, holistic approach. The user preferences of aerospace employees in engineering and engineering-related fields were compared to profiles of existing aerospace KMS based on three attribute categories: technical features, system administration, and user experience. The results indicated there is a statistically significant difference between aerospace user preferences and existing profiles in the user experience attribute category, but no statistically significant difference in the technical features and system administration attribute categories. Additional analysis indicated in-house developed systems exhibit higher technical features and user experience ratings than commercial-off-the-self (COTS) systems.

  4. Causal Attributions by Blacks and Whites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.

    1990-01-01

    Tests self-serving attributional bias, attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors among Blacks. With a sample of 35 Black and 35 White undergraduates, demonstrates this bias for both races. Finds Blacks attributed outcomes more to effort, whereas Whites attributed outcomes to task difficulty, a more stable factor. (DB)

  5. Types of Programs and Evaluation Processes Needed to Maximize the Pharmacist's Contribution to Society: 3--The Role of the Social and Administrative Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jean Paul

    1978-01-01

    The importance of social and behavioral sciences to pharmacists is identified, the behavioral competencies developed by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Administration are discussed, and plans are outlined for developing a continuing education program in the social and administrative area. (JMD)

  6. A MOX Fuel Attribute Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-08-21

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252Cf.

  7. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-08-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252Cf.

  8. LineUp: Visual Analysis of Multi-Attribute Rankings

    PubMed Central

    Gratzl, Samuel; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Pfister, Hanspeter; Streit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Rankings are a popular and universal approach to structuring otherwise unorganized collections of items by computing a rank for each item based on the value of one or more of its attributes. This allows us, for example, to prioritize tasks or to evaluate the performance of products relative to each other. While the visualization of a ranking itself is straightforward, its interpretation is not, because the rank of an item represents only a summary of a potentially complicated relationship between its attributes and those of the other items. It is also common that alternative rankings exist which need to be compared and analyzed to gain insight into how multiple heterogeneous attributes affect the rankings. Advanced visual exploration tools are needed to make this process efficient. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of requirements for the visualization of multi-attribute rankings. Based on these considerations, we propose LineUp - a novel and scalable visualization technique that uses bar charts. This interactive technique supports the ranking of items based on multiple heterogeneous attributes with different scales and semantics. It enables users to interactively combine attributes and flexibly refine parameters to explore the effect of changes in the attribute combination. This process can be employed to derive actionable insights as to which attributes of an item need to be modified in order for its rank to change. Additionally, through integration of slope graphs, LineUp can also be used to compare multiple alternative rankings on the same set of items, for example, over time or across different attribute combinations. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-attribute visualization technique in a qualitative study. The study shows that users are able to successfully solve complex ranking tasks in a short period of time. PMID:24051794

  9. Malignant mesothelioma: attributable risk of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Spirtas, R; Heineman, E F; Bernstein, L; Beebe, G W; Keehn, R J; Stark, A; Harlow, B L; Benichou, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate a case-control study of malignant mesothelioma through patterns of exposure to asbestos based upon information from telephone interviews with next of kin. METHODS--Potential cases, identified from medical files and death certificates, included all people diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma and registered during 1975-1980 by the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program, the New York State Cancer Registry (excluding New York City), and 39 large Veterans Administration hospitals. Cases whose diagnosis was confirmed in a special pathology review as definite or probable mesothelioma (n = 208) were included in the analysis. Controls (n = 533) had died of other causes, excluding cancer, respiratory disease, suicide, or violence. Direct exposure to asbestos was determined from responses to three types of questions: specific queries as to any exposure to asbestos; occupational or non-vocational participation in any of nine specific activities thought to entail exposure to asbestos; and analysis of life-time work histories. Indirect exposures were assessed through residential histories and reported contact with family members exposed to asbestos. RESULTS--Among men with pleural mesothelioma the attributable risk (AR) for exposure to asbestos was 88% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76-95%). For men, the AR of peritoneal cancer was 58% (95% CI 20-89%). For women (both sites combined), the AR was 23% (95% CI 3-72%). The large differences in AR by sex are compatible with the explanations: a lower background incidence rate in women, lower exposure to asbestos, and greater misclassification among women. CONCLUSIONS--Most of the pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in the men studied were attributable to exposure to asbestos. The situation in women was less definitive. PMID:7849863

  10. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  11. Inferential Source Attribution from Dust: Review and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoney, D A; Bowen, A M; Stoney, P L

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of dust allows inference of exposures to geographical areas, environments, activities, and processes. This activity of inferential source attribution is distinguished from that of comparative source attribution, where the focus is on the degree of correspondence between two sources in relation to other possible sources. Review of source attribution efforts in the forensic and broader scientific literature shows that most efforts are limited in one or more of four principal ways, which are classified as: (a) methods based on attribution by direct comparison; (b) methods based on closed-set item classification; (c) analysis using restricted methods and characteristics, and (d) requirement of a large sample size. These limitations provide the context for the requirements of more generalized inferential source attribution. Occurring much more rarely, and almost exclusively in the forensic literature, are individual source attribution case reports that have a microscopical, multidisciplinary perspective. Collectively these are an excellent illustration of potential and their common features demonstrate that (a) a diversity of laboratory expertise and methodology is required in order for source attribution to be successful; (b) different tools need to be applied in different cases, and (c) a process must be in place that allows a facile choice among this diversity of tools, in response to the particular investigative problem and the specifics of the samples that are available. Alternative collaborative mechanisms are considered and recommendations are made for related research and programmatic application.

  12. The Human Experience With Ghrelin Administration

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Margaret C.; Burns, Carrie M.; Kaul, Shailja

    2013-01-01

    Context: Ghrelin is an endogenous stimulator of GH and is implicated in a number of physiological processes. Clinical trials have been performed in a variety of patient populations, but there is no comprehensive review of the beneficial and adverse consequences of ghrelin administration to humans. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was utilized, and the reference list of each article was screened. We included 121 published articles in which ghrelin was administered to humans. Evidence Synthesis: Ghrelin has been administered as an infusion or a bolus in a variety of doses to 1850 study participants, including healthy participants and patients with obesity, prior gastrectomy, cancer, pituitary disease, diabetes mellitus, eating disorders, and other conditions. There is strong evidence that ghrelin stimulates appetite and increases circulating GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and glucose across varied patient populations. There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of ghrelin on LH, FSH, TSH, insulin, lipolysis, body composition, cardiac function, pulmonary function, the vasculature, and sleep. Adverse effects occurred in 20% of participants, with a predominance of flushing and gastric rumbles and a mild degree of severity. The few serious adverse events occurred in patients with advanced illness and were not clearly attributable to ghrelin. Route of administration may affect the pattern of adverse effects. Conclusions: Existing literature supports the short-term safety of ghrelin administration and its efficacy as an appetite stimulant in diverse patient populations. There is some evidence to suggest that ghrelin has wider ranging therapeutic effects, although these areas require further investigation. PMID:23533240

  13. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  14. The role of contraceptive attributes in women's contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Madden, Tessa; Secura, Gina M; Nease, Robert F; Politi, Mary C; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2015-07-01

    Contraceptive methods have differing attributes. Women's preferences for these attributes may influence contraceptive decision making. Our objective was to identify women's contraceptive preferences among women initiating a new contraceptive method. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of women's contraceptive preferences at the time of enrollment into the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Participants were asked to rank the importance of 15 contraceptive attributes on a 3-point scale (1 = not at all important, 2 = somewhat important, and 3 = very important) and then to rank the 3 attributes that were the most important when choosing a contraceptive method. The survey also contained questions about prior contraceptive experience and barriers to contraceptive use. Information about demographic and reproductive characteristics was collected through the CHOICE Project baseline survey. There were 2590 women who completed the survey. Our sample was racially and socioeconomically diverse. Method attributes with the highest importance score (mean score [SD]) were effectiveness (2.97 [0.18]), safety (2.96 [0.22]), affordability (2.61 [0.61]), whether the method is long lasting (2.58 [0.61]), and whether the method is "forgettable" (2.54 [0.66]). The attributes most likely to be ranked by respondents among the top 3 attributes included effectiveness (84.2%), safety (67.8%), and side effects of the method (44.6%). Multiple contraceptive attributes influence decision making and no single attribute drives most women's decisions. Tailoring communication and helping women make complex tradeoffs between attributes can better support their contraceptive decisions and may assist them in making value-consistent choices. This process could improve continuation and satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attribute classification for generating GPR facies models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronicke, Jens; Allroggen, Niklas

    2017-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established geophysical tool to explore near-surface sedimentary environments. It has been successfully used, for example, to reconstruct past depositional environments, to investigate sedimentary processes, to aid hydrogeological investigations, and to assist in hydrocarbon reservoir analog studies. Interpreting such 2D/3D GPR data, usually relies on concepts known as GPR facies analysis, in which GPR facies are defined as units composed of characteristic reflection patterns (in terms of reflection amplitude, continuity, geometry, and internal configuration). The resulting facies models are then interpreted in terms of depositional processes, sedimentary environments, litho-, and hydrofacies. Typically, such GPR facies analyses are implemented in a manual workflow being laborious and rather inefficient especially for 3D data sets. In addition, such a subjective strategy bears the potential of inconsistency because the outcome depends on the expertise and experience of the interpreter. In this presentation, we investigate the feasibility of delineating GPR facies in an objective and largely automated manner. Our proposed workflow relies on a three-step procedure. First, we calculate a variety of geometrical and physical attributes from processed 2D and 3D GPR data sets. Then, we analyze and evaluate this attribute data base (e.g., using statistical tools such as principal component analysis) to reduce its dimensionality and to avoid redundant information, respectively. Finally, we integrate the reduced data base using tools such as composite imaging, cluster analysis, and neural networks. Using field examples that have been acquired across different depositional environments, we demonstrate that the resulting 2D/3D facies models ease and improve the interpretation of GPR data. We conclude that our interpretation strategy allows to generate GPR facies models in a consistent and largely automated manner and might be helpful in

  16. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  17. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  18. Attributions and personality as predictors of the road rage response.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Garrity, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the ability of attributions and personality traits to predict the emotional and behavioural components of the road rage response. Participants recalled a recent time when they experienced three different anger-provoking events when driving. They then rated their behaviours and emotions during the event, and their attributions for why the event occurred. Participants also completed a battery of personality questionnaires designed to predict their responses to the situations. Attributing causality for the anger-arousing event to a stable factor in the offending driver was uniquely related to aggressive behaviour and anger in all three situations. Hostile and blame attributions predicted aggressive behaviour and anger in different situations. In addition to dispositional measures of aggressiveness and anger predicting aggressive behaviour and anger in each of the anger-provoking situations, other personality variables were also related to aspects of the road rage response (e.g. conscientiousness, agreeableness, narcissism, and extraversion). Attributions and personality traits accounted for unique variance in the outcomes, and there were only sporadic effects of attributions partially mediating the relationships between personality variables and responses to the anger-provoking situations. Therefore, it is unlikely that the relationships between personality traits and responses to anger-provoking situations are completely mediated by attributional processing.

  19. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  20. The Attribution Cube and Judgments of Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Thomas E.

    Kelley's cube model of attributions (1967) can be applied to moral judgments to predict how individuals arrive at attributions concerning dispositional or environmental causes. The relative contributions of the three dimensions of Kelley's cube to attributions of morality and trustworthiness were tested by presenting 37 male and 77 female subjects…

  1. The Attribution Cube and Judgments of Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Thomas E.

    Kelley's cube model of attributions (1967) can be applied to moral judgments to predict how individuals arrive at attributions concerning dispositional or environmental causes. The relative contributions of the three dimensions of Kelley's cube to attributions of morality and trustworthiness were tested by presenting 37 male and 77 female subjects…

  2. Attributions and Relapse in Opiate Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Brendan P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated whether attributions of opiate addicts would predict abstinence and reactions to abstinence violations. Found that addicts who at admission attributed to themselves greater responsibility for negative outcomes and who attributed relapse episodes to more personally controllable factors were subsequently more likely either to be…

  3. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  4. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Merz, B.; Dung, N.; Parajka, J.; Nester, T.; Bloeschl, G.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This work proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extensionfrom local to regional flood frequency analysis.

  5. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis.

  6. Diatremes and craters attributed to natural explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

    1956-01-01

    Diatremes - volcanic pipes attributed to explosion - and craters have been studied to infer the ultimate causes and physical conditions attending natural explosive processes. Initial piercement of diatremes on the Navajo reservation, Arizona was probably along a fracture propagated by a high-pressure aqueous fluid. Gas rising at high velocity along the fracture would become converted to a gas-solid fluidized system by entrainment of wall- rock fragments. The first stages of widening of the vent are probably accomplished mainly by simple abrasion of the high-velocity fluidized system on the walls of the fracture. As the vent widens, its enlargement may be accelerated by inward spalling of the walls. The inferred mechanics of the Navajo-Hopi diatremes is used to illustrate the possibility of diatreme formation over a molten salt mass.

  7. Stressing the person: legal and everyday person attributions under stress.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Raio, Candace; Brosch, Tobias; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    When determining the cause of a person's behavior, perceivers often overweigh dispositional explanations and underweigh situational explanations, an error known as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). The FAE occurs in part because dispositional explanations are relatively automatic, whereas considering the situation requires additional cognitive effort. Stress is known to impair the prefrontal cortex and executive functions important for the attribution process. We investigated if stress increases dispositional attributions in common place and legal situations. Experiencing a physiological stressor increased participants' cortisol, dispositional attributions of common everyday behaviors, and negative evaluations. When determining whether a crime was due to the defendant's disposition or the mitigating situation, self-reported stress correlated with increased dispositional judgments of defendant's behavior. These findings indicate that stress may make people more likely to commit the FAE and less favorable in their evaluations of others both in daily life and when making socially consequential judicial decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stressing The Person: Legal and Everyday Person Attributions Under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Jennifer T.; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Raio, Candace; Brosch, Tobias; Uleman, Jim S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    When determining the cause of a person’s behavior, perceivers often overweigh dispositional explanations and underweigh situational explanations, an error known as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). The FAE occurs in part because dispositional explanations are relatively automatic, whereas considering the situation requires additional cognitive effort. Stress is known to impair the prefrontal cortex and executive functions important for the attribution process. We investigated if stress increases dispositional attributions in common place and legal situations. Experiencing a physiological stressor increased participants’ cortisol, dispositional attributions of common everyday behaviors, and negative evaluations. When determining whether a crime was due to the defendant’s disposition or the mitigating situation, self-reported stress correlated with increased dispositional judgments of defendant’s behavior. These findings indicate that stress may makes people more likely to commit the FAE and less favorable in their evaluations of others both in daily life and when making socially consequential judicial decisions. PMID:25175000

  9. Internal-External Control and the Attribution of Responsibility Under Questionnaire and Interview Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbings, Paul; Stone, Gerald L.

    1977-01-01

    The study examined the attribution of responsibility of 34 students with an internal or external locus of control following success or failure feedback on a communication task. Results indicated externals attribute more responsibility to impersonal external sources than do internals. The importance of attributional processes for counseling is…

  10. Do Hostile Attribution Biases in Children and Parents Predict Relationally Aggressive Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…

  11. The Educational Administrator's Survival Guide to Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    Guidelines are presented for use by educational administrators in selecting a microcomputer for administrative purposes. The selection process described is based on the determination of functions to be automated, and the identification of the software that best automates these functions. Topics addressed include general software applications that…

  12. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  13. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  14. The Roles of Elementary School Administrators and the Obstacles They Encounter in the Process of Implementing and Maintaining Dual Immersion Programs in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Anel-Janeth

    2010-01-01

    The growing English learner student population in California faces the daunting challenge of both meeting the academic expectations of school curriculum while also learning to speak, write, read, and understand a new language. Often it is the task of school administrators to choose, plan, implement, and maintain instructional programs that best…

  15. 46 CFR 296.50 - Administrative determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Scott Air Force Base, IL 62225-5357. (c) Process. The Administrator, or the Commander in the case of a... Administration or the Contracting Officer with respect to the administration of this part or any other dispute or... Contractor of the administrative determination of the Contracting Officer. Such an appeal should be...

  16. Case Citations 1996. Eighteenth Series (School Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William J., Jr., Ed.

    This document contains case citations for 1996 in areas pertaining to school administration. The cases are categorized according to the topics of negligence, workers' compensation, administrator due process, discrimination against school administrators, and discrimination in hiring teachers for administrative positions. Negligence cases cover…

  17. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  18. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and Capsules; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft...

  19. Principal Investigator and Department Administrator Perceptions of Services Provided by Offices of Research Administration at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kimberley W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine what service attributes were perceived as important factors for a successful Office of Research Administration (ORA) to provide to principal investigators and department administrators. Initially established more than 50 years ago, The Office of Research Administration (ORA) has evolved into an…

  20. Learning Is the Journey: From Process Reengineering to Systemic Customer-Service Design at the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Benefits Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION Approved by: , Monograph Director Alice Butler-Smith, Ph.D. , Seminar Leader Thomas A. Shoffner, COL...initial model introduced in this monograph, the learning lens of a novel strategy will emerge as a whole. A final summary of Hamilton , http://necsi.edu...Considerations,” The Center for Design Excellence, Booz Allen Hamilton (unpublished, 2011): 11. 24 Huba Wass de Czege, “Systemic Operational Design

  1. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  2. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  3. Assessing monoclonal antibody product quality attribute criticality through clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Andrew M; Schenauer, Matthew R; Flynn, Gregory C

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins, including antibodies, contain a variety of chemical and physical modifications. Great effort is expended during process and formulation development in controlling and minimizing this heterogeneity, which may not affect safety or efficacy, and, therefore, may not need to be controlled. Many of the chemical conversions also occur in vivo, and knowledge about the alterations can be applied to assessment of the potential impact on characteristics and the biological activity of therapeutic proteins. Other attributes may affect the drug clearance and thereby alter drug efficacy. In this review article, we describe attribute studies conducted using clinical samples and how information gleaned from them is applied to attribute criticality assessment. In general, how fast attributes change in vivo compared to the rate of mAb elimination is the key parameter used in these evaluations. An attribute with more rapidly changing levels may have greater potential to affect safety or efficacy and thereby reach the status of a Critical Quality Attribute (CQA) that should be controlled during production and storage, but the effect will depend on whether compositional changes are due to chemical conversion or differential clearance.

  4. Effect of thermal and high-pressure processing on the nutritional value and quality attributes of a nectarine purée with industrial origin during the refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Jesús; González-Cebrino, Francisco; Delgado, Jonathan; Lozano, Mercedes; Hernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-05-01

    The application of hydrostatic high pressure on an industrial line of nectarine (Prunus persica L.) purées was assessed in comparison with the traditional thermal treatment of pasteurization. Changes after thermal processing (85 °C, 5 min) and after high-pressure processing (HPP: 450 or 600 MPa for 5 or 10 min) and during the refrigerated storage (60 d) of an industrially produced nectarine purée were evaluated. Conventional heat pasteurization as well as HPP showed similar microorganisms' inactivation and maintained the microbial stability of purées until the end of the refrigerated storage (60 d). In general, thermally treated purée and HP-treated purée at 600 MPa showed more intense color changes after processing than the other treatment. In addition, thermally treated purée showed more intense color changes during storage than HPP. The highest carotenoids extractability was found in those purées treated at the lowest high-pressure-treatment intensity and holding time (450 MPa/5 min), but at the end of the storage (day 60), no differences in individual or total carotenoid levels were found between the purées. HPP at 600 MPa/10 min showed the highest polyphenols content after the treatment and during the storage. At day 0, significantly higher values were found of total antioxidant activity in purée HP-treated at 450 MPa/10 min than in untreated purée; while at the end of the storage, HP-treated purée at 600 MPa/10 min had the highest antioxidant activity. Hydrostatic high-pressure application in the industrial line of nectarine purée presented some advantages compared to the thermal treatment; however, some of the changes found were lessen during the storage period. In addition, more studies need to be carried out for HP-treatment intensity optimization. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Occupational safety management: the role of causal attribution.

    PubMed

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim

    2010-12-01

    The paper addresses the causal attribution theory, an old and well-established theme in social psychology which denotes the everyday, commonsense explanations that people use to explain events and the world around them. The attribution paradigm is considered one of the most appropriate analytical tools for exploratory and descriptive studies in social psychology and organizational literature. It affords the possibility of describing accident processes as objectively as possible and with as much detail as possible. Causal explanations are vital to the formal analysis of workplace hazards and accidents, as they determine how organizations act to prevent accident recurrence. Accordingly, they are regarded as fundamental and prerequisite elements for safety management policies. The paper focuses primarily on the role of causal attributions in occupational and industrial accident analyses and implementation of safety interventions. It thus serves as a review of the contribution of attribution theory to occupational and industrial accidents. It comprises six sections. The first section presents an introduction to the classic attribution theories, and the second an account of the various ways in which the attribution paradigm has been applied in organizational settings. The third and fourth sections review the literature on causal attributions and demographic and organizational variables respectively. The sources of attributional biases in social psychology and how they manifest and are identified in the causal explanations for industrial and occupational accidents are treated in the fifth section. Finally, conclusion and recommendations are presented. The recommendations are particularly important for the reduction of workplace accidents and associated costs. The paper touches on the need for unbiased causal analyses, belief in the preventability of accidents, and the imperative role of management in occupational safety management.

  6. Administration of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... What We Do Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  7. Does logic moderate the fundamental attribution error?

    PubMed

    Stalder, D R

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental attribution error was investigated from an individual difference perspective. Mathematicians were compared with nonmathematicians (Exp. 1; n: 84), and undergraduates who scored high on a test of logical reasoning ability were compared with those who scored low (Exp. 2; n: 62). The mathematicians and those participants scoring higher on logic appeared less prone to the fundamental attribution error, primarily using a measure of confidence in attributions.

  8. Attribution Theory and Judgment under Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-13

    attributions to some degree; and (2) that there was a preponderance of person attributions. Tins latter finding has since been replicated by Jones and...assumed pattern of data in a complete Inalysis’ Of variance framewor*. Mxat the person learns at a conceptual level . . . is how certain types of effects...he or she will attribute the act to that reason and the underlying personal disposition that it represents. "We can be certain that a politician who

  9. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  10. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  11. General attributes of safe organisations

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, P

    2004-01-01

    In analysing the safety strategies of organisations successfully managing hazardous systems it is apparent that safety itself is a problematic, and even risky, concept. It is less the valuation of safety per se than the disvalue surrounding mis-specification, misidentification, and misunderstanding that drives reliability in these organisations. Two contrasting models of high reliability can be identified in precluded event and resilience focused organisations. Each model is adapted to different properties in the raw material, process variances, and knowledge base of the organisation. These two models bound the reliability approaches available to medicine. The implications of each for medical reliability strategy are explored, and the possible adaptation of features from each for medical organisations are assessed. PMID:15576691

  12. Attributing causal agents to nationwide maps of forest disturbance

    Treesearch

    Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Karen Schleeweis; Chris Toney; Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2012-01-01

    Currently in its third phase, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has launched nationwide processing of historic Landsat data to provide a comprehensive annual, wall-to-wall analysis of U.S. disturbance history over the last 30+ years. Because understanding the cause of disturbance is important to quantifying carbon dynamics, work is underway to attribute...

  13. Self-Serving Bias and the Attribution of Marital Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriber, Jacquelyn B.; And Others

    Two types of bias in the attribution process are the responsibility bias, in which individuals tend to assume more than their objective share of responsibility, and unrealistic optimism, in which individuals tend to assume that future outcomes will be positive. In order to investigate these self-serving biases among married and divorced…

  14. Sexual Arousal Attributions and Gender Identity Perceptions of Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Shawn A.; And Others

    Analyses of deviant sexual behaviors have most often derived from psychodynamic or behavioral theory. Little systematic research attention has been paid to the role of intervening cognitive variables such as social perception and the causal attribution process. Two studies were conducted to examine differences in cognition between child molesters…

  15. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  16. Evolving Coevolutionary Classifiers Under Large Attribute Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucette, John; Lichodzijewski, Peter; Heywood, Malcolm

    Model-building under the supervised learning domain potentially face a dual learning problem of identifying both the parameters of the model and the subset of (domain) attributes necessary to support the model, thus using an embedded as opposed to wrapper or filter based design. Genetic Programming (GP) has always addressed this dual problem, however, further implicit assumptions are made which potentially increase the complexity of the resulting solutions. In this work we are specifically interested in the case of classification under very large attribute spaces. As such it might be expected that multiple independent/ overlapping attribute subspaces support the mapping to class labels; whereas GP approaches to classification generally assume a single binary classifier per class, forcing the model to provide a solution in terms of a single attribute subspace and single mapping to class labels. Supporting the more general goal is considered as a requirement for identifying a 'team' of classifiers with non-overlapping classifier behaviors, in which each classifier responds to different subsets of exemplars. Moreover, the subsets of attributes associated with each team member might utilize a unique 'subspace' of attributes. This work investigates the utility of coevolutionary model building for the case of classification problems with attribute vectors consisting of 650 to 100,000 dimensions. The resulting team based coevolutionary evolutionary method-Symbiotic Bid-based (SBB) GP-is compared to alternative embedded classifier approaches of C4.5 and Maximum Entropy Classification (MaxEnt). SSB solutions demonstrate up to an order of magnitude lower attribute count relative to C4.5 and up to two orders of magnitude lower attribute count than MaxEnt while retaining comparable or better classification performance. Moreover, relative to the attribute count of individual models participating within a team, no more than six attributes are ever utilized; adding a further

  17. Nuclear Weapons. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better Reflect Funding Estimates and Technology Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    metal. Recovery extraction centrifugal contactors A process that uses solvent to extract uranium for purposes of purification. Agile machining A...Appropriations, U.S. Senate NUCLEAR WEAPONS National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Weapons: National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better

  18. Scaling Terrain Attributes By Fractal Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Terrain attributes derived from grid digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used in distributed hydrologic models. However, many attribute estimations are biased by DEM grid cell size. For example, land surface slopes estimated from 30-m DEMs are, on average, less than slopes estimated from ...

  19. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  20. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  1. Causal Attributions Outside the Laboratory: Explaining Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eliot R.; Kluegel, James R.

    One hundred and seventy five adults were surveyed to collect data on attributes and attitudes related to poverty. The authors attempted to evaluate attributions outside a laboratory setting in order to collect data applicable to real-world settings, taking into consideration the complexities of modern society. The study was concerned with the…

  2. Predictors of Attributional Style Change in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Shen, Gail H. C.; Villari, Annette G.

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness…

  3. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  4. Adolescents' Attributions about Aggression: An Initial Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Tisak, Marie S.

    2003-01-01

    Examined causal attributions about aggression made by early, middle, and late adolescents. Analyses of the attribution questionnaire supported the hypothesized model of causal beliefs. The strength of endorsements of internally oriented causal factors increased with age. Findings are discussed with regard to socio-cognitive development and…

  5. [Smoking-attributable deaths in Spain, 2006].

    PubMed

    Banegas, José R; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Bañuelos-Marco, Beatriz; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Villar-Álvarez, Fernando; Martín-Moreno, José M; Córdoba-García, Rodrigo; Pérez-Trullén, Alfonso; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos

    2011-02-12

    This study estimates smoking-attributable mortality in Spain in 2006. Source data included 1) smoking prevalence in Spain; 2) deaths occurred in Spain; and 3) relative risks of mortality by tobacco-caused diseases drawn from the Cancer Prevention Study II. All data corresponded to individuals aged 35 years and older. In 2006, 53,155 smoking-attributable deaths were estimated (14.7% of all deaths occurred in individuals≥35 years; 25.1% in men and 3.4% in women). Almost 90% (47,174) of these attributable deaths corresponded to men, and 11.3% (5,981) to women. The most frequent attributable deaths were: cancer (24,058), specially lung cancer (16,482), cardiovascular disease (17,560), specially ischemic heart disease (6,263) and stroke (4,283), and respiratory disease (11,537), specially chronic obstructive lung disease (9,886). Since 2001, a decrease in smoking-attributable mortality was observed in men and an increase in women. About one out of 7 deaths occurring annually in individuals≥35 years in Spain is attributable to smoking (one in 4 in men and one in 29 in women). Despite a decreasing trend in the number of smoking-attributable deaths over time (except in women, where they increase), the toll of estimated attributable deaths is still very high. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  7. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  8. Attributional Biases among Clinicians and Nonclinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Oren; Hosey, Karen R.

    1981-01-01

    Clinicians and nonclinicians made causal attributions to actor behaviors. Analysis showed clear observer attribution bias for both groups. A greater bias occurred with deviant actor behavior and in situations that featured actor actions over opinions over emotions. Results are discussed in terms of applicability to clinical practice. (Author/JAC)

  9. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  10. Adolescents' Attributions about Aggression: An Initial Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Tisak, Marie S.

    2003-01-01

    Examined causal attributions about aggression made by early, middle, and late adolescents. Analyses of the attribution questionnaire supported the hypothesized model of causal beliefs. The strength of endorsements of internally oriented causal factors increased with age. Findings are discussed with regard to socio-cognitive development and…

  11. Residual Excitation and Ego-Defensive Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Earle, Walter B.

    It has been suggested that egotistical attributions for success and failure are mediated by the affective reactions resulting from achievement outcomes. To establish the motivational impact of failure-related affect on subsequent ego-defensive attributions, an excitation transfer paradigm was used to manipulate the negative feelings elicited by…

  12. Graduand Student Attributes: A Canadian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Cowley, Summer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain insights into how academics understand undergraduate graduand attributes. The findings reveal some alignment in views about student attributes, including that they are engaged citizens, are self-directed, have imagination, are questioning, are flexible, display leadership, are problem solvers,…

  13. Playing "Twenty Questions" with Attribute Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the problem of finding the expected number of questions necessary to identify 1 out of a set of 30 attribute blocks. Solutions include the use of a tree diagram or a computer simulation. Generalizes the problem for increased numbers of attributes. (MDH)

  14. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  15. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intentional forgetting as a facilitator for recalling new product attributes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Stewart; Lindsey, Charles; Krishnan, H Shanker

    2006-12-01

    When market changes alter what product attributes are deemed important, consumers may intentionally try to forget old product information in an attempt to remember new product information. In Experiment 1, the authors demonstrated that intentional forgetting of this nature temporarily inhibits retrieval of old product information and leads to a benefit to memory for new product information. The results show that, after a short delay, benefits continue in the absence of costs, which is supportive of a multiple-process account of intentional forgetting. Experiment 2 extends these effects using an advertising message to stimulate forgetting. Across both experiments, results also show that brand preference is based on learning of new attribute information.

  17. Recent advances in counter PRNU based source attribution and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KaraküÒ«ük, Ahmet; Dirik, Ahmet E.; Sencar, Hüsrev T.; Memon, Nasir D.

    2015-03-01

    Photo response noise uniformity (PRNU) based source attribution has proven to be a powerful technique in multimedia forensics. The increasing prominence of this technique, combined with its introduction as evidence in the court, brought with it the need for it to withstand anti-forensics. Although robustness under common signal processing operations and geometrical transformations have been considered as potential attacks on this technique, new adversarial settings that curtail the performance of this technique are constantly being introduced. Starting with an overview of proposed approaches to counter PRNU based source attribution, this work introduces photographic panoramas as one such approach and discusses how to defend against it.

  18. Attributional style of Egyptians with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elnakeeb, Mayar; Abdel-Dayem, Samia; Gaafar, Maha; Mavundla, Thandisizwe R

    2010-12-01

    The attributional style is one domain of social cognition that involves perceiving, interpreting, and generating responses to others' intentions and behaviours in different situations. This study describes the attributional style of Egyptians with schizophrenia. The study took place in a psychiatric hospital in Egypt. Eight psychiatric wards were randomly selected, and all participants (150) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated. Data were collected using the Ambiguous Intention Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), the attributional style interview schedule, and the sociodemographic/clinical data sheet. Participants' scores on the AIHQ varied significantly between different situations (intentional, accidental, and ambiguous). The attributional style of the studied participants regarding their perceived psychosocial problems tended to be related to specific causes. These causes were mostly externally attributed to other people and to circumstances, and were perceived not to persist in the future. It would seem that Egyptians with schizophrenia tend to blame other people for negative events if these events are perceived to cause intentional harm.

  19. Trust and communicated attributions in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Rempel, J K; Ross, M; Holmes, J G

    2001-07-01

    The attributional statements intimate partners communicate to one another were examined as a function of trust. In discussions by 35 married couples, 850 attributions and corresponding events were coded on dimensions of valence, globality, and locus. Results of regression and contingency analyses indicate that attributional statements expressed in high-trust relationships emphasized positive aspects of the relationship. Medium-trust couples actively engaged issues but focused more on negative events and explanations. Low-trust couples expressed more specific, less affectively extreme attributional statements that minimized the potential for increased conflict. Results could not be accounted for by relationship satisfaction. These findings also highlight the importance of focusing on features of the events for which attributions are expressed.

  20. Perceptions and Practices of Pre-School through Eighth-Grade Christian School International Administrators in the Selection Process of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Soelen, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Principals are the primary influencers in the teacher selection process. They have the opportunity to improve the quality their school each time a teacher vacancy occurs through the process of determining of their school's need, recruiting candidates who might be a good match, and selecting what they hope will be a highly effective teacher. The…

  1. Perceptions and Practices of Pre-School through Eighth-Grade Christian School International Administrators in the Selection Process of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Soelen, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Principals are the primary influencers in the teacher selection process. They have the opportunity to improve the quality their school each time a teacher vacancy occurs through the process of determining of their school's need, recruiting candidates who might be a good match, and selecting what they hope will be a highly effective teacher. The…

  2. Research on Attribute Reduction in Hoisting Motor State Recognition of Quayside Container Crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Tang, G.; Hu, X.

    2017-07-01

    In view of too many attributes in hoisting motor state recognition of quayside container crane. Attribute reduction method based on discernibility matrix is introduced to attribute reduction of lifting motor state information table. A method of attribute reduction based on the combination of rough set and genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with the hoisting motor state decision table. Under the condition that the information system's decision-making ability is unchanged, the redundant attribute is deleted. Which reduces the complexity and computation of the recognition process of the hoisting motor. It is possible to realize the fast state recognition.

  3. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  4. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  5. Detecting and Attributing Health Burdens to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Ogden, Nicholas H; Semenza, Jan C; Woodward, Alistair

    2017-08-07

    Detection and attribution of health impacts caused by climate change uses formal methods to determine a) whether the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has changed, and b) the extent to which that change could be attributed to climate change. There have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses in health. Our goal was to show a range of approaches for conducting detection and attribution analyses. Case studies for heatwaves, Lyme disease in Canada, and Vibrio emergence in northern Europe highlight evidence that climate change is adversely affecting human health. Changes in rates and geographic distribution of adverse health outcomes were detected, and, in each instance, a proportion of the observed changes could, in our judgment, be attributed to changes in weather patterns associated with climate change. The results of detection and attribution studies can inform evidence-based risk management to reduce current, and plan for future, changes in health risks associated with climate change. Gaining a better understanding of the size, timing, and distribution of the climate change burden of disease and injury requires reliable long-term data sets, more knowledge about the factors that confound and modify the effects of climate on health, and refinement of analytic techniques for detection and attribution. At the same time, significant advances are possible in the absence of complete data and statistical certainty: there is a place for well-informed judgments, based on understanding of underlying processes and matching of patterns of health, climate, and other determinants of human well-being. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1509.

  6. Trust and partner-enhancing attributions in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul J E; Rempel, John K

    2004-06-01

    A cross-lagged panel design was used to examine the links between trust and attributional processes in a sample of 75 married couples throughout a period of 2 years. During the first phase of the study, participants completed a measure of marital trust, engaged in a laboratory problem-solving discussion of a recurrent conflict-related issue, and then rated their partner's behavior and motives. Approximately 2 years later, 54 couples were again contacted and measures of trust were obtained. Forty of these couples also viewed a videotape of their laboratory problem-solving discussion from 2 years previously and rated their partner's behavior and motives. Results suggested a reciprocal causal pattern by which partner-enhancing attributions predict changes in trust and trust predicts changes in partner-enhancing attributions.

  7. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  8. Concurrent engineering technical interface process flow. Report of the CE Technical/Administrative Interface Task Group of the CALS/CE Industry Steering Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    A general guide to the components of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Industry needed to describe the technical interfaces required for implementing concurrent engineering is provided. These interfaces address the key components of design, manufacturing, and logistic support in an integrated environment. This document is intended to provide a transition structure for the other concurrent engineering task groups to build a more complete definition of the concurrent engineering process. The document addresses the technical interfaces of the government's acquisition process and does not attempt to define the business relationships or interfaces of administering the acquisition process.

  9. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis. PMID:27609996

  10. Interplay between Narrative and Bodily Self in Access to Consciousness: No Difference between Self- and Non-self Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea; Salomon, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The construct of the “self” is conceived as being fundamental in promoting survival. As such, extensive studies have documented preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli. For example, attributes that relate to the self are better encoded and retrieved, and are more readily consciously perceived. The preferential processing of self-relevant information, however, appears to be especially true for physical (e.g., faces), as opposed to psychological (e.g., traits), conceptions of the self. Here, we test whether semantic attributes that participants judge as self-relevant are further processed unconsciously than attributes that were not judged as self-relevant. In Experiment 1, a continuous flash suppression paradigm was employed with “self” and “non-self” attribute words being presented subliminally, and we asked participants to categorize unseen words as either self-related or not. In a second experiment, we attempted to boost putative preferential self-processing by relation to its physical conception, that is, one’s own body. To this aim, we repeated Experiment 1 while administrating acoustic stimuli either close or far from the body, i.e., within or outside peripersonal space. Results of both Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrate no difference in breaking suppression for self and non-self words. Additionally, we found that while participants were able to process the physical location of the unseen words (above or below fixation) they were not able to categorize these as self-relevant or not. Finally, results showed that sounds presented in the extra-personal space elicited a more stringent response criterion for “self” in the process of categorizing unseen visual stimuli. This shift in criterion as a consequence of sound location was restricted to the self, as no such effect was observed in the categorization of attributes occurring above or below fixation. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that subliminally presented stimuli are not

  11. Interplay between Narrative and Bodily Self in Access to Consciousness: No Difference between Self- and Non-self Attributes.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea; Salomon, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The construct of the "self" is conceived as being fundamental in promoting survival. As such, extensive studies have documented preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli. For example, attributes that relate to the self are better encoded and retrieved, and are more readily consciously perceived. The preferential processing of self-relevant information, however, appears to be especially true for physical (e.g., faces), as opposed to psychological (e.g., traits), conceptions of the self. Here, we test whether semantic attributes that participants judge as self-relevant are further processed unconsciously than attributes that were not judged as self-relevant. In Experiment 1, a continuous flash suppression paradigm was employed with "self" and "non-self" attribute words being presented subliminally, and we asked participants to categorize unseen words as either self-related or not. In a second experiment, we attempted to boost putative preferential self-processing by relation to its physical conception, that is, one's own body. To this aim, we repeated Experiment 1 while administrating acoustic stimuli either close or far from the body, i.e., within or outside peripersonal space. Results of both Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrate no difference in breaking suppression for self and non-self words. Additionally, we found that while participants were able to process the physical location of the unseen words (above or below fixation) they were not able to categorize these as self-relevant or not. Finally, results showed that sounds presented in the extra-personal space elicited a more stringent response criterion for "self" in the process of categorizing unseen visual stimuli. This shift in criterion as a consequence of sound location was restricted to the self, as no such effect was observed in the categorization of attributes occurring above or below fixation. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that subliminally presented stimuli are not semantically processed, at

  12. Attributes and qualifications that employers seek when hiring dietitians in business and industry.

    PubMed

    Kirk, D; Shanklin, C W; Gorman, M A

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the employment trends of dietitians in business and industry and to identify attributes and qualifications essential to succeed in this segment of the industry. Results of the delphi process were utilized in the design of a questionnaire which would identify attributes and qualifications essential for success. The questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 300 members of the Dietitians in Business and Industry Practice Group and 300 prospective and current employers of dietitians. Response rates of 45.7% (no. = 137) and 29.0% (no. = 87) were attained for the dietitians and employers, respectively. The majority of current employers (72%) and prospective employers (62%) and dietitians (73%) responded that the trend of hiring dietitians in business and industry was increasing. Both dietitians (53%) and employers (41%) reported that new positions were being created for dietitians in their organizations. Operational experience was more important for positions in sales, whereas clinical experience was more important for positions in manufacturing organizations. Employers ranked a master's degree in business administration (MBA) as the second most important qualification; dietitians rated the MBA as fifteenth in importance. Dietitians ranked registration status (RD) as, fourth in importance; however, employers rated registration status as least important of the qualifications. Both employers and dietitians ranked communication skills as essential to succeed in business and industry positions.

  13. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles.

  14. 77 FR 40883 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Identification of Products With Environmental Attributes AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 77 FR 17481 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Identification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Identification of Products With Environmental Attributes AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice of request...

  16. Change process during synchronised conversion to a once-monthly erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration at a single satellite haemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Chow, Josephine Sau Fan; Rayment, Glenda; Britos, Veronica; Cleland, Bruce; Suranyi, Michael

    2012-12-01

    There are currently no published data on the impact of changes to practice caused by introducing coordinated once-monthly erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration. This study aimed to measure staff satisfaction during and after ESA synchronisation within a single satellite haemodialysis unit. A quantitative survey using a Likert scale was distributed to dialysis nurses pre-synchronisation and during follow-up at three and nine months post-synchronisation. Secondary outcomes included monitoring of haemoglobin (Hb) levels. A total of 19 respondents completed the surveys. By nine months post-synchronisation, most nurses responded that ESA synchronisation was not a time-consuming task, did not increase their workload, had saved them time and was simpler for the unit. Additionally, most nurses reported that they had coped well with the change and that they wanted ESA synchronisation to be permanently introduced. At 8 months post-synchronisation, 53.3% of patients had an Hb level > 11 g/dl and < 12 g/dl. Changes to practice resulting from ESA synchronisation did not appear to negatively impact nurse workplace satisfaction. 2012 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association

  17. Skills and attributes of directors of educational programmes.

    PubMed

    Bordage, G; Foley, R; Goldyn, S

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a list of desirable skills and attributes of prospective educational programme directors as judged by potential employers of future directors. An international mail survey was conducted worldwide, using a one-page, open-ended questionnaire. University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. Deans, department heads and chief executive officers from the various health professions. A total of 139 respondents completed the questionnaire (22. 3% response rate). Responses were remarkably similar across health professions. The nine leading skills were: oral communication skills, interpersonal skills, competent practitioner, educational goal-definition skills, educational design skills, problem-solving and decision-making skills, team worker and building skills, written communication skills and fiscal manager and budgeting skills. The three leading personal attributes were: visionary, flexible and open-minded and trustworthy and value-driven individual. The complete list of skills and attributes can be used by employers or administrators to build checklist items when hiring or reviewing programme directors or to plan and evaluate training programmes. The importance of leadership compared to managerial responsibilities is discussed as well as the need to train future educational programme directors.

  18. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  19. Fuzzification of attribute-oriented generalization and its application to medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2000-04-01

    Conventional studies on knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) shows that combination of rule induction methods and attribute-oriented generalization is very useful to extract knowledge from data. However, attribute-oriented generalization in which concept hierarchy is used for transformation of attributes assumes that a given hierarchy is consistent. Thus, if this condition is violated, application of hierarchical knowledge generates inconsistent rules. In this paper, first, we show that this phenomenon is easily found in data mining contexts: when we apply attribute- oriented generalization to attributes in databases, generalized attributes will have fuzziness for classification. Then, we introduce two approaches to solve this problem, one process of which suggests that combination of rule induction and attribute-oriented generalization can be used to validate concept hierarchy. Finally, we briefly discuss the mathematical generalization of this solution in which context- free fuzzy sets is a key idea.

  20. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.