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Sample records for administration attribution process

  1. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  2. AVID Teacher Leadership: Administrator and Teacher Perceptions of Leadership Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shirley J.; Huerta, Jeffery J.; Watt, Karen M.; Martinez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and administrators with regard to AVID (Advancement via Individual Determination) teacher leaders. The purpose was to compare whether teachers and administrators agree on the types of attributes needed for teacher leaders involved in implementing AVID as a school reform effort. Results revealed that…

  3. Attributes of an Effective Feedback Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Not all feedback is created equal. It is actually quite uneven in its design and effectiveness. Feedback forms typically used by educators and the feedback process used to support learning have markedly different attributes. Understanding the key attributes of effective feedback is important for those involved in the feedback process. The tools…

  4. Race, Class, and the Attributional Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Long, Anna

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to examine the process of attributional thinking in Black and White children who differed in social class. Blacks did not display a less adaptive attributional pattern than did whites following actual performance on exams, and no differences existed in children's understanding of the meaning of causes. (Author/LMO)

  5. Group administration of the children's attributional style interview.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2007-01-01

    Research testing the reformulated theory of learned helplessness has been limited by the psychometric properties of instruments used to measure children's attributional style. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to modify a relatively new measure of attributional style that has demonstrated strong psychometric properties with young children and test its psychometric properties in a group administration with a sample of 238 fifth- and sixth-grade children. Results revealed strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability, significant correlations with another measure of attributional style, depressive symptoms, optimism, learned helplessness, and a factor structure that was consistent with theory. Overall, these results provide initial support for the use of a modified paper-and-pencil version of the Children's Attributional Style Interview in a group-administered format for children as young as fifth and sixth grade. PMID:17658990

  6. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal-) functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity. PMID:22928880

  7. Preference for pharmaceutical formulation and treatment process attributes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Katie D; Johnston, Joseph A; Matza, Louis S; Curtis, Sarah E; Havel, Henry A; Sweetana, Stephanie A; Gelhorn, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pharmaceutical formulation and treatment process attributes, such as dose frequency and route of administration, can have an impact on quality of life, treatment adherence, and disease outcomes. The aim of this literature review was to examine studies on preferences for pharmaceutical treatment process attributes, focusing on research in diabetes, oncology, osteoporosis, and autoimmune disorders. Methods The literature search focused on identifying studies reporting preferences for attributes of the pharmaceutical treatment process. Studies were required to use formal quantitative preference assessment methods, such as utility valuation, conjoint analysis, or contingent valuation. Searches were conducted using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Health Economic Evaluation Database, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (January 1993–October 2013). Results A total of 42 studies met inclusion criteria: 19 diabetes, nine oncology, five osteoporosis, and nine autoimmune. Across these conditions, treatments associated with shorter treatment duration, less frequent administration, greater flexibility, and less invasive routes of administration were preferred over more burdensome or complex treatments. While efficacy and safety often had greater relative importance than treatment process, treatment process also had a quantifiable impact on preference. In some instances, particularly in diabetes and autoimmune disorders, treatment process attributes had greater relative importance than some or all efficacy and safety attributes. Some studies suggested that relative importance of treatment process depends on disease (eg, acute vs chronic) and patient (eg, injection experience) characteristics. Conclusion Despite heterogeneity in study methods and design, some general patterns of preference clearly emerged. Overall, the results of this review suggest that treatment process has a quantifiable impact on preference and willingness to pay for

  8. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  9. Group Administration of the Children's Attributional Style Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2007-01-01

    Research testing the reformulated theory of learned helplessness has been limited by the psychometric properties of instruments used to measure children's attributional style. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to modify a relatively new measure of attributional style that has demonstrated strong psychometric properties with young children…

  10. 5 CFR 1645.4 - Administrative expenses attributable to each TSP Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forfeitures and accrued earnings on forfeitures, abandoned accounts, and unapplied deposits; (b) Investment management fees and other accrued administrative expenses attributable only to a particular fund will...

  11. Career and Technical Education Administrators' Perceptions of Secondary Teachers' Attire as Indicated by Selected Professional Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) administrators toward secondary teachers' attire as indicated by 10 occupational attributes. The population consisted of CTE administrators employed by West Virginia Department of Education during 2006-2007 academic school year. The top three attributes…

  12. Enhancing online waveform processing by adding new point attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfennigbauer, Martin; Wolf, Clifford; Ullrich, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    RIEGL LIDAR instruments based on echo digitization and on-line waveform processing provide valuable attributes to every detected target: calibrated amplitude, calibrated estimated target reflectance, and echo pulse deviation. Additional attributes could be provided by employing enhanced algorithms. In hydrography an estimate for the backscattering coefficient of a water column, for topographic targets an estimate of the angle of incidence of the laser beam on flat targets can be determined. We present data sets based on on-line waveform processing of RIEGL's V-Line and assess the possibility of deriving additional attributes by performing more sophisticated analysis of the waveform.

  13. Cynicism about organizational change: an attribution process perspective.

    PubMed

    Wanous, John P; Reichers, Arnon E; Austin, James T

    2004-06-01

    The underlying attribution process for cynicism about organizational change is examined with six samples from four different organizations. The samples include hourly (n=777) and salaried employees (n= 155) from a manufacturing plant, faculty (n=293) and staff (n=302) from a large university, managers from a utility company (n=97), and young managers (n=65) from various organizations who were attending an evening MBA program. This form of cynicism is defined as the combination of Pessimism (about future change efforts) and a Dispositional attribution (why past efforts to change failed). Three analyses support this definition. First, an exploratory factor analysis (from the largest sample) produced two factors, one composed of Pessimism and the Dispositional attribution items and the second of the Situational attribution items. Second, the average correlation (across several samples) between Pessimism and Dispositional attribution is much higher (.59) than the average correlation between Pessimism and Situational attribution (.17). Third, scores on two different trait-based measures of cynicism correlate highest with the Dispositional attribution component of cynicism. A practical implication is that organizational leaders may minimize cynicism by managing both employees' pessimism about organizational change and employees' attributions about it. Specific suggestions for how this might be done are offered.

  14. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.

  15. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  16. Team Attributes, Processes, and Values: A Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann; Beck, Stephenson J.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogical framework to help students analyze their group and team interactions. Intersecting five fundamental group attributes (group size, group goal, group member interdependence, group structure, and group identity) with three overarching group processes (leadership, decision making, and conflict management) creates an…

  17. Processing companies' preferences for attributes of beef in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess processing companies' preferences for attributes of Swiss beef. To this end, qualitative interviews were used to derive product attributes that determine the buying decision. Through an adaptive-choice based conjoint analysis survey and latent class analysis of choice data, we compute class preferences. Results show that there are two distinct classes. A smaller class emphasizes traceability back to the birth farm and low producer price, a larger class focuses on environmental effects and origin. Additionally we see that larger companies are more price-sensitive and smaller companies are more sensitive to origin of the animals. The results outlined in this paper may be used to target market segments and to derive differentiation strategies based on product characteristics.

  18. Attribution Of Cyber Attacks On Process Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Hutchinson, Robert; Margulies, Jonathan

    The attribution of cyber attacks is an important problem. Attribution gives critical infrastructure asset owners and operators legal recourse in the event of attacks and deters potential attacks. This paper discusses attribution techniques along with the associated legal and technical challenges. It presents a proposal for a voluntary network of attributable activity, an important first step towards a more complete attribution methodology for the control systems community.

  19. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  20. Inference process of programmed attributed regular grammars for character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prundaru, Mihail; Prundaru, Ioana

    2000-12-01

    The paper presents the grammar inference engine of a pattern recognition system for character recognition. The input characters are identified, thinned to a one pixel width pattern and a feature-based description is provided. Using the syntactic recognition paradigm, the features are the set of terminals (or terminal symbols) for the application. The feature-based description includes a set of three attributes (i.e. A, B, C) for each feature. The combined feature and attribute description for each input pattern preserves in a more accurate way the structure of the original pattern. The grammar inference engine uses the feature-based description of each input pattern from the training set to build a grammar for each class of patterns. For each input pattern from the training set, the productions (rewriting rules) are derived together with all the necessary elements such as: the nonterminals, branch and testing conditions. Since the grammars are regular, the process of deriving the production rules is simple. All the productions are collected together providing the tags to be consecutive, without gaps. The size of the class grammars is reduced at an acceptable level for further processing using a set of Evans heuristic rules. These algorithms identifies the redundant productions, eliminating those productions and the correspondent nonterminal symbols. The stop criteria for the Evans thinning algorithm makes sure that no further reductions are possible. The last step of the grammar inference process enables the grammar to identify class members which were not in the training set: a cycling production rule. The above built grammars are used by the syntactic (character) classifier to identify the input patterns as being members of a-priori known classes.

  1. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  2. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle

    2016-04-01

    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  3. The Underlying Processes of Athletic Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    1983-01-01

    Athletic administration is a diverse subject area requiring competence in many skills. The process of administration refers to the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling that takes place to accomplish objectives. This paper examines these four elements and suggests how using these principles will result in more efficient athletic…

  4. Administrator Career Paths and Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.; Raffel, Jeffrey A.; Welch, Jennie Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present qualitative evidence on the processes and forces that shape school administrator career paths. Design/methodology/approach: An embedded case study approach is used to understand more than 100 administrator career transitions within the Delaware education system. Semi-structured interview data were…

  5. Assessing Effective Attributes of Followers in a Leadership Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelo, Absael; Prilipko, Evgenia V.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Followership, being an understudied concept, raises fundamental questions: How did followership develop? Why do people submit into becoming followers? The developmental trajectory for the development of individual attributes is as yet, uncharted. Current study provides an overview of assessed attributes of followers, as proposed by Antelo (2010).…

  6. Hydrodynamic pressure processing: Impact on the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) as an innovative, postharvest technology for enhancing the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products. A variety of meat products have been tested for their response to the high pressure shockwaves of HDP. The st...

  7. Predicting Depression from Marital Distress and Attributional Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Susan Creekmore; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the interaction between marital distress and spouses' attributions and expectancies regarding the marital relationship in predicting depressive symptoms in a mixed sample of 59 clinic and nonclinic couples. Best predictor of depression for both sexes was measure of disaffection, reflecting emotional distance and alienation in the…

  8. The Role of Attribution Processes in Conformity and Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    One of the purposes of the study is to persuade the reader that the Asch experiments showed not the tyranny of the group over the individual, but the consequences of unresolved and unresolvable problems of interpersonal perception and attribution. (Author/AM)

  9. Leadership in Higher Education: Success Attributions and Self-Perceptions of College Administrators. ASHE 1984 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Sandra Fay

    The self-perceptions and attributions for success among 561 college administrators were studied. Questionnaires were completed by presidents (27 percent), deans (27 percent), directors and coordinators (33 percent), and nonadministrative faculty (13 percent). Self-perceptions were measured by adjectives that were subsequently categorized as…

  10. Attributing Meanings to Representations of Data: The Case of Statistical Process Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Bakker, Arthur; Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meanings that employees in industry attribute to representations of data and the contingencies of these meanings in context. Our primary concern is to more precisely characterize how the context of the industrial process is constitutive of the meaning of graphs of data derived from this process. We draw on data…

  11. The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Didem; Altunay, Esen; Yalçinkaya, Mu¨nevver

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the administration experiences of female administrators, find out the troubles they have had during their administration process, and suggest some solutions according to these experiences. The qualitative method was used in this research and data was collected via the semi-structured interview form…

  12. Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations with Adolescents' Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…

  13. Understanding the Process Model of Leadership: Follower Attribute Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelo, Absael; Henderson, Richard L.; St. Clair, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Early leadership studies produced significant research findings that have helped differentiate between leader and follower personal attributes and their consequent behaviors (SEDL, 1992), but little attention was given to the follower's contribution to the leadership process. This study represents a continuation of research by Henderson, Antelo, &…

  14. The Effect of Attributional Processes Concerning Medication Taking on Return of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Whitley, Diana; Bystritsky, Alexander; Telch, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, the authors examined the effect of attributional processes concerning medication taking on return of fear following exposure-based treatment. Participants (87% undergraduate students and 13% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (N = 95) were randomly allocated to a waitlist condition, a psychological…

  15. Social Attribution Processes and Comorbid Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2006-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children's emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with…

  16. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations of...-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. (a) General. The Cumulative...

  17. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations of...-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. (a) General. The Cumulative...

  18. Analysis of extreme rainfall events using attributes control charts in temporal rainfall processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeta, María; Valencia, Jose Luis; Saá-Requejo, Antonio; María Tarquis, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of most intense rainfall events on agriculture and insurance industry can be very severe. This research focuses in the analysis of extreme rainfall events throughout the use of attributes control charts, which constitutes a usual tool in Statistical Process Control (SPC) but unusual in climate studios. Here, series of daily precipitations for the years 1931-2009 within a Spanish region are analyzed, based on a new type of attributes control chart that takes into account the autocorrelation between the extreme rainfall events. The aim is to conclude if there exist or not evidence of a change in the extreme rainfall model of the considered series. After adjusting seasonally the precipitation series and considering the data of the first 30 years, a frequency-based criterion allowed fixing specification limits in order to discriminate between extreme observed rainfall days and normal observed rainfall days. The autocorrelation amongst maximum precipitation is taken into account by a New Binomial Markov Extended Process obtained for each rainfall series. These modelling of the extreme rainfall processes provide a way to generate the attributes control charts for the annual fraction of rainfall extreme days. The extreme rainfall processes along the rest of the years under study can then be monitored by such attributes control charts. The results of the application of this methodology show evidence of change in the model of extreme rainfall events in some of the analyzed precipitation series. This suggests that the attributes control charts proposed for the analysis of the most intense precipitation events will be of practical interest to agriculture and insurance sectors in next future.

  19. Mechanistic basis for the effects of process parameters on quality attributes in high shear wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Sherif I F; Narang, Ajit S; LaMarche, Keirnan; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar; Varia, Sailesh A

    2012-12-15

    Three model compounds were used to study the effect of process parameters on in-process critical material attributes and a final product critical quality attribute. The effect of four process parameters was evaluated using design of experiment approach. Batches were characterized for particle size distribution, density (porosity), flow, compaction, and dissolution rate. The mechanisms of the effect of process parameters on primary granule properties (size and density) were proposed. Water amount showed significant effect on granule size and density. The effect of impeller speed was dependent on the granule mechanical properties and efficiency of liquid distribution in the granulator. Blend density was found to increase rapidly during wet massing. Liquid addition rate was the least consequential factor and showed minimal impact on granule density and growth. Correlations of primary properties with granulation bulk powder properties (compaction and flow) and tablet dissolution were also identified. The effects of the process parameters on the bulk powder properties and tablet dissolution were consistent with their proposed link to primary granule properties. Understanding the impact of primary granule properties on bulk powder properties and final product critical quality attributes provides the basis for modulating granulation parameters in order to optimize product performance. PMID:22981985

  20. Abnormal neural processing during emotional salience attribution of affective asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon-Koo; Chun, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Hae-Jeong; Jung, Young-Chul; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant emotional salience attribution has been reported to be an important clinical feature in patients with schizophrenia. Real life stimuli that incorporate both positive and negative emotional traits lead to affective asymmetry such as negativity bias and positivity offset. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of emotional salience attribution in patients with schizophrenia when affective asymmetry was processed. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotion judgment task in which two pictures were juxtaposed. The task consisted of responding to affective asymmetry condition (ambivalent and neutral) and affective symmetry conditions (positive and negative), and group comparisons were performed for each condition. Significantly higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus was observed for the ambivalent condition than for the other conditions in controls, but not in patients. Compared with controls, patients showed decreased activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and putamen for the ambivalent condition, but no changes were observed for the neutral condition. Multiple prefrontal hypoactivities during salience attribution of negativity bias in schizophrenia may underlie deficits in the integrative processing of emotional information. Regional abnormalities in the salience network may be the basis of defective emotional salience attribution in schizophrenia, which is likely involved in symptom formation and social dysfunction.

  1. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes :

    SciTech Connect

    Beyeler, Walter E; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  2. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    alone could not explain the observed positivity bias. Furthermore, participants' behavior in our task was linked to the most widely used measure of attribution style. In sum, our findings suggest that positive and negative performance feedback influences the evaluation of task-related stimuli, as predicted by attribution theory. Therefore, our study points to the relevance of attribution theory for feedback processing in decision-making and provides a novel outlook for decision-making biases. PMID:26849646

  3. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    performance alone could not explain the observed positivity bias. Furthermore, participants’ behavior in our task was linked to the most widely used measure of attribution style. In sum, our findings suggest that positive and negative performance feedback influences the evaluation of task-related stimuli, as predicted by attribution theory. Therefore, our study points to the relevance of attribution theory for feedback processing in decision-making and provides a novel outlook for decision-making biases. PMID:26849646

  4. Dyadic Event Attribution in Social Networks with Mixtures of Hawkes Processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangda; Zha, Hongyuan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications in social network analysis, it is important to model the interactions and infer the influence between pairs of actors, leading to the problem of dyadic event modeling which has attracted increasing interests recently. In this paper we focus on the problem of dyadic event attribution, an important missing data problem in dyadic event modeling where one needs to infer the missing actor-pairs of a subset of dyadic events based on their observed timestamps. Existing works either use fixed model parameters and heuristic rules for event attribution, or assume the dyadic events across actor-pairs are independent. To address those shortcomings we propose a probabilistic model based on mixtures of Hawkes processes that simultaneously tackles event attribution and network parameter inference, taking into consideration the dependency among dyadic events that share at least one actor. We also investigate using additive models to incorporate regularization to avoid overfitting. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets on international armed conflicts suggest that the proposed new method is capable of significantly improve accuracy when compared with the state-of-the-art for dyadic event attribution. PMID:24917494

  5. Dyadic Event Attribution in Social Networks with Mixtures of Hawkes Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangda; Zha, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications in social network analysis, it is important to model the interactions and infer the influence between pairs of actors, leading to the problem of dyadic event modeling which has attracted increasing interests recently. In this paper we focus on the problem of dyadic event attribution, an important missing data problem in dyadic event modeling where one needs to infer the missing actor-pairs of a subset of dyadic events based on their observed timestamps. Existing works either use fixed model parameters and heuristic rules for event attribution, or assume the dyadic events across actor-pairs are independent. To address those shortcomings we propose a probabilistic model based on mixtures of Hawkes processes that simultaneously tackles event attribution and network parameter inference, taking into consideration the dependency among dyadic events that share at least one actor. We also investigate using additive models to incorporate regularization to avoid overfitting. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets on international armed conflicts suggest that the proposed new method is capable of significantly improve accuracy when compared with the state-of-the-art for dyadic event attribution. PMID:24917494

  6. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively.

  7. 32 CFR 513.2 - Administrative procedures for processing complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Administrative procedures for processing... procedures for processing complaints. (a) Commander's actions. Upon receipt of a debt complaint, the... believed the creditor's debt processing privileges should be revoked, include a recommendation stating...

  8. Word attributes and lateralization revisited: implications for dual coding and discrete versus continuous processing.

    PubMed

    Boles, D B

    1989-01-01

    Three attributes of words are their imageability, concreteness, and familiarity. From a literature review and several experiments, I previously concluded (Boles, 1983a) that only familiarity affects the overall near-threshold recognition of words, and that none of the attributes affects right-visual-field superiority for word recognition. Here these conclusions are modified by two experiments demonstrating a critical mediating influence of intentional versus incidental memory instructions. In Experiment 1, subjects were instructed to remember the words they were shown, for subsequent recall. The results showed effects of both imageability and familiarity on overall recognition, as well as an effect of imageability on lateralization. In Experiment 2, word-memory instructions were deleted and the results essentially reinstated the findings of Boles (1983a). It is concluded that right-hemisphere imagery processes can participate in word recognition under intentional memory instructions. Within the dual coding theory (Paivio, 1971), the results argue that both discrete and continuous processing modes are available, that the modes can be used strategically, and that continuous processing can occur prior to response stages.

  9. The Dean as Administrator: Roles, Functions and Attributes. A Compilation of Presentations from the Executive Development Series I: "Have You Ever Thought of Being a Dean?" (1980-1981). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    The role and attributes of deans of nursing as administrators of baccalaureate or higher degree programs are considered by six deans who contributed to a continuing education workshop series. In addition to outlining skills and attributes needed by administrators, Elizabeth Grossman examines five basic administrative functions: planning,…

  10. Critical attributes of formulation and of elaboration process of PLGA-protein microparticles.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sabroso, C; Fraguas-Sánchez, A I; Aparicio-Blanco, J; Cano-Abad, M F; Torres-Suárez, A I

    2015-03-01

    Low drug loading, burst effect during release and drug inactivation account for the main drawbacks of protein microencapsulation in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) matrix by the water-in oil-in water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method. Thus, the current study was set to invest the critical attributes of formulation and of elaboration process which determine protein loading into microparticles as well as its further release, using albumin as protein model. NaCl concentration in the external aqueous phase, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and mostly viscosity of both the internal aqueous phase and the organic phase were critical attributes for improving drug loading, with polymer molecular weight and hydrophobicity likewise directly related to albumin loading. In such a way, when using 0.5% PVA as internal aqueous phase the highest albumin loading was achieved. Optimized microparticles exhibited a sustained in vitro release of albumin over 130 days. The influence of the microencapsulation process on albumin stability and biological activity was evaluated by carrying out cell proliferation assays on PC12 cells with albumin released from microparticles. Such assay demonstrated that the microencapsulation procedure optimized in this study did not affect the biological stability of the microencapsulated protein. PMID:25578370

  11. Low-dose capsule filling of inhalation products: critical material attributes and process parameters.

    PubMed

    Faulhammer, Eva; Fink, Marlies; Llusa, Marcos; Lawrence, Simon M; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Khinast, Johannes G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify the material attributes and process parameters of a dosator-nozzle capsule filling machine that are critical in low-fill weight capsule filling for inhalation therapies via hard-gelatin capsules. Twelve powders, mostly inhalation carriers, some fines and one proprietary active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), were carefully characterized and filled into size 3 capsules. Since different process conditions are required to fill capsules with powders that have very different material attributes, the powders were divided into two groups. A design of experiments (DOE) based exclusively on process parameters was developed for each group, to identify the critical material attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP). The fill weight (4-45 mg) of the group I powders (larger particles, higher density, better flowability and less cohesion) correlated with the nozzle diameter (1.9-3.4mm), the dosing chamber length (2.5-5mm), the powder layer depth (5-12.5mm) and the powder density (bulk and tapped density). The RSDs were acceptable in most cases, even for very low doses. The fill weight (1.5-21 mg) of group II powders (very fine and low dense particles with a particle size <10 μm, poor flowability and higher cohesion) depended also on the nozzle diameter (1.9-2.8mm), the dosing chamber length (2.5-5mm) and the powder layer depth (5-10mm), albeit in a different way, indicating that for these powders dosator filling was not volumetric. Moreover, frictional (wall friction angle) and powder-flow characteristics (bulk density and basic flowability energy) have an influence on the mass. Thus, in summary, group I and group II powders can be filled successfully via dosator systems at low fill weights. However, the group II powders were more challenging to fill, especially without automated process control. This study is the first scientific qualification of dosator nozzles for low-fill weight (1-45 mg) capsule filling.

  12. The mat study: global insight into the medication administration process.

    PubMed

    Elganzouri, Erika; Standish, Cynthia; Androwich, Ida

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of global patient safety that has recently become a focal topic is preventing adverse drug events. As many as 7,000 patients die every year as a result of medication errors. (1) According to Bates, Spell, & Cullen, adverse drug events can cost up to an average of $8.4 million per year in a 700 bed hospital, not including injury to patient or malpractice costs. (2) Errors can occur throughout the process of ordering a medicine, dispensing, retrieving, and administrating process. Safety measures have been implemented for physicians prescribing medication and pharmacists dispensing medication through MARs and CPOE. However, there is no safety net for nursing. Bar coding can offer that safety net and allow the nurse to verify "the five rights" of medication administration electronically. However, prior to implementation of a bar coding medication system (BCMA), it is important for an institution to gain full understanding of its current nursing work flow during the medication administration process.

  13. Microbial stability, phytochemical retention, and organoleptic attributes of dense phase CO2 processed muscadine grape juice.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Insfran, David; Balaban, Murat O; Talcott, Stephen T

    2006-07-26

    Dense phase CO2 processing (DP-CO2) is a promising alternative to thermal pasteurization potentially inactivating microorganisms without affecting food phytochemicals or organoleptic characteristics. To demonstrate these effects, studies were conducted by changing processing pressure and CO2 concentration in relation to microbial destruction. Subsequent storage stability (10 weeks at 4 degrees C) of muscadine grape juice processed by DP-CO2 (34.5 MPa at 8% or 16% CO2) was evaluated and compared to a heat-pasteurized juice (75 degrees C, 15 s). Thermal pasteurization decreased anthocyanins (16%), soluble phenolics (26%), and antioxidant capacity (10%) whereas no changes were observed for both DP-CO2 juices. DP-CO2 juices also retained higher anthocyanins (335 mg/L), polyphenolics (473 mg/L), and antioxidant capacity (10.9 micromol of Trolox equivalents/mL) than thermally pasteurized juices at the end of storage. Insignificant differences in sensory attributes (color, flavor, aroma, and overall likeability) were observed between unprocessed and DP-CO2 juices, while significant differences were observed between unprocessed and heat-pasteurized juices. Panelists preferred DP-CO2 over heat-pasteurized juices throughout the first 6 weeks of storage, whereby the growth of yeast and mold adversely affected the juice aroma. Comparable microbial counts were observed between DP-CO2 and thermally pasteurized juices during the first 5 weeks of storage. DP-CO2 protected phytochemicals in muscadine juice during processing and storage without compromising microbial stability or sensory attributes over 5 weeks of storage.

  14. The impact of material attributes and process parameters on the micronisation of lactose monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P; Shao, Q

    2011-04-15

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs), which are important medicines for drug delivery to the lungs, require drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-6 μm for optimal lung deposition. Drugs administered by the oral route also derive benefit from particles in this size range owing to their large surface area to volume ratio, which provides potential for rapid dissolution. Micronisation used in the production of particles, however often leads to heterogeneous product containing mechanically activated surfaces with amorphous content. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of particle properties of three grades of lactose monohydrate, with sizes above and below the brittle-ductile transition (dcrit) and their interaction with process variables on the quality of micronised material. Following an experimental design, the impact of three factors (grinding pressure, injector pressure and feed rate) on the particulate attributes of micronised powders produced from the different size grades was assessed. Processing conditions were shown to be important determinants of powder properties only for the coarsest starting material. Ultrafine material was achieved by processing finer grade feed stock below dcrit. However the resultant product was more crystalline and transformed on heating to the anhydrous state with markedly reduced onset temperature with lower energy surfaces than powders produced from larger sized starting material. Thus the propensity for micronisation of lactose monohydrate can be altered through control of starting materials and optimal settings for process variables. PMID:21295125

  15. 32 CFR 1656.17 - Administrative complaint process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1656.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.17 Administrative complaint process. (a) Whenever the ASOM learns that the ASW may..., for action by the State Director of Selective Service, within ten days after the date the notice...

  16. 32 CFR 1656.17 - Administrative complaint process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 1656.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.17 Administrative complaint process. (a) Whenever the ASOM learns that the ASW may..., for action by the State Director of Selective Service, within ten days after the date the notice...

  17. 32 CFR 1656.17 - Administrative complaint process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1656.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.17 Administrative complaint process. (a) Whenever the ASOM learns that the ASW may..., for action by the State Director of Selective Service, within ten days after the date the notice...

  18. 32 CFR 1656.17 - Administrative complaint process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1656.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.17 Administrative complaint process. (a) Whenever the ASOM learns that the ASW may..., for action by the State Director of Selective Service, within ten days after the date the notice...

  19. 32 CFR 1656.17 - Administrative complaint process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1656.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.17 Administrative complaint process. (a) Whenever the ASOM learns that the ASW may..., for action by the State Director of Selective Service, within ten days after the date the notice...

  20. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52... by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations...

  1. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of...

  2. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52... by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations...

  3. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c Statistical... processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of...

  4. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c Statistical... processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of...

  5. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of...

  6. Eye-tracking reveals a slowdown of social context processing during intention attribution in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Paul; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with poor theory of mind (ToM), particularly in the attribution of intentions to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviours and contextual processing. This study investigated to what extent impaired ToM in patients with schizophrenia is related to abnormal processing of social context. Methods We evaluated ToM using a nonverbal intention attribution task based on comic strips depicting social/nonsocial and contextual/noncontextual events while eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking was used to assess processing time dedicated to visual cues contained in regions of interest identified in a pilot study. We measured cognitive contextual control on a separate task. Results We tested 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 controls. Compared with controls, patients were slower in intention attribution but not in physical reasoning. They looked longer than controls at contextual cues displayed in the first 2 context pictures of the comic strips, and this difference was greater for intention attribution than for physical reasoning. We found no group difference in time spent looking at noncontextual cues. Patients’ impairment in contextual control did not explain their increased reaction time and gaze duration on contextual cues during intention attribution. Limitations Difficulty may not have been equivalent between intention attribution and physical reasoning conditions. Conclusion Overall, schizophrenia was characterized by a delay in intention attribution related to a slowdown of social context processing that was not explained by worse executive contextual control. PMID:26836621

  7. Fermentanomics: Relating quality attributes of a monoclonal antibody to cell culture process variables and raw materials using multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kumar Singh, Sumit; Pathak, Mili; Read, Erik K; Brorson, Kurt A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Khan, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Fermentanomics is an emerging field of research and involves understanding the underlying controlled process variables and their effect on process yield and product quality. Although major advancements have occurred in process analytics over the past two decades, accurate real-time measurement of significant quality attributes for a biotech product during production culture is still not feasible. Researchers have used an amalgam of process models and analytical measurements for monitoring and process control during production. This article focuses on using multivariate data analysis as a tool for monitoring the internal bioreactor dynamics, the metabolic state of the cell, and interactions among them during culture. Quality attributes of the monoclonal antibody product that were monitored include glycosylation profile of the final product along with process attributes, such as viable cell density and level of antibody expression. These were related to process variables, raw materials components of the chemically defined hybridoma media, concentration of metabolites formed during the course of the culture, aeration-related parameters, and supplemented raw materials such as glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. This article demonstrates the utility of multivariate data analysis for correlating the product quality attributes (especially glycosylation) to process variables and raw materials (especially amino acid supplements in cell culture media). The proposed approach can be applied for process optimization to increase product expression, improve consistency of product quality, and target the desired quality attribute profile.

  8. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  9. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  10. Attributional Processes in Behavior Change and Maintenance: Smoking Cessation and Continued Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of attributions in initial and long-term smoking behavior change. Manipulated the externality of treatment. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were superior to the intrinsic self-help group in initial cessation but were inferior in maintaining abstinence. Subjects in the intrinsic self-help group made fewer external attributions for…

  11. Monitoring the effects of high pressure processing and temperature on selected beef quality attributes.

    PubMed

    McArdle, R; Marcos, B; Kerry, J P; Mullen, A

    2010-11-01

    The combined effects of high pressure processing (HPP) and temperature on meat quality attributes were assessed in bovine M. pectoralis profundus, with particular focus on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition. Beef samples were pressurised at 200, 300 and 400 MPa at two different temperatures 20°C and 40°C. Both pressure and temperature regimes had significant effects on colour, cook loss and lipid oxidation. Pressurisation at 200 MPa had a lower impact on colour parameters than higher pressurisation levels. Cook loss also increased when higher levels of pressure were applied. Across all pressure conditions, lower cook loss was observed at 40°C compared to 20°C. An increase in TBARS values was observed at the higher pressure levels (300, 400 MPa). While some alterations of individual fatty acids were observed, high pressure had no effect on polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) or omega 6/omega 3 (n6/n3) ratio. The temperature at which HPP was applied had a significant effect on the sum of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MONO) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. HPP at 40°C showed higher SFA and PUFA and lower MONO compared to HPP at 20°C. These results show that high pressure at low or moderate temperatures improves the microbiological quality of the meat with minimal affects on meat quality.

  12. Impact of controlled ice nucleation on process performance and quality attributes of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Read, Erik K; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A; Shah, Rakhi B

    2013-06-25

    An efficient and potentially scalable technology was evaluated to control the ice nucleation step of the freezing process for a model monoclonal antibody formulation and the effect on process performance and quality attributes of the final lyophilized product was compared with the conventional shelf ramping method of freezing. Controlled ice nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at temperatures between -2.3 and -3.2 °C while uncontrolled nucleation resulted in random nucleation at temperatures between -10 and -16.4 °C. The sublimation rate (dm/dt) during primary drying was higher in the controlled nucleation cycle (0.13 g/h/vial) than in the uncontrolled nucleation cycle (0.11 g/h/vial). This was due to the formation of larger ice crystals, leading to lower product resistance (Rp) and 19% reduction in the primary drying for the controlled nucleation cycle. Controlled ice nucleation resulted in lyophilized cakes with more acceptable appearance, no visible collapse or shrinkage and decreased reconstitution times compared with uncontrolled nucleation. There were no observed differences in the particle size, concentration (A280 nm) and presence of aggregates (A410 nm) between the two nucleation cycles when the lyophilized cakes were reconstituted. These were confirmed by SEC and protein A-HPLC analyses which showed similar peak shapes and retention times between the two cycles. However, uncontrolled nucleation resulted in cakes with larger specific surface area (0.90 m(2)/g) than controlled nucleation (0.46 m(2)/g). SEM images of the lyophilized cakes from uncontrolled nucleation revealed a sponge-like morphology with smaller pores while cakes from controlled nucleation cycle revealed plate-like structures with more open and larger pores. While controlled nucleation resulted in a final product with a higher residual moisture content (2.1±0.08%) than uncontrolled nucleation (1.62±0.11%), this was resolved by increasing the secondary drying temperature.

  13. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  14. Why traditional statistical process control charts for attribute data should be viewed alongside an xmr-chart.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Worthington, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The general advice when plotting SPC charts is to begin by selecting the right chart. This advice, in the case of attribute data, may be limiting our insights into the underlying process and consequently be potentially misleading. Given the general lack of awareness that additional insights may be obtained by using more than one SPC chart, there is a need to review this issue and make some recommendations. Under purely common cause variation the control limits on the xmr-chart and traditional attribute charts (eg, p-chart, c-chart, u-chart) will be in close agreement, indicating that the observed variation (xmr-chart) is consistent with the underlying Binomial model (p-chart) or Poisson model (c-chart, u-chart). However, when there is a material difference between the limits from the xmr-chart and the attribute chart then this also constitutes a signal of an underlying systematic special cause of variation. We use one simulation and two case studies to demonstrate these ideas and show the utility of plotting the SPC chart for attribute data alongside an xmr-chart. We conclude that the combined use of attribute charts and xmr-charts, which requires little additional effort, is a useful strategy because it is less likely to mislead us and more likely to give us the insight to do the right thing. PMID:23104897

  15. The Identification and Validation Process of Proportional Reasoning Attributes: An Application of a Proportional Reasoning Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjoe, Hartono; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the process of identifying and validating students' abilities to think proportionally. More specifically, we describe the methodology we used to identify these proportional reasoning attributes, beginning with the selection and review of relevant literature on proportional reasoning. We then continue with the…

  16. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice. PMID:23365140

  17. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of the... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38c Statistical sampling procedures for...

  18. 7 CFR 52.38b - Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical sampling procedures for on-line inspection by attributes of processed fruits and vegetables. 52.38b Section 52.38b Agriculture Regulations of... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.38b Statistical sampling procedures for...

  19. The association between implicit theories of personality and the attributional process.

    PubMed

    Silvera, D H; Moe, S K; Iversen, P

    2000-06-01

    The influence of implicit theories of personality (entity vs. incremental theorists; see Dweck, Chiu and Hong, 1995) on the stages of the Sequential Operations Model of attribution (Gilbert, Pelham, and Krull, 1988) was investigated. Two hundred eighty Norwegian participants were given a Norwegian translation of the implicit personality theories measure. Participants then read two essays, one advocating the pro-life position and the other advocating the pro-choice position on the abortion issue. The essay positions were ostensibly assigned rather than freely chosen by the author. After each essay, participants were asked to rate the essay position and the true attitude of the author. Entity and incremental theorists showed no differences in their ratings of the essay position; however, entity theorists made significantly stronger correspondent inferences about the author's attitude than did incremental theorists. These results support the contention that entity theorists engage in less attributional correction than incremental theorists. PMID:10870429

  20. Oral administration of famciclovir for treatment of spontaneous ocular, respiratory, or dermatologic disease attributed to feline herpesvirus type 1: 59 cases (2006-2013).

    PubMed

    Thomasy, Sara M; Shull, Olivia; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Lim, Christine C; Freeman, Kate S; Strom, Ann R; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes for cats treated with orally administered famciclovir 3 times/d for clinical signs attributed to naturally occurring feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) infection and to assess variables related to owner satisfaction with the treatment. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 59 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify cats treated for presumed FHV-1 infection from 2006 through 2013 with ≥ 1 follow-up visit. Signalment, duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, examination findings, diagnostic test results, concurrent treatments, and outcome data were recorded. Owners were asked to complete a survey regarding patient- and treatment-related variables. Data were compared between cats that received low (approx 40 mg/kg [18 mg/lb]) and high (approx 90 mg/kg [41 mg/lb]) doses of famciclovir, PO, 3 times/d. RESULTS Patient age ranged from 0.03 to 16 years. Conjunctivitis (51/59 [86%]), keratitis (51 [86%]), blepharitis (19 [32%]), nasal discharge or sneezing (10 [17%]), and dermatitis (4 [7%]) were common findings. Clinical improvement was subjectively graded as marked in 30 (51%) cats, mild in 20 (34%), and nonapparent in 9 (15%). Median time to improvement was significantly shorter, and degree of improvement was significantly greater in the highdose group than in the low-dose group. Adverse effects potentially attributable to famciclovir administration were reported for 10 cats. On the basis of survey responses, most (29/32 [91%]) owners were satisfied with their cat's treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Famciclovir at the prescribed dosages was associated with improved clinical signs in cats with presumed FHV-1 infection, and few adverse effects were attributed to the treatment. Further studies are needed to assess whether a famciclovir dosage of 90 versus 40 mg/kg, PO, 3 times/d would result in increased efficacy and shorter treatment time. PMID:27556267

  1. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling. PMID:27016211

  2. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling.

  3. The identification and validation process of proportional reasoning attributes: an application of a cognitive diagnosis modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjoe, Hartono; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the process of identifying and validating students' abilities to think proportionally. More specifically, we describe the methodology we used to identify these proportional reasoning attributes, beginning with the selection and review of relevant literature on proportional reasoning. We then continue with the deliberation and resolution of differing views by mathematics researchers, mathematics educators, and middle school mathematics teachers of what should be learned theoretically and what can be taught practically in everyday classroom settings. We also present the initial development of proportional reasoning items as part of the two-phase validation process of the previously identified attributes. In particular, we detail in the first phase of the validation process our collaboration with middle school mathematics teachers in the creation of prototype items and the verification of each item-attribute specification in consideration of the most common ways (among many different ways) in which middle school students would have solved these prototype items themselves. In the second phase of the validation process, we elaborate our think-aloud interview procedure in the search for evidence of whether students generally solved the prototype items in the way they were expected to.

  4. Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    PubMed

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2015-09-15

    Sauvignon blanc wines are characterised by their varietal aromas and low phenolic content. Mechanical harvesting has been shown to increase several varietal aromas. Likewise, maceration techniques have produced increases in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but these can also alter tactile attributes and sensory profiles. Mechanical harvesting and cryogenic maceration were used in combination to produce a Sauvignon blanc wine with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while showing a similar sensory profile to control wines. Phenolic profiles of the wines showed differences between the harvesting and maceration techniques. Mechanical harvesting contributed to decreases in phenolics through reaction with oxidative radicals. Cryogenic maceration increased phenolics and antioxidant activity. Cryogenic maceration also increased the levels of several varietal aromas, for Sauvignon blanc wines made from both hand-picked and from machine-harvested fruit. Furthermore, cryogenic treatment of hand-picked fruit increased varietal thiols to levels similar to machine-harvested control wines.

  5. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  6. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  7. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  8. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  9. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  10. 20 CFR 423.3 - Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or the Commissioner. 423.3 Section 423.3 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.3 Other process directed to the Social Security Administration or...

  11. 20 CFR 423.5 - Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process against Social Security Administration officials in their individual capacities. 423.5 Section 423.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.5 Process against Social Security Administration officials in...

  12. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and...

  13. Improvised Rhododendron squash: processing effects on antioxidant composition and organoleptic attributes.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Hare; Attri, Brij Lal; Kumar, Akhilesh

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to develop an improvised method for the preparation of Rhododendron squash, which otherwise had a narrow consumer's acceptability, despite being rich in antioxidants due to faulty preparation procedure and to compare the superiority of the new method over existing preparation method by examining various antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity. For the preparation of squashes in the present investigation, Rhododendron petals were heated with water at 80 °C for 20 min and left for 3-hour (or 180 min) followed by filtration and addition of sugar with or without ginger juice. Leaving Rhododendron petals with water for 3-hour at room temperature following heating facilitated maximum recovery of anthocyanin in water. Rhododendron squashes, prepared through improvised method, were compared with a Rhododendron squash collected from the market (control) for their physico-chemical characteristics, antioxidants and sensory quality attributes. The improvised Rhododendron squashes registered higher values for most of the parameters than the control. PMID:26396338

  14. On the Estimation of Process Parameters in the Taguchi's Approach to the On-line Control Procedure for Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Wagner S.; Esteves, Luis Gustavo; Wechsler, Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Under the model proposed by Nayebpour and Woodall [5] for Taguchi's on-line control procedure for attributes, estimators for the process parameter vector are derived both from the Classical (maximum likelihood) and Bayesian standpoints. The likelihood function is generated by the detection time of the first defective item under the control procedure. Under the Classical standpoint, a case of nonidentifiability is disclosed. Under the Bayesian standpoint, posterior probability distributions for the process parameters are determined by taking into account independent beta prior distributions.

  15. 32 CFR 513.2 - Administrative procedures for processing complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS INDEBTEDNESS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL § 513.2 Administrative... affects the Army's public image. Also, explain that the willful failure to resolve unpaid debts may...

  16. 29 CFR 4041.22 - Administration of plan during pendency of termination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration of plan during pendency of termination process. (a) In general. A plan administrator may... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of plan during pendency of termination process. 4041.22 Section 4041.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT...

  17. Quality and safety attributes of afghan raisins before and after processing

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Stacy; Chang, Jun Won; McNamara, Kevin T; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Raisins are an important export commodity for Afghanistan; however, Afghan packers are unable to export to markets seeking high-quality products due to limited knowledge regarding their quality and safety. To evaluate this, Afghan raisin samples from pre-, semi-, and postprocessed raisins were obtained from a raisin packer in Kabul, Afghanistan. The raisins were analyzed and compared to U.S. standards for processed raisins. The samples tested did not meet U.S. industry standards for embedded sand and pieces of stem, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The Afghan raisins did meet or exceed U.S. Grade A standard for the number of cap-stems, percent damaged, crystallization levels, moisture content, and color. Following processing, the number of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and total coliforms were within the acceptable limits. Although quality issues are present in the Afghan raisins, the process used to clean the raisins is suitable to maintain food safety standards. PMID:25650241

  18. Tangent linear super-parameterization: attributable, decomposable moist processes for tropical variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapes, B. E.; Kelly, P.; Song, S.; Hu, I. K.; Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    An economical 10-layer global primitive equation solver is driven by time-independent forcing terms, derived from a training process, to produce a realisting eddying basic state with a tracer q trained to act like water vapor mixing ratio. Within this basic state, linearized anomaly moist physics in the column are applied in the form of a 20x20 matrix. The control matrix was derived from the results of Kuang (2010, 2012) who fitted a linear response function from a cloud resolving model in a state of deep convecting equilibrium. By editing this matrix in physical space and eigenspace, scaling and clipping its action, and optionally adding terms for processes that do not conserve moist statice energy (radiation, surface fluxes), we can decompose and explain the model's diverse moist process coupled variability. Recitified effects of this variability on the general circulation and climate, even in strictly zero-mean centered anomaly physic cases, also are sometimes surprising.

  19. Source attribution and process analysis for atmospheric mercury in eastern China simulated by CMAQ-Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Wang, T.; Bieser, J.; Matthias, V.

    2015-08-01

    The contribution from different emission sources and atmospheric processes to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and mercury deposition in eastern China were quantified using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ-Hg) modeling system run with a nested domain. Natural sources (NAT) and six categories of anthropogenic mercury sources (ANTH) including cement production (CEM), domestic life (DOM), industrial boilers (IND), metal production (MET), coal-fired power plants (PP) and traffic (TRA) were considered for source apportionment. NAT were responsible for 36.6 % of annual averaged GEM concentration, which was regarded as the most important source for GEM in spite of obvious seasonal variation. Among ANTH, the influence of MET and PP on GEM were most evident especially in winter. ANTH dominated the variations of GOM and PBM concentrations with contributions of 86.7 and 79.1 %, respectively. Among ANTH, IND were the largest contributor for GOM (57.5 %) and PBM (34.4 %) so that most mercury deposition came from IND. The effect of mercury emitted from out of China was indicated by a > 30 % contribution to GEM concentration and wet deposition. The contributions from nine processes - consisting of emissions (EMIS), gas-phase chemical production/loss (CHEM), horizontal advection (HADV), vertical advection (ZADV), horizontal advection (HDIF), vertical diffusion (VDIF), dry deposition (DDEP), cloud processes (CLDS) and aerosol processes (AERO) - were calculated for process analysis with their comparison in urban and non-urban regions of the Yangtze River delta (YRD). EMIS and VDIF affected surface GEM and PBM concentrations most and tended to compensate each other all the time in both urban and non-urban areas. However, DDEP was the most important removal process for GOM with 7.3 and 2.9 ng m-3 reduced in the surface of urban and non-urban areas, respectively, in 1 day. The diurnal profile variation of

  20. Source attribution and process analysis for atmospheric mercury in East China simulated by CMAQ-Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Wang, T.; Bieser, J.; Matthias, V.

    2015-04-01

    The contribution from different emission sources and atmospheric processes to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and mercury deposition in East China were quantified using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ-Hg) modeling system run with nested grid resolution of 27 km. Natural source (NAT) and six categories of anthropogenic mercury sources (ANTH) including cement production (CEM), domestic life (DOM), industrial boilers (IND), metal production (MET), coal-fired power plants (PP) and traffic (TRA) were considered for source apportionment. NAT was responsible for 36.6% of annual averaged GEM concentration which was regard as the most important source for GEM in spite of obvious seasonal variation. Among ANTH, the influence of MET and PP on GEM were most evident especially in winter. ANTH dominated the variations of GOM and PBM concentration with a contribution of 86.7 and 79.1% respectively. Among ANTH, IND was the largest contributor for GOM (57.5%) and PBM (34.4%) so that most mercury deposition came from IND. The effect of mercury emitted from out of China was indicated by > 30% contribution to GEM concentration and wet deposition. The contribution from nine processes consisting of emissions (EMIS), gas-phase chemical production/loss (CHEM), horizontal advection (HADV), vertical advection (ZADV), horizontal advection (HDIF), vertical diffusion (VDIF), dry deposition (DDEP), cloud processes (CLDS) and aerosol processes (AERO) were calculated for processes analysis with their comparison in urban and non-urban regions of Yangtze River Delta (YRD). EMIS and VDIF affected surface GEM and PBM concentration most and tended to compensate each other all the time in both urban and non-urban areas. However, DDEP was the most important removal process for GOM with 7.3 and 2.9 ng m-3 reduced in the surface of urban and non-urban areas respectively in a whole day. Diurnal profile variation of processes

  1. Multi-attribute mate choice decisions and uncertainty in the decision process: a generalized sequential search strategy.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Weinersmith, Kelly L; Seubert, Steven M

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that high quality males are encountered and adaptive search strategies rely on the effective use of available information on the quality of prospective mates. The sequential search strategy was formulated, like most models of search behavior, on the assumption that females obtain perfect information on the quality of encountered males. In this paper, we modify the strategy to allow for uncertainty of male quality and we determine how the magnitude of this uncertainty and the ability of females to inspect multiple male attributes to reduce uncertainty influence mate choice decisions. In general, searchers are sensitive to search costs and higher costs lower acceptance criteria under all versions of the model. The choosiness of searchers increases with the variability of the quality of prospective mates under conditions of the original model, but under conditions of uncertainty the choosiness of searchers may increase or decrease with the variability of inspected male attributes. The behavioral response depends on the functional relationship between observed male attributes and the fitness return to searchers and on costs associated with the search process. Higher uncertainty often induces searchers to pay more for information and under conditions of uncertainty the fitness return to searchers is never higher than under conditions of the original model. Further studies of the performance of alternative search strategies under conditions of uncertainty may consequently be necessary to identify search strategies likely to be used under natural conditions.

  2. Auditory object salience: human cortical processing of non-biological action sounds and their acoustic signal attributes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James W.; Talkington, William J.; Tallaksen, Katherine C.; Frum, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether viewed or heard, an object in action can be segmented as a distinct salient event based on a number of different sensory cues. In the visual system, several low-level attributes of an image are processed along parallel hierarchies, involving intermediate stages wherein gross-level object form and/or motion features are extracted prior to stages that show greater specificity for different object categories (e.g., people, buildings, or tools). In the auditory system, though relying on a rather different set of low-level signal attributes, meaningful real-world acoustic events and “auditory objects” can also be readily distinguished from background scenes. However, the nature of the acoustic signal attributes or gross-level perceptual features that may be explicitly processed along intermediate cortical processing stages remain poorly understood. Examining mechanical and environmental action sounds, representing two distinct non-biological categories of action sources, we had participants assess the degree to which each sound was perceived as object-like versus scene-like. We re-analyzed data from two of our earlier functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigms (Engel et al., 2009) and found that scene-like action sounds preferentially led to activation along several midline cortical structures, but with strong dependence on listening task demands. In contrast, bilateral foci along the superior temporal gyri (STG) showed parametrically increasing activation to action sounds rated as more “object-like,” independent of sound category or task demands. Moreover, these STG regions also showed parametric sensitivity to spectral structure variations (SSVs) of the action sounds—a quantitative measure of change in entropy of the acoustic signals over time—and the right STG additionally showed parametric sensitivity to measures of mean entropy and harmonic content of the environmental sounds. Analogous to the visual system, intermediate stages

  3. Isolation of transcriptomal changes attributable to LHON mutations and the cybridization process.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Steven R; Carelli, Valerio; Tan, Guolin; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Schapira, Anthony H V; Savontaus, Marja-Liisa; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2005-05-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is thought to be the most common disease resulting from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations, and transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines are the most frequently used model for understanding the pathogenesis of mitochondrial disorders. We have used oligonucleotide microarrays and a novel study design based on shared transcripts to allocate transcriptomal changes into rho-zero-dependent, cybridization-dependent and LHON-dependent categories in these cells. The analysis indicates that the rho-zero process has the largest transcriptomal impact, followed by the cybridization process, and finally the LHON mutations. The transcriptomal impacts of the rho-zero and cybridization processes preferentially and significantly affect the mitochondrial compartment, causing upregulation of many transcripts involved in oxidative phosphorylation, presumably in response to the mtDNA depletion that occurs at the rho-zero step. Nine LHON-specific transcriptional alterations were shared among osteosarcoma cybrids and lymphoblasts bearing LHON mutations. Notably, the aldose reductase transcript was overexpressed in LHON cybrids and lymphoblasts. Aldose reductase is also overexpressed in diabetic retinopathy, leading to optic nerve and retinal complications. The LHON-specific increase in transcript level was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and a western blot confirmed a higher level of aldose reductase in mutant mitochondria. One product of aldose reductase is sorbitol, which has been linked to osmotic stress, oxidative stress and optic neuropathy, and sorbitol levels were increased in LHON cybrids. If these results are confirmed in patient tissues, aldose reductase inhibitors could have some therapeutic value for LHON.

  4. The denigration of heroes? How the status attainment process shapes attributions of considerateness and authenticity.

    PubMed

    Hahl, Oliver; Zuckerman, Ezra W

    2014-09-01

    This article develops and tests a theory to explain the common tendency to "denigrate heroes," whereby high-status actors are suspected of being inconsiderate and inauthentic relative to low-status counterparts. This tendency is argued to reflect two conditions typical of status attainment processes: (a) assertions of superiority over others and (b) the presence of incentives to pursue status. The latter is key since awareness of such incentives breeds suspicions of inauthenticity, which in turn undermine perceptions of prosocial intentions. This theory is validated in a series of online experiments, in which categorical status hierarchies emerge either via deference on a coordinated task or via competitive interactions. Results show that high-status actors may also be "celebrated" as authentic and considerate when the observable incentive structure is such that assertions of superiority appear as unintended by-products of prosocial action. Implications are drawn regarding the sources of instability and insecurity in status hierarchies. PMID:25811070

  5. 29 CFR 4041.42 - Administration of plan during termination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of plan during termination process. 4041.42... TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.42 Administration of plan during termination process. (a) General rule. Except to the extent specifically prohibited by...

  6. Critical factors in manufacturing multi-layer tablets--assessing material attributes, in-process controls, manufacturing process and product performance.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyalingam, Sivakumar R; Sayeed, Vilayat A

    2010-10-15

    Advancement in the fields of material science, analytical methodologies, instrumentation, automation, continuous monitoring, feed forward/feed back control and comprehensive data collection have led to continual improvement of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing technology, notably the multi-layer tablets. This review highlights the material attributes, formulation design, process parameters that impact the performance, and manufacturability of the multi-layer tablets. It also highlights on critical-to-quality elements that needs to be addressed in the regulatory submission.

  7. Population response to natural images in the primary visual cortex encodes local stimulus attributes and perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Gilad, Ariel; Zurawel, Guy; Slovin, Hamutal

    2012-10-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is extensively studied with a large repertoire of stimuli, yet little is known about its encoding of natural images. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in behaving monkeys, we measured neural population response evoked in V1 by natural images presented during a face/scramble discrimination task. The population response showed two distinct phases of activity: an early phase that was spread over most of the imaged area, and a late phase that was spatially confined. To study the detailed relation between the stimulus and the population response, we used a simple encoding model to compute a continuous map of the expected neural response based on local attributes of the stimulus (luminance and contrast), followed by an analytical retinotopic transformation. Then, we computed the spatial correlation between the maps of the expected and observed response. We found that the early response was highly correlated with the local luminance of the stimulus and was sufficient to effectively discriminate between stimuli at the single trial level. The late response, on the other hand, showed a much lower correlation to the local luminance, was confined to central parts of the face images, and was highly correlated with the animal's perceptual report. Our study reveals a continuous spatial encoding of low- and high-level features of natural images in V1. The low level is directly linked to the stimulus basic local attributes and the high level is correlated with the perceptual outcome of the stimulus processing.

  8. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section 905.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If...

  9. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section... § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If a... compliance issue, the customer may request reconsideration by filing a written appeal with the...

  10. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section... § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If a... compliance issue, the customer may request reconsideration by filing a written appeal with the...

  11. 10 CFR 905.21 - What is the administrative appeal process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the administrative appeal process? 905.21 Section... § 905.21 What is the administrative appeal process? (a) Filing written appeals with Western. If a... compliance issue, the customer may request reconsideration by filing a written appeal with the...

  12. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Permit Denials and Proffered Permits A Appendix A to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. A Appendix A to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits ER28MR00.000...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations...

  15. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Approved Jurisdictional Determinations C Appendix C to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. C Appendix C to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Approved Jurisdictional Determinations...

  16. Assessment for 1983-4 School Year. Administrative/Supervisory Performance Review Process. Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael P.

    School administrators and supervisors who were evaluated using the Cleveland, Ohio City School District's Administrator/Supervisory Review Process were surveyed concerning their opinions of the review process. The questionnaire, which was returned by 203 principals, assistant principals, and other supervisory staff out of a total of 376…

  17. 78 FR 18481 - Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... FR 47337). The 30-day public comment period ended September 7, 2012. The Forest Service received... directs the Secretary of Agriculture, acting through the Chief of the Forest Service, to apply section 105... process. Section 428 further directs the Secretary to apply these procedures in lieu of the...

  18. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  19. Freeze-drying simulation framework coupling product attributes and equipment capability: toward accelerating process by equipment modifications.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arnab; Alexeenko, Alina A; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G

    2013-10-01

    A physics-based model for the sublimation-transport-condensation processes occurring in pharmaceutical freeze-drying by coupling product attributes and equipment capabilities into a unified simulation framework is presented. The system-level model is used to determine the effect of operating conditions such as shelf temperature, chamber pressure, and the load size on occurrence of choking for a production-scale dryer. Several data sets corresponding to production-scale runs with a load from 120 to 485 L have been compared with simulations. A subset of data is used for calibration, whereas another data set corresponding to a load of 150 L is used for model validation. The model predictions for both the onset and extent of choking as well as for the measured product temperature agree well with the production-scale measurements. Additionally, we study the effect of resistance to vapor transport presented by the duct with a valve and a baffle in the production-scale freeze-dryer. Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques augmented with a system-level unsteady heat and mass transfer model allow to predict dynamic process conditions taking into consideration specific dryer design. CFD modeling of flow structure in the duct presented here for a production-scale freeze-dryer quantifies the benefit of reducing the obstruction to the flow through several design modifications. It is found that the use of a combined valve-baffle system can increase vapor flow rate by a factor of 2.2. Moreover, minor design changes such as moving the baffle downstream by about 10 cm can increase the flow rate by 54%. The proposed design changes can increase drying rates, improve efficiency, and reduce cycle times due to fewer obstructions in the vapor flow path. The comprehensive simulation framework combining the system-level model and the detailed CFD computations can provide a process analytical tool for more efficient and robust freeze-drying of bio-pharmaceuticals.

  20. Preferences of processing companies for attributes of Swiss milk: a conjoint analysis in a business-to-business market.

    PubMed

    Boesch, I

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine key attributes of milk that drive a processor's supply decisions and possibilities for differentiation based on these product attributes. Feedback-driven exploration was applied to derive product attributes relevant to the buying decision. Conjoint analysis with hierarchical Bayes estimation methods was used to determine the relative importance of attributes. Results show that the technical aspects of milk, as well as the price and country of origin, dominate the buying decision. Potential for differentiation was found for environmental and societal attributes as well as freedom from genetically modified products. Product and supplier criteria also provide the potential to segment the market if the price premium is held within limits. PMID:23375974

  1. 29 CFR 15.106 - How is the administrative claim processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is the administrative claim processed? 15.106 Section 15.106 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act §...

  2. 29 CFR 15.106 - How is the administrative claim processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How is the administrative claim processed? 15.106 Section 15.106 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15.106 How...

  3. Calloway & Pletcher, Inc. A Word Processing Administrative Support Secretary Position Simulation. Employer's Manual. [and] Forms Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savannah Area Vocational-Technical School, GA.

    This word processing administrative support secretary position simulation has been developed for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. Its purpose is to give the student an opportunity to become familiar with the tasks and duties that may be performed by an administrative support secretary. This employer manual…

  4. From Innovation to Institutionalization: The Role of Administrative Leadership in the Assessment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Timothy G.; Hadden, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Stresses the need for faculty and administrators to cooperate in assessing student learning. Addresses barriers to teacher involvement and presents models that nurture faculty in the assessment process. Recommends that administrators create a culture that is conducive to assessment and adopt a variety of leadership characteristics using the…

  5. Administrator Entry Year Programming: A Cross Institutional Pilot Program--Process, Program Descriptions, and Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenta, Louis; Beebe, Robert; Cosiano, Patrick; Eastridge, Harry

    This paper reviews processes used to develop a cross institutional, pilot administrator entry year program which provided leadership and learning support for beginning principals, assisted in further development of Ohio's administrative portfolio, provided a collaborative learning community, and created a statewide learning community to help…

  6. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics Technology Evaluation and Selection Using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making Process and Non-Deterministic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Cecile M.; Hill, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Geiselhart, Karl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has investigated revolutionary Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) technologies and configurations for a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) type aircraft as part of its research for NASA s Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project. Within the context of the long-term NASA goal of reducing the perceived aircraft noise level by a factor of 4 relative to 1997 state of the art, major configuration changes in the propulsion airframe integration system were explored with noise as a primary design consideration. An initial down-select and assessment of candidate PAA technologies for the BWB was performed using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) process consisting of organized brainstorming and decision-making tools. The assessments focused on what effect the PAA technologies had on both the overall noise level of the BWB and what effect they had on other major design considerations such as weight, performance and cost. A probabilistic systems analysis of the PAA configurations that presented the best noise reductions with the least negative impact on the system was then performed. Detailed results from the MADM study and the probabilistic systems analysis will be published in the near future.

  7. 77 FR 21991 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)-Lender and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)--Lender and Underwriter Eligibility Criteria and Credit Watch for MAP Lenders AGENCY: Office of the...

  8. The art of improvisation: the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Littike, Denilda; Sodré, Francis

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital (HUF). It includes research with a qualitative approach conducted through interviews with twelve administrators. The work process, the work tools and the human activity per se are understood to be under scrutiny. Work is acknowledged as a category that analyzes the management methods used by professional health workers. The HUFs are responsible for two social policies, namely education and health. The aim of the administrators' work is an organizational issue, and the administration tools used are bureaucratic and out-of-date for the current political context of hospital management. The most significant feature of this hospital administration is improvisation, which reduces the potential of the administrators in such a way that, instead of introducing innovative changes into their work process, they prefer to leave their jobs. Improvisation is caused by the production of sequential obstacles in management decision-making at this teaching hospital. In short, the transfer of administration at the HUF, from direct government administration by the University to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), was analyzed on the grounds that this would establish a "new" management model.

  9. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    PubMed

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration.

  10. Process-Based Governance in Public Administrations Using Activity-Based Costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Räckers, Michael

    Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-Based Costing, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-based costing for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.

  11. Professional or administrative value patterns? Clinical pathways in medical problem-solving processes.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Leif

    2007-11-01

    A health-care organization simultaneously belongs to two different institutional value patterns: a professional and an administrative value pattern. At the administrative level, medical problem-solving processes are generally perceived as the efficient application of familiar chains of activities to well-defined problems; and a low task uncertainty is therefore assumed at the work-floor level. This assumption is further reinforced through clinical pathways and other administrative guidelines. However, studies have shown that in clinical practice such administrative guidelines are often considered inadequate and difficult to implement mainly because physicians generally perceive task uncertainty to be high and that the guidelines do not cover the scope of encountered deviations. The current administrative level guidelines impose uniform structural features that meet the requirement for low task uncertainty. Within these structural constraints, physicians must organize medical problem-solving processes to meet any task uncertainty that may be encountered. Medical problem-solving processes with low task uncertainty need to be organized independently of processes with high task uncertainty. Each process must be evaluated according to different performance standards and needs to have autonomous administrative guideline models. Although clinical pathways seem appropriate when there is low task uncertainty, other kinds of guidelines are required when the task uncertainty is high. PMID:17958969

  12. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schroeder, Carl M; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Hartnett, Emma; Naugle, Alecia; Harman, Jane; Bennett, Patricia; Cieslak, Paul; Scallan, Elaine; Rose, Bonnie; Holt, Kristin G; Kissler, Bonnie; Mbandi, Evelyne; Roodsari, Reza; Angulo, Frederick J; Cole, Dana

    2011-04-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (<1%) across 109 Salmonella serotypes found in food commodities at point of processing. While interpretation of the attribution estimates is constrained by data inputs, the adapted model shows promise and may serve as a basis for a common approach to attribution of human salmonellosis and food safety decision-making in more than one country.

  13. Beyond the Process of Teaming: Administrative Support, Classroom Practices, and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan B.; Peterson, Gary W.

    This paper examines the relationships among administrative support, interdisciplinary team functioning, classroom practices, and student outcomes. It is premised on the need to move beyond examinations of the team process and explore the effects of processes on student learning. The report is based on a systemic research project that studied 60…

  14. Staff Attributions about Challenging Behaviours of People with Intellectual Disabilities and Transactional Stress Process: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudre-Mauroux, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Staff explanations about challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities are purported to play a significant role in the way they respond to them. Despite attempts made in research to understand the mechanisms of causality, a lack of association between attributions, emotions and behaviours is reported. This study…

  15. Effects of chronic vanadate administration in the STZ-induced diabetic rat. The antihyperglycemic action of vanadate is attributable entirely to its suppression of feeding.

    PubMed

    Malabu, U H; Dryden, S; McCarthy, H D; Kilpatrick, A; Williams, G

    1994-01-01

    Vanadate treatment can lower glycemia in diabetic rats. This action is generally attributed to vanadate's insulinomimetic properties, but vanadate also inhibits feeding, which could lower blood glucose. We therefore assessed the contribution of hypophagia to vanadate's antihyperglycemic action in a 3-week study of streptozocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. Untreated diabetic rats (n = 8) ate 54% more food than nondiabetic control rats (P < 0.001). Diabetic rats given sodium metavanadate (0.5 mg in 0.5 ml of water by gavage twice daily; n = 8) had significantly lower food intakes (P < 0.001) than untreated diabetic rats. In vanadate-treated diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly lower than in untreated diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Untreated diabetic rats pair-fed to the food intake of the vanadate-treated diabetic rats (n = 8) showed virtually identical blood glucose falls (P > 0.05 vs. vanadate-treated diabetic rats). Vanadate treatment did not affect plasma insulin concentrations in diabetic rats. In nondiabetic rats (n = 8), vanadate treatment significantly reduced food intake (P < 0.05) and also lowered plasma insulin concentrations (P < 0.05) without significantly affecting glycemia. To investigate the mechanism of vanadate's hypophagic effect, we also measured regional hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent central appetite stimulant that is thought to drive hyperphagia in STZ-induced diabetes. Hypothalamic NPY concentrations rise markedly in diabetes and are normalized by insulin replacement. Unlike insulin, vanadate treatment did not normalize regional hypothalamic NPY concentrations in diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  17. Experimental Studies of the Influence of Organizational Effectiveness and Succession on the Administrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusky, Oscar

    The present study, part of a larger investigation, attempted to examine the separate and joint effects of succession and effectiveness on administrative processes in laboratory-created 3-level formal organizations. Specifically, the investigation concerned itself with the impact of these two elements on communication relationships between managers…

  18. Debugging the Conversion Process: Lessons from an Administrative Information System Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbler, Fritz; Mitchell, Linda

    1995-01-01

    The process of reengineering the administrative information system at the University of Idaho required careful planning, development of a set of philosophies, and several strategies for ensuring success. The latter included a humorous symbol (a jitter bug) to express concern, improved institutional communications, and a focus on logistical issues.…

  19. Needs Assessment Models for Administrators and Supervisors of the Teacher Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Virginia E.

    This report presents three needs assessment survey models that are designed to improve the process of teacher evaluation. The surveys, which were field tested in a large urban school district, address ways administrators can qualitatively differentiate between "good" and "excellent" teaching, or "poor" and "unsatisfactory" teaching, and be able to…

  20. Connecting the Library's Patron Database to Campus Administrative Software: Simplifying the Library's Accounts Receivable Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Dahlquist, Janet; Tankersley, Jan; Emrich, Beth

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the processes that occurred when the Library, Controller's Office, and Information Technology Department agreed to create an interface between the Library's Innovative Interfaces patron database and campus administrative software, Banner, using file transfer protocol, in an effort to streamline the Library's accounts…

  1. Guidelines for the Administration and Accreditation of the Standardized Craft Training Process. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Construction Education and Research, Gainesville, FL.

    This document contains guidelines for the administration and accreditation of the standardized craft training process that was developed by the National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) in partnership with various sectors of the construction and maintenance industries. The following are among the topics discussed in Chapters…

  2. Effect of excessive saccharose administration on metabolic processes in the liver of rabbits with restricted mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rylnikov, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The administration of saccharose (3 g per 1 kg for 2 months) intensified changes encountered in hypokinesia. There was a more marked increase in the content of cholesterol, pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins, phospholipids, and glycosaminoglycans in the blood. At the same time, the administration of saccharose improved the course of metabolic processes in the liver of immobilized rabbits, restored to normal levels the reduced glycogen level, the rate of glycolysis and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their discharge in the cystic bile.

  3. E-Government Goes Semantic Web: How Administrations Can Transform Their Information Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klischewski, Ralf; Ukena, Stefan

    E-government applications and services are built mainly on access to, retrieval of, integration of, and delivery of relevant information to citizens, businesses, and administrative users. In order to perform such information processing automatically through the Semantic Web,1 machine-readable2 enhancements of web resources are needed, based on the understanding of the content and context of the information in focus. While these enhancements are far from trivial to produce, administrations in their role of information and service providers so far find little guidance on how to migrate their web resources and enable a new quality of information processing; even research is still seeking best practices. Therefore, the underlying research question of this chapter is: what are the appropriate approaches which guide administrations in transforming their information processes toward the Semantic Web? In search for answers, this chapter analyzes the challenges and possible solutions from the perspective of administrations: (a) the reconstruction of the information processing in the e-government in terms of how semantic technologies must be employed to support information provision and consumption through the Semantic Web; (b) the required contribution to the transformation is compared to the capabilities and expectations of administrations; and (c) available experience with the steps of transformation are reviewed and discussed as to what extent they can be expected to successfully drive the e-government to the Semantic Web. This research builds on studying the case of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where semantic technologies have been used within the frame of the Access-eGov3 project in order to semantically enhance electronic service interfaces with the aim of providing a new way of accessing and combining e-government services.

  4. Attribute-based processing of lineament data: an example from Cesar-Rancheria and neighbor provinces in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero, Mauricio; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German A.

    2014-10-01

    The northern part of Colombia provides an opportunity for lineament collection over all types of rocks and ages, and with contrasting coverage settings, with arid provinces in the northern region, and intermediate and lush southern provinces. Lineaments were interpreted in an area of more than 52000 km2 in derived products from satellite imagery and DEMs. This dataset produced a high-density directional dataset with attributes including rock age, type and province, in addition to interpretation scale and image source. Dense lineament collection applications on fracture prediction, secondary porosity development and tectonic evolution are proposed. Composed lineaments (lineaments of lineaments) are used to compartmentalize Cesar-Rancheria basin, particular fracture intersections are proposed as potential hot spot locations in calcareous rocks and the systematic orientation change of rock age-grouped lineaments is used as additional support for clockwise Perija range rotation.

  5. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  6. Performance-based quality specifications: the relationship between process critical control parameters, critical quality attributes, and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Cogdill, Robert P; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2011-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products is currently evaluated through a series of tests that do not explicitly communicate the clinical consequences of product variability. A previously published risk simulation platform was used to generate quantitative estimates of inefficacy and toxicity for 288 uniform lots of extended-release theophylline tablets displaying various levels of content uniformity and dissolution variability. These data were used to evaluate the univariate specifications utilized in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <711> and <905>. Simulation revealed that the specifications are too lenient for content uniformity, both in terms of inefficacy and toxicity, whereas the criteria for dissolution testing are too strict for inefficacy and inaccurate for toxicity. The USP tests also failed to pinpoint the clinical interaction between content uniformity and dissolution variability. Additionally, the simulation platform was used to define the underlying relationship between product quality attributes and clinical performance. Here, content uniformity and Weibull dissolution time constants were used as inputs to the design spaces, which were conditioned on quantitative estimates of inefficacy and toxicity. This methodology enhances the information content of the design space by omitting quality surrogates (e.g., dissolution, moisture content) that are utilized in current design space practices.

  7. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. PMID:27211670

  8. High resolution Viking Orbiter images: A useful data source for testing the viability of geomorphic processes attributed to Martian landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The diversity of landforms visible in the Viking images of Mars have led to a proliforation of geomorphic agents proposed to be active in shaping the Martian surface. While it is likely that numerous different processes have contributed to the geomorphology of Mars throughout Martian history, it is important that proposed Martian geomorphic agents be subjected to critical scrutiny by the scientific community. High resolution Viking Orbiter images represent a data set for investigating geomorphic processes on Mars. Geologic mapping of Mars can take place at a variety of scales, utilizing a variety of image resolutions, but an interpretation of the history of individual landforms is dependent upon the best available spatial resolution. These high resolution images provide the opportunity to examine proposed Martian geomorphic processes. It is clear that researchers may not interpret features in the same way but it is important that high resolution images of candidate features be made available to the scientific community so that a consensus can be reached. This procedure can provide a way to refine the understanding of geomorphic processes on Mars.

  9. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  10. Concepts for the Measurements Subsystems of the Third Generation Attributes Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Archer, Daniel E.; Cunningham, Mark; McConchie, Seth; Thron, Jonathon

    2012-07-20

    Abstract The 3rd Generation Attribute Measurement System project has been tasked by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification to develop the next generation of attribute measurement system for potential verification applications. The primary improvements of this effort, compared to previous attribute measurement systems, are to address authentication and certification concerns throughout the design and development process and to conduct attribute measurements for highly enriched uranium and high explosives in addition to plutonium. This paper will present attribute measurement techniques under consideration by the project.

  11. Enhancing the retention of phytochemicals and organoleptic attributes in muscadine grape juice through a combined approach between dense phase CO2 processing and copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Insfran, David; Balaban, Murat O; Talcott, Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical stability and organoleptic attributes of an ascorbic acid-fortified muscadine grape juice as affected by dense phase CO2 processing (DP-CO2) and addition of thyme polyphenolic cofactors (Thymus vulgaris; 1:100 anthocyanin-to-cofactor molar ratio) in efforts to prevent phytochemical losses that occur during storage of anthocyanin-containing beverages, especially in the presence of carbonyl compounds commonly produced during thermal processing and storage. DP-CO2 processing insignificantly altered initial juice phytochemical and antioxidant content, whereas thermal pasteurization reduced anthocyanins (263 mg/L), ascorbic acid (42 mg/L), soluble phenolics (266 mg/L), and antioxidant capacity (6 microM Trolox equivalents/mL). Similar trends were observed during storage, and data showed that increasing the CO2 level from 8 to 16% during DP-CO2 was instrumental in reducing juice phytochemical and antioxidant degradation. Copigmentation was instrumental in retaining higher anthocyanin, soluble phenolics, and antioxidant capacity during storage without affecting initial juice aroma and flavor characteristics. Moreover, on the basis of overall likeability scores, panelists preferred copigmented juices, which had increased juice color intensity and masked the detrimental color fading that occurred during storage, especially when compared to thermally pasteurized juices. DP-CO2 and copigmentation were effective strategies to reduce phytochemical and color deterioration that occurred in muscadine juice during storage without affecting their organoleptic attributes.

  12. The Development and Implementation of an Administrative Database, Telecommunications System, and Training Program to Improve K-12 Magnet/Choice Program Administrative Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary C.

    In the past, the communication and paperwork structure between K-12 magnet/choice programs and the district-wide program administration was not efficient. In particular, the student application, selection, and notification processes were time-consuming, and did not enable school-based personnel to communicate effectively with district…

  13. Contrasting the eastern Pacific El Niño and the central Pacific El Niño: process-based feedback attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Yang, Song; Cai, Ming

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the roles of radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies driven by (air-sea coupled) oceanic dynamic processes, focusing on their contributions to the key differences between the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing SST anomalies into partial temperature anomalies due to individual processes using a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method. Oceanic processes induce warming from the central to the eastern equatorial Pacific and cooling over the western basin with a maximum warming center in the central Pacific for both types of El Niño. The processes that act to oppose the oceanic process-induced SST anomalies are surface latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, cloud, and atmospheric dynamic feedbacks, referred to as negative-feedback processes. The cooling due to each of the four negative-feedback processes is the strongest in the region where the initial warming due to oceanic processes is the largest. Water-vapor feedback is the sole process that acts to enhance the initial warming induced by oceanic processes. The increase in atmospheric water vapor over the eastern Pacific is much stronger for the EP El Niño than for the CP El Niño. It is the strong water-vapor feedback over the eastern Pacific and the strong negative feedbacks over the central equatorial Pacific that help to relocate the maximum warming center from the central Pacific to the eastern basin for the EP El Niño.

  14. Contrasting the Eastern Pacific El Niño and the Central Pacific El Niño: Process-based Feedback Attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HU, X.; Yang, S.; Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the roles of the radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying the SST anomalies driven by air-sea coupled oceanic dynamic processes. This helps to isolate their contributions to the key differences between the Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies into partial SST anomalies due to individual processes using a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-responses analysis method. Oceanic processes induce warming from the central to the eastern equatorial Pacific and cooling over the western basin with the maximum warming center in the central Pacific for both types of El Niño. The processes that act to oppose the oceanic process-induced SST anomalies are surface latent flux, sensible heat flux, cloud, and atmospheric dynamic feedbacks. The cooling due to each of the four negative-feedback processes is strongest in the region where the initial warming due to oceanic processes is maximum. Water vapor feedback is the sole process that acts to enhance the initial warming induced by oceanic processes. The increase of atmospheric water vapor over the eastern Pacific is much stronger for EP El Niño than CP El Niño. Therefore, it is the strong water vapor feedback over the eastern Pacific together with the strong negative feedbacks over the central equatorial Pacific that helps to relocate the maximum warming center from the central Pacific to the eastern basin for EP El Niño.This paper examines the roles of the radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying the SST anomalies driven by air-sea coupled oceanic dynamic processes. This helps to isolate their contributions to the key differences between the Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies into partial SST

  15. Relationship Between Remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices, Canopy Attributes and Plant Physiological Processes: What Vegetation Indices Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Edward P.; Huete, Alfredo R.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) are among the oldest tools in remote sensing studies. Although many variations exist, most of them ratio the reflection of light in the red and NIR sections of the spectrum to separate the landscape into water, soil, and vegetation. Theoretical analyses and field studies have shown that VIs are near-linearly related to photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by a plant canopy, and therefore to light-dependent physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, occurring in the upper canopy. Practical studies have used time-series VIs to measure primary production and evapotranspiration, but these are limited in accuracy to that of the data used in ground truthing or calibrating the models used. VIs are also used to estimate a wide variety of other canopy attributes that are used in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT), Surface Energy Balance (SEB), and Global Climate Models (GCM). These attributes include fractional vegetation cover, leaf area index, roughness lengths for turbulent transfer, emissivity and albedo. However, VIs often exhibit only moderate, non-linear relationships to these canopy attributes, compromising the accuracy of the models. We use case studies to illustrate the use and misuse of VIs, and argue for using VIs most simply as a measurement of canopy light absorption rather than as a surrogate for detailed features of canopy architecture. Used this way, VIs are compatible with “Big Leaf” SVAT and GCMs that assume that canopy carbon and moisture fluxes have the same relative response to the environment as any single leaf, simplifying the task of modeling complex landscapes.

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR No. 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR No. 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  20. Administrators in Action--Managing Public Monies and Processing Emotion in School Activities: A Teaching Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…

  1. Effects of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure processing and storage on the content of polyphenols and some quality attributes of fruit smoothies.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Brunton, Nigel; Gormley, Ronan; Butler, Francis

    2011-01-26

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the levels of polyphenolic compounds and selected quality attributes of fruit smoothies compared to fresh and mild conventional pasteurization processing. Fruit smoothie samples were thermally (P(70) > 10 min) or HHP processed (450 MPa/1, 3, or 5 min/20 °C) (HHP1, HHP3, and HHP5, respectively). The polyphenolic content, color difference (ΔE), sensory acceptability, and rheological (G'; G''; G*) properties of the smoothies were assessed over a storage period of 30 days at 4 °C. Processing had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the levels of polyphenolic compounds in smoothies. However, this effect was not consistent for all compound types. HHP processed samples (HHP1 and HHP3) had higher (p < 0.001) levels of phenolic compounds, for example, procyanidin B1 and hesperidin, than HHP5 samples. Levels of flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid compounds decreased (p < 0.001) after 30 days of storage at 2-4 °C). Decreases were particularly notable between days 10 and 20 (hesperidin) and days 20 and 30 (chlorogenic acid) (p < 0.001). There was a wide variation in ΔE values recorded over the 30 day storage period (p < 0.001), with fresh and thermally processed smoothies exhibiting lower color change than their HHP counterparts (p < 0.001). No effect was observed for the type of process on complex modulus (G*) data, but all smoothies became less rigid during the storage period (p < 0.001). Despite minor product deterioration during storage (p < 0.001), sensory acceptability scores showed no preference for either fresh or processed (thermal/HHP) smoothies, which were deemed acceptable (>3) by panelists.

  2. [Decision-making process and administrative practice: managing the State Health Secretariat in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Thereza Christina Bahia; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2005-01-01

    This case study is based on research performed by the Bahia State Health Secretariat (SESAB), aimed at analyzing management practices during the implementation of a State government administrative reform. The institutional agenda shows evidence of limited participation by civil society and technical and operational staff in problem selection and prioritization, resulting from a work process pressured by high-level executive government staff. Decisions regarding "output" (projects, services, and activities) were made under the responsibility of subordinate operational levels and did not appear as issues in the institutional routine. Concerns related to "input" (financial and human resources) consumed most of the high-level efforts, with internal and external negotiations and compromises to assure access to them. Meanwhile the possible "outcome", namely public health status, represents the "occult subject" of the institutional discourse. Information emerges in institutional disputes as a technical "power resource" in its medical, epidemiological, health, and administrative dimensions. The issue of government "representation" and allied interests is based on ideological dispositions and authoritarian practices, thus contradicting the need for management transparency and modernization. PMID:16158142

  3. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an administrative review process for claimants who disagree with its recommended and final adverse... cancer claims (see § 30.115). HHS also has exclusive control of the process for designating classes of... regulations governing that process at 42 CFR part 83. Finally, HHS has promulgated regulations at 42 CFR...

  4. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  5. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  6. Commentary on AAPS Workshop: dissolution testing for the twenty-first century: linking critical quality attributes and critical process parameters to clinically relevant dissolution.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheng; D'Souza, Susan S; Parker, Jan E; Mirza, Tahseen

    2007-09-01

    This is a summary report of the workshop entitled "Dissolution Testing for the Twenty-first Century: Linking Critical Quality Attributes and Critical Process Parameters to Clinically Relevant Dissolution," organized by the In Vitro Release and Dissolution Testing Focus Group of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Participants from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia in the US, Europe, and Japan attended this workshop to review, discuss, and explore the role of traditional dissolution testing in the new arena of Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT). Other areas of discussion were the use of the dissolution test to evaluate drug release from novel dosage forms, challenges in dissolution testing and specification setting, and dissolution apparatus calibration using performance verification tablets versus mechanical calibration. The workshop identified areas where further research and collaboration are needed to advance knowledge and understanding of the science of dissolution. Views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the FDA and USP.

  7. The Development of a Portfolio Assessment Process for the Bachelor of Business Administration Program at Mount Vernon Nazarene College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolender, Ronald K.

    This report describes the development of a portfolio assessment process for the bachelor of business administration (BBA) program at Mount Vernon Nazarene College in Mount Vernon, Ohio. The BBA program is designed primarily for working adults. This process was developed by reviewing the literature on portfolio assessment, examining the use of…

  8. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  9. The Process of Establishing a New Master of Research Administration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jo Ann; Torres, Laurianne

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the second largest university in the nation was awarded a grant from NCURA to initiate a new fully-online graduate program in research administration. The Master of Research Administration (MRA) was approved by the institution's Board of Trustees in March 2011 and the first classes will begin August 2011. Currently the research literature…

  10. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA) for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs). Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW) pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs). In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR) in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80%) after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65%) was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus females. Conclusions

  11. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... request for an administrative hearing will be forwarded through their supervisory chain of command... driving privileges should be restored. Such requests shall be forwarded through their chain of command...

  12. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... condition standards as required by 24 CFR part 5, subpart G, the Regulatory Agreement and/or the Housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring... and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  13. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  14. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill…

  15. An Ethnographic Case Study of the Administrative Organization, Processes, and Behavior in an Innovative Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittenham, Lee Roy

    The major purposes of this study were to describe and explain, and then to generate grounded theory about the administrative organization, processes, and behavior in an innovative senior high school. The school selected for the study was nationally known for leadership in implementing individualized learning programs compatible with the model of…

  16. The Relationship between Funding, ICT, Selection Processes, Administration and Planning and the Standard of Science Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

    2007-01-01

    This study was motivated by the premise that no nation grows further than the quality of its education. The paper presents an investigation on the relationships between funding, ICT, selection processes, administration and planning and the standard of science teacher education in Nigeria. The data for the study was gathered through a two page…

  17. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ..., the Department adopted an administrative appeal rule at 36 CFR part 251, subpart C (54 FR 3362) (251... October 11, 2011 (76 FR 62694). The 60-day public comment period ended December 12, 2011. The Forest... grazing permit decisions were made subject to mediation and why others were not (64 FR 37843-37844...

  18. 77 FR 21880 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing-Enhancing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... following FHA-insured multifamily programs: Section 220 (apartments in urban renewal areas), Sections 221(d... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 200 RIN 2502-AJ09 Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily... Counsel, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 10276, Washington, DC...

  19. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... may designate a personal representative (as defined in 42 CFR 423.772) to represent you during the... has a prior commitment to be in court or at another administrative hearing on the date scheduled for..., educational, or linguistic limitations (including any lack of facility with the English language) that you...

  20. 75 FR 62335 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single Family Lender Insurance Process: Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... participate in HUD's Lender Insurance program, Direct Endorsement program, or the Title II Single Family... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 203 RIN 2502 AI58 Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single Family... significantly, the proposed rule would provide additional guidance on HUD's regulations implementing...

  1. School Leadership: Development of an Evaluation Instrument and Process for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathy L.

    2011-01-01

    This action research study was conducted for purposes of changing the formal evaluation for school administrators to one constructed around the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) 2008 standards, inclusive of multifaceted components aimed to increase the active participation of both the evaluator and the individual being…

  2. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  3. How We Attribute (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Challenges in attribution science are discussed. At its simplest, attribution is about saying that one thing results from something else. Compelled by innate desire for clarity and urgency to know what to expect in the future, it is common to draw prompt conclusions about causes for climate events. Such immediacy sometimes leads to simplistic attribution statements, for instance claiming that one thing would not have happened were it not for another thing. Invariably true for any chaotic system, it begs the critical attribution question of how much of the magnitude can be ascribed to a particular factor, and how its likelihood of occurrence was affected. How these and related questions are addressed is what can distinguish scientific methods of attribution from mere testimonials. The essence of attribution science is positing cause-effect relationships, deriving predictions as logical consequences, and performing experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original conjecture was correct. One particular experimental method used for event attribution, focused on the role of human-induced climate change, is discussed. This involves conducting model experiments to derive climate statistics for a counterfactual Earth system devoid of the cumulative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols, and comparing those to statistics in model experiments subjected to actual climate forcings. The challenge raised hereby concerns understanding the character of overall change in boundary forcings, especially sea surface temperatures over the world oceans, as a consequence of external radiative forcing. The implications that existing gaps in understanding ocean changes pose for event attribution are addressed. A second topic to be discussed is the relationship between how we attribute and how we define climate events. The current challenge addressed hereby is how society is to be best informed by the results of attribution science.

  4. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  5. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  6. Follow-up process evaluation of Bonneville Power Administration's energy savings plan program

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.G.; Peters, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Energy $avings Plan (E$P) program has been operated by the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) since late fall 1987. The program is designed to build capability in the acquisition of conservation resources in the non-aluminum industrial sector in the Pacific Northwest. According to the Northwest Power Planning Council, the non-aluminum industrial sector accounts for about 23% of the total regional electricity consumption. Five non-aluminum industries consume 85% of this total. Three major industries --- chemical producers, pulp and paper plants, and lumber mills --- account for around 68% of non-aluminum industrial consumption (i.e., 16% of the total regional electricity consumption). 1 ref.

  7. Does Climate Attribution Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Wall, T.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on observed climatic phenomena (attribution) has been a publicly contested and controversial topic as it relates to the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as well as other international and national climate assessments. Scientists engage in substantial efforts to evaluate and determine the human influence on changes in observed climate patterns, including frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods, droughts, and storms. As demonstrated by the amount of content dedicated to attribution in these assessments, the scientific community may be inherently assuming that attribution of climatic change to anthropogenic activities is valuable and usable information for decision making. Here, we present an initial evaluation from interviews of the relative importance of attribution to decision making around climate adaptation and mitigation efforts at multiple scales (local, state, regional, national, international).

  8. Visualising detection and attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.

  9. Metadata-driven comparative analysis tool for sequences (meta-CATS): an automated process for identifying significant sequence variations that correlate with virus attributes.

    PubMed

    Pickett, B E; Liu, M; Sadat, E L; Squires, R B; Noronha, J M; He, S; Jen, W; Zaremba, S; Gu, Z; Zhou, L; Larsen, C N; Bosch, I; Gehrke, L; McGee, M; Klem, E B; Scheuermann, R H

    2013-12-01

    The Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; www.viprbrc.org) and Influenza Research Database (IRD; www.fludb.org) have developed a metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS), which performs statistical comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data to identify correlations between sequence variations and virus attributes (metadata). Meta-CATS guides users through: selecting a set of nucleotide or protein sequences; dividing them into multiple groups based on any associated metadata attribute (e.g. isolation location, host species); performing a statistical test at each aligned position; and identifying all residues that significantly differ between the groups. As proofs of concept, we have used meta-CATS to identify sequence biomarkers associated with dengue viruses isolated from different hemispheres, and to identify variations in the NS1 protein that are unique to each of the 4 dengue serotypes. Meta-CATS is made freely available to virology researchers to identify genotype-phenotype correlations for development of improved vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

  10. Metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS): an Automated Process for Identifying Significant Sequence Variations that Correlate with Virus Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, BE; Liu, M; Sadat, EL; Squires, RB; Noronha, JM; He, S; Jen, W; Zaremba, S; Gu, Z; Zhou, L; Larsen, CN; Bosch, I; Gehrke, L; McGee, M; Klem, EB; Scheuermann, RH

    2016-01-01

    The Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; www.viprbrc.org) and Influenza Research Database (IRD; www.fludb.org) have developed a metadata-driven Comparative Analysis Tool for Sequences (meta-CATS), which performs statistical comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data to identify correlations between sequence variations and virus attributes (metadata). Meta-CATS guides users through: selecting a set of nucleotide or protein sequences; dividing them into multiple groups based on any associated metadata attribute (e.g. isolation location, host species); performing a statistical test at each aligned position; and identifying all residues that significantly differ between the groups. As proofs of concept, we have used meta-CATS to identify sequence biomarkers associated with dengue viruses isolated from different hemispheres, and to identify variations in the NS1 protein that are unique to each of the 4 dengue serotypes. Meta-CATS is made freely available to virology researchers to identify genotype-phenotype correlations for development of improved vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. PMID:24210098

  11. Assessment of intelligent processing equipment in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. S.

    1992-04-01

    Summarized here is an assessment of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) within NASA. An attempt is made to determine the state of IPE development and research in specific areas where NASA might contribute to the national capability. Mechanisms to transfer NASA technology to the U.S. private sector in this critical area are discussed. It was concluded that intelligent processing equipment is finding extensive use in the manufacture of space hardware, especially in the propulsion components of the shuttle. The major benefits are found in improved process consistency, which lowers cost as it reduces rework. Advanced feedback controls are under development and being implemented gradually into shuttle manufacturing. Implementation is much more extensive in new programs, such as in the advanced solid rocket motor and the Space Station Freedom.

  12. Assessment of Intelligent Processing Equipment in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized here is an assessment of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) within NASA. An attempt is made to determine the state of IPE development and research in specific areas where NASA might contribute to the national capability. Mechanisms to transfer NASA technology to the U.S. private sector in this critical area are discussed. It was concluded that intelligent processing equipment is finding extensive use in the manufacture of space hardware, especially in the propulsion components of the shuttle. The major benefits are found in improved process consistency, which lowers cost as it reduces rework. Advanced feedback controls are under development and being implemented gradually into shuttle manufacturing. Implementation is much more extensive in new programs, such as in the advanced solid rocket motor and the Space Station Freedom.

  13. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    has a larger CPU run-time, resulting from the necessary matrix inversion. Barnes, Arthur E. "The calculation of instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth.", Geophysics, 57.11 (1992): 1520-1524. Fomel, Sergey. "Local seismic attributes.", Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33. Fomel, Sergey. "Shaping regularization in geophysical-estimation problems." , Geophysics, 72.2 (2007): R29-R36. Stockwell, Robert Glenn, Lalu Mansinha, and R. P. Lowe. "Localization of the complex spectrum: the S transform."Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 44.4 (1996): 998-1001. Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. "Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063. Cohen, Leon. "Time frequency analysis theory and applications."USA: Prentice Hall, (1995). Margrave, Gary F., Michael P. Lamoureux, and David C. Henley. "Gabor deconvolution: Estimating reflectivity by nonstationary deconvolution of seismic data." Geophysics, 76.3 (2011): W15-W30.

  14. Acute NK₁ receptor antagonist administration affects reward incentive anticipation processing in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saji, Kanako; Ikeda, Yumiko; Kim, Woochan; Shingai, Yoshitoshi; Tateno, Amane; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okubo, Yoshiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-08-01

    The primary brain structures of reward processing are mainly situated in the mid-brain dopamine system. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area and works as a key brain region for the positive incentive value of rewards. Because neurokinin-1 (NK₁) receptor, the cognate receptor for substance P (SP), is highly expressed in the NAc, we hypothesized that the SP/NK₁ receptor system might play a role in positive reward processing in the NAc in humans. Therefore, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study to assess the effects of an NK₁ receptor antagonist on human reward processing through a monetary incentive delay task that is known to elicit robust activation in the NAc especially during gain anticipation. Eighteen healthy adults participated in two series of an fMRI study, taking either a placebo or the NK₁ receptor antagonist aprepitant. Behavioural measurements revealed that there was no significant difference in reaction time, hit rate, or self-reported effort for incentive cues between the placebo and aprepitant treatments. fMRI showed significant decrease in blood oxygenation-level-dependent signals in the NAc during gain anticipation with the aprepitant treatment compared to the placebo treatment. These results suggest that SP/NK₁ receptor system is involved in processing of positive incentive anticipation and plays a role in accentuating positive valence in association with the primary dopaminergic pathways in the reward circuit.

  15. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  16. 75 FR 57233 - 340B Drug Pricing Program Administrative Dispute Resolution Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Manufacturer Audit Guidelines and Dispute Resolution Process for the 340B Program (61 FR 65406). That notice... claims analogous to that utilized under the current informal dispute resolution guidelines (61 FR 65406... Program outlined at 61 FR 65406 (Dec. 12, 1996) (can also be found on the OPA Web site at...

  17. Remote sensing of land processes: Sponsored programs of study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Wickland, D. E.; Baltuck, M.; Ruzek, M. J.; Murphy, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Land Processes Program consists of four interrelated disciplines which support studying the terrestrial geology, ecology, hydrology, and remote sensing science. The first three represent the space based components of classical science disciplines, while the last discipline is the study of the physics, biology, and chemistry of the land surface as it relates to the interaction of electromagnetic energy with the land surface.

  18. The Challenges of Creating a Benchmarking Process for Administrative and Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri M.

    2007-01-01

    In the current climate of emphasis on outcomes assessment, colleges and universities are working diligently to create assessment processes for student learning outcomes, competence in general education, student satisfaction with services, and electronic tracking media to document evidence of competence in graduates. Benchmarking has become a…

  19. Are School Administrators' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion Influenced by the Change Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goley, Barry Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between the change process for inclusive teaching practices and the' attitudes of educators toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the general educational setting. This research study was based upon the theoretical construct of Rogers' (2003) "Diffusion of…

  20. MountPointAttributes

    2001-06-16

    MountPointAttributes is a software component that provides client code with a technique to raise the local namespace of a file to a global namespace. Its abstractions and mechanisms allow the client code to gather global properties of a file and to use them in devising an effective storage access strategy on this file.

  1. Primacy Effects in Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Francis T.

    Previous research has suggested the existence of a primacy effect in the attribution of ability. To test if the primacy effect occurs in situations where specific cues about the person and nature of the test materials are lacking or greatly reduced, college students corrected a multiple-choice test in which a phantom stimulus person correctly…

  2. Attribution of Library Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)

  3. A Different Attribute Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Thomas L.

    1981-01-01

    The Concept Game, which focuses on the attributes of parity, balance, majority, closure, and skip of seven-digit binary numbers, is described. Originally written as a computer program, the game is modified so that pupils can play with construction paper chips of just paper and pencil. (MP)

  4. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses’ Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study)

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Monsey; Barber, Nicholas; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2015-01-01

    Context Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety. Aim To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions. Methods We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures. Findings Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1) system configurations and features, (2) behaviour types among nurses, and (3) patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses’ inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into ‘task focused’, and ‘patient-interaction focused’. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1) an active resource of information, (2) a passive information resource, and/or (3) a

  5. An assessment of the impact of pulsed electric fields processing factors on oxidation, color, texture, and sensory attributes of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Cristina; Eslami, Sara; Brunton, Nigel P; Arimi, Joshua M; Noci, Francesco; Lyng, James G

    2015-05-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel nonthermal technology that has the potential to cause physical disruption to muscle tissue which in turn could alter the sensorial aspects of meat in both a positive (e.g., enhanced tenderization) and a negative way (e.g., off-flavor development). If there is a risk of off-flavor development it should be identified prior to embarking on an extensive investigation on PEF in meat tenderization and turkey meat was chosen for this purpose as it is particularly prone to oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various PEF treatments on the quality attributes of turkey breast meat. Turkey breast meat obtained 1 d postslaughter was treated in a batch PEF chamber with increasing electric field strength up to 3 kV/cm and analyzed for lipid oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) with up to 5 d storage at 4°C in aerobic conditions. In a separate experiment, turkey breast meat samples were exposed to PEF under various combinations of pulse number, frequency, and voltage. Following PEF treatments weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color were assessed by instrumental methods. A sensory analysis was also performed to determine consumer acceptability for color, texture, and odor of the samples. Lipid oxidation in all PEF-treated samples progressed at the same rate with storage as the untreated samples and was not found to be significantly different to the control. Under the conditions examined PEF treatments did not induce differences in instrumentally measured weight loss, cook loss, lipid oxidation, texture, and color (raw and cooked) either on fresh or frozen samples. However, the sensory evaluation suggested that panelists could detect slight differences between the PEF-treated samples and the controls in terms of texture and odor.

  6. Multifractal analysis of information processing in hippocampal neural ensembles during working memory under Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration

    PubMed Central

    Fetterhoff, Dustin; Opris, Ioan; Simpson, Sean L.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Hampson, Robert E.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multifractal analysis quantifies the time-scale-invariant properties in data by describing the structure of variability over time. By applying this analysis to hippocampal interspike interval sequences recorded during performance of a working memory task, a measure of long-range temporal correlations and multifractal dynamics can reveal single neuron correlates of information processing. New method Wavelet leaders-based multifractal analysis (WLMA) was applied to hippocampal interspike intervals recorded during a working memory task. WLMA can be used to identify neurons likely to exhibit information processing relevant to operation of brain–computer interfaces and nonlinear neuronal models. Results Neurons involved in memory processing (“Functional Cell Types” or FCTs) showed a greater degree of multifractal firing properties than neurons without task-relevant firing characteristics. In addition, previously unidentified FCTs were revealed because multifractal analysis suggested further functional classification. The cannabinoid-type 1 receptor partial agonist, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), selectively reduced multifractal dynamics in FCT neurons compared to non-FCT neurons. Comparison with existing methods WLMA is an objective tool for quantifying the memory-correlated complexity represented by FCTs that reveals additional information compared to classification of FCTs using traditional z-scores to identify neuronal correlates of behavioral events. Conclusion z-Score-based FCT classification provides limited information about the dynamical range of neuronal activity characterized by WLMA. Increased complexity, as measured with multifractal analysis, may be a marker of functional involvement in memory processing. The level of multifractal attributes can be used to differentially emphasize neural signals to improve computational models and algorithms underlying brain–computer interfaces. PMID:25086297

  7. Food and Drug Administration process for development and approval of drugs and radiopharmaceuticals: treatments in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yang-Min; Maher, V Ellen

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory advice and assessment play an important role in the successful development of new drugs and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of urologic malignancies. Cooperation between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the pharmaceutical industry has led to the approval of more than 20 new urologic oncology products in the last 2 decades. Despite these advances, more effective treatments need to be developed and approved for the treatment of urologic malignancies. This review provides general information about the FDA's role in the development of investigational new drugs, with an emphasis on the regulatory process and the requirements for marketing approval. In addition, this review summarizes the products for the treatment of urologic malignancies that were approved by the FDA in the last 30 years and the key issues concerning urologic oncology products that were discussed publicly at Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee meetings in the past 10 years.

  8. [Hallucinations attributed to djinns].

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Eker, Hafize; Basalan, Hillal; Aouaj, Youssef; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations often attribute these to djinns, invisible beings. The treatment of these hallucinations is complicated by the patients' reluctance to discuss them, and by their doubts concerning the usefulness of a biomedical treatment for a problem which they experience as metaphysical in nature. In this clinical lesson, we present case studies of three Moroccan patients who attributed their hallucinations to djinns. The first was a 30-year-old factory worker whose compulsive complaints had started when he saw a white figure in the basement who asked him 'What are you doing here?' The psychiatric diagnosis was obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient was prescribed cognitive behavioural therapy, an SSRI and a consultation by the imam, but he refused. The second patient was a 25-year-old unemployed man, who had auditory hallucinations, delusions, behavioural problems, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. He heard voices which he attributed to maleficent djinns. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but his compliance with antipsychotics was insufficient. The imam who was consulted reassured him that his complaints were not caused by djinns. After prolonged treatment with clozapine and cutting down on cannabis use the patient recovered sufficiently to be discharged. The third patient was a 26-year-old unemployed woman who was hearing voices that her imam thought were caused by a djinn. She was examined because of serious self-mutilation and was diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder. Treatment with an antipsychotic, lithium and valproic acid and a consultation by a second imam, who found no signs of evidence of djinns, was successful. We recommend to ask individuals with an Islamic background specifically whether djinns might be involved, especially in cases of mental problems and unexplained symptoms, and to seek the cooperation of a qualified imam or traditional healer for treatment purposes.

  9. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  10. Attributional Effects in Interpersonal Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.

    Research has shown that attributing failure to lack of ability leads to lower motivation than does attributing the failure to lack of effort. An attributional model of motivation and performance following failure was tested with college students (N=63), who were preselected on the basis of their attributional styles for interpersonal failures, as…

  11. Study of the pigments elementary chemical composition of a painting in process of attribution to Gainsborough employing a portable X-rays fluorescence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Blonski, M. S.; Parreira, P. S.; Souza, L. A. C.

    2007-09-01

    The investigated painting, named as "The woodman" by its owners, is in process of authenticity verification as a Thomas Gainsborough (XVIII century) painting and is under investigation at the Laboratory of Conservation Science (LACICOR), CECOR/EBA/UFMG. The authentication process is still in course. The measurements were carried out in the place where the painting was on custody, with a portable X-rays fluorescence (XRF) system constituted of a X-rays tube with Ag anode, a Si-PIN diode detector, nuclear electronic chain and a specially designed mechanical system for the detector and X-rays tube positioning, that enables angular and XYZ movements of the excitation-detection system. The employed voltage and current intensity of the X-rays tube were 17 kV and 3 μA, respectively. The time of acquisition for each measurement was 500 s. XRF spectra were analyzed using the AXIL-WinQXAS software. Three measurements in each of the following regions of the painting were done: face, leaves, arm, sky and firewood. The carried out analysis indicated the following pigments: White (lead white and calcium sulfate, identified by the elements Pb, Ca and S), Blue (Prussian blue, identified by the key element Fe), Red (Vermilion, identified by the elements Hg and S) and Brown (mixture of Fe and Mn oxides, identified by the elements Fe and Mn). Elements belonging to modern pigments (after XVIII century) corresponding to the same colors were absent in the analyzed spectra.

  12. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  13. Impact of high pressure processing on color, bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase activity, and microbiological attributes of pumpkin purée.

    PubMed

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; Durán, Rocío; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Bernabé, Rosario Ramírez

    2016-04-01

    Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds' content (carotenoids and total phenols), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after high pressure processing (HPP) on a pumpkin purée (cv. 'Butternut'). Three pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were combined with three holding times (200, 400, and 600 s). The applied treatments reduced the levels of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (TPP), and molds and yeasts (M&Y). All applied treatments did not affect enzymatic activity of PPO. Pressure level increased CIE L* values, which could enhance the lightness perception of high pressure (HP)-treated purées. No differences were found between the untreated and HP-treated purées regarding total phenols and carotenoids content (lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene) and total antioxidant activity. HPP did not affect most quality parameters and maintained the levels of bioactive compounds. However, it did not achieve the complete inhibition of PPO, which could reduce the shelf-life of the pumpkin purée.

  14. Effects of ripening stage and steaming time on quality attributes of fat free banana snack obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing.

    PubMed

    Prachayawarakorn, Somkiat; Raikham, Chonlada; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2016-02-01

    Healthy snacks have increasingly been interested in consumers. Puffing technique is an alternative to produce healthy snacks. Effects of ripening stage of banana and steaming time on quality of banana slices obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing were investigated. Bananas at the ripening stages 1 and 3 were steamed at 100 °C for 30 s up to 2 min and dried at 90 °C to moisture content of 25 % dry basis (d.b.). The samples were then puffed by fluidized bed dryer at 160 °C for 2 min and dried at the same temperature as the first stage drying. The experimental results showed that shrinkage, drying time, color, glycemic index and textural properties were affected by steaming time and ripening stage. Steaming provided more uniformity of banana color. Steaming positively or negatively affected the degree shrinkage of banana depending on the ripening stage. The banana texture in particular crispiness could be improved by the steaming for the ripening stage 1 banana whilst it did not improve for the ripening stage 3. During steaming, the C-type crystalline structure of banana starch disappeared and thus the value of glycemic index was increased. The ripening stage 1 banana was recommended for producing healthy snack in order to control glycemic response. PMID:27162374

  15. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  16. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, A. J.; Zeissler, C. J.; Newbury, D. E.; Davis, J.; Lindstrom, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the “Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act,” scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material. PMID:21059943

  17. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material. PMID:21059943

  18. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  19. Attributions about Addiction among Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank; De La Rosa, Mario; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional, secondary analysis study utilizes data from a prior study of intergenerational substance use among Latina women (n = 316). We explored the influence of substance use frequency and type, as well as cultural and socioeconomic factors on attributions about addiction among a predominantly immigrant sample of Latina women. Women who were less proficient in English (an indicator of adoption of the receiving culture in the acculturation process) and more proficient in Spanish (an indicator of heritage-culture retention) endorsed more spiritual model attributions than women who were more proficient in English and less proficient in Spanish. Women were more proficient in Spanish more frequently endorsed the disease attribution model. Alcohol, marijuana use and non-medical sedative use were linked with spiritual, moral /character and disease attribution models respectively. Participants reporting higher education levels indicated less agreement with the moral/character model of addiction. Implications for culturally tailored social work interventions for Latina women are discussed. PMID:22162943

  20. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    PubMed

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  1. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  2. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  3. Cortical organization of environmental sounds by attribute.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2011-05-01

    Semantic knowledge is supported by a widely distributed neuronal network, with differential patterns of activation depending upon experimental stimulus or task demands. Despite a wide body of knowledge on semantic object processing from the visual modality, the response of this semantic network to environmental sounds remains relatively unknown. Here, we used fMRI to investigate how access to different conceptual attributes from environmental sound input modulates this semantic network. Using a range of living and manmade sounds, we scanned participants whilst they carried out an object attribute verification task. Specifically, we tested visual perceptual, encyclopedic, and categorical attributes about living and manmade objects relative to a high-level auditory perceptual baseline to investigate the differential patterns of response to these contrasting types of object-related attributes, whilst keeping stimulus input constant across conditions. Within the bilateral distributed network engaged for processing environmental sounds across all conditions, we report here a highly significant dissociation within the left hemisphere between the processing of visual perceptual and encyclopedic attributes of objects.

  4. The Arts--A Missing Link in the Basic Curriculum. A Process Manual to Integrate the Arts into the Elementary School Curriculum for Administrators, Teachers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Kathryn Gerlach

    Cited as a model project for the state of Vermont, this process model helps administrators, teachers, and community members integrate the arts into the elementary school curriculum. Arranged into 10 sections, the introduction in part 1 outlines the development of the program. Three major project goals are stated in section 2 and section 3 is an…

  5. That’s nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Brown, Roger L.; Alper, Samuel J.; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Patel, Neal R.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) is widely endorsed as a way to improve key health care outcomes, particularly patient safety. Applying a human factors approach, this paper models more explicitly how health IT might improve or worsen outcomes. The human factors model specifies that health IT transforms the work system, which transforms the process of care, which in turn transforms the outcome of care. This study reports on transformations of the medication administration process that resulted from the implementation of one type of IT: bar coded medication administration (BCMA). Registered nurses at two large pediatric hospitals in the US participated in a survey administered before and after one of the hospitals implemented BCMA. Nurses’ perceptions of the administration process changed at the hospital that implemented BCMA, whereas perceptions of nurses at the control hospital did not. BCMA appeared to improve the safety of the processes of matching medications to the medication administration record and checking patient identification. The accuracy, usefulness, and consistency of checking patient identification improved as well. In contrast, nurses’ perceptions of the usefulness, time efficiency, and ease of the documentation process decreased post-BCMA. Discussion of survey findings is supplemented by observations and interviews at the hospital that implemented BCMA. By considering the way that IT transforms the work system and the work process a practitioner can better predict the kind of outcomes that the IT might produce. More importantly, the practitioner can achieve or prevent outcomes of interest by using design and redesign aimed at controlling work system and process transformations. PMID:21686318

  6. Multi-Attribute Consensus Building Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…

  7. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... condition standards as required by 24 CFR part 5, subpart G, the Regulatory Agreement and/or the Housing... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Physical Condition of Multifamily Properties § 200.857 Administrative... documents for review. Once the technical review and database adjustment periods have expired, as provided...

  8. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... condition standards as required by 24 CFR part 5, subpart G, the Regulatory Agreement and/or the Housing... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Physical Condition of Multifamily Properties § 200.857 Administrative... documents for review. Once the technical review and database adjustment periods have expired, as provided...

  9. The Design and Testing of an Integrated Computer System for the Administrative Processes of the University. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    This is the third in a series of reports on the activity carried out under Project INFO auspices at Stanford, and covers the period March 1971 - April 1972. During this time, the project has been principally engaged in continued development of the OASIS (Online Administrative Information System) data base management system and its implementation…

  10. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  11. Developing attributes and attribute-levels for a discrete choice experiment on micro health insurance in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are attribute-driven experimental techniques used to elicit stakeholders’ preferences to support the design and implementation of policy interventions. The validity of a DCE, therefore, depends on the appropriate specification of the attributes and their levels. There have been recent calls for greater rigor in implementing and reporting on the processes of developing attributes and attribute-levels for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This paper responds to such calls by carefully reporting a systematic process of developing micro health insurance attributes and attribute-levels for the design of a DCE in rural Malawi. Methods Conceptual attributes and attribute-levels were initially derived from a literature review which informed the design of qualitative data collection tools to identify context specific attributes and attribute-levels. Qualitative data was collected in August-September 2012 from 12 focus group discussions with community residents and 8 in-depth interviews with health workers. All participants were selected according to stratified purposive sampling. The material was tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and coded by three researchers to identify context-specific attributes and attribute-levels. Expert opinion was used to scale down the attributes and levels. A pilot study confirmed the appropriateness of the selected attributes and levels for a DCE. Results First, a consensus, emerging from an individual level analysis of the qualitative transcripts, identified 10 candidate attributes. Levels were assigned to all attributes based on data from transcripts and knowledge of the Malawian context, derived from literature. Second, through further discussions with experts, four attributes were discarded based on multiple criteria. The 6 remaining attributes were: premium level, unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, transportation coverage and copayment levels. A final

  12. Children's understandings of the attributes of life.

    PubMed

    Richards, D D; Siegler, R S

    1986-08-01

    Previous investigations of children's understandings of the life concept have focused on their classifications of the life status of familiar objects. In this study, we attempted to examine more directly the processes by which children infer life status by examining their reasoning about unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, 4- to 11-year-olds and adults were asked to name attributes of living things to establish which attributes they associated most closely with life. Children age 7 and younger most often named attributes true only of animals but not of plants; older children more often named attributes true of both animals and plants. However, movement was the single attribute cited most frequently by children of all ages tested. In Experiment 2, 4- to 11-year-olds and adults were presented information about attributes of imaginary objects on a distant planet and were asked to infer if those objects were alive. Again, young children relied relatively heavily on qualities true only of animals but not of plants, whereas older children relied more on attributes true of both plants and animals. Also as before, movement was viewed as indicative of life at all ages tested. In Experiment 3, we examined the hypothesis that children discriminate among different types of motion and that the types of motion they associate with life are in fact typical of living things. Children ranging from age 5 through 11 were found to discriminate among different types of motion and to infer that objects were alive only when they showed the types of motion typical of living beings. The results of Experiment 3 allowed interpretation of seemingly conflicting results that have arisen in previous studies, as well as in Experiments 1 and 2 of the present study.

  13. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    PubMed

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  14. Smoking-attributable mortality in cuba.

    PubMed

    Varona, Patricia; Herrera, Delia; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Romero, Teresa; Venero, Silvia Josefina

    2009-07-01

    Introduction Smoking is the main preventable cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that smoking causes 5 million deaths annually, a figure that could double shortly if the present trend in tobacco product consumption continues. Objectives Estimate smoking-attributable mortality in the Cuban population and provide information needed to carry out effective public health actions. Methods This is a descriptive study using smoking prevalence and mortality data in Cuba for 1995 and 2007. Causes of death were grouped in three categories: malignant tumors, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. Etiological fractions and attributable mortality were calculated by cause and sex. Results Of deaths recorded in 1995 and 2007, 15% and 18% of preventable deaths were attributed to smoking, respectively. In Cuba in 2007, smoking caused 86% of deaths from lung cancer, 78% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 28% of deaths from ischemic heart disease, and 26% of deaths from cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Smoking is responsible for high rates of preventable mortality in Cuba. There is willingness on the part of administrative and political authorities to discourage smoking, and more than half of smokers in Cuba wish to quit smoking. Given awareness that reducing smoking is the most effective means of decreasing preventable morbidity and mortality, the country is moving steadily toward concrete, sustainable steps leading to increased life expectancy and quality of life for the Cuban population. PMID:21483306

  15. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    PubMed

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. PMID:26413769

  16. Posttraining administration of pentylenetetrazol dissociates gabapentin effects on memory consolidation from that on memory retrieval process in mice.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mariano G; Boccia, Mariano M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos María

    2004-09-23

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anticonvulsant drug, 10 mg/kg, i.p., but not 100 mg/kg, i.p., enhanced retention of an inhibitory avoidance task when given 20 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. The immediate post-training administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired retention performance. The amnesic effects of the convulsant drug PTZ were not influenced by GBP at any level of doses. However, GBP 100 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, delayed the latency to first clonic body seizures and decreased the duration of convulsion induced by PTZ. The enhancing effect of GBP on retention was not prevented by the opiate receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), which completely prevented the impairment of retention caused by PTZ. Further, naltrexone did not modify the convulsions induced by PTZ. In mice pretreated with naltrexone and that received PTZ, the administration of GBP again, enhanced retention performance during the retention test. Since previous results indicate that the amnesic action of PTZ are due to an effect on memory retrieval, the present results provide additional pharmacological evidence suggesting that GBP influenced memory consolidation and not memory retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice. PMID:15351451

  17. Posttraining administration of pentylenetetrazol dissociates gabapentin effects on memory consolidation from that on memory retrieval process in mice.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mariano G; Boccia, Mariano M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos María

    2004-09-23

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anticonvulsant drug, 10 mg/kg, i.p., but not 100 mg/kg, i.p., enhanced retention of an inhibitory avoidance task when given 20 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. The immediate post-training administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired retention performance. The amnesic effects of the convulsant drug PTZ were not influenced by GBP at any level of doses. However, GBP 100 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, delayed the latency to first clonic body seizures and decreased the duration of convulsion induced by PTZ. The enhancing effect of GBP on retention was not prevented by the opiate receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), which completely prevented the impairment of retention caused by PTZ. Further, naltrexone did not modify the convulsions induced by PTZ. In mice pretreated with naltrexone and that received PTZ, the administration of GBP again, enhanced retention performance during the retention test. Since previous results indicate that the amnesic action of PTZ are due to an effect on memory retrieval, the present results provide additional pharmacological evidence suggesting that GBP influenced memory consolidation and not memory retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

  18. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  19. Red and Infrared Low-Level Laser Therapy Prior to Injury with or without Administration after Injury Modulate Oxidative Stress during the Muscle Repair Process

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle injury is common among athletes and amateur practitioners of sports. Following an injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs, which can harm healthy muscle fibers (secondary damage) and delay the repair process. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered prior to or following an injury has demonstrated positive and protective effects on muscle repair, but the combination of both administration times together has not been clarified. Aim To evaluate the effect of LLLT (660 nm and 780 nm, 10 J/cm², 40 mW, 3.2 J) prior to injury with or without the administration after injury on oxidative stress during the muscle repair process. Methods Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control; muscle injury alone; LLLT 660 nm + injury; LLLT 780 nm + injury; LLLT 660 nm before and after injury; and LLLT 780 nm before and after injury. The rats were euthanized on days 1, 3 and 7 following cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, which was then removed for analysis. Results Lipid peroxidation decreased in the 660+injury group after one day. Moreover, red and infrared LLLT employed at both administration times induced a decrease in lipid peroxidation after seven days. CAT activity was altered by LLLT in all periods evaluated, with a decrease after one day in the 780+injury+780 group and after seven days in the 780+injury group as well as an increase in the 780+injury and 780+injury+780 groups after three days. Furthermore, increases in GPx and SOD activity were found after seven days in the 780+injury+780 group. Conclusion The administration of red and infrared laser therapy at different times positively modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduces stress markers during the muscle repair process. PMID:27082964

  20. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  1. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people’s behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person’s actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture’s influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes. PMID:20460302

  2. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process. PMID:19080048

  3. Effects of combined administration of vitamins C and E on reactive hyperemia and inflammatory process in chronic smokers.

    PubMed

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Antoniades, Charalambos; Tentolouris, Costas; Tsioufis, Costas; Toutouza, Marina; Toutouzas, Pavlos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2003-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined administration of antioxidant vitamins C and E on endothelial function and serum levels of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukines 1b (IL-1b) and 6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin in chronic smokers. Forty-three smokers were randomly divided into four groups receiving vitamin C 2 g/day (group A), vitamin C 2 g/day plus vitamin E 400 IU/day (group B), vitamin C 2 g/day plus vitamin E 800 IU/day (group C) or no antioxidant treatment (group D), for 4 weeks. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. Forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperemia (RH%) was expressed as the percentage change from baseline to post reactive hyperemia blood flow. RH% was significantly increased in groups B (P<0.05) and C (P<0.01), but remained unaffected in groups A and D. Serum levels of IL-1b, IL-6, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were significantly reduced in group C (P<0.05, respectively), but remained unaffected in groups A, B and D. Thus, short term administration of vitamins C (2 g/day) and E (800 IU/day) reduces serum levels of IL-1b, IL-6, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1, and improves forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperemia in healthy young smokers, while monotherapy with vitamin C alone is ineffective.

  4. Reliability Models and Attributable Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvinen, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    The intention of this report is to bring a developing and extremely useful statistical methodology to greater attention within the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Office of the NASA Johnson Space Center. The statistical methods in this exposition are found under the heading of attributable risk. Recently the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Office at the Johnson Space Center has supported efforts to introduce methods of medical research statistics dealing with the survivability of people to bear on the problems of aerospace that deal with the reliability of component hardware used in the NASA space program. This report, which describes several study designs for which attributable risk is used, is in concert with the latter goals. The report identifies areas of active research in attributable risk while briefly describing much of what has been developed in the theory of attributable risk. The report, which largely is a report on a report, attempts to recast the medical setting and language commonly found in descriptions of attributable risk into the setting and language of the space program and its component hardware.

  5. Attribution of blame in incest.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T L; Ferguson, W P

    1983-06-01

    This study was designed to identify the empirical structure of attitudes relating to attribution of blame in incest. A second purpose was to determine how variables such as gender, physically abused status, and sexually abused status influence the attribution of blame in incest. A sample of 201 male and 211 female college students was administered the Jackson Incest Blame Scale. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis of the total sample supporting the hypothesis that attribution of blame in incest is a multidimensional construct including victim, offender, situational, and societal factors. A difference in the level of victim blame was found between male and female samples. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for further research and training. Other potential uses of the Jackson Incest Blame Scale are suggested.

  6. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  7. Health Care Expenditures Attributable to Smoking in Military Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The health effects of cigarette smoking have been estimated to account for between 6%–8% of U.S. health care expenditures. We estimated Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care costs attributable to cigarette smoking. Methods: VHA survey and administrative data provided the number of Veteran enrollees, current and former smoking prevalence, and the cost of 4 types of care for groups defined by age, gender, and region. Cost and smoking status could not be linked at the enrollee level, so we used smoking attributable fractions estimated in sample of U.S. residents where the linkage could be made. Results: The 7.7 million Veterans enrolled in VHA received $40.2 billion in VHA provided health services in 2010. We estimated that $2.7 billion in VHA costs were attributable to the health effects of smoking. This was 7.6% of the $35.3 billion spent on the types of care for which smoking-attributable fractions could be determined. The fraction of inpatient costs that was attributable to smoking (11.4%) was greater than the fraction of ambulatory care cost attributable to smoking (5.3%). More cost was attributable to current smokers ($1.7 billion) than to former smokers ($983 million). Conclusions: The fraction of VHA costs attributable to smoking is similar to that of other health care systems. Smoking among Veterans is slowly decreasing, but prevalence remains high in Veterans with psychiatric and substance use disorders, and in younger and female Veterans. VHA has adopted a number of smoking cessation programs that have the potential for reducing future smoking-attributable costs. PMID:25239960

  8. The Food and Drug Administration advisory committees and panels: how they are applied to the drug regulatory process.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Arthur A; Karlstadt, Robyn G; Pambianco, Daniel J; Woods, Karen L; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2014-10-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panels and committees play a critical role in advising the FDA on the safety and efficacy of medical devices and drugs marketed in the US. Advisory panel recommendations are used by the FDA to make decisions regarding medical products. Currently, the FDA utilizes over 50 advisory panels that serve the three major FDA centers, including the Centers for Biologics, Drugs and Device Products. Members of an advisory panel typically include academicians, clinicians, consumers, patients, and industry representatives. The FDA establishes the schedules for advisory panel meetings on an annual basis and a panel usually meets several times a year for two consecutive days in Washington, DC. Typically, the advisory panel discusses issues highlighted by the FDA and is then asked to vote a response to the questions posed in advance by the FDA. Advisory panel recommendations have a strong influence on FDA's decision to approve a product, as evidenced by the 214 Advisory Panels FDA convened between January 2008 to November 2012, during which advisory panel members voted to approve the product (or use of the product) ∼74% of the time, with FDA ultimately approving the medical product (or use of the product) ∼79% of the time. The ACG membership are encouraged to consider serving the public's interest by participating in an FDA advisory panel utilizing their expertise for the evaluation of a new drug or medical device, and providing advice about whether the product should be sold in the US.

  9. New era in drug interaction evaluation: US Food and Drug Administration update on CYP enzymes, transporters, and the guidance process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiew-Mei; Strong, John M; Zhang, Lei; Reynolds, Kellie S; Nallani, Srikanth; Temple, Robert; Abraham, Sophia; Habet, Sayed Al; Baweja, Raman K; Burckart, Gilbert J; Chung, Sang; Colangelo, Philip; Frucht, David; Green, Martin D; Hepp, Paul; Karnaukhova, Elena; Ko, Hon-Sum; Lee, Jang-Ik; Marroum, Patrick J; Norden, Janet M; Qiu, Wei; Rahman, Atiqur; Sobel, Solomon; Stifano, Toni; Thummel, Kenneth; Wei, Xiao-Xiong; Yasuda, Sally; Zheng, Jenny H; Zhao, Hong; Lesko, Lawrence J

    2008-06-01

    Predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Since the publication of the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) first in vitro and in vivo drug interaction guidance documents in 1997 and 1999, researchers and clinicians have gained a better understanding of drug interactions. This knowledge has enabled the FDA and the industry to progress and begin to overcome these challenges. The FDA has continued its efforts to evaluate methodologies to study drug interactions and communicate recommendations regarding the conduct of drug interaction studies, particularly for CYP-based and transporter-based drug interactions, to the pharmaceutical industry. A drug interaction Web site was established to document the FDA's current understanding of drug interactions (http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/drugInteractions/default.htm). This report provides an overview of the evolution of the drug interaction guidances, includes a synopsis of the steps taken by the FDA to revise the original drug interaction guidance documents, and summarizes and highlights updated sections in the current guidance document, Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, and Implications for Dosing and Labeling.

  10. IRQN award paper: Operational rounds: a practical administrative process to improve safety and clinical services in radiology.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Lane F; Dickerson, Julie M; Lehkamp, Todd W; Gessner, Kevin E; Moskovitz, Jay; Hutchinson, Sally

    2008-11-01

    As part of a patient safety program in the authors' department of radiology, operational rounds have been instituted. This process consists of radiology leaders' visiting imaging divisions at the site of imaging and discussing frontline employees' concerns about patient safety, the quality of care, and patient and family satisfaction. Operational rounds are executed at a time to optimize the number of attendees. Minutes that describe the issues identified, persons responsible for improvement, and updated improvement plan status are available to employees online. Via this process, multiple patient safety and other issues have been identified and remedied. The authors believe that the process has improved patient safety, the quality of care, and the efficiency of operations. Since the inception of the safety program, the mean number of days between serious safety events involving radiology has doubled. The authors review the background around such walk rounds, describe their particular program, and give multiple illustrative examples of issues identified and improvement plans put in place.

  11. 76 FR 80873 - Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for...

  12. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  13. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS... process is within the exclusive control of OWCP. This means that all claimants file their claims with...

  14. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS... process is within the exclusive control of OWCP. This means that all claimants file their claims with...

  15. 20 CFR 30.2 - In general, how have the tasks associated with the administration of EEOICPA claims process been...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS... process is within the exclusive control of OWCP. This means that all claimants file their claims with...

  16. An Exploration of Teachers' and Administrators' Perspectives: The Collaborative Process Using the Danielson Framework for Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Adrienne M.

    2016-01-01

    As accountability measures continue to increase within education, public school systems have integrated standards-based evaluation systems to formally assess professional practices among educators. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent in which the communication process between evaluators and teachers impacts teacher performance…

  17. Effect of a single vaginal administration of levonorgestrel in Carraguard® gel on the ovulatory process: a potential candidate for “dual protection” emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Brache, Vivian; Croxatto, Horacio; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Maguire, Robin; Montero, Juan Carlos; Kumar, Narender; Salvatierra, Ana Maria; Tejada, Ana Sofia; Cochón, Leila; Forcelledo, María Luisa; Lahteenmaki, Pekka; Alvarez, Francisco; Faundes, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Objective The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Carraguard vaginal gel containing 0.75 mg of levonorgestrel (CARRA/LNG gel) administered in a single dose at different stages of follicle development, over subsequent follicle rupture and hormonal levels. Method Randomized, blinded, cross-over study comparing the effects of a single administration of CARRA/LNG gel or Carraguard (CARRA) gel. Twenty-four healthy women were enrolled in two centers. The gels were administered when the follicle had reached diameters of 12-14, 15-17 and ≥18 mm in 8 women each. Volunteers were followed for one treatment, one washout cycle and a second treatment cycle. Follicle rupture or non-rupture was assessed by transvaginal ultrasound. LH, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured daily for the 5 days following treatment, and 3 times per week until menses. Results No follicular rupture within the 5-day period following administration was observed in 74% and 30% of the CARRA/LNG and CARRA gel treatment cycles, respectively, while ovulation was documented in 4% and 61%, respectively. The overall proportion of cycles with lack of follicular rupture or ovulatory dysfunction (follicle rupture preceded by an inadequate LH surge) was 96% for CARRA/LNG and 39% in the CARRA gel cycles. Conclusion Single vaginal administration of 0.75 mg levonorgestrel in CARRA gel in the late follicular phase, is effective for interfering with the ovulatory process. PMID:17656180

  18. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  19. Attributional Search and Concern about the Future Following Smoking Cessation Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneman, Thomas J.; And Others

    Some research on attribution processes has suggested that attributional search is exploratory behavior that serves adaptation and mastery motives. This study was conducted to investigate attributional search in reactions to success and failure after quitting smoking, to look for antecedents of attributional search other than expectancy and…

  20. Partial information transmission can be found in music attributes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Li, Gujing; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Qingqing

    2014-02-12

    Previous studies have proved that partial information transmission can be found between intensity and pitch. In our last study, it was demonstrated that the timbre attribute can be transmitted as partial information between timbre and intensity. We manipulated the two attributes of stimulus, namely, timbre (piano vs. violin) and pitch (high vs. low), to find out whether they also have partial information transmission. We used the two-choice 'go/no-go' paradigm, which included more 'go' trials of timbre. Our result showed that lateralized readiness potentials were elicited in 'no-go' trials, which meant that the timbre attribute had been transmitted to the response preparation stage before the intensity attribute was processed in the stimuli identification stage. This result supports the asynchronous discrete coding model in information processing. Therefore, we suggest that partial information transmission can be found in music attributes including timbre, intensity, and pitch.

  1. Partial information transmission can be found in music attributes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Li, Gujing; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Qingqing

    2014-02-12

    Previous studies have proved that partial information transmission can be found between intensity and pitch. In our last study, it was demonstrated that the timbre attribute can be transmitted as partial information between timbre and intensity. We manipulated the two attributes of stimulus, namely, timbre (piano vs. violin) and pitch (high vs. low), to find out whether they also have partial information transmission. We used the two-choice 'go/no-go' paradigm, which included more 'go' trials of timbre. Our result showed that lateralized readiness potentials were elicited in 'no-go' trials, which meant that the timbre attribute had been transmitted to the response preparation stage before the intensity attribute was processed in the stimuli identification stage. This result supports the asynchronous discrete coding model in information processing. Therefore, we suggest that partial information transmission can be found in music attributes including timbre, intensity, and pitch. PMID:24323126

  2. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  3. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  4. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  5. 76 FR 1182 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... supply chain. On September 27, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) (Pub... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  6. Industry Initiated Core Safety Attributes for Human Spaceflight for the 7th IAASS Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Now that the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is beginning its full certification contract for crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), is it time for industry to embrace a minimum set of core safety attributes? Those attributes can then be evolved into an industry-led set of basic safety standards and requirements. After 50 years of human space travel sponsored by governments, there are two basic conditions that now exist within the international space industry. The first, there is enough of a space-faring history to encourage the space industry to design, develop and operate human spaceflight systems without government contracts for anything other than services. Second, industry is capable of defining and enforcing a set of industry-based safety attributes and standards for human spaceflight to low-Earth orbit (LEO). This paper will explore both of these basic conditions with a focus on the safety attributes and standards. In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is now starting to dialogue with industry about the basic safety principles and attributes needed for potential future regulatory oversight. This process is not yet formalized and will take a number of years once approval is given to move forward. Therefore, throughout the next few years, it is an excellent time and opportunity for industry to collaborate together and develop the core set of attributes and standards. As industry engages and embraces a common set of safety attributes, then government agencies, like the FAA and NASA can use that industry-based product to strengthen their efforts on a safe commercial spaceflight foundation for the future. As the commercial space industry takes the lead role in establishing core safety attributes, and then enforcing those attributes, the entire planet can move away from governmental control of design and development and let industry expand safe and successful space operations in LEO. At that point the

  7. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an “evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan” in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines. PMID:27610178

  8. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an "evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan" in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines. PMID:27610178

  9. The Effectiveness of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program's Administrative and Policy-Making Processes. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (1985). Commission Report 89-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of minority students in college programs. This paper reports the MESA administrative operations and policy-making processes. Part 1 summarizes the background of this study. Part 2 describes MESA's administrative operations and provides…

  10. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  11. Evaluation of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Edmund G.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for the evaluation of college administrators: (1) purposes of the evaluation; (2) approaches to evaluation; (3) criteria for evaluation; (4) participants or evaluators in the process; and (5) evaluation results and use of results. (GDC)

  12. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  13. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    PubMed

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C

    2016-01-01

    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators.

  14. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    PubMed

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C

    2016-01-01

    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators. PMID:26095014

  15. Factorial Validity of the Mathematics Attribution Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choroszy, Melisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematics Attribution Scale (MAS) (Algebra) was designed to assess attributions of success and failure in algebra to ability, effort, task, and environment. This study examined the MAS (Algebra) for a separate dimension of attributes for success and a dimension of attributes for failure. The two hypothesized dimensions did not emerge.…

  16. Attributes of Images in Describing Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    1998-01-01

    Report on exploratory research which investigated image attributes in a series of describing tasks. Results suggest that access to a wide range of attributes is needed to address all facets of interest and that certain classes of attributes may appear more frequently (literal objects, human form and associated attributes, color, and location).…

  17. A comparative analysis of user preference-based and existing knowledge management systems attributes in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Nishad G.

    Knowledge management (KM) exists in various forms throughout organizations. Process documentation, training courses, and experience sharing are examples of KM activities performed daily. The goal of KM systems (KMS) is to provide a tool set which serves to standardize the creation, sharing, and acquisition of business critical information. Existing literature provides numerous examples of targeted evaluations of KMS, focusing on specific system attributes. This research serves to bridge the targeted evaluations with an industry-specific, holistic approach. The user preferences of aerospace employees in engineering and engineering-related fields were compared to profiles of existing aerospace KMS based on three attribute categories: technical features, system administration, and user experience. The results indicated there is a statistically significant difference between aerospace user preferences and existing profiles in the user experience attribute category, but no statistically significant difference in the technical features and system administration attribute categories. Additional analysis indicated in-house developed systems exhibit higher technical features and user experience ratings than commercial-off-the-self (COTS) systems.

  18. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  19. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2001-04-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off one or more published papers each, are in their final stages of

  20. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  1. Attributions of athletes on collegiate sports teams.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Darhl M; Manning, Craig L

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the patterns of attributions for success made by intercollegiate athletes in three categories: more versus less successful teams, men versus women athletes, and individual versus group sport participants. 74 men and 83 women on 17 varsity teams across a number of sports took the Sports Attribution Style Scale, measuring internal, stable, controllable, intentional, and global attributions. It was hypothesized that (a) the athletes on more successful teams would have higher internal, stable, controllable, and intentional attributions, (b) that athletes in individual sports would have lower internal, stable, and controllable attributions, and (c) that women would score higher on all five attributions. Profile analyses of the attributions led to the confirmation of the first hypothesis. For the second hypothesis, the pattern of sport attributions did not differ for individual and team athletes. The third hypothesis was not confirmed. Women athletes scored higher on the attributional dimensions (except globality).

  2. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  3. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  4. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  5. The psychology of social chess and the evolution of attribution mechanisms: explaining the fundamental attribution error.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P W.

    2001-01-01

    Theory of mind is the field devoted to understanding how organisms discern the mental states of others. Because mental states are not directly observable, they can only be inferred from observable features of the actor (such as behavior) and the situational context that the actor is in. Social psychologists, who study theory of mind processes under the rubric of attribution research, have shown that people often make a logical error of inference: The "fundamental attribution error" (FAE) is the tendency to assume that an actor's behavior and mental state correspond to a degree that is logically unwarranted by the situation. The social environment in which theory of mind capacities evolved may have influenced attributional processing in ways that could explain the error. In particular, the error could be caused by a psyche that is designed (1) to consider only those noncorresponding mental states (such as deception) that could have fitness consequences to the mind reader; (2) to bias inferences in a way that reduces the costs of erroneous inferences; or (3) to bias inferences in a way that yields reputational benefits. The existing literature is reviewed in light of these hypotheses. PMID:11182572

  6. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  7. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  8. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  9. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  10. Attributions and Relapse in Opiate Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Brendan P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated whether attributions of opiate addicts would predict abstinence and reactions to abstinence violations. Found that addicts who at admission attributed to themselves greater responsibility for negative outcomes and who attributed relapse episodes to more personally controllable factors were subsequently more likely either to be…

  11. Sex Differences in Attribution for Occupational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Rochelle

    1981-01-01

    Tested and extended Deaux's expectancy model of sex-linked differences in attribution for success. Finding's indicated that female occupational subjects, relative to males, tended to attribute success more to unstable causes of effort and luck. Male subjects attributed success more to the stable causes of ability and task ease. (Author/RC)

  12. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of…

  13. Diatremes and craters attributed to natural explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

    1956-01-01

    Diatremes - volcanic pipes attributed to explosion - and craters have been studied to infer the ultimate causes and physical conditions attending natural explosive processes. Initial piercement of diatremes on the Navajo reservation, Arizona was probably along a fracture propagated by a high-pressure aqueous fluid. Gas rising at high velocity along the fracture would become converted to a gas-solid fluidized system by entrainment of wall- rock fragments. The first stages of widening of the vent are probably accomplished mainly by simple abrasion of the high-velocity fluidized system on the walls of the fracture. As the vent widens, its enlargement may be accelerated by inward spalling of the walls. The inferred mechanics of the Navajo-Hopi diatremes is used to illustrate the possibility of diatreme formation over a molten salt mass.

  14. Stressing The Person: Legal and Everyday Person Attributions Under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Jennifer T.; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Raio, Candace; Brosch, Tobias; Uleman, Jim S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    When determining the cause of a person’s behavior, perceivers often overweigh dispositional explanations and underweigh situational explanations, an error known as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). The FAE occurs in part because dispositional explanations are relatively automatic, whereas considering the situation requires additional cognitive effort. Stress is known to impair the prefrontal cortex and executive functions important for the attribution process. We investigated if stress increases dispositional attributions in common place and legal situations. Experiencing a physiological stressor increased participants’ cortisol, dispositional attributions of common everyday behaviors, and negative evaluations. When determining whether a crime was due to the defendant’s disposition or the mitigating situation, self-reported stress correlated with increased dispositional judgments of defendant’s behavior. These findings indicate that stress may makes people more likely to commit the FAE and less favorable in their evaluations of others both in daily life and when making socially consequential judicial decisions. PMID:25175000

  15. Stressing the person: legal and everyday person attributions under stress.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Raio, Candace; Brosch, Tobias; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    When determining the cause of a person's behavior, perceivers often overweigh dispositional explanations and underweigh situational explanations, an error known as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). The FAE occurs in part because dispositional explanations are relatively automatic, whereas considering the situation requires additional cognitive effort. Stress is known to impair the prefrontal cortex and executive functions important for the attribution process. We investigated if stress increases dispositional attributions in common place and legal situations. Experiencing a physiological stressor increased participants' cortisol, dispositional attributions of common everyday behaviors, and negative evaluations. When determining whether a crime was due to the defendant's disposition or the mitigating situation, self-reported stress correlated with increased dispositional judgments of defendant's behavior. These findings indicate that stress may make people more likely to commit the FAE and less favorable in their evaluations of others both in daily life and when making socially consequential judicial decisions.

  16. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis.

  17. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis.

  18. Do Hostile Attribution Biases in Children and Parents Predict Relationally Aggressive Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…

  19. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  20. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency. PMID:24504195

  1. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  2. Impaired ranking of semantic attributes in dementia.

    PubMed

    Grober, E; Buschke, H; Kawas, C; Fuld, P

    1985-11-01

    The present work explored the loss of semantic attributes that is said to occur in dementia. In the first two experiments, subjects had to select attributes that went with concepts like airplane and church. The finding that demented subjects maintained high levels of accuracy when selecting attributes suggested that the semantic content of their concepts was relatively well preserved. The organization of the content was explored in a third experiment by having subjects order attributes according to their relative importance in defining concepts. While demented subjects performed better than chance, they did not rank attributes as well as healthy aged subjects, suggesting a disruption in organization whereby the importance of central attributes is reduced. The hypothesized disruption in organization is viewed in relation to the learning and memory deficit that is the hallmark of the dementias.

  3. Attributional style and life-events.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  4. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  5. [Simulation of administrative influence on a public health under conditions of changing the terminal values during the process of society transformation].

    PubMed

    Fed'ko, O A

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of interrelation between terminal values and subjective health in the context of community development and modeling of possible directions of administrative influence on a public health taking into account such interrelation. The structural model of influence of terminal values on a subjective health is presented and the assessment of possible changes of health on the population level under condition of the introduction of the proper administrative interventions is given.

  6. Attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E

    2005-07-01

    A sample of 321 motor vehicle crash survivors completed a survey in which they provided attribution ratings of the extent to which they were responsible for their crashes, other people (drivers) were responsible, or road/weather conditions were responsible. The attribution ratings were consistent with the predictions of defensive attribution theory (DAT; [Walster, E., 1966. Assignment of responsibility for an accident. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 3, 73-79]) in that people who experienced crashes of greater severity (necessitating medical treatment for injuries) attributed greater responsibility to other drivers than to self or to weather/road conditions. People who were in crashes of lesser severity attributed approximately the same amount of responsibility to themselves as they did to others. An actor-observer effect also appeared in survivors' attribution ratings in that self-acceptance of responsibility for the crash was positively correlated with attributions to the situation (road/weather conditions) whereas such attributions to the situation were negatively correlated with attributions of responsibility to other drivers. Consistent with results of prior research, survivors who assigned crash responsibility to other drivers reported increased levels of driving and riding avoidance compared to people who accepted responsibility for their crashes.

  7. Effect of prolonged deprivation on attributional style.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Nathawat, S S

    1989-08-01

    The effects of prolonged deprivation and outcome on attributional style were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of deprivation (high and low) and two levels of outcome (good and bad). Indian subjects (N = 80) were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a prolonged deprivation scale; they provided an attributional style scale of good and bad outcome situations. High-deprived subjects attributed bad outcomes to more internal, stable, and global causes compared with low-deprived subjects. In addition, high-deprived subjects showed internal attributions of a stable and global type for both bad and good outcomes.

  8. Effect of thermal and high-pressure processing on the nutritional value and quality attributes of a nectarine purée with industrial origin during the refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Jesús; González-Cebrino, Francisco; Delgado, Jonathan; Lozano, Mercedes; Hernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-05-01

    The application of hydrostatic high pressure on an industrial line of nectarine (Prunus persica L.) purées was assessed in comparison with the traditional thermal treatment of pasteurization. Changes after thermal processing (85 °C, 5 min) and after high-pressure processing (HPP: 450 or 600 MPa for 5 or 10 min) and during the refrigerated storage (60 d) of an industrially produced nectarine purée were evaluated. Conventional heat pasteurization as well as HPP showed similar microorganisms' inactivation and maintained the microbial stability of purées until the end of the refrigerated storage (60 d). In general, thermally treated purée and HP-treated purée at 600 MPa showed more intense color changes after processing than the other treatment. In addition, thermally treated purée showed more intense color changes during storage than HPP. The highest carotenoids extractability was found in those purées treated at the lowest high-pressure-treatment intensity and holding time (450 MPa/5 min), but at the end of the storage (day 60), no differences in individual or total carotenoid levels were found between the purées. HPP at 600 MPa/10 min showed the highest polyphenols content after the treatment and during the storage. At day 0, significantly higher values were found of total antioxidant activity in purée HP-treated at 450 MPa/10 min than in untreated purée; while at the end of the storage, HP-treated purée at 600 MPa/10 min had the highest antioxidant activity. Hydrostatic high-pressure application in the industrial line of nectarine purée presented some advantages compared to the thermal treatment; however, some of the changes found were lessen during the storage period. In addition, more studies need to be carried out for HP-treatment intensity optimization.

  9. Effect of thermal and high-pressure processing on the nutritional value and quality attributes of a nectarine purée with industrial origin during the refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Jesús; González-Cebrino, Francisco; Delgado, Jonathan; Lozano, Mercedes; Hernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-05-01

    The application of hydrostatic high pressure on an industrial line of nectarine (Prunus persica L.) purées was assessed in comparison with the traditional thermal treatment of pasteurization. Changes after thermal processing (85 °C, 5 min) and after high-pressure processing (HPP: 450 or 600 MPa for 5 or 10 min) and during the refrigerated storage (60 d) of an industrially produced nectarine purée were evaluated. Conventional heat pasteurization as well as HPP showed similar microorganisms' inactivation and maintained the microbial stability of purées until the end of the refrigerated storage (60 d). In general, thermally treated purée and HP-treated purée at 600 MPa showed more intense color changes after processing than the other treatment. In addition, thermally treated purée showed more intense color changes during storage than HPP. The highest carotenoids extractability was found in those purées treated at the lowest high-pressure-treatment intensity and holding time (450 MPa/5 min), but at the end of the storage (day 60), no differences in individual or total carotenoid levels were found between the purées. HPP at 600 MPa/10 min showed the highest polyphenols content after the treatment and during the storage. At day 0, significantly higher values were found of total antioxidant activity in purée HP-treated at 450 MPa/10 min than in untreated purée; while at the end of the storage, HP-treated purée at 600 MPa/10 min had the highest antioxidant activity. Hydrostatic high-pressure application in the industrial line of nectarine purée presented some advantages compared to the thermal treatment; however, some of the changes found were lessen during the storage period. In addition, more studies need to be carried out for HP-treatment intensity optimization. PMID:22417344

  10. Sexual Arousal Attributions and Gender Identity Perceptions of Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Shawn A.; And Others

    Analyses of deviant sexual behaviors have most often derived from psychodynamic or behavioral theory. Little systematic research attention has been paid to the role of intervening cognitive variables such as social perception and the causal attribution process. Two studies were conducted to examine differences in cognition between child molesters…

  11. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  12. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  13. Contrasting Attributes of Preventive Health Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Marcy; Johnson, J. David; Ethington, Caroline

    1997-01-01

    Uses diffusion of innovations theory to contrast three different preventive health interventions (undertaken by the contractual network of the Cancer Information Service) by their innovation attributes. Shows that innovation attributes were rated differentially by organizational members, depending on the nature of the specific intervention,…

  14. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  15. Internality, Academic Status, and Intergroup Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Nicole; Beauvois, Jean-Leon

    1996-01-01

    Explores the extent that intergroup attributions may be affected by the mobilization of an academic status that explicitly positions students within a school hierarchy. Calculates internality scores for students categorized as good versus bad based on a questionnaire of attributions. Explains the results within the frame of two theoretical fields.…

  16. Attributional Style and the Freshman Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas K.; Mercier, Judith D.

    Martin Seligman's psychology research on depression, published in 7 books and hundreds of articles, shows a correlation between attributional style and depression. "Explanatory style" is another term nearly synonymous with attributional style, a habitual way to explain, positively or negatively, external events. A "learned" optimist himself,…

  17. Children's Causal Attributions regarding Help Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathleen L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Second- and third-grade children receiving no consequences or only social consequences for donating to needy peers attributed their behavior to a concern for the other child. Children receiving material consequences together with social consequences tended to attribute their help giving to external sources. (JMB)

  18. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  19. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  20. Playing "Twenty Questions" with Attribute Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the problem of finding the expected number of questions necessary to identify 1 out of a set of 30 attribute blocks. Solutions include the use of a tree diagram or a computer simulation. Generalizes the problem for increased numbers of attributes. (MDH)

  1. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  2. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  3. Scaling Terrain Attributes By Fractal Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrain attributes derived from grid digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used in distributed hydrologic models. However, many attribute estimations are biased by DEM grid cell size. For example, land surface slopes estimated from 30-m DEMs are, on average, less than slopes estimated from ...

  4. A fuzzy record-to-record travel algorithm for solving rough set attribute reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafarja, Majdi; Abdullah, Salwani

    2015-02-01

    Attribute reduction can be defined as the process of determining a minimal subset of attributes from an original set of attributes. This paper proposes a new attribute reduction method that is based on a record-to-record travel algorithm for solving rough set attribute reduction problems. This algorithm has a solitary parameter called the DEVIATION, which plays a pivotal role in controlling the acceptance of the worse solutions, after it becomes pre-tuned. In this paper, we focus on a fuzzy-based record-to-record travel algorithm for attribute reduction (FuzzyRRTAR). This algorithm employs an intelligent fuzzy logic controller mechanism to control the value of DEVIATION, which is dynamically changed throughout the search process. The proposed method was tested on standard benchmark data sets. The results show that FuzzyRRTAR is efficient in solving attribute reduction problems when compared with other meta-heuristic approaches.

  5. Attribute Reduction Based on Property Pictorial Diagram

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qing; Wei, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies attribute reduction which keeps the lattice structure in formal contexts based on the property pictorial diagram. Firstly, the property pictorial diagram of a formal context is defined. Based on such diagram, an attribute reduction approach of concept lattice is achieved. Then, through the relation between an original formal context and its complementary context, an attribute reduct of complementary context concept lattice is obtained, which is also based on the property pictorial diagram of the original formal context. Finally, attribute reducts in property oriented concept lattice and object oriented concept lattice can be acquired by the relations of attribute reduction between these two lattices and concept lattice of complementary context. In addition, a detailed illustrative example is presented. PMID:25247200

  6. Recent advances in counter PRNU based source attribution and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KaraküÒ«ük, Ahmet; Dirik, Ahmet E.; Sencar, Hüsrev T.; Memon, Nasir D.

    2015-03-01

    Photo response noise uniformity (PRNU) based source attribution has proven to be a powerful technique in multimedia forensics. The increasing prominence of this technique, combined with its introduction as evidence in the court, brought with it the need for it to withstand anti-forensics. Although robustness under common signal processing operations and geometrical transformations have been considered as potential attacks on this technique, new adversarial settings that curtail the performance of this technique are constantly being introduced. Starting with an overview of proposed approaches to counter PRNU based source attribution, this work introduces photographic panoramas as one such approach and discusses how to defend against it.

  7. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program. PMID:25358529

  8. Which Fractures Are Most Attributable to Osteoporosis?

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, Amy H.; Patkar, Nivedita M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Delzell, Elizabeth; Gary, Lisa; Kilgore, Meredith; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Determining anatomic sites and circumstances under which a fracture may be a consequence of osteoporosis is a topic of ongoing debate and controversy that is important to both clinicians and researchers. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and generated an evidence report on fracture risk based on specific anatomic bone sites as well as fracture diagnosis codes. Using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness process, we convened a multi-disciplinary panel of 11 experts who rated fractures according to their likelihood of being due to osteoporosis based on the evidence report. Fracture sites (as determined by ICD-CM codes) were stratified by four clinical risk factor categories based on age, sex, race/ethnicity (African- American and Caucasian) and presence or absence of trauma. Results Consistent with current clinical experience, the fractures rated most likely due to osteoporosis were the femoral neck, pathologic fractures of the vertebrae, and lumbar and thoracic vertebral fractures. The fractures rated least likely due to osteoporosis were open proximal humerus fractures, skull, and facial bones. The expert panel rated open fractures of the arm (except proximal humerus) and fractures of the tibia/fibula, patella, ribs, and sacrum as being highly likely due to osteoporosis in older Caucasian women but a lower likelihood in younger African American men. Conclusion Osteoporosis attribution scores for all fracture sites were determined by a multidisciplinary expert panel to provide an evidence-based continuum of the likelihood of a fracture being associated with osteoporosis. PMID:21130353

  9. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  10. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles.

  11. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles. PMID:16619141

  12. Principal Investigator and Department Administrator Perceptions of Services Provided by Offices of Research Administration at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kimberley W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine what service attributes were perceived as important factors for a successful Office of Research Administration (ORA) to provide to principal investigators and department administrators. Initially established more than 50 years ago, The Office of Research Administration (ORA) has evolved into an…

  13. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis. PMID:27609996

  14. Nothing More than Dimensions? Evidence for a Surplus Meaning of Specific Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Schober, Barbara; Ziegler, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Researchers ascribe attributional processes a central role within the framework of motivational processes in educational contexts, a point that has been proved by an extremely wide range of empirical evidence. Therefore, it is beyond any controversy that a functional attributional style has positive effects on a series of personal traits and…

  15. Administrative Approaches to Educational Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, William S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an institutional framework for raising higher education productivity through administrative and organizational devices: first, by examining two theories for explaining rising higher education costs and their different policy consequences, and then by presenting an administrative process for improving productivity that focuses on…

  16. Legal Administrative Systems. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in legal administrative systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to legal administrative systems; (2) word processing;…

  17. Selective inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A impairs appetitive and aversive conditioning and incentive salience attribution.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Elisabeth; Langlois, Xavier; Vanhoof, Greet; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2013-12-01

    The pharmacological effect of the selective PDE10A inhibitor 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline succinic acid (MP-10) on aversively and appetitively motivated behavior in C57BL/6J mice was examined. MP-10 dose-dependently impaired performance on a highly demanding reward schedule during appetitive conditioning. The compound further affected cue-based, but not contextual aversive conditioning. Finally, dose-dependent impaired performance in an instrumentally conditioned reinforcement (ICR) task was found. This suggests that the observed behavioral effects of MP-10 can be at least partially ascribed to impaired incentive salience attribution. MP-10 administration dose-dependently enhanced striatal expression of the immediate early gene Zif268, which suggest that MP-10 affects the studied motivated behaviors by enhancing PDE10A-regulated striatal signaling. Striatal signaling thus appears to be crucial in processes that control reward-motivated behavior in general, and incentive salience attribution in particular. Continued research will prove valuable towards a better understanding of psychopathologies that affect reward-motivated behaviors, such as drug addiction and schizophrenia.

  18. Attributes of Interactive Online Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P; Buller, David B

    2005-01-01

    The development of online communication systems related to prevention, decision making, and coping with cancer has outpaced theoretical attention to the attributes that appeal to system users and that create effective interactions. This essay reviews a number of sociotechnical attributes related to online discussion systems and tutorials, including interactivity, presence, homophily, social distance, anonymity/privacy, and interaction management. These attributes are derived from different theoretical perspectives which have led to clinical trials and other empirical studies demonstrating effectiveness or attraction to end users. The effects of a subset of these attributes are connected to learning, social influence, and coping, as illustrated in evaluations of an interactive smoking prevention site and a cancer advice/support discussion system. PMID:15998624

  19. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  20. Dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia: salience attribution revisited.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    A dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in schizophrenia patients may lead to aberrant attribution of incentive salience and contribute to the emergence of psychopathological symptoms like delusions. The dopaminergic signal has been conceptualized to represent a prediction error that indicates the difference between received and predicted reward. The incentive salience hypothesis states that dopamine mediates the attribution of "incentive salience" to conditioned cues that predict reward. This hypothesis was initially applied in the context of drug addiction and then transferred to schizophrenic psychosis. It was hypothesized that increased firing (chaotic or stress associated) of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum of schizophrenia patients attributes incentive salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli. Here, we review recent neuroimaging studies directly addressing this hypothesis. They suggest that neuronal functions associated with dopaminergic signaling, such as the attribution of salience to reward-predicting stimuli and the computation of prediction errors, are indeed altered in schizophrenia patients and that this impairment appears to contribute to delusion formation.

  1. Attributions, Attention, and Person Memory: Processing Congruent and Incongruent Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Jennifer; Vitkus, John

    Impressions of people are resistant to change. Information contradictory to an initial impression has relatively little impact on the impression and is particularly likely to be recalled. Possible resolutions on this paradox include: (1) the recalled information and the impression of the person are independent of each other; (2) people may link…

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  3. Administrator Training and Development: Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Gerald R.

    A conceptual model for an individualized training program for school administrators integrates processes, characteristics, and tasks through theory training and application. Based on an application of contingency theory, it provides a system matching up administrative candidates' needs in three areas (administrative process, administrative…

  4. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other... guidance for industry entitled ``Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and Capsules.'' This guidance discusses FDA recommendations for the size, shape, and other physical attributes...

  5. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T.; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26170281

  6. A Social-Attributional Analysis of Alcohol Response

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional wisdom and survey data indicate that alcohol is a social lubricant and is consumed for its social effects. In contrast, the experimental literature examining alcohol’s effects within a social context reveals that alcohol does not consistently enhance social-emotional experience. We identify a methodological factor that might explain inconsistent alcohol-administration findings, distinguishing between studies featuring unscripted interactions among naïve participants (k = 18) and those featuring scripted social interactions with individuals identified as study confederates (k = 18). While 89% of naïve-participant studies find positive effects of alcohol on mood (d = 0.5), only 11% of confederate studies find evidence of significant alcohol-related mood enhancement (d = −0.01). The naïve-participant versus confederate distinction remains robust after controlling for various moderators including stress manipulations, gender, group size, anxiety outcome measure, and within-group consistency of beverage assignment. Based on the findings of our review, we propose a multidimensional, social-attributional framework for understanding alcohol-related reward. Borrowing organizing principles from attribution theory, the social-attributional approach predicts that alcohol will enhance mood when negative outcomes are perceived to be unstable and/or self-relevant. Our framework proposes that alcohol’s effects within a social context are largely explained by its tendency to free individuals from preoccupation with social rejection, allowing them to access social rewards. The social-attributional approach represents a novel framework for integrating distinct, well-validated concepts derived from several theories of alcohol’s effects. It further presents promising lines of inquiry for future research examining the role of social factors in alcohol reward and addiction susceptibility. PMID:25180806

  7. Aspergillus flavus SUMO Contributes to Fungal Virulence and Toxin Attributes.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xinyi; Yu, Song; Qiu, Mengguang; Wang, Xiuna; Wang, Yu; Bai, Youhuang; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Shihua

    2016-09-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) can be reversibly attached to target proteins in a process known as SUMOylation, and this process influences several important eukaryotic cell events. However, little is known regarding SUMO or SUMOylation in Aspergillus flavus. Here, we identified a novel member of the SUMO family in A. flavus, AfSumO, and validated the existence of SUMOylation in this pathogenic filamentous fungus. We investigated the roles of AfsumO in A. flavus by determining the effects of AfsumO mutations on the growth phenotype, stress response, conidia and sclerotia production, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity to seeds, and we found that SUMOylation plays a role in fungal virulence and toxin attributes. Taken together, these results not only reveal potential mechanisms of fungal virulence and toxin attributes in A. flavus but also provide a novel approach for promising new control strategies of this fungal pathogen. PMID:27532332

  8. Investigating reliability attributes of silicon photovoltaic cells - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royal, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Reliability attributes are being developed on a wide variety of advanced single-crystal silicon solar cells. Two separate investigations: cell-contact integrity (metal-to-silicon adherence), and cracked cells identified with fracture-strength-reducing flaws are discussed. In the cell-contact-integrity investigation, analysis of contact pull-strength data shows that cell types made with different metallization technologies, i.e., vacuum, plated, screen-printed and soldered, have appreciably different reliability attributes. In the second investigation, fracture strength was measured using Czochralski wafers and cells taken at various stages of processing and differences were noted. Fracture strength, which is believed to be governed by flaws introduced during wafer sawing, was observed to improve (increase) after chemical polishing and other process steps that tend to remove surface and edge flaws.

  9. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  10. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  11. Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

    PubMed

    Melton, L J; Thamer, M; Ray, N F; Chan, J K; Chesnut, C H; Einhorn, T A; Johnston, C C; Raisz, L G; Silverman, S L; Siris, E S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent osteoporosis, it is necessary to estimate total health care expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Resources utilized for the treatment of many diseases can be estimated from secondary databases using relevant diagnosis codes, but such codes do not indicate which fractures are osteoporotic in nature. Therefore, a panel of experts was convened to make judgments about the probabilities that fractures of different types might be related to osteoporosis according to patient age, gender, and race. A three-round Delphi process was applied to estimate the proportion of fractures related to osteoporosis (i.e., the osteoporosis attribution probabilities) in 72 categories comprised of four specific fracture types (hip, spine, forearm, all other sites combined) stratified by three age groups (45-64 years, 65-84 years, 85 years and older), three racial groups (white, black, all others), and both genders (female, male). It was estimated that at least 90% of all hip and spine fractures among elderly white women should be attributed to osteoporosis. Much smaller proportions of the other fractures were attributed to osteoporosis. Regardless of fracture type, attribution probabilities were less for men than women and generally less for non-whites than whites. These probabilities will be used to estimate the total direct medical costs associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e. personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others. PMID:23446840

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e., personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others.

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e., personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately presenting information about behaviors and about the situational circumstances in which they occur. After reading the information, participants judged whether dispositional or situational causes explained the behavior (attribution), and how much they liked the person described in the scenario (affective evaluation). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed increased blood oxygenation-level-dependent activation during the encoding of situational information when the resulting attribution was situational, relative to when the attribution was dispositional, potentially reflecting a controlled process that integrates situational information into attributions. Interestingly, attributions were strongly linked to subsequent affective evaluations, with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex emerging as potential substrate of the integration of attributions and affective evaluations. Our findings demonstrate how top-down control processes regulate impression formation when situational information is taken into account to understand others. PMID:23446840

  15. Self-esteem and causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, T A; Lee, M S; Pengilly, J W

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and causal attributions of success and failure in achievement-related behavior was examined among undergraduate students. An integration of a self-consistency model of causal attribution and self-enhancement theory was attempted. Self-esteem and performance outcome conditions of success and failure served as independent variables. Success and failure conditions were created via feedback regarding the participants' performance on an anagram task. The participants' attributions of six causal elements (ability, effort, immediate effort, task difficulty, luck, and mood) were categorized and combined with three causal dimensions (internal-external locus, stability, and controllability), which served as dependent variables. Participants' expectations regarding performance also served as a dependent variable. The relationship between self-esteem, expectancies of success and failure, performance, and stable causality were reported. In terms of causal dimensions, internal, stable, and controllable dimensions were explained by self-enhancement.

  16. Attributional style and depressive mood reactions.

    PubMed

    Stiensmeier-Pelster, J

    1989-09-01

    According to the reformulated learned helplessness model of depression, individuals who characteristically attribute negative events to internal-stable-global causes become depressed when confronted with negative life events. This proposition was tested in a field and a laboratory study in settings with an interpersonal, socially relevant character. In the field study, the attributional style of 86 female college students was investigated before Christmas, and their mood was recorded both before and after Christmas. The laboratory study recorded the mood of 46 female students before and after either success or failure. In both studies changes in depressive mood were predicted by the Attribution X Outcome interaction. The direction and form of the interaction were in line with the diathesis-stress model. In the field study, but not the laboratory study, outcome was a significant predictor of changes in depressive mood.

  17. Pretest probability assessment derived from attribute matching

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Johnson, Charles L; Pollack, Charles V; Diercks, Deborah B; Hollander, Judd E; Newgard, Craig D; Garvey, J Lee

    2005-01-01

    Background Pretest probability (PTP) assessment plays a central role in diagnosis. This report compares a novel attribute-matching method to generate a PTP for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compare the new method with a validated logistic regression equation (LRE). Methods Eight clinical variables (attributes) were chosen by classification and regression tree analysis of a prospectively collected reference database of 14,796 emergency department (ED) patients evaluated for possible ACS. For attribute matching, a computer program identifies patients within the database who have the exact profile defined by clinician input of the eight attributes. The novel method was compared with the LRE for ability to produce PTP estimation <2% in a validation set of 8,120 patients evaluated for possible ACS and did not have ST segment elevation on ECG. 1,061 patients were excluded prior to validation analysis because of ST-segment elevation (713), missing data (77) or being lost to follow-up (271). Results In the validation set, attribute matching produced 267 unique PTP estimates [median PTP value 6%, 1st–3rd quartile 1–10%] compared with the LRE, which produced 96 unique PTP estimates [median 24%, 1st–3rd quartile 10–30%]. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.82) for the attribute matching curve and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.77) for LRE. The attribute matching system categorized 1,670 (24%, 95% CI = 23–25%) patients as having a PTP < 2.0%; 28 developed ACS (1.7% 95% CI = 1.1–2.4%). The LRE categorized 244 (4%, 95% CI = 3–4%) with PTP < 2.0%; four developed ACS (1.6%, 95% CI = 0.4–4.1%). Conclusion Attribute matching estimated a very low PTP for ACS in a significantly larger proportion of ED patients compared with a validated LRE. PMID:16095534

  18. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  19. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  20. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  1. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  2. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  3. The Impact of MBA Programme Attributes on Post-MBA Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Caroline; Soo, Kwok Tong

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of various Master of Business Administration (MBA) programme attributes on the average post-MBA salary of graduates, contributing to the literature on the returns to an MBA degree, which to date has instead focused predominantly on the impact of individual student traits. The analysis uses a new panel dataset,…

  4. The Role of the New "Date Rape Drugs" in Attributions about Date Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, April L.; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario.…

  5. PTSD Symptoms and Sexual Harassment: The Role of Attributions and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Sadie E.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have compiled significant evidence demonstrating that sexual harassment leads to psychological harm, including the full symptom picture of PTSD, but few have examined the psychological processes involved. Research on attributions among trauma victims would suggest that causal attributions and perceptions of control may be important…

  6. A General Cognitive Diagnosis Model for Expert-Defined Polytomous Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jinsong; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    Polytomous attributes, particularly those defined as part of the test development process, can provide additional diagnostic information. The present research proposes the polytomous generalized deterministic inputs, noisy, "and" gate (pG-DINA) model to accommodate such attributes. The pG-DINA model allows input from substantive experts…

  7. Explaining Real-Life Events: How Culture and Domain Shape Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fiona; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research has shown that attributional styles are affected by the attributor's culture, inferential goals, and level of cognitive processing. This study compares the attributions made in sports articles and editorials of newspapers published in Hong Kong and the United States. Implications for the mixed model of social inference are discussed. (LSR)

  8. Seeing Yourself as Others See You: Developing Personal Attributes in the Group Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An important part of the process that enables us to improve ourselves as musicians in group music making involves developing an awareness of our personal attributes as they are displayed in the rehearsal. In order to help students become more aware of themselves and of their band members' personal attributes as they rehearse, a peer assessment…

  9. Multi-Interval Discretization of Continuous-Valued Attributes for Classification Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, U.; Irani, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since most real-world applications of classification learning involve continuous-valued attributes, properly addressing the discretization process is an important problem. This paper addresses the use of the entropy minimization heuristic for discretizing the range of a continuous-valued attribute into multiple intervals.

  10. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes. PMID:27350905

  11. SAR terrain classifier and mapper of biophysical attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal

    1993-01-01

    In preparation for the launch of SIR-C/X-SAR and design studies for future orbital SAR, a program has made considerable progress in the development of an SAR terrain classifier and algorithms for quantification of biophysical attributes. The goal of this program is to produce a generalized software package for terrain classification and estimation of biophysical attributes and to make this package available to the larger scientific community. The basic elements of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) terrain classifier are outlined. An SAR image is calibrated with respect to known system and processor gains and external targets (if available). A Level 1 classifier operates on the data to differentiate: urban features, surfaces and tall and short vegetation. Level 2 classifiers further subdivide these classes on the basis of structure. Finally, biophysical and geophysical inversions are applied to each class to estimate attributes of interest. The process used to develop the classifiers and inversions is shown. Radar scattering models developed from theory and from empirical data obtained by truck-mounted polarimeters and the JPL AirSAR are validated. The validated models are used in sensitivity studies to understand the roles of various scattering sources (i.e., surface trunk, branches, etc.) in determining net backscatter. Model simulations of sigma (sup o) as functions of the wave parameters (lambda, polarization and angle of incidence) and the geophysical and biophysical attributes are used to develop robust classifiers. The classifiers are validated using available AirSAR data sets. Specific estimators are developed for each class on the basis of the scattering models and empirical data sets. The candidate algorithms are tested with the AirSAR data sets. The attributes of interest include: total above ground biomass, woody biomass, soil moisture and soil roughness.

  12. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes.

  13. Cognitive Diagnostic Attribute-Level Discrimination Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robert; Roussos, Louis; Douglas, Jeff; He, Xuming

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) model the probability of correctly answering an item as a function of an examinee's attribute mastery pattern. Because estimation of the mastery pattern involves more than a continuous measure of ability, reliability concepts introduced by classical test theory and item response theory do not apply. The cognitive…

  14. Sex Differences in Attributions and Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jacquelynne Eccles

    1982-01-01

    Over 300 students assessed their causal attributions and expectations for success and failure in mathematics, and their self concepts of math ability. Results varied, depending on research method employed, but did not when taken together support the hypothesis that girls are more learned helpless in mathematics than are boys. (Author/GC)

  15. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  16. Acquiring Ownership and the Attribution of Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamar, Max; Le, Doan T.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people's…

  17. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  18. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  19. Memory for Recently Accessed Visual Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…

  20. 12 CFR 614.4359 - Attribution rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... outstanding to the borrower and attributed to the borrower when any one of the following three conditions... credit banks operating under title III authorities of the Act, look-through notes are exempt from the... percent or more of the related borrower's annual gross receipts, and reliance on the income from...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4359 - Attribution rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... outstanding to the borrower and attributed to the borrower when any one of the following three conditions... credit banks operating under title III authorities of the Act, look-through notes are exempt from the... percent or more of the related borrower's annual gross receipts, and reliance on the income from...

  2. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  3. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  4. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos.

  5. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  6. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos. PMID:27046496

  7. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  8. Desirable ICT Graduate Attributes: Theory vs. Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, J.; Lawley, M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ICT graduates must begin their careers by successfully fulfilling the requirements advertised within online recruitment sites. Although considerable research into employer requirements is commonly undertaken when preparing curricula, studies investigating how well the graduate attributes on which curricula are based match those…

  9. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  10. Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; AlSarheed, Maha A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in the 2013/2014 academic year. The questionnaire contained 43 items regarding students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of a good dental teacher. The attributes were grouped into two main categories: performance and personality. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for each item and then for the whole category. Performance and personality were compared between male and female students and between junior and senior students using Mann–Whitney U test. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 79%. Performance attributes were significantly more important than personality attributes to Saudi dental students (P<0.001). Perceptions of performance and personality attributes did not differ between male and female students; however, junior students put more emphasis on personality attributes than senior students. Conclusion Saudi dental students consider performance attributes more important than personality attributes for their successful learning. Teachers’ educational skills are valued more than the attributes, which do not connect directly to students’ learning process. PMID:27729821

  11. Accounting for Attribute-Level Non-Attendance in a Health Choice Experiment: Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Hole, Arne Risa

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature has established that it is common for respondents to ignore attributes of the alternatives within choice experiments. In most of the studies on attribute non-attendance, it is assumed that respondents consciously (or unconsciously) ignore one or more attributes of the alternatives, regardless of their levels. In this paper, we present a new line of enquiry and approach for modelling non-attendance in the context of investigating preferences for health service innovations. This approach recognises that non-attendance may not just be associated with attributes but may also apply to the attribute's levels. Our results show that respondents process each level of an attribute differently: while attending to the attribute, they ignore a subset of the attribute's levels. In such cases, the usual approach of assuming that respondents either attend to the attribute or not, irrespective of its levels, is erroneous and could lead to misguided policy recommendations. Our results indicate that allowing for attribute-level non-attendance leads to substantial improvements in the model fit and has an impact on estimated marginal willingness to pay and choice predictions.

  12. Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven R H; Britter, Rex E; Waitz, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft cruise emissions impact human health over a hemispheric scale and provide the first estimate of premature mortalities attributable to aircraft emissions globally. We estimate ∼8000 premature mortalities per year are attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. This represents ∼80% of the total impact of aviation (where the total includes the effects of landing and takeoff emissions), and ∼1% of air quality-related premature mortalities from all sources. However, we note that the impact of landing and takeoff emissions is likely to be under-resolved. Secondary H(2)SO(4)-HNO(3)-NH(3) aerosols are found to dominate mortality impacts. Due to the altitude and region of the atmosphere at which aircraft emissions are deposited, the extent of transboundary air pollution is particularly strong. For example, we describe how strong zonal westerly winds aloft, the mean meridional circulation around 30-60°N, interaction of aircraft-attributable aerosol precursors with background ammonia, and high population densities in combination give rise to an estimated ∼3500 premature mortalities per year in China and India combined, despite their relatively small current share of aircraft emissions. Subsidence of aviation-attributable aerosol and aerosol precursors occurs predominantly around the dry subtropical ridge, which results in reduced wet removal of aviation-attributable aerosol. It is also found that aircraft NO(x) emissions serve to increase oxidation of nonaviation SO(2), thereby further increasing the air quality impacts of aviation. We recommend that cruise emissions be explicitly considered in the development of policies, technologies and operational procedures designed to mitigate the air quality impacts of air transportation.

  13. Attributes of Successful School Improvement Teams: Participants' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: In light of the current political and economic pressure being placed on school districts, it is imperative for school leaders to implement initiatives which will contribute to the school improvement process. Better utilization of administrators and faculty is key to the efficient and effective implementation of school improvement…

  14. Integrating stakeholder values with multiple attributes to quantify watershed performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Deborah M.; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2006-08-01

    Integrating stakeholder values into the process of quantifying impairment of ecosystem functions is an important aspect of watershed assessment and planning. This study develops a classification and prioritization model to assess potential impairment in watersheds. A systematic evaluation of a broad set of abiotic, biotic, and human indicators of watershed structure and function was used to identify the level of degradation at a subbasin scale. Agencies and communities can use the method to effectively target and allocate resources to areas of greatest restoration need. The watershed performance measure (WPM) developed in this study is composed of three major components: (1) hydrologic processes (water quantity and quality), (2) biodiversity at a species scale (core and priority habitat for rare and endangered species and species richness) and landscape scale (impacts of fragmentation), and (3) urban impacts as assessed in the built environment (effective impervious area) and population effects (densities and density of toxic waste sites). Simulation modeling using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), monitoring information, and spatial analysis with GIS were used to assess each criterion in developing this model. Weights for attributes of potential impairment were determined through the use of the attribute prioritization procedure with a panel of expert stakeholders. This procedure uses preselected attributes and corresponding stakeholder values and is data intensive. The model was applied to all subbasins of the Chicopee River Watershed of western Massachusetts, an area with a mixture of rural, heavily forested lands, suburban, and urbanized areas. Highly impaired subbasins in one community were identified using this methodology and evaluated for principal forms of degradation and potential restoration policies and BMPs. This attribute-based prioritization method could be used in identifying baselines, prioritization policies, and adaptive community

  15. College & University Business Administration. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This text presents indepth coverage of five areas of college and university business administration, including administrative management, business management, fiscal management, and financial accounting and reporting. The section on administrative management encompasses institutional planning, management information systems and data processing,…

  16. 46 CFR 296.50 - Administrative determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative determinations. 296.50 Section 296.50 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND..., Scott Air Force Base, IL 62225-5357. (c) Process. The Administrator, or the Commander in the case of...

  17. 10 CFR 725.24 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 725.24 Section 725.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Permits § 725.24 Administration. With respect to each permit... designate a DOE or National Nuclear Security Administration office which will: (a) Process all...

  18. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  19. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  20. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk. PMID:20205024

  1. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M

    1987-01-01

    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity.

  2. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions.

    PubMed

    Lane, David A

    2016-03-19

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society.

  3. Chronic Cholestatic Liver Injury Attributable to Vedolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Jonathan G.; Wang, Jennifer; Behm, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced liver injury is a rare but clinically important diagnosis. Vedolizumab is an α4β7 integrin inhibitor recently approved for use in patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease. Cases of hepatoxicity due to vedolizumab in the pre-marketing stage were rare, and all cases resolved upon drug withdrawal. We present here the first reported case of hepatotoxicity attributable to vedolizumab, which despite drug cessation persisted with chronic cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27777897

  4. Fuzzy attributes for knowledge representation and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    Repertory grids and other matrix-like structures can be used to represent knowledge and elicit knowledge from experts. A grid or matrix is a representation of a knowledge domain where the elements in the domain appear long the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the vertical axis. Each construct is rated for its presence in a given element or how much a construct applies to an element. Analysis of these ratings can determine similarities and differences between the elements. Traditionally, constructs are bipolar entities where a rating falls on a range from one pole to the other. For example, temperature may be represented by the bipolar construct hot-cold and a range of 1 to 5 in which 1 represents hot and 5 represents cold. Ratings of 2, 3, and 4 lie in between hot and cold. Additionally, all constructs in a grid have the same range of values and the range in arbitrarily chosen. This paper presents a method for translating grid ratings in to fuzzy membership values. The fuzzy membership values become the values for describing and analyzing the associations between elements. Thus, constructs no longer need to use the same scaling range and no longer need to be bipolar. A construct of an element now becomes a true attribute of an element. An attribute can be rated in its own range and with its own unit of measurement. In the previous example, the bipolar construct hot-cold becomes simply, temperature measured in degrees. Experts or users need no longer translate to an artificial rating range.

  5. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  6. Co-administration of CpG oligonucleotides enhances the late affinity maturation process of human anti-hepatitis B vaccine response.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pihlgren, Maria; Tougne, Chantal; Efler, Sue M; Morris, Mary Lou; AlAdhami, Mohammed J; Cameron, D William; Cooper, Curtis L; Heathcote, Jenny; Davis, Heather L; Lambert, Paul-Henri

    2004-12-16

    We assessed the avidity maturation process elicited by human immunization with alum-adsorbed HBsAg alone or with a novel adjuvant containing CpG motifs (CpG 7909). Mean avidity indexes and distribution of low- and high-avidity anti-HBs indicated that avidity maturation essentially takes place late after priming. CpG 7909 markedly enhanced this affinity maturation process, increasing the pool of high-avidity antibodies. The influence of CpG 7909 was antigen-specific, isotype-specific and distinct from the influence on anti-HBs production, as avidity did not correlate with anti-HBs IgG titers. This is the first demonstration that a novel human adjuvant may induce antibodies with higher antigen-binding affinity. PMID:15542181

  7. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  8. Issues with inferring Internet topological attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Lisa D.; Shaikh, Anees; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2002-07-01

    A number of recent studies are based on data collected from routing tables of inter-domain routers utilizing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and tools, such as traceroute, to probe end-to-end paths. The goal is to infer Internet topological properties. However, as more data is collected, it becomes obvious that data intended to represent the same properties, if gathered at different points within the network, can depict significantly different characteristics. While systematic data collection from a number of network vantage points can reduce certain ambiguities, thus far, no methods have been reported for fully resolving these issues. The goal of our study was to quantify the effect these anomalies have on key Internet structural attributes. We report on our analysis of over 290,000 measurements from globally distributed sites. We contrast results obtained from router-level measurements with those obtained from BGP routing tables, and offer insights as to why certain inferred properties differ. We demonstrate that the effect on some attributes, such as the average path length and the AS degree distribution can be minimized through careful data collection techniques. We also illustrate how using this same data to model other attributes, such as the actual forwarding path between a pair of nodes, or the level of AS path asymmetry, can produce substantially misleading results.

  9. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  10. Seeing other minds: attributed mental states influence perception.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Christoph; Fletcher, Paul C; Davis, Greg

    2010-08-01

    A current consensus views social perception as a bottom-up process in which the human brain uses social signals to make inferences about another's mental state. Here we propose that, contrary to this model, even the most basic perceptual processing of a social stimulus and closely associated automatic responses are modulated by mental-state attribution. We suggest that social perception is subserved by an interactive bidirectional relationship between the neural mechanisms supporting basic sensory processing of social information and the theory-of-mind system. Consequently, processing of a social stimulus cannot be divorced from its representation in terms of mental states. This hypothesis has far-reaching implications for our understanding of both the healthy social brain and characteristic social failures in psychopathology. PMID:20576464

  11. Roast Effects on Mechnical and Sensory Texture Attributes of Peantus, Almonds, Hazelnuts and Cashews

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two instrumental methods were developed to quantify mechanical properties of peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts and cashews that potentially related to sensory texture attributes after thermal processing. The first method involved individual compression testing of multiple separate oilseeds, whereas the se...

  12. 7 CFR 52.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification § 52.1 Administration...

  13. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification § 52.1 Administration...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification § 52.1 Administration...

  16. Televised relational and physical aggression and children's hostile intent attributions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with 150 children (mean age=10.1years) in third to fifth grades to test whether exposure to different forms of aggression in the media affected hostile attributional biases in response to different forms of provocation scenarios. Children were randomly assigned to watch a clip containing physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. After exposure, children were asked to respond to a series of written provocation scenarios where a character caused some form of harm (instrumental or relational) to a target person, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. Results revealed that exposure to relationally aggressive portrayals resulted in a hostile attributional bias in response to relational scenarios, whereas exposure to portrayals of physical aggression was associated with a hostile attributional bias in response to instrumental scenarios. Moreover, these biases were shown to be specific to the exposure condition (physical or relational) and not simply associated with exposure to aggression in general. The findings are discussed in terms of the general aggression model and children's social information processing. PMID:23831139

  17. Success and failure attributions in smoking cessation among men and women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, K E

    1990-04-01

    1. Smoking behavior is intermingled with a very complicated array of social and psychological processes which suggests the presence of sociocultural factors that directly influence smoking behavior. 2. Social and cultural factors which distinguish former smokers from smokers indicate that behavioral factors may be related to the ability to successfully stop smoking. 3. Evidence suggests that attributional patterns differ according to gender, with women being more external and employing more luck attributions than men. 4. When attribution and self-efficacy expectations were combined with demographic variables, increased understanding of the cessation process increased and predictive power of success in smoking cessation improved.

  18. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  19. 12 CFR 614.4359 - Attribution rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and... decision under the same basic terms and conditions. (iii) For the banks for cooperatives and agricultural... meets at least one of the following three conditions: (A) The borrower shares a common directorate...

  20. Prediction of pork color attributes using computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng Hung; Bachmeier, Laura; Somers, Rose Marie; Chen, Kun Jie; Newman, David

    2016-03-01

    Color image processing and regression methods were utilized to evaluate color score of pork center cut loin samples. One hundred loin samples of subjective color scores 1 to 5 (NPB, 2011; n=20 for each color score) were selected to determine correlation values between Minolta colorimeter measurements and image processing features. Eighteen image color features were extracted from three different RGB (red, green, blue) model, HSI (hue, saturation, intensity) and L*a*b* color spaces. When comparing Minolta colorimeter values with those obtained from image processing, correlations were significant (P<0.0001) for L* (0.91), a* (0.80), and b* (0.66). Two comparable regression models (linear and stepwise) were used to evaluate prediction results of pork color attributes. The proposed linear regression model had a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.83 compared to the stepwise regression results (R(2)=0.70). These results indicate that computer vision methods have potential to be used as a tool in predicting pork color attributes. PMID:26619035

  1. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  2. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  3. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  4. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M < 4.6) without reported faulting may be attributable to shallow production from other large oil and gas fields. In addition to these examples are thirteen cases of apparently aseismic surface rupture associated with production from California and Texas oil fields. Small earthquakes in the Eloy-Picacho area of Arizona may be attributable to withdrawal of groundwater, but their relation to widespread fissuring is enigmatic. The clearest example of extraction-induced seismicity outside of North America is the 1951 series of earthquakes associated with gas production from the Po River delta near Caviga, Italy. Faulting and seismicity associated with fluid extraction are attributed to differential compaction at depth caused by reduction of reservoir fluid pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the

  5. Timing: An Attribute of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Mikael; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that when two events occur in spatiotemporal proximity to one another, an association between the two events is formed which encodes the timing of the events in relation to one another (including duration, order, and interval). The primary evidence supporting the view that temporal relationships are encoded is that subsequent presentation of one event ordinarily elicits behavior indicative of an expectation of the other event at a specific time. Thus, temporal relationships appear to be one of several attributes encoded at acquisition. PMID:23751257

  6. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  7. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  8. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  9. Understanding misunderstanding: a study of sex differences in meaning attribution.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Ira

    2013-11-01

    There are biologically based sex differences in verbal abilities and in neuropsychological systems of verbal processing. Measurement of observable behaviour, however, does not say much about sex differences in the internal, semantic processing of verbal material. The present study, which was conducted in Canada, China and Russia, investigated sex differences in connotative meaning attribution to the most common concepts using an object scale symmetry in the choice of the nouns and bipolar adjectives (projective semantic method). The results showed that males had a tendency to estimate reality- and work-related concepts more negatively and social- and physical attractors more positively than women. The paper hypothesizes that at the level of the most fundamental semantic processing men favour more exceptional objects than women, and women favour more predictable objects, including rules and routines. PMID:23179581

  10. Attribution of Causality for Successful Performance by Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.; And Others

    Three hypotheses were tested regarding the attribution of causation for successful behavior by kindergarten children: (1) self concept--children with high self esteem make internal attributions and those with low self esteem make external attributions; (2) locus of control (LOC)--children with internal LOC make internal attributions and those with…

  11. Computer Developments and the Administrator, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer is seen as a powerful tool that offers great potential for administrators in tertiary institutions. The impact of the computer on processing data, database concept, computer communication, utilization of operations data for analytical reports, use of management science tools, and evolution in administrative data processing are…

  12. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  13. Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

  14. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  15. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status.

  16. Coronary Heart Disease Attributable to Passive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lightwood, James M.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Williams, Lawrence W.; Goldman, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Passive smoking is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and existing estimates are out of date due to recent and substantial changes in the level of exposure. Objective To estimate the annual clinical burden and cost of CHD treatment attributable to passive smoking. Outcome measures Annual attributable CHD deaths, myocardial infarctions (MI), total CHD events, and the direct cost of CHD treatment. Methods A Monte Carlo simulation estimated the CHD events and costs as a function of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, including passive-smoking prevalence and a low (1.26) and high (1.65) relative risk of CHD due to passive smoking. Estimates were calculated using the CHD Policy Model, calibrated to reproduce key CHD outcomes in the baseline Year 2000 in the U.S. Results At 1999–2004 levels, passive smoking caused 21,800 (SE=2400) to 75,100 (SE=8000) CHD deaths and 38,100 (SE=4300) to 128,900 (SE=14,000) MIs annually, with a yearly CHD treatment cost of $1.8 (SE=$0.2) to $6.0 (SE=$0.7) billion. If recent trends in the reduction in the prevalence of passive smoking continue from 2000 to 2008, the burden would be reduced by approximately 25%–30%. Conclusions Passive smoking remains a substantial clinical and economic burden in the U.S. PMID:19095162

  17. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  18. Variable sampling in the attribute mode

    SciTech Connect

    Avenhaus, R.

    1985-01-01

    Variables inspection can be used in the attribute mode, if an assumed mode, if an assumed falsification of reported data is sufficiently small so as to escape detection with the attribute tester, i.e., a variable tester can be used in order to make a qualitative statement. The efficiency of such a procedure can be determined if the statistical properties of the tester are known. In this paper first, for one class of material data the probability of detection is determined as function of the total number of item data to be verified, inspector's sample size, fraction of falsified data and false alarm probability, both for drawing without and with replacement. For the latter case and given total falsification, the minimal, i.e. guaranteed probability of detection is determined. Second, for several classes of material data it is shown under some simplifying assumptions in which way the available inspection effort has to be distributed optimally on the various classes. Finally, some remarks are made about the use of two different measurement techniques for the verification of data of one class of material.

  19. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Stott, Peter A.; Nozawa, Toru; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Wehner, Michael F.; Jones, Philip D.

    2008-11-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report concludes is the only continent where anthropogenic temperature changes have not been detected so far, possibly as a result of insufficient observational coverage. Here we use an up-to-date gridded data set of land surface temperatures and simulations from four coupled climate models to assess the causes of the observed polar temperature changes. We find that the observed changes in Arctic and Antarctic temperatures are not consistent with internal climate variability or natural climate drivers alone, and are directly attributable to human influence. Our results demonstrate that human activities have already caused significant warming in both polar regions, with likely impacts on polar biology, indigenous communities, ice-sheet mass balance and global sea level.

  20. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  1. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  2. Retaining experts: administrators' views on retention incentives and older employees.

    PubMed

    Moon, Tara C; Beck, Susan; Laudicina, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    A survey of members of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) in 2012 examined laboratory administrators' views on retention incentives and older Clinical Laboratory Professionals (CLP). Results indicated that retention strategies currently in place are not concordant with the ones CLP think are important. Further, with the exception of ergonomic equipment, administrators reported low feasibility for the workplace changes favored by practitioners. While all administrators attributed positive traits to older CLP, older administrators held more favorable views. Administrators perceived older CLP as productive, having a high level of technical skills and loyal. The combination of technical competence and work ethic make retention of older CLP attractive to laboratory administrators and advantageous for combatting workforce shortages. This study highlights the discordance between the retention incentives valued by CLP and those viewed as feasible by administrators. Findings should be used by administrators to refine incentive packages that better reflect the desires of CLP. PMID:25219073

  3. Neural correlates of attributing causes to the self, another person and the situation.

    PubMed

    Kestemont, Jenny; Ma, Ning; Baetens, Kris; Clément, Nikki; Van Overwalle, Frank; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study compares brain activation during causal attribution to three different loci, the self, another person and the situation; and further explores correlations with clinical scales (i.e. depression, anxiety and autism) in a typical population. While they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, 20 participants read short sentences about another person ('someone') who engaged in behaviors with the participant or made comments about the participant. The participants then attributed these behaviors to three attribution loci: themselves, the other person or the situation. The results revealed common activation across the three attribution loci in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus, precuneus and right temporal pole (TP). Comparisons between the attribution loci revealed very little differences, except for increased activation of the right TP while making attributions to the situation compared with the self. In addition, when making attributions to the situation or other persons for negative events, there were reliable correlations between low activity in the left TPJ and high levels of anxiety and problematic social interaction in autism. The results indicate that attributions to different loci are based on the same underlying brain process, which might be atypical among persons with anxiety or autism symptoms.

  4. Multiple cranial neuropathies following etanercept administration.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jacob B; Rivas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There have been recent reports of sarcoid-like granulomatosis development following the administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. To date, only four cases of neurosarcoidosis have been reported in association with TNF inhibitors, two of which were attributed to etanercept. We present the first case of etanercept-induced neurosarcoidosis involving multiple cranial neuropathies, including the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves, while also highlighting the differential diagnoses of multiple cranial neuropathies and the association of TNF inhibitors and neurosarcoidosis. PMID:27178520

  5. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  6. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  7. The Federal Highway Administration Gasohol Consumption Estimation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-28

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is responsible for estimating the portion of Federal highway funds attributable to each State. The process involves use of State-reported data (gallons) and a set of estimation models when accurate State data is unavailable. To ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable, FHWA periodically reviews the estimation models. Estimation of the use of gasohol is difficult because of State differences in the definition of gasohol, inability of many States to separate and report gasohol usage from other fuel types, changes in fuel composition in nonattainment areas to address concerns over the use of certain fuel additives, and the lack of a valid State-level surrogate data set for gasohol use. Under the sponsorship of FHWA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the regression-based gasohol estimation model that has been in use for several years. Based on an analytical assessment of that model and an extensive review of potential data sets, ORNL developed an improved rule-based model. The new model uses data from Internal Revenue Service, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, ORNL, and FHWA sources. The model basically consists of three parts: (1) development of a controlled total of national gasohol usage, (2) determination of reliable State gasohol consumption data, and (3) estimation of gasohol usage for all other States. The new model will be employed for the 2004 attribution process. FHWA is currently soliciting comments and inputs from interested parties. Relevant data, as identified, will be pursued and refinements will be made by the research team if warranted.

  8. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  9. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  10. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  11. Memory for recently accessed visual attributes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Shupe, Joshua M; Swallow, Khena M; Tan, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's identity is lost completely once it becomes task irrelevant. If so, then the identity of a target on one trial should not influence performance on the next trial. In 3 experiments, we replicated the finding that a target's identity is poorly recognized in a surprise memory test. However, we also observed location and identity repetition priming across consecutive trials. These data suggest that, although explicit recognition on a surprise memory test may be impaired, some information about a particular target's identity can be retained after it is no longer needed for a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Ravens attribute visual access to unseen competitors.

    PubMed

    Bugnyar, Thomas; Reber, Stephan A; Buckner, Cameron

    2016-02-02

    Recent studies purported to demonstrate that chimpanzees, monkeys and corvids possess a basic Theory of Mind, the ability to attribute mental states like seeing to others. However, these studies remain controversial because they share a common confound: the conspecific's line of gaze, which could serve as an associative cue. Here, we show that ravens Corvus corax take into account the visual access of others, even when they cannot see a conspecific. Specifically, we find that ravens guard their caches against discovery in response to the sounds of conspecifics when a peephole is open but not when it is closed. Our results suggest that ravens can generalize from their own perceptual experience to infer the possibility of being seen. These findings confirm and unite previous work, providing strong evidence that ravens are more than mere behaviour-readers.

  13. Otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Lychakov, D.; Campos, A.; Hara, H.; Sondag, E.; Jones, T.; Jones, S.; Taylor, M.; Meza-Ruiz, G.; Martin, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    This work consolidates data about these interesting organic crystals of vertebrate inner ears. It addresses 5 aspects of inner ear otoliths not completely understood to date: 1) embryological data that explains the formation of the crystals, 2) the significance of the organic and the inorganic phase of the otolith and the changing patterns of otoconia formation along the evolutionary tree, 3) otoliths contribution for detecting linear acceleration, 4) the effect that altered gravity and aminoglycosides have on the development and adult shape of the crystals, and the evolutionary significance of a changing shape of the crystals from primitive forms (lamprey) to high vertebrate birds and mammals is discussed, 5) functional attributes of the otolithic organs and morphological modifications of the otoliths by physical and chemical insults are presented with an extensive discussion of the most relevant literature published and available to us.

  14. Ravens attribute visual access to unseen competitors

    PubMed Central

    Bugnyar, Thomas; Reber, Stephan A.; Buckner, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies purported to demonstrate that chimpanzees, monkeys and corvids possess a basic Theory of Mind, the ability to attribute mental states like seeing to others. However, these studies remain controversial because they share a common confound: the conspecific's line of gaze, which could serve as an associative cue. Here, we show that ravens Corvus corax take into account the visual access of others, even when they cannot see a conspecific. Specifically, we find that ravens guard their caches against discovery in response to the sounds of conspecifics when a peephole is open but not when it is closed. Our results suggest that ravens can generalize from their own perceptual experience to infer the possibility of being seen. These findings confirm and unite previous work, providing strong evidence that ravens are more than mere behaviour-readers. PMID:26835849

  15. A comparison of attribute sampling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, B.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes, compares, and provides sample size selection criteria for the most common sampling plans for attribute data (i.e., data that is qualitative in nature such as Pass-Fail, Yes-No, Defect-Nondefect data). This report is being issued as a guide in prudently choosing the correct sampling plan to meet statistical plan objectives. The report discusses three types of sampling plans: AQL (Acceptable Quality Level expressed as a percent), RQL (Rejectable Quality Level as a percent), and the AQL/RQL plan which emphasizes both risks simultaneously. These plans are illustrated with six examples, one of which is an inventory of UF{sub 6} cans whose weight must agree within 100 grams of its listed weight to be acceptable.

  16. Virulence Attributes of Low-Virulence Organisms

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of infections involving female pelvic structures arise from organisms that are members of the normal flora. In addition, exogenous organisms that invade through the lower genital tract must interact with organisms that are part of the host's flora. In contrast to the concept that the normal flora is entirely innocuous, recent research has begun to identify what appear to be virulence attributes among these ordinarily low-virulence organisms. Most of our understanding of virulence has been derived from highly virulent organisms, of which Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides an example of relevance to the female genital tract. A review of the virulence factors of the gonococcus is presented to serve as an example of the variety of virulence properties associated with pathogenic bacteria. Molecular biology has begun to clarify one of the important paradigms of pathogenic bacteriology—that bacteria change their expression of virulence properties in response to their location within a host or to the stage of infection. Thus, infection involves not only the possession of virulence factors, but also the carefully controlled use of those factors. Virulence is often controlled by the coordinate expression of many virulence-associated genes in response to one environmental signal. With regard to low- virulence organisms present in the female lower genital tract, we are beginning to identify some of their virulence attributes. Examples from the work of our laboratory include the hemolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis and an immunosuppressive mycotoxin produced by Candida albicans. Demonstrating the coordinate expression (or other control mechanisms) of virulence factors in these sometimes innocuous and sometimes inimical organisms represents the next frontier in the study of normal vaginal microbiology. PMID:18475373

  17. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  18. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    PubMed

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  19. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  20. Attributions to discrimination and depression among Latino/as: the mediating role of competence.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attributions to discrimination and competence in predicting depression among a sample of 93 Latino/a adults. The major findings showed that attributions to discrimination were related to decreases in both general competence and intercultural competence, which were in turn associated with increases in depressive symptoms. This pattern of results suggests that general and intercultural competence partially mediated the relationship between attributions to discrimination and depression. The findings are discussed within the context of the cultural adaptation process and factors that ameliorate Latino/a mental health. In addition, theoretical and practical implications are outlined along with areas of future research. PMID:19290731

  1. Leadership skills and attributes of women and nurse executives: challenges for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Theresa L

    2005-01-01

    This study used a descriptive comparative design in which the skills/attributes identified by women leaders were compared to the skills/attributes identified by the nurse executives (NEs). For the women leaders and NEs, 6 factors were identified through principal components analysis: (1) personal integrity, (2) strategic vision/action orientation, (3) team building/communication skills, (4) management and technical competencies, (5) people skills (eg, empowering others, networking, valuing diversity, working collaboratively), and (6) personal survival skills/attributes (eg, political sensitivity, self-direction, self-reliance, courage, and candor). The items that received the highest level of agreement regarding importance for both groups were contained in the personal integrity factor, which included ethical standards, trustworthiness, and credibility. These factors are discussed and implications for leadership development and nursing administration graduate programs are identified.

  2. Impact of an electronic medication administration record on medication administration efficiency and errors.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jeffery; Riingen, Michelle; Chae Kim, Son

    2014-12-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the impact of electronic medication administration record implementation on medication administration efficiency and occurrence of medication errors as well as to identify the predictors of medication administration efficiency in an acute care setting. A prospective, observational study utilizing time-and-motion technique was conducted before and after electronic medication administration record implementation in November 2011. A total of 156 cases of medication administration activities (78 pre- and 78 post-electronic medication administration record) involving 38 nurses were observed at the point of care. A separate retrospective review of the hospital Midas+ medication error database was also performed to collect the rates and origin of medication errors for 6 months before and after electronic medication administration record implementation. The mean medication administration time actually increased from 11.3 to 14.4 minutes post-electronic medication administration record (P = .039). In a multivariate analysis, electronic medication administration record was not a predictor of medication administration time, but the distractions/interruptions during medication administration process were significant predictors. The mean hospital-wide medication errors significantly decreased from 11.0 to 5.3 events per month post-electronic medication administration record (P = .034). Although no improvement in medication administration efficiency was observed, electronic medication administration record improved the quality of care with a significant decrease in medication errors.

  3. Failures and anomalies attributed to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, R. D.; Alexander, M. B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging can be very detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions. Assuring that subsystems and systems are protected against charging is an important engineering function necessary to assure mission success. Spacecraft charging is expected to have a significant role in future space activities and programs. Objectives of this reference publication are to present a brief overview of spacecraft charging, to acquaint the reader with charging history, including illustrative cases of charging anomalies, and to introduce current spacecraft charging prevention activities of the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  4. Making Diagnostic Inferences about Cognitive Attributes Using the Rule-Space Model and Attribute Hierarchy Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic and identify key assumptions associated with making cognitive inferences using two attribute-based psychometric methods. The first method is Kikumi Tatsuoka's rule-space model. This model provides a strong point of reference for studying the nature of diagnostic inferences because it is important…

  5. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  6. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  7. Children's attributional style from middle childhood to early adolescence: Further validation of the paper-and-pencil versions of the children's attributional style interview.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Haines, Beth A; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2010-09-01

    The psychometric properties of two paper-and-pencil versions of the Children's Attributional Style Interview (i.e., CASI-I and CASI-II) were evaluated in a sample of 166 third and fourth graders and a sample of 245 sixth and seventh graders. The results demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and a factor structure that was consistent with theory in both samples. Furthermore, analyses demonstrated adequate evidence of the reliability and validity of several dimensional subscale scores and the composite measures of attributional style for both positive and negative events. These results suggest the utility of the CASI in research testing specific attributional predictions of cognitive theories of depression with the dimensional subscale scores. They further add to the literature by demonstrating item-level factor analytic support for a children's attributional style measure and the feasibility of administration sizes larger than previously tested, which add to the utility of the CASI in large-scale research designs. PMID:20040724

  8. Attribution of precipitation changes in African rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E. L.; Allen, M. R.; Bowery, A.; Imbers, J.; Jones, R.; Massey, N.; Miller, J.; Rosier, S.; Rye, C.; Thurston, M.; Wilson, S.; Yamazaki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is almost certainly affecting the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather and hydrological events. However, whether and to what extend the occurrence of such an event can be attributed to climate change remains a challenge that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. A number of recent studies have attempted to quantify the role of human influence on climate in observed weather events as e.g. the 2010 Russian heat wave (Dole et al, 2011; Rahmstorf and Coumou, 2011; Otto et al, 2012). The overall approach is to simulate, with as realistic a model as possible and accounting as far as possible for modelling uncertainties, both the statistics of observed weather and the statistics of the weather that would have obtained had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. This approach requires a large ensemble size to provide results from which the statistical significance and the shape of the distribution of key variables can be assessed. Also, a sufficiently long period of time must be simulated to evaluate model bias and whether the model captures the observed distribution. The weatherathome.net within the climateprediction.net projects provides such an ensemble with many hundred ensemble members per year via volunteer distributed computing. Most previous attribution studies have been about European extreme weather events but the most vulnerable regions to climate change are in Asia and Africa. One of the most complex hydrological systems is the tropical rainforest, which is expected to react highly sensible to a changing climate. Analysing the weatherathome.net results we find that conditions which are too dry for rainforests to sustain without damages occurred more frequently and more severe in recent years. Furthermore the changes in precipitation in that region can be linked to El Nino/ La Nina events. Linking extreme weather events to large-scale teleconnections helps to understand the occurrence of this

  9. Development of Program to Enhance Strategic Leadership of Secondary School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatchawaphun, Pimpisa; Julsuwan, Suwat; Srisa-ard, Boonchom

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to 1) study principles, attributes and skills needed for secondary school administrators, 2) investigate current situations, desirable conditions and needs for strategic secondary school administrators, 3) develop a strategic secondary school administrator enhancement program, and 4) explore the efficiency level of the…

  10. QUANTIFYING STRUCTURAL PHYSICAL HABITAT ATTRIBUTES USING LIDAR AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction. These habitat attributes will vary dependen...

  11. Attributional Style among Youth at Clinical Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    DeVylder, Jordan E.; Ben-David, Shelly; Kimhy, David; Corcoran, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim A biased attributional style, in which negative events are attributed to external and personal causes, is associated with paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. It is not known whether this biased attributional style also characterizes individuals at clinical risk for psychosis, or if it is associated with their emergent paranoia. Methods 33 clinical high-risk patients and 15 age- and gender-similar controls were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire for externalizing and personalizing attributional biases and for potential correlates with suspiciousness and other symptoms. Results Both patients and controls had a similar external-personalizing attributional style, which was unrelated to symptoms, including suspiciousness. Conclusions Consistent with other studies, a biased attributional style was not associated with subthreshold paranoia. Therefore, a biased attributional style is likely not a trait that contributes to emergent paranoid delusions, but instead a state-dependent correlate of paranoid delusions. PMID:22390315

  12. Design attributes of long-circulating polymeric drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Nicolas, Julien; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Following systemic administration polymeric drug delivery vehicles allow for a controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated medication at the desired site of action. For an elevated and organ specific accumulation of their cargo, nanocarriers need to avoid opsonization, activation of the complement system and uptake by macrophages of the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this respect, camouflaged vehicles revealed a delayed elimination from systemic circulation and an improved target organ deposition. For instance, a steric shielding of the carrier surface by poly(ethylene glycol) substantially decreased interactions with the biological environment. However, recent studies disclosed possible deficits of this approach, where most notably, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified drug delivery vehicles caused significant immune responses. At present, identification of novel potential carrier coating strategies facilitating negligible immune reactions is an emerging field of interest in drug delivery research. Moreover, physical carrier properties including geometry and elasticity seem to be very promising design attributes to surpass numerous biological barriers, in order to improve the efficacy of the delivered medication.

  13. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  14. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover. PMID:23600246

  15. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  16. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover.

  17. [Habitat selection attributes of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Xia; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Wen; Li, Jun-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1997-2009 inventory data of Wanglang Nature Reserve, the habitat selection attributes of giant panda were studied from the aspects of topography, forest community structure, and main feeding bamboo by the methods of frequency distribution and Bailey. The giant panda had obvious habitat preferences. Topographically, the preferred microhabitat was on the even or convex slopes at the ridge, top, or middle part of mountain body at an elevation 2500-3000 m, with southwest aspect, 6 degrees-30 degrees, and the distance to the nearest water source > 300 m. As for the forest community structure, the giant panda preferred the microhabitat with the bamboo succeeded from secondary forest or mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, and with the average tree height being 20-29 m and the shrub coverage being 0-24%. The preferred main feeding bamboo by the giant panda was the growing well Fargesia denudate with an average height of 2-5 m and the coverage of > 50%.

  18. Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, G.; Silin, D.; Vingalov, V.; Takkand, G.; Latfullin, M.

    2008-02-15

    In case of porous fluid-saturated medium the Biot's poroelasticity theory predicts a movement of the pore fluid relative to the skeleton on seismic wave propagation through the medium. This phenomenon opens an opportunity for investigation of the flow properties of the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs. It is well known that relative fluid movement becomes negligible at seismic frequencies if porous material is homogeneous and well cemented. In this case the theory predicts an underestimated seismic wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Based on Biot's theory, Helle et al. (2003) have numerically demonstrated the substantial effects on both velocity and attenuation by heterogeneous permeability and saturation in the rocks. Besides fluid flow effect, the effects of scattering (Gurevich, et al., 1997) play very important role in case of finely layered porous rocks and heterogeneous fluid saturation. We have used both fluid flow and scattering effects to derive a frequency-dependent seismic attribute which is proportional to fluid mobility and applied it for analysis of reservoir permeability.

  19. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  20. Power bases and attribution in three cultures.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Falah M; Rodrigues, Aroldo

    2003-06-01

    The authors used a Saudi context to verify the cross-cultural generality of findings (A. Rodrigues & K. L. Lloyd, 1998) reported for U.S. and Brazilian samples in which compliant behavior caused by reward, informational, and referent influences was perceived as more controllable and more internal than compliant behavior resulting from legitimate, expert, and coercive influences. This differential attribution led, in turn, to different affective and behavioral responses. In the present study, cognitive and affective reactions of Saudi students were measured with regard to compliant behavior (leading to a good outcome or a bad outcome) caused by each of the 6 bases of power described by B. H. Raven (1965). As expected, power bases had significant effects. However, when the outcome of the compliant behavior was bad, compliant behavior caused by a coercive influence led to the perception of more internality and controllability. Also--and not found in previous studies--the perception of less internality and controllability of compliant behavior was caused by an informational influence. Findings are discussed in the light of related research and Saudi cultural characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of wheat-grain quality attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a leading source of food for humankind. Nearly all wheat is processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of foods. As such, “quality” is a subjective assessment of suitability for a given process, food or use. Quality variation derives from compositional and physical attrib...

  2. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E.; Jones, R. G.; Halladay, K.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    circulation model (AGCM) simulations within the weather@home project, and analysing statistics of precipitation in the dry season of the Congo Basin rainforests. Because observed data sets in that region are of very poor quality we show how validation methods not only relying on such data have been used to investigate the applicability of PEA analysis from large model ensembles to this tropical region. Additionally we will present results for the same region but generated with a very large ensemble of regional climate simulations which allows analysing the importance of a realistic simulation of small scale precipitation processes for attribution studies in a tropical climate. We highlight that PEA analysis has the potential to provide valuable scientific evidence of recent or anticipated climatological changes in the water cycle, especially in regions with sparse observational data and unclear projections of future changes. However, the strong influence of SST tele-connection patterns on tropical precipitation provides more challenges in the set-up of attribution studies than studies on mid-latitude rainfall.

  3. Using Microcomputers in School Administration. Fastback No. 248.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Eugene T.; Valesky, Thomas C.

    This "fastback" outlines the steps to take in computerizing school administration. After an introduction that lists the potential benefits of microcomputers in administrative offices, the booklet begins by delineating a three-step process for establishing an administrative computer system: (1) creating a district-level committee of administrators,…

  4. School Administrators as Change Agents; A Role Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, William R.

    The administrator's role in the change process is not all clear. Role conflict has been a barrier to administrators acting as change agents. Although the functions of executive, leader, maintainer, and policy implementer are common to most administrators, the total dimensions of administrative roles are seldom laid out in any job description. The…

  5. 7 CFR 54.1004 - Administration and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administration and implementation. 54.1004 Section 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1004 Administration and implementation. The Administrator designates the administration and implementation of the Certification of Sanitary Design...

  6. 7 CFR 54.1004 - Administration and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration and implementation. 54.1004 Section 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1004 Administration and implementation. The Administrator designates the administration and implementation of the Certification of Sanitary Design...

  7. 7 CFR 54.1004 - Administration and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration and implementation. 54.1004 Section 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1004 Administration and implementation. The Administrator designates the administration and implementation of the Certification of Sanitary Design...

  8. 7 CFR 54.1004 - Administration and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration and implementation. 54.1004 Section 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1004 Administration and implementation. The Administrator designates the administration and implementation of the Certification of Sanitary Design...

  9. 7 CFR 54.1004 - Administration and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration and implementation. 54.1004 Section 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1004 Administration and implementation. The Administrator designates the administration and implementation of the Certification of Sanitary Design...

  10. 47 CFR 73.858 - Attribution of LPFM station interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.858 Attribution of LPFM station interests. Ownership and other interests in LPFM station permittees and licensees will be attributed to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attribution of LPFM station interests....

  11. Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

  12. Attribution and Learning English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Learner attributions, perceived causes of success and failure, have received little attention in EFL research. Attributions are categorized as either internal (for example effort) or external (for example luck) and may affect how students learn about and impose order on their world. We investigated the attributions of 505 university students in…

  13. The Criminal Attribution Inventory: A Measure of Offender Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.

    2004-01-01

    The Criminal Attribution Inventory (CRAI), drawing upon attribution theory and criminally-related domains, measures criminal responsibility and blame. The CRAI's six scales measure criminal responsibility (Psychopathology, Personality), external criminal blame (Victim, Alcohol, Society) and the attribution of crime to random factors (Random). The…

  14. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  15. Perceived Mental Illness and Diminished Responsibility: A Study of Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadava, Stan W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived mental illness and attribution of responsibility. Subjects evaluated data from various accident cases. Although greater mental illness was attributed to alcoholism and paranoid cases, greater responsibility was attributed to the alcoholic. Only in the normal case was greater responsibility related to…

  16. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  17. Statistical Consequences of Attribute Misspecification in the Rule Space Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the statistical consequences of attribute misspecification in the rule space method for cognitively diagnostic measurement. The two types of attribute misspecifications examined in the present study are exclusion of an essential attribute (which affects problem-solving performance) and inclusion of a superfluous…

  18. Putting Attribution Theory to Work--Improving Persistence and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudisill, Mary E.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes three dimensions of attribution (locus of causality, stability, and controllability) and discusses the importance, with regard to athletic performance, of assigning appropriate attributions to success or failure. Guidelines are provided to help students and athletes choose appropriate attributions. (IAH)

  19. Generic Attributes as Espoused Theory: The Importance of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in generic attributes in higher education for over a decade and yet while generic skills or attributes are an important aspect of policy, there is often a lack of consistency between beliefs about the importance of these skills and attributes and the degree to which exist in teaching practice. There has been an…

  20. Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.