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Sample records for administration bpa began

  1. Extensive metabolism and route-dependent pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in neonatal mice following oral or subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Draganov, Dragomir I; Markham, Dan A; Beyer, Dieter; Waechter, John M; Dimond, Stephen S; Budinsky, Robert A; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Snyder, Stephanie A; Ehman, Kimberly D; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-07-03

    Orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) undergoes efficient first-pass metabolism to produce the inactive conjugates BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPA-sulfate (BPA-S). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of BPA, BPA-G and BPA-S in neonatal mice following the administration of a single oral or subcutaneous (SC) dose. This study consisted of 3 phases: (1) mass-balance phase in which effective dose delivery procedures for oral or SC administration of (3)H-BPA to postnatal day three (PND3) mice were developed; (2) pharmacokinetic phase during which systemic exposure to total (3)H-BPA-derived radioactivity in female PND3 mice was established; and (3) metabolite profiling phase in which 50 female PND3 pups received either a single oral or SC dose of (3)H-BPA. Blood was collected from 5 pups/route/time-point at various times post-dosing, the blood plasma samples were pooled by group, and time-point and samples were profiled by HPLC with fraction collection. Fractions were analyzed for total radioactivity and data used to reconstruct radiochromatograms and to integrate individual peaks. The identity of the BPA, BPA-G, and BPA-S peaks was confirmed using authentic standards and LC-MS/MS analysis. The result of this study revealed that female PND3 mice have the capacity to metabolize BPA to BPA-G, BPA-S and other metabolites after both routes of administration. Systemic exposure to free BPA is route-dependent as the plasma concentrations were lower following oral administration compared to SC injection.

  2. BPA Statutes.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  3. BPA Facts

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  4. What is BPA?

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-09-01

    This PR pamphlet explains what BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) is (a Federal agency with a Northwest focus). It plays a role in balancing river uses; power revenues pay BPA costs; renewable resource aspects are discussed; fish and wildlife protection are discussed; the BPA power grid is disucssed; and how BPA disposes of its power is discussed.

  5. BPA Statutes.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    This publication includes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) authorities. It combines the two previous booklets of BPA authorities` and adds: sections of certain Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of all other Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of the acts authorizing Federal hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin; portions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 that specifically apply to BPA; portions of the Federal Power Act to provide context for the Energy Policy Act. The laws are in their United States Code format, rather than in the Public Law format as passed. Thus, the citation for Bonneville Project Act section 2(f) is shown as 16 USC {section}832a(f). Most people are familiar with the Public Law citations, so they have been retained and appear in italics at the end of each paragraph. In addition, later amendments to earlier laws are reflected in the United States Code language. For example, the Preference Act`s definition of ``Pacific Northwest`` (16 USC {section}837(b)) reflects the Northwest Power Act`s amendment of that term. The laws are presented in the numerical order they appear in the United States Code, rather than in the order in which they became law. Therefore, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is presented first. This booklet is not, nor is it intended to be, an official reporter. All citations should be made to the United States Code or some other officially recognized reporter.

  6. Multifunctional data acquisition and analysis and optical sensors: a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Dennis C.; Donnelly, Matt K.

    1995-04-01

    The authors present a design concept describing a multifunctional data acquisition and analysis architecture for advanced power system monitoring. The system is tailored to take advantage of the salient features of low energy sensors, particularly optical types. The discussion of the system concept and optical sensors is based on research at BPA and PNL and on progress made at existing BPA installations and other sites in the western power system.

  7. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Nephrotoxicity of bisphenol A (BPA)--an updated review.

    PubMed

    Gowder, Sivakumar J T

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), the highest volume chemical produced in the whole world is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used especially in the manufacture of consumer products. The exposure of BPA to humans occurs through food contamination from polycarbonate bottles and food and beverage cans. Dust is also a contributor to the total daily exposure of BPA. Thus, BPA has a high potential for human consumption. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced concern about the safety of BPA and the need for more research data. This article reviews toxicity of BPA in general and kidney in particular using clinical and experimental literature. BPA is toxic to aquatic organisms, animals and humans. BPA is cytotoxic and mutagenic and exerts various adverse effects on immune, endocrine, reproductive, developmental and nervous systems in animals and human and exhibits toxicity by all routes of exposure. Metabolism of BPA is much more rapid in humans than in rodents. BPA increases estrogen metabolism in the kidney and upregulates cytochrome p-450 aromatase activity by means of steroidogenesis. BPA acts as biomarker for renal disease and exhibits nephrotoxicity. BPA toxicity with reference to human exposure level and also carcinogenicity are lacking. While focusing on kidney, this review suggests that further research is required to evaluate the molecular mechanism of BPA induced nephrotoxicity. Protective role of antioxidants against BPA induced toxicity / nephrotoxicity is discussed in this literature.

  10. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... but not all, plastics that are marked with recycle codes 3 or 7 may be made with BPA. Reduce your use of canned foods. When possible, opt for glass, porcelain or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids. Use baby bottles that are BPA free. This content is available ...

  11. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  12. It All Began with Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Association of School Librarians, Wichita.

    The Kansas Association of School Librarians has gathered together in this booklet practical information which is both an outgrowth of Margaret Oliver's creative imagination and a tribute to her. There are short descriptions, many illustrated, of useful library gadgets, administrative procedures, processing and maintenance ideas, and equipment--all…

  13. BPA Facts Pocket Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    BPA will be an engine of the Northwest’s economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. BPA’s actions advance a Northwest power system that is a national leader in providing: • high reliability; • low rates consistent with sound business principles; • responsible environmental stewardship; and • accountability to the region. We deliver on these public responsibilities through a commercially successful business.

  14. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  15. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program.

  16. Power Subscription Strategy: Administrator`s Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1998-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a Power Subscription Strategy for entering into new power sales contracts with its Pacific Northwest customers. The Strategy equitably distributes the electric power generated by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) within the framework of existing law. The Power Subscription Strategy addresses the availability of power; describes power products; lays out strategies for pricing, including risk management; and discusses contract elements. In proceeding with this Subscription Strategy, BPA is guided by and committed to the Fish and Wildlife funding Principles for the BPA announced by the Vice President of the US in September 1998. This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the issues raised by commenters who responded to BPA`s Power Subscription Strategy Proposal during and after the comment period that began with the release of the Proposal on September 18, 1998. The ROD is organized in approximately the same way as the Proposal and the Power Subscription Strategy that BPA developed based on the comments received. Abbreviations of party names used in citations appear in the section just preceding this introduction; a list of all the commenters follows the text of the ROD.

  17. 1985 Firm Displacement Power Rate Proposal : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) first proposed a Firm Displacement Power (FD) rate in September 1984 as part of the initial 1985 wholesale rate proposal. The proposed FD rate was part of a package of rates designed to provide BPA flexibility in marketing its surplus firm power in a competitive and uncertain market. Believing that the rate needed further study, on December 11, 1984, BPA withdrew the proposed FD rate from consideration in the 1985 rate proceeding. BPA continued to pursue discussions with Pacific Northwest (PNW) and Pacific Southwest (PSW) utilities regarding potential sales of PNW surplus firm power to California markets. When several utilities expressed interest in the FD concept (in which BPA would sell its surplus firm power on a long-term basis to PNW utilities, who would use the FD power to serve their regional load and make a long-term firm sale of their own generating resources to the PSW), BPA held a series of weekly informal public meetings. The series of meetings, which began in June 1985, included discussion of contract issues. After assessing the discussions held at the first four meetings, BPA announced at the July 12, 1985, meeting that the FD rate would be developed in a hearing process pursuant to section 7(i) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Pacific Northwest Power Act).

  18. 9. Photocopy of Reinforced Concrete Details drawing (from the BPA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Reinforced Concrete Details drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 6, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 3, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  1. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Conservation Management Conference; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  2. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoxia Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  3. Charting a Course for the Future : BPA Programs in Perspectives, Technical Appendix.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration`s public involvement process for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA. This process leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who play BPA`s rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system.

  5. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  6. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  7. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  8. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans.

  9. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  10. Landowner’s Guide for Compatible Use of BPA Rights-of-Way

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Keeping transmission lines safe and reliable is a critical priority for the Bonneville Power Administration. The key element in achieving those objectives is BPA’s ability to construct, operate and maintain its transmission lines and rights-of-way — the area under and around the lines. You can help BPA keep these rights-of-way clear of trees, brush and structures that could affect the safety or reliability of the transmission system. Prior to planting, digging, or constructing within BPA’s rights-of-way, fill out BPA’s Land Use Application Form. The information you provide on the application helps BPA understand your proposed use and the potential impacts to public safety, and the safety of our crews. BPA also reviews the application to determine whether a proposed use of land is compatible with the construction, operation and maintenance of BPA transmission lines. Coordinating with BPA early in your planning process can keep you safe and avoid wasting time and money.

  11. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects, 1989/1990.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 6-7, 1990, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. The following pages list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leaders presentation. These summaries are in some cases preliminary; they are subject to change and should not be quoted without consulting the project leader.

  12. BPA Riparian Fencing and Alternative Water Development Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek Fencing Final Report of Accomplishments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  13. The Anthropogenic Era Began Thousands of Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2003-12-01

    The anthropogenic era is generally thought to have begun about 150 years ago when the industrial revolution began producing CO2 and CH4 at rates sufficient to alter atmospheric compositions. The hypothesis proposed here is that anthropogenic emissions first altered atmospheric gas concentrations (and climate) thousands of years ago. This hypothesis rests on three arguments: (1) Cyclic variations in CO2 and CH4 driven by Earth-orbital changes during the last 400,000 years predict decreases of both gases throughout the Holocene, but CO2 began an anomalous increase near 8000 years ago and CH4 about 5000 years ago. (2) Published explanations attributing these Holocene gas increases to natural forcing can be rejected based on available paleoclimatic evidence. (3) Archeological, cultural, historical, and geologic sources provide viable explanations tied to anthropogenic changes that emerged from early agriculture in Eurasia, including forest clearance after 8000 years ago and lowland irrigation for rice farming by 5000 years ago. Prior to the industrial era, these emissions caused a mean-annual warming effect of ~0.8oC globally and 1.5-2oC at high latitudes. The early-anthropogenic warming counteracted most of a natural cooling that would otherwise have occurred, and it may have prevented a glaciation in northeastern Canada predicted by two kinds of climatic models. CO2 decreases as large as 10 ppm during the last 1000 years cannot be explained by solar-volcanic forcing without violating constraints imposed by reconstructions of northern hemisphere temperature. The CO2 decreases can be explained by bubonic plague pandemics that the caused widespread abandonment of western Eurasian farms documented in historical records. Rapid regrowth of forests on millions of abandoned farms could have sequestered enough carbon to explain the observed CO2 decreases. Plague-driven CO2 decreases were a significant causal factor in the cooler temperatures of the Little Ice Age from 1300 to

  14. Bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics with daily oral bolus or continuous exposure via silastic capsules in pregnant rhesus monkeys: Relevance for human exposures.

    PubMed

    Vom Saal, Frederick S; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Hunt, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    We measured serum dBPA in non-pregnant and pregnant female rhesus monkeys, fetuses and amniotic fluid. dBPA was administered by a daily oral bolus or sc implantation of Silastic capsules; both resulted in daily average serum unconjugated dBPA concentrations of <1ng/ml. We observed lower serum concentrations of unconjugated dBPA in pregnant females relative to pre-pregnancy values, and generally lower concentrations in fetal serum than in maternal serum. Differences in pharmacokinetics of dBPA were evident between pre-pregnancy, early and late pregnancy, likely reflecting changes in maternal, fetal and placental physiology. The serum ratio of conjugated to unconjugated dBPA after continuous sc release of dBPA was similar to values reported in human biomonitoring studies and markedly lower than with oral administration, suggesting oral bolus exposure is not an appropriate human exposure model. We report elsewhere that there were numerous adverse effects on fetuses exposed to very low serum dBPA in these studies.

  15. How life began on Earth: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    There are two fundamental requirements for life as we know it, liquid water and organic polymers, such as nucleic acids and proteins. Water provides the medium for chemical reactions and the polymers carry out the central biological functions of replication and catalysis. During the accretionary phase of the Earth, high surface temperatures would have made the presence of liquid water and an extensive organic carbon reservoir unlikely. As the Earth's surface cooled, water and simple organic compounds, derived from a variety of sources, would have begun to accumulate. This set the stage for the process of chemical evolution to begin in which one of the central facets was the synthesis of biologically important polymers, some of which had a variety of simple catalytic functions. Increasingly complex macromolecules were produced and eventually molecules with the ability to catalyze their own imperfect replication appeared. Thus began the processes of multiplication, heredity and variation, and this marked the point of both the origin of life and evolution. Once simple self-replicating entities originated, they evolved first into the RNA World and eventually to the DNA/Protein World, which had all the attributes of modern biology. If the basic components water and organic polymers were, or are, present on other bodies in our solar system and beyond, it is reasonable to assume that a similar series of steps that gave rise of life on Earth could occur elsewhere.

  16. Proposed Revenues, Financial Strategy, and Program Costs for FY 1992 and 1993 : Technical Appendix, BPA Programs in Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration's public involvement process (PIP) for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA effort. This planning leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who pay BPA's rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues. During 1989, the previous PIP engaged the region in discussion of major strategic, issues focussing on major areas. In 1990, BPA seeks discussion of the directions and plans specifically for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The steps taken for those years will lay the foundation for the years beyond. Thus, we have subtitled this year's process, Staying fit for the long run.'' We have consulted extensively with customers and others in the region in developing these plans. In dozens of program--specific meetings, BPA staff have talked and listened to what others think our plans ought to be. PIP now gives us a chance to review their sum total, along with projections for revenues and our overall financial position. 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Two Amazing Rocket Launches That Began My Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    I began my X-ray astronomy career by being given the responsibility for the Goddard rocket program by Frank MacDonald in the early 70's. I am forever grateful to him and Elihu Boldt for the opportunity. The rocket's observing program was three compact binary X-ray sources that could not have been more different: Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, and Her X-1. A sounding rocket launch is nothing like a satellite launch with its large booster, Cape Canaveral experience, and lots of procedures and no touching of the hardware. First of all, one can walk up to the sounding rocket tower (at least you used to be able to) and go up in it to fix or adjust something with the yet-to-be-fueled rocket, booster, and payload just sitting there. At launch, you can see it up close 100 m) and personal, and it is spectacular. There is an explosion (the Nike booster igniting), a bright flash of light, and it is gone in a second or two. And back in the block house, I watched Her X-1 pulse in real time, after Chuck Glasser calmed me down and explained that the detectors were not arcing but it was Her X-1. The Cyg X-1 observations resulted in the discovery of millisecond temporal structure in the flux from a cosmic source -- 13 1-ms bursts over a total of two minutes of observing in the 2 flights. Cyg X-3 was seen in a high state in the first flight and in a lower harder state in the second, where we detected the iron line for the first time in a Galactic source. The Her X-1 observation clearly showed the high energy roll-over of the spectrum for the first time. The light curves of the first flight found their way into many presentations, including Ricardo Giacconi's Nobel lecture. The Goddard rocket program was an amazing beginning to my career.

  18. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Katherine A; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H; Patisaul, Heather B

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000μg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, non-invasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat.

  19. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, noninvasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50 mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat. PMID:23500335

  20. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  1. A new approach to synergize academic and guideline-compliant research: the CLARITY-BPA research program.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Heindel, Jerrold J; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Howard, Paul; Johnson, Anne F; Aungst, Jason; Keefe, Dennis; Newbold, Retha; Walker, Nigel J; Thomas Zoeller, R; Bucher, John R

    2013-09-01

    Recently, medical research has seen a strong push toward translational research, or "bench to bedside" collaborations, that strive to enhance the utility of laboratory science for improving medical treatment. The success of that paradigm supports the potential application of the process to other fields, such as risk assessment. Close collaboration among academic, government, and industry scientists may enhance the translation of scientific findings to regulatory decision making. The National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively academic and guideline-compliant research. An initial proof-of-concept collaboration, the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), uses bisphenol A (BPA) as a test chemical. The CLARITY-BPA program combines a core perinatal guideline-compliant 2-year chronic toxicity study with mechanistic studies/endpoints conducted by academic investigators. Twelve extramural grantees were selected by NIEHS through an RFA-based initiative to participate in the overall study design and conduct disease-relevant investigations using tissues and animals from the core study. While the study is expected to contribute to our understanding of potential effects of BPA, it also has ramifications beyond this specific focus. Through CLARITY-BPA, NIEHS has established an unprecedented level of collaboration among extramural grantees and regulatory researchers. By drawing upon the strengths of academic and regulatory expertise and research approaches, CLARITY-BPA represents a potential new model for filling knowledge gaps, enhancing quality control, informing chemical risk assessment, and identifying new methods or endpoints for regulatory hazard assessments.

  2. Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Aleksandra; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders.

  3. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  4. A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous, yet there are concerns about whether BPA can be measured in human blood. This Round Robin was designed to address this concern through three goals: 1) to identify collection materials, reagents and detection apparatuses that do not contribute BPA to serum; 2) to identify sensitive and precise methods to accurately measure unconjugated BPA (uBPA) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), a metabolite, in serum; and 3) to evaluate whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA-G occurs during sample handling and processing. Methods Four laboratories participated in this Round Robin. Laboratories screened materials to identify BPA contamination in collection and analysis materials. Serum was spiked with concentrations of uBPA and/or BPA-G ranging from 0.09-19.5 (uBPA) and 0.5-32 (BPA-G) ng/mL. Additional samples were preserved unspiked as ‘environmental’ samples. Blinded samples were provided to laboratories that used LC/MSMS to simultaneously quantify uBPA and BPA-G. To determine whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA metabolites occurred, samples spiked with only BPA-G were analyzed for the presence of uBPA. Finally, three laboratories compared direct and indirect methods of quantifying BPA-G. Results We identified collection materials and reagents that did not introduce BPA contamination. In the blinded spiked sample analysis, all laboratories were able to distinguish low from high values of uBPA and BPA-G, for the whole spiked sample range and for those samples spiked with the three lowest concentrations (0.5-3.1 ng/ml). By completion of the Round Robin, three laboratories had verified methods for the analysis of uBPA and two verified for the analysis of BPA-G (verification determined by: 4 of 5 samples within 20% of spiked concentrations). In the analysis of BPA-G only spiked samples, all laboratories reported BPA-G was the majority of BPA detected (92.2 – 100%). Finally, laboratories were more likely to be verified

  5. [Drug interactions and clinical relevance: it all began with cheese].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Norte, Juan Antonio

    2012-04-01

    In a drug interaction, the effects of one drug can be increased or decreased or a quite new effect produced by the previous, concurrent or subsequent administration of another substance, including prescription and nonprescription drugs, food, tobacco or alcohol. The effect of the interaction can be desirable, inconsequential, or adverse. The increasing number of drugs available and the increasing use of multidrug therapeutic regimens enhance the potential for drug interactions. However, in clinical practice, most interactions are not significant or rarely of significance. It is when the interaction leads to adverse consequences that it comes to the attention of the patient and physician. Interactions may occur by pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic interactions represent the modification of one substance (the interacting substance) on the ADME processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of a drug (the index drug). Subsequently, it may lead to changes in the concentration of the index drug at the receptor sites. Drug interactions with a pharmacodynamic basis involve actions on the same receptor or physiological systems through either synergism or antagonism. Many drug interactions can be predicted if the pharmacodynamics effects, pharmacokinetic properties and mechanisms of action of the interacting agents are known. The most obvious interactions are those producing altered pharmacokinetic of drugs with a low therapeutic index (oral anticoagulants, antidiabetic drugs, digoxin, benzodiazepines and immunosuppressant and cytotoxic drugs).

  6. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  7. Canned Food May Boost BPA Levels in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... to use the same indoor and outdoor spaces, dogs probably offer a good indication of the effects of BPA and other industrial chemicals on human health, according to the researchers. "Our canine companions may ...

  8. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for 18F-BPA PET.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuzuru; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Yasui, Naoko; Honda, Naoki; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a molecular radiation therapy approach based on the (10)B (n, α) (7)Li nuclear reaction in cancer cells. In BNCT, delivery of (10)B in the form of 4-borono-phenylalanine conjugated with fructose (BPA-fr) to the cancer cells is important. The PET tracer 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) has been used to predict the accumulation of BPA-fr before BNCT. Purpose To determine the biodistribution and dosimetric parameters in 18F-BPA PET/CT studies. Material and Methods Human biokinetic data were obtained during clinical 18F-BPA PET studies between February and June 2015 at one institution. Nine consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The internal radiation dose was calculated on the basis of radioactivity data from blood, urine, and normal tissue of the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and other parts of the body at each time point using OLINDA/EXM1.1 program. We compared our calculations with published 18F-FDG data. Results Adult patients (3 men, 3 women; age range, 28-68 years) had significantly smaller absorbed doses than pediatric patients (3 patients; age range, 5-12 years) ( P = 0.003). The mean effective dose was 57% lower in adult patients compared with pediatric patients. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were 25% lower than those for 18F-FDG presented in International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 106. Conclusion We found significant differences in organ absorbed doses for 18F-BPA against those for 18F-FDG presented in ICRP publication 106. Mean effective doses for 18F-BPA were smaller than those for 18F-FDG in the publication by 0.5-38% (mean difference, 25%).

  9. (10)B-NMR determination of (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex and total (10)B in blood for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, K; Yabe, T; Hattori, T; Saito, K; Ishikawa, A; Ohki, H

    2014-06-01

    First spontaneous, noninvasive determination method of (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex, and total (10)B in blood is described. (10)B-NMR measurement with 100,000 FT accumulation enables us to obtain the result within 100min/sample. The detection limits for the simultaneous analysis were 3ppm, 3ppm and 6ppm for (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex and total (10)B respectively in this study. By this method, we can actually discuss behavior of the (10)B-BPA-fructose complex in blood.

  10. Investigation of the effects of subchronic low dose oral exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on estrogen receptor expression in the juvenile and adult female rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-07-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work.

  11. Investigation of the Effects of Subchronic Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) on Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Juvenile and Adult Female Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rebuli, Meghan E.; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. PMID:24752507

  12. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure.

    PubMed

    vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V

    2014-12-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources.

  13. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    PubMed Central

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  15. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  16. Differential BPA levels in sewage wastewater effluents from metro Detroit communities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Putt, David A; Jurban, Michael; Joiakim, Aby; Friedrich, Klaus; Kim, Hyesook

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in both aquatic and surface sediment environments because it is continuously released into sewage wastewater effluent. The measurement of BPA at wastewater treatment plants is rarely performed even though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that current levels of environmental BPA could be a threat to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure BPA levels in sewage wastewater at different collection points over a 1-year period and to compare the levels of BPA to 8-isoprostane, a human derived fatty acid, found in sewage wastewater. We analyzed pre-treated sewage samples collected from three source points located in different communities in the metropolitan Detroit area provided by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. Human urine samples were also used in the study. BPA and 8-isoprostane were measured using ELISA kits from Detroit R&D, Inc. BPA levels from the same collection point oscillated more than 10-fold over 1 year. Also, BPA levels fluctuated differentially at each collection point. Highly fluctuating BPA values were confirmed by LC/MS/MS. The concentration of BPA in sewage wastewater was ~100-fold higher than the concentration of 8-isoprostane, while urinary concentration was ~20-fold higher. Thus, BPA levels discharged into the sewage network vary among communities, and differences are also observed within communities over time. The difference in BPA and 8-isoprostane levels suggest that most of the BPA discharged to sewage wastewater might be derived from industries rather than from human urine. Therefore, the continuous monitoring of BPA could account for a better regulation of BPA release into a sewage network.

  17. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume I, 1985-1988 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    As the mitigation prescribed by the Regional Act proceeds, the incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. It was deemed prudent by the BPA to anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. In this spirit, Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A Case Study of a Career in Education that Began with "Teach for America"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip

    2011-01-01

    In this article I share the results of a seven-year case study of an educator who began his career without formal preservice teacher education, as a participant in Teach for America. Steven (a pseudonym) began teaching mathematics in an urban middle school, later teaching social studies to English language learners, and is currently a principal of…

  19. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in a nitrifying system with immobilized biomass.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Bułkowska, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-11-01

    The potential for bisphenol A (BPA) removal by mixed consortia of immobilized microorganisms with high nitrification activity was investigated with BPA concentrations in the influent from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/L. The presence of BPA limited ammonium oxidation; nitrification efficiency decreased from 91.2±1.3% in the control series to 47.4±9.4% when BPA concentration in wastewater was the highest. The efficiency of BPA removal rose from 87.1±5.5% to 92.9±2.9% with increased BPA concentration in the influent. Measurement of oxygen uptake rates by biomass exposed to BPA showed that BPA was mainly removed by heterotrophic bacteria. A strong negative correlation between the BPA removal efficiency and nitrification efficiency indicated the limited contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to BPA biodegradation. Exposure of biomass to BPA changed the quantity and diversity of AOB in the biomass as shown by real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  20. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA.

  1. Exposure of children to BPA through dust and the association of urinary BPA and triclosan with oxidative stress in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanshan; Rui, Caiyan; Dai, Yanyan; Pang, Qihua; Li, Yanru; Fan, Ruifang; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-12-08

    Both bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are phenolic compounds widely used in a variety of household applications. These compounds could be released into the environment, enter the human body and cause a series of potential health hazards. Children are sensitive and susceptible to these contaminants. To investigate the potential oxidative DNA damage from exposure to BPA and TCS, ninety six urine samples of children (aged 3-6) and 57 dust samples were collected from a kindergarten in Guangzhou, China. The concentrations of urinary BPA, TCS and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage) in urine were determined using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer. The geometric mean concentrations of urinary BPA, TCS and 8-OHdG were 1.08 μg L(-1), 1.34 μg L(-1) and 1.90 μg L(-1), respectively. The results showed that both BPA and TCS exposures were associated with oxidative damage. Significant dose-effects existed between the urinary BPA, TCS levels and the 8-OHdG concentrations. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that one percent increase in BPA and in TCS could generate 0.15% and 0.081% increase in 8-OHdG in urine for children in Guangzhou. We also determined the concentrations of BPA in dust using high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of BPA was 2.86 μg g(-1) in indoor dust and 3.23 μg g(-1) in outdoor dust. The dust contributes approximately 9.23% to the urinary BPA exposure for the children. In conclusion, BPA and TCS exposure correlates with oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 site environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In 1991, in order to provide BPA's management with environmental information for decision making, and to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, BPA completed 15 environmental impact evaluations and decision documents, with many more in progress. BPA received the results of two US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental management audits, which noted areas for improvement in our operations. We completed Action Plans in response to each DOE report. We received one administrative complaint from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning a 1990 spill in Arlington, Oregon, caused by a BPA subcontractor. BPA responded promptly to EPA's findings and concerns. There were 32 new spill/release incidents, most involving failure of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitors. Cleanup of these spills/releases has proceeded satisfactorily. BPA continued vigorous efforts to clean up substations contaminated with residuals of oil and PCB from past spills. BPA took several actions to improve our environmental performance with respect to water quality. The BPA environmental team developed a long-term schedule for environmental appraisals and audits, identifying facilities and projects that will receive audits through 1996.

  3. Bonneville Power Administration Site Environmental Report, 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-06-01

    In 1991, in order to provide BPA`s management with environmental information for decision making, and to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, BPA completed 15 environmental impact evaluations and decision documents, with many more in progress. BPA received the results of two US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental management audits, which noted areas for improvement in our operations. We completed Action Plans in response to each DOE report. We received one administrative complaint from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning a 1990 spill in Arlington, Oregon, caused by a BPA subcontractor. BPA responded promptly to EPA`s findings and concerns. There were 32 new spill/release incidents, most involving failure of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitors. Cleanup of these spills/releases has proceeded satisfactorily. BPA continued vigorous efforts to clean up substations contaminated with residuals of oil and PCB from past spills. BPA took several actions to improve our environmental performance with respect to water quality. The BPA environmental team developed a long-term schedule for environmental appraisals and audits, identifying facilities and projects that will receive audits through 1996.

  4. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    PubMed

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, p<0.0001). Elevated BPA concentrations positively correlated with increased plasma bicarbonate concentrations and associated with fecal microbiome alterations. Short-term feeding of canned dog food increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health

  5. Higher dermal exposure of cashiers to BPA and its association with DNA oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanshan; Lu, Shaoyou; Dai, Yanyan; Rui, Caiyan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Li, Yanru; Pang, Qihua; Fan, Ruifang

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin linings for food and beverage containers and thermal papers. Oral intakes from the contaminated diets were considered as the predominant source of BPA exposure for humans. However, due to the high levels of BPA on thermal receipts and their wide applications in our daily life, the amount of BPA be transferred to the skin after holding thermal paper should not be underestimated, particularly for cashiers. To investigate the contribution of BPA exposure levels via the dermal contact route and the relationship between BPA exposure level and oxidative DNA damage, six male volunteers were recruited and required to simulate the cashiers' work and handle the thermal receipts during the study period. Triclosan (TCS, an antimicrobial compound used widely in personal health and skin care products) was applied as a reference compound. Their urinary BPA, TCS and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography/ tandem spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). The results showed that after handling the thermal receipts, the urinary BPA concentrations of volunteers increased 3 times of those before the experimental period. But TCS levels in urine kept stable. There existed a correlation between BPA exposure and 8-OHdG (R(2)=0.237, p<0.001), but not between TCS and 8-OHdG concentrations (R(2)=0.026, p<0.777), indicating that more BPA exposure could lead to higher oxidative DNA damage. That the increases in 8-OHdG levels in urine being almost consistent with those of BPA suggested that handling thermal receipts resulted in the increasing BPA intakes and BPA exposure was correlated with DNA oxidative damage. After 48h of the end of handling thermal receipts, the urinary BPA levels did not descend to the levels before experiment, suggesting that the excretion of BPA via dermal contact was over 48h. BPA exposure through dermal contact

  6. Pharmacokinetics of BPA in gliomas with ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption as measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Lin, Yi-Li; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Chang, Lun-Wei; Hsieh, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption.

  7. Impact of Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Neonatal Rat Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Transcriptome: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Arambula, Sheryl E; Belcher, Scott M; Planchart, Antonio; Turner, Stephen D; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting, high volume production chemical found in a variety of products. Evidence of prenatal exposure has raised concerns that developmental BPA may disrupt sex-specific brain organization and, consequently, induce lasting changes on neurophysiology and behavior. We and others have shown that exposure to BPA at doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level can disrupt the sex-specific expression of estrogen-responsive genes in the neonatal rat brain including estrogen receptors (ERs). The present studies, conducted as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights of BPA Toxicity program, expanded this work by examining the hippocampal and hypothalamic transcriptome on postnatal day 1 with the hypothesis that genes sensitive to estrogen and/or sexually dimorphic in expression would be altered by prenatal BPA exposure. NCTR Sprague-Dawley dams were gavaged from gestational day 6 until parturition with BPA (0-, 2.5-, 25-, 250-, 2500-, or 25 000-μg/kg body weight [bw]/d). Ethinyl estradiol was used as a reference estrogen (0.05- or 0.5-μg/kg bw/d). Postnatal day 1 brains were microdissected and gene expression was assessed with RNA-sequencing (0-, 2.5-, and 2500-μg/kg bw BPA groups only) and/or quantitative real-time PCR (all exposure groups). BPA-related transcriptional changes were mainly confined to the hypothalamus. Consistent with prior observations, BPA induced sex-specific effects on hypothalamic ERα and ERβ (Esr1 and Esr2) expression and hippocampal and hypothalamic oxytocin (Oxt) expression. These data demonstrate prenatal BPA exposure, even at doses below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level, can alter gene expression in the developing brain.

  8. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy.

  9. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutanous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26646100

  10. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis is involved in reproductive damage caused by BPA in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Chunhua; Li, Qianyuan; Chen, Sai; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used environmental endocrine disruptor. Many studies have reported that BPA exposure shows reproductive toxicity and causes apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the mitochondrial pathway and BPA-induced apoptosis. This study investigated the role of the mitochondrial pathway in apoptosis induced by BPA, which resulted in compromised male rat spermatogenesis and reproductive damage. Rats were exposed to various BPA concentrations (0, 50, 100, or 200mg of BPA/kg body weight per day), and factors in the mitochondrial signal transduction pathway and the apoptosis indices of spermatogenic cells were measured and sperm characteristics were analyzed. Our data revealed that BPA exposure increased the protein and mRNA levels of cytochrome C, apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-3/9, and Bax; caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; and the apoptosis indices of spermatogenic cells. In addition, abnormal structure of mitochondria and decreased protein and gene levels of Bcl-2 were observed following BPA exposure. These results suggest that apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway mediates compromised reproductive system function caused by BPA exposure.

  11. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  12. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  13. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  14. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants, and Outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Results: Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Conclusion: Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA. PMID:26406292

  15. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats.

  16. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Rebuli, Meghan E.; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E.; Reif, David M.; Aylor, David L.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats. PMID:26209558

  17. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-07

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity.

  18. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bontempo, Paola; Mita, Luigi; Doto, Antonella; Miceli, Marco; Nebbioso, Angela; Lepore, Ilaria; Franci, GianLuigi; Menafra, Roberta; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; De Bellis, Floriana; Manzo, Fabio; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Benedetti, Rosaria; D'Amato, Loredana; Marino, Maria; Bolli, Alessandro; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Diano, Nadia; Portaccio, Marianna; Mita, Gustavo D; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Cioffi, Michele; Nola, Ernesto; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Sica, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenol)propane) is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. PMID:19538739

  19. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  20. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored.

  1. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.

  2. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.

  3. BPA Directly Decreases GnRH Neuronal Activity via Noncanonical Pathway.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Ulrike; Constantin, Stephanie; Wray, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral feedback of gonadal estrogen to the hypothalamus is critical for reproduction. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant with estrogenic actions, can disrupt this feedback and lead to infertility in both humans and animals. GnRH neurons are essential for reproduction, serving as an important link between brain, pituitary, and gonads. Because GnRH neurons express several receptors that bind estrogen, they are potential targets for endocrine disruptors. However, to date, direct effects of BPA on GnRH neurons have not been shown. This study investigated the effects of BPA on GnRH neuronal activity using an explant model in which large numbers of primary GnRH neurons are maintained and express many of the receptors found in vivo. Because oscillations in intracellular calcium have been shown to correlate with electrical activity in GnRH neurons, calcium imaging was used to assay the effects of BPA. Exposure to 50μM BPA significantly decreased GnRH calcium activity. Blockage of γ-aminobutyric acid ergic and glutamatergic input did not abrogate the inhibitory BPA effect, suggesting direct regulation of GnRH neurons by BPA. In addition to estrogen receptor-β, single-cell RT-PCR analysis confirmed that GnRH neurons express G protein-coupled receptor 30 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) and estrogen-related receptor-γ, all potential targets for BPA. Perturbation studies of the signaling pathway revealed that the BPA-mediated inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity occurred independent of estrogen receptors, GPER, or estrogen-related receptor-γ, via a noncanonical pathway. These results provide the first evidence of a direct effect of BPA on GnRH neurons.

  4. The role of Pten/Akt signaling pathway involved in BPA-induced apoptosis of rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengmin; Fu, Wenjuan; Quan, Chao; Yan, Maosheng; Liu, Changjiang; Qi, Suqin; Yang, Kedi

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), one of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, is a male reproductive toxicant. Previous studies have revealed the direct cytotoxicity of BPA in many cultured cells, such as mitotic aneuploidy in embryonic cells and somatic cells, and apoptosis in neurons and testicular Sertoli cells. To understand the action of BPA and assess its risk, the Pten/Akt pathway was investigated in cultured Sertoli cells to elucidate the mechanism of the reproductive effects of BPA. The results showed that over 50 μM BPA treatment could decrease the viability of Sertoli cells and cause more apoptosis. In addition, BPA could induce the increase in mRNA levels of Pten and Akt. The protein level of Pten was increased; however, the protein levels of phospho-Akt and procaspase-3 were decreased after BPA exposure. Taken together, observed results suggested that the Pten/Akt pathway might be involved in the apoptotic effects of BPA on Sertoli cells.

  5. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  6. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  7. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  8. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  9. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  10. Structural Analysis of the Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa in Complex with the 20S Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Marcel; Delley, Cyrille L; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2016-12-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors proteasomes that recruit substrates for degradation through an ubiquitin-like modification pathway. Recently, a non-ATPase activator termed Bpa (bacterial proteasome activator) was shown to support an alternate proteasomal degradation pathway. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of Bpa in complex with the 20S core particle (CP). For docking into the cryo-EM density, we solved the X-ray structure of Bpa, showing that it forms tight four-helix bundles arranged into a 12-membered ring with a 40 Å wide central pore and the C-terminal helix of each protomer protruding from the ring. The Bpa model was fitted into the cryo-EM map of the Bpa-CP complex, revealing its architecture and striking symmetry mismatch. The Bpa-CP interface was resolved to 3.5 Å, showing the interactions between the C-terminal GQYL motif of Bpa and the proteasome α-rings. This docking mode is related to the one observed for eukaryotic activators with features specific to the bacterial complex.

  11. Endocrine activity of alternatives to BPA found in thermal paper in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Goldinger, Daniela M; Demierre, Anne-Laure; Zoller, Otmar; Rupp, Heinz; Reinhard, Hans; Magnin, Roxane; Becker, Thomas W; Bourqui-Pittet, Martine

    2015-04-01

    Alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) are more and more used in thermal paper receipts. To get an overview of the situation in Switzerland, 124 thermal paper receipts were collected and analyzed. Whereas BPA was detected in most samples (n=100), some alternatives, namely bisphenol S (BPS), Pergafast® 201 and D-8 have been found in 4, 11 and 9 samples respectively. As no or few data on their endocrine activity are available, these chemicals and bisphenol F (BPF) were tested in vitro using the H295R steroidogenesis assay. 17β-Estradiol production was induced by BPA and BPF, whereas free testosterone production was inhibited by BPA and BPS. Both non-bisphenol substances did not show significant effects. The binding affinity to 16 proteins and the toxicological potential (TP) were further calculated in silico using VirtualToxLab™. TP values lay between 0.269 and 0.476 and the main target was the estrogen receptor β (84.4 nM to 1.33 μM). A substitution of BPA by BPF and BPS should be thus considered with caution, since they exhibit almost a similar endocrine activity as BPA. D-8 and Pergafast® 201 could be alternatives to replace BPA, however further analyses are needed to better characterize their effects on the hormonal system.

  12. Probabilistic modeling of school meals for potential bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    PubMed

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Fox, Mary A; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are approved for use in food packaging, with unbound BPA migrating into the foods it contacts. Children, with their developing organ systems, are especially susceptible to hormone disruption, prompting this research to model the potential dose of BPA from school-provided meals. Probabilistic exposure models for school meals were informed by mixed methods. Exposure scenarios were based on United States school nutrition guidelines and included meals with varying levels of exposure potential from canned and packaged food. BPA exposure potentials were modeled with a range of 0.00049 μg/kg-BW/day for a middle school student with a low exposure breakfast and plate waste to 1.19 μg/kg-BW/day for an elementary school student eating lunch with high exposure potential. The modeled BPA doses from school meals are below the current US EPA Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of 50 μg/kg-BW/day. Recent research shows BPA animal toxicity thresholds at 2 μg/kg-BW/day. The single meal doses modeled in this research are at the same order of magnitude as the low-dose toxicity thresholds, illustrating the potential for school meals to expose children to chronic toxic levels of BPA.

  13. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  14. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  15. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  16. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin. PMID:26839810

  17. Large numbers of vertebrates began rapid population decline in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haipeng; Xiang-Yu, Jinggong; Dai, Guangyi; Gu, Zhili; Ming, Chen; Yang, Zongfeng; Ryder, Oliver A.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Fu, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated losses of biodiversity are a hallmark of the current era. Large declines of population size have been widely observed and currently 22,176 species are threatened by extinction. The time at which a threatened species began rapid population decline (RPD) and the rate of RPD provide important clues about the driving forces of population decline and anticipated extinction time. However, these parameters remain unknown for the vast majority of threatened species. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity data of nuclear and mitochondrial loci of 2,764 vertebrate species and found that the mean genetic diversity is lower in threatened species than in related nonthreatened species. Our coalescence-based modeling suggests that in many threatened species the RPD began ∼123 y ago (a 95% confidence interval of 20–260 y). This estimated date coincides with widespread industrialization and a profound change in global living ecosystems over the past two centuries. On average the population size declined by ∼25% every 10 y in a threatened species, and the population size was reduced to ∼5% of its ancestral size. Moreover, the ancestral size of threatened species was, on average, ∼22% smaller than that of nonthreatened species. Because the time period of RPD is short, the cumulative effect of RPD on genetic diversity is still not strong, so that the smaller ancestral size of threatened species may be the major cause of their reduced genetic diversity; RPD explains 24.1–37.5% of the difference in genetic diversity between threatened and nonthreatened species. PMID:27872315

  18. Progesterone Protects Against BPA-induced Arrhythmias in Female Rat Cardiac Myocytes via Rapid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyong; Hong, Kui; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2017-01-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that has a range of potential adverse health effects. Previously we showed that acute exposure to BPA promoted arrhythmias in female rat hearts through estrogen receptor rapid signaling. Progesterone (P4) and estrogen have antagonistic or complementary actions in a number of tissues and systems. In the current study, we examined the influence, and possible protective effect, of P4 on the rapid cardiac actions of BPA in female rat cardiac myocytes. Preincubation with physiological concentration (1 nM) of P4 abolished BPA-induced triggered activities in female cardiac myocytes. Further, P4 abrogated BPA-induced alterations in Ca2+ handling including elevated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and Ca2+ load. Key to the inhibitory effect of P4 is its blockade of BPA-induced increase in the phosphorylation of phospholamban. At myocyte and protein levels, these inhibitory actions of P4 were blocked by pretreatment with the nuclear P4 receptor (nPR) antagonist RU486. Analysis using membrane impermeable BSA-conjugated P4 suggested that the actions of P4 were mediated by membrane-initiated signaling. The inhibitory G (Gi) protein and phophoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), but not tyrosine protein kinase activation, were involved in the observed effects of P4. In conclusion, P4 exerts an acute protective effect against BPA-induced arrhythmogenesis in female cardiac myocytes, through nPR and the Gi/PI3K signaling pathway. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the impact of EDCs in the context of native hormonals, and may provide potential therapeutic strategies for the protection against the cardiac toxicities associated with BPA exposure.

  19. Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 β-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally.

  20. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction.

  1. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  2. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-24

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. (14)C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m(2).yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  3. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  4. pp iii How life began on Earth: a status report [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2004-09-01

    There are two fundamental requirements for life as we know it, liquid water and organic polymers, such as nucleic acids and proteins. Water provides the medium for chemical reactions and the polymers carry out the central biological functions of replication and catalysis. During the accretionary phase of the Earth, high surface temperatures would have made the presence of liquid water and an extensive organic carbon reservoir unlikely. As the Earth's surface cooled, water and simple organic compounds, derived from a variety of sources, would have begun to accumulate. This set the stage for the process of chemical evolution to begin in which one of the central facets was the synthesis of biologically important polymers, some of which had a variety of simple catalytic functions. Increasingly complex macromolecules were produced and eventually molecules with the ability to catalyze their own imperfect replication appeared. Thus began the processes of multiplication, heredity and variation, and this marked the point of both the origin of life and evolution. Once simple self-replicating entities originated, they evolved first into the RNA World and eventually to the DNA/Protein World, which had all the attributes of modern biology. If the basic components water and organic polymers were, or are, present on other bodies in our solar system and beyond, it is reasonable to assume that a similar series of steps that gave rise of life on Earth could occur elsewhere.

  5. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  6. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in model and real-food systems.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dong-Oh; Jeong, Min Kyu; Park, Chan Uk; Park, Min Hee; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Lee, Jae Hwan

    2009-06-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitizations on the stability of bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical, were studied in model and real-food systems by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration of BPA was significantly decreased under light exposure (P < 0.05) as the concentration of riboflavin increased while those without riboflavin under light or those with riboflavin in the dark did not change significantly (P > 0.05). Addition of 50, 100, and 200 microM sodium azide significantly increased the stability of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization with concentration dependent manner (P < 0.05), implying that a singlet oxygen or type II pathway played a role in the photodegradation of BPA. Stability of BPA in riboflavin was significantly increased in the presence of high concentration of tert-butanol, a hydroxyl radical quencher, under light storage for 80 min, indicating hydroxyl radicals were involved and contributed to the degradation of BPA, at least in part. Availability of riboflavin photosensitization on the photodegradation of BPA was tested in 2 canned tea beverages with different phenolic contents. BPA was more stable in the beverage sample with higher total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging ability. The photodegradation of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization can be an efficient way to decrease the concentration of BPA from environmental or food systems.

  7. Bonneville Power Administration 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration`s 60th anniversary year exceeded expectations. Net revenues were the best since 1991, which demonstrates that earlier decisions to transform BPA into a smaller, cost-conscious, customer-focused organization were the correct decisions. The region`s evaluation of the agency`s role in the Northwest was as gratifying as the positive financial position. Through the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System, the region concluded that BPA has been and must continue to be an important economic and environmental benefit to the Northwest. BPA occupies a unique position in the region that is crystallized in the agency`s new purpose statement: to meet their public responsibilities through commercially successful businesses. The agency must be commercially successful to provide funding for public responsibilities such as its fish and wildlife program, conservation, and reliable power and transmission systems. But the heart and soul of the agency is providing benefits that reflect the public service orientation that inspired the agency`s creation 60 years ago. BPA will provide the region with power at cost, provide preference to the region because the river on which the hydro system is based is a regional resource, and continue to see that its power flows to the little guys. It is just as important that BPA deliver power to the region`s residential and rural consumers now as it was when the agency brought electricity to rural areas for the first time.

  8. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  9. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on spatial navigational learning and memory in rats: A CLARITY-BPA study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Painter, Michele S; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welsh, Thomas H; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Ferguson, Sherry A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical used in the production of a wide variety of items. Previous studies suggest BPA exposure may result in neuro-disruptive effects; however, data are inconsistent across animal and human studies. As part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), we sought to determine whether female and male rats developmentally exposed to BPA demonstrated later spatial navigational learning and memory deficits. Pregnant NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed from gestational day 6 to parturition, and offspring were directly orally dosed until weaning (postnatal day 21). Treatment groups included a vehicle control, three BPA doses (2.5μg/kg body weight (bw)/day-[2.5], 25μg/kg bw/day-[25], and 2500μg/kg bw/day-[2500]) and a 0.5μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE)-reference estrogen dose. At adulthood, 1/sex/litter was tested for seven days in the Barnes maze. The 2500 BPA group sniffed more incorrect holes on day 7 than those in the control, 2.5 BPA, and EE groups. The 2500 BPA females were less likely than control females to locate the escape box in the allotted time (p value=0.04). Although 2.5 BPA females exhibited a prolonged latency, the effect did not reach significance (p value=0.06), whereas 2.5 BPA males showed improved latency compared to control males (p value=0.04), although the significance of this result is uncertain. No differences in serum testosterone concentration were detected in any male or female treatment groups. Current findings suggest developmental exposure of rats to BPA may disrupt aspects of spatial navigational learning and memory.

  10. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results from a CLARITY-BPA Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-03-16

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts, and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide-range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg bw/day), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2,500, and 25,000 μg/kg bw/day) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, 90, 6 months, and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time-points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA.

  11. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  12. Bonneville, Power Administration Timing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Time is an integral part of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) operational systems. Generation and power transfers are planned in advance. Utilities coordinate with each other by making these adjustments on a timed schedule. Price varies with demand, so billing is based on time. Outages for maintenance are scheduled to assure they do not interrupt reliable power delivery. Disturbance records are aligned with recorded timetags for analysis and comparison with related information. Advanced applications like traveling wave fault location and real-time phase measurement require continuous timing with high precision. Most of BPA is served by a Central Time System (CTS) at the Dittmer Control Center near Portland, OR. This system keeps time locally and supplies time to both the control center systems and field locations via a microwave signal. It is kept synchronized to national standard time and coordinated with interconnected utilities. It is the official BPA time. Powwer system control and operation is described, followed by a description of BPA timing systems including CTS, the Fault Location Acquisition Reporter, time dissemination, and phasor measurements. References are provided for further reading.

  13. Developmental programming: Interaction between prenatal BPA and postnatal overfeeding on cardiac tissue gene expression in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Koneva, L A; Vyas, A K; McEachin, R C; Puttabyatappa, M; Wang, H-S; Sartor, M A; Padmanabhan, V

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and studies in rodents point to potential risks from developmental exposure to BPA on cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that the manifestation and severity of adverse outcomes is the result of interaction between developmental insults and the prevailing environment. Consistent with this premise, recent studies in sheep found prenatal BPA treatment prevented the adverse effects of postnatal obesity in inducing hypertension. The gene networks underlying these complex interactions are not known. mRNA-seq of myocardium was performed on four groups of four female sheep to assess the effects of prenatal BPA exposure, postnatal overfeeding and their interaction on gene transcription, pathway perturbations and functional effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to BPA, postnatal overfeeding, and prenatal BPA with postnatal overfeeding all resulted in transcriptional changes (85-141 significant differentially expressed genes). Although the effects of prenatal BPA and postnatal overfeeding did not involve dysregulation of many of the same genes, they affected a remarkably similar set of biological pathways. Furthermore, an additive or synergistic effect was not found in the combined treatment group, but rather prenatal BPA treatment led to a partial reversal of the effects of overfeeding alone. Many genes previously known to be affected by BPA and involved in obesity, hypertension, or heart disease were altered following these treatments, and AP-1, EGR1, and EGFR were key hubs affected by BPA and/or overfeeding. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:4-18, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perinatal BPA exposure induces hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production in later life of male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-04-03

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  15. The Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in MCF-7 Cell Line and Amniocytes.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpour-Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Keyhani, Elahe; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Biglari, Sajjad; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an industrial xenoestrogen used widely in our living environment. Recently, several studies suggested that BPA has destructive effects on DNA and chromosomes in normal body cells via estrogen receptors (ER). Therefore, BPA could be considered as an important mediator in many diseases such as cancer. However, there are still many controversial issues which need clarification. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced chromosomal damages in MCF-7 cell line, ER-positive and negative amniocyte cells. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of BPA were also compared between these three cell groups. Expression of estrogen receptors was determined using immunocytochemistry technique. The cell cytotoxicity of BPA was measured by MTT assay. Classic cytogenetic technique was carried out for the investigation of chromosome damage. BPA, in addition to cytotoxicity, had remarkable genotoxicity at concentrations close to the traceable levels in tissues or biological fluids. Although some differences were observed in the amount of damages between ER-positive and negative fetal cells, interestingly, these differences were not significant. The present study showed that BPA could lead to chromosomal aberrations in both ER-dependent and independent pathways at some concentrations or in cell types yet not reported. Also, BPA could probably be considered as a facilitator for some predisposed cells to be cancerous by raising the chromosome instability levels. Finally, estrogen receptor seems to have a different role in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects.

  16. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  17. Bisphenol A (BPA) Found in Humans and Water in Three Geographic Regions with Distinctly Different Levels of Economic Development

    PubMed Central

    Karalius, Vytas P.; Harbison, Justin E.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; van Breemen, Richard B.; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Mora, Nallely; Dugas, Lara R.; Vail, Lane; Tuchman, Nancy C.; Forrester, Terrence; Luke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The suspected endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with the manufacture, distribution, and use of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics; thus, studies of this compound have focused primarily on urban areas in developed countries. This small study investigating urinary BPA of 109 people was conducted in the urban United States, urban Jamaica, and rural Ghana. Additionally, local drinking and surface water samples were collected and analyzed from areas near study participants. Levels of BPA in both urine and water were comparable among all three sites. Thus, future studies of BPA should consider expanding investigations to rural areas not typically associated with the compound. PMID:24453495

  18. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its potential role in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and the most heterogeneous endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Apart from signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, hirsutism and hair loss, women with PCOS usually present with menstrual irregularities and fertility problems.Additionally, they are often characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which usually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review article describes current and novel approach to the pathomechanisms of PCOS and the potential role of an endocrine disrupting chemical ("endocrine disruptor" - ED) - bisphenol A (BPA), which is commonly used as a plasticizer and due to its molecular structure can interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). Recent observations point to the higher levels of BPA in biological fluids of women with PCOS and its role in the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. It seems that mother's exposure to BPA during pregnancy may also lead to the development of PCOS in the female offspring.

  19. BPA and environmental estrogen in potable water sources in Enugu municipality, South-East, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ignatius, C Maduka; Francis, E Ezeonu; Emeka, E Neboh; Elvis, N Shu; Ebele, J Ikekpeazu

    2010-11-01

    BPA and environmental estrogen levels were assayed in potable water samples (38 tap water, 36 well water, 18 river water and 24 rain water samples) that were randomly collected from the different parts of Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria. The mean ± SD estrogen levels in tap, well, river and rain water samples were 0.10 ± 0.09, 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02 μg/L respectively. Also, the mean BPA levels (μg/L) in the different water sources were 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.07, 0.18 ± 0.04, and 0.40 ± 0.16, respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p = 0.0227) in BPA levels between the harvested rain water and the drinking tap water.

  20. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  1. Biodistribution of boron concentration on melanoma-bearing hamsters after administration of p-, m-, o-boronophenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, J; Yoshino, K; Kondoh, H; Imajo, Y; Mishima, Y

    2000-04-01

    Although p-boronophenylalanine (p-BPA), a boronate analogue of tyrosine, has proven to be one of the most successful compounds for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of malignant melanoma, the selective uptake mechanism of this compound into melanoma cells is not well understood. Therefore, the relationship between the structure of BPA and its specific affinity to melanoma cells appears worthy of investigation. In the present study, m- and o-boronophenylalanine (m- and o-BPA) were administered to melanoma-bearing hamsters and their uptake was measured. The time courses (0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 48.0 h) of boron concentrations in melanoma, normal skin, and blood were determined in male Syrian (golden) hamsters bearing Greene's melanomas following a single intraperitoneal injection of either p-, m- or o-BPA (100 mg/kg of BPA fructose in 1.0 ml of saline). The boron concentrations in these tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In melanoma, the order of boron uptake was p- > m- > o-BPA at all time points, and the boron concentrations obtained with p-BPA and m-BPA resembled each other in that they had a peak at 2 h after administration and decreased with time. The melanoma/skin boron concentration ratio of p-BPA had a peak at 4 h after administration and the ratio ranged between 7/1 and 8/1. On the other hand, m-BPA and o-BPA had a peak at 2 h and their ratios ranged between 4/1 and 5/1. The difference in the accumulations of p-BPA and m-BPA could be due to a difference in the property of p-BPA as a tyrosine analogue for melanin synthesis. The accumulation of m-BPA into melanoma might indicate the baseline level of metabolism-related amino acid transport. Our experimental findings indicate that this melanin synthesis, or the structural analogy between the boron compound and tyrosine as a precursor of melanin, is an important factor in the increased accumulation of p-BPA in melanoma cells.

  2. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in serum and adipose tissue following intravenous administration to adult female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan C; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2012-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for use in food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine consistent with pervasive exposure at levels typically below 1 μg/kg bw/day. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of unconjugated (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult female CD-1 mice following intravenous (IV) injection, which produces higher serum levels by circumventing the processes of absorption from the GI tract and presystemic metabolism that occur after oral administration. Deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) was used to avoid interference by background contamination from trace amounts of native BPA. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of unconjugated BPA were determined in adipose tissue, a proposed site of action and "depot" for BPA. After IV injection, unconjugated BPA rapidly distributed out of the circulation (t(1/2)=0.2 h) and terminal elimination also proceeded rapidly (t(1/2)=0.8 h). Consistent with the degree of aqueous solubility, lipid/water solubility ratio, and partitioning from blood into adipose tissue in vivo, the levels of unconjugated BPA in mouse adipose tissue rapidly reached a maximal level (0.25 h) that did not exceed the serum maximum at the initial sampling time (0.08 h). Terminal elimination of unconjugated BPA from adipose tissue (t(1/2)=7.0 h) was similar to that for conjugated BPA in serum (t(1/2)=6.6 h) and <0.01% of the administered dose remained in adipose tissue after 24 h. These plasma and tissue kinetics are consistent with rapid equilibria and underscore the non-persistent nature of BPA, particularly when compared with slowly metabolized lipophilic organic pollutants like halogenated dibenzodioxins.

  4. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    Congress enacted the Bonneville Project Act in 1937, creating the Bonneville Power Administration to market and transmit the power produced by Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Since then, Congress has directed BPA to sell at wholesale the power produced at a total of 30 Federal dams in the Pacific Northwest, and to acquire conservation and generating resources sufficient to meet the needs of BPA`s customer utilities. The dams and the electrical system are known as the Federal Columbia River Power System. Bonneville sells wholesale power to public and private utilities, rural cooperatives, large industries, and Federal agencies. BPA also sells or exchanges power with utilities in California. BPA uses revenues from the sale of power and transmission services to recover its own expenses, to repay the Federal investment in the power system, and to pay for the resources it has acquired. BPA pays for operation and maintenance expenses at the Federal dams and at non-Federal power plants. It also pays for irrigation benefits of Federal projects allocated to power to repay, and for fish and wildlife projects which offset damage to these resources by the Federal hydropower system. This document is the 1991 statement of budget, financial statement, cash flows, capitalization, expenses, and projects. An organization chart is included.

  5. High intake of dietary sugar enhances bisphenol A (BPA) disruption and reveals ribosome-mediated pathways of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Branco, Alan T; Lemos, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound to which human populations are ubiquitously exposed. Epidemiological data suggest BPA exposure might be associated with higher rates of diabetes and reproductive anomalies. Health concerns also include transgenerational consequences, but these mechanisms are crudely defined. Similarly, little is known about synergistic interactions between BPA and other substances. Here we show that acute and chronic exposure to BPA causes genome-wide modulation of several functionally coherent genetic pathways in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, BPA exposure causes massive downregulation of testis-specific genes and upregulation of ribosome-associated genes widely expressed across tissues. In addition, it causes the modulation of transposable elements that are specific to the ribosomal DNA loci, suggesting that nucleolar stress might contribute to BPA toxicity. The upregulation of ribosome-associated genes and the impairment of testis-specific gene expression are significantly enhanced upon BPA exposure with a high-sugar diet. Our results suggest that BPA and dietary sugar might functionally interact, with consequences to regulatory programs in both reproductive and somatic tissues.

  6. BPA-induced DNA hypermethylation of the master mitochondrial gene PGC-1α contributes to cardiomyopathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Xia, Wei; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yingshuang; Chang, Huailong; Liu, Juan; Huo, Wenqian; Xu, Bing; Chen, Xi; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-03-02

    Implication of environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), on the development of cardiopathy has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to BPA at the reference dose on the myocardium of rats, and the underlying mechanisms. Male rats received corn oil or 50 μg/kg/day of BPA since delactation. At 24 and 48 weeks (wk), cardiac function and mitochondrial function were examined. The mRNA expression and the methylation status of PCG-1α, a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle, were also tested. At 48 wk, BPA-exposed rats displayed cardiomyopathy, characterized by myocardium hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte enlargement, and impairment of cardiac function. At 24 wk, significantly reduced ATP production, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and declined mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) activity in cardiomyocytes were observed in BPA-exposed rats compared with the control rats, indicating a decrease in mitochondrial function occurs before the development of cardiomyopathy. Additionally, BPA exposure decreased the expression of PGC-1α and induced hypermethylation of PGC-1 α in heart tissue in 24- and 48-week-old rats. The change in methylation of PGC-1α was observed more pronounced in BPA-exposed rats at 48 wk. Overall, long-term BPA exposure induces cardiomyopathy in male rats, and the underlying mechanism may involve the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and the disturbance of methylation of PGC-1α.

  7. High Intake of Dietary Sugar Enhances Bisphenol A (BPA) Disruption and Reveals Ribosome-Mediated Pathways of Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Alan T.; Lemos, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound to which human populations are ubiquitously exposed. Epidemiological data suggest BPA exposure might be associated with higher rates of diabetes and reproductive anomalies. Health concerns also include transgenerational consequences, but these mechanisms are crudely defined. Similarly, little is known about synergistic interactions between BPA and other substances. Here we show that acute and chronic exposure to BPA causes genome-wide modulation of several functionally coherent genetic pathways in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, BPA exposure causes massive downregulation of testis-specific genes and upregulation of ribosome-associated genes widely expressed across tissues. In addition, it causes the modulation of transposable elements that are specific to the ribosomal DNA loci, suggesting that nucleolar stress might contribute to BPA toxicity. The upregulation of ribosome-associated genes and the impairment of testis-specific gene expression are significantly enhanced upon BPA exposure with a high-sugar diet. Our results suggest that BPA and dietary sugar might functionally interact, with consequences to regulatory programs in both reproductive and somatic tissues. PMID:24614930

  8. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  9. Visualizing BPA by molecularly imprinted ratiometric fluorescence sensor based on dual emission nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongzhi; Xu, Shoufang

    2017-06-15

    Construction of ratiometric fluorescent probe often involved in tedious multistep preparation or complicated coupling or chemical modification process. The emergence of dual emission fluorescent nanoparticles would simplify the construction process and avoids the tedious chemical coupling. Herein, we reported a facile strategy to prepare ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor based on dual emission nanoparticles (d-NPs) which comprised of carbon dots and gold nanoclusters for detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). D-NPs emission at 460nm and 580nm were first prepared by seed growth co-microwave method using gold nanoparticles as seeds and glucose as precursor for carbon dots. When they were applied to propose ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor, the preparation process was simplified, and the sensitivity of sensor was improved with detection limit of 29nM, and visualizing BPA was feasible based on the distinguish fluorescence color change. The feasibility of the developed method in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of BPA in water samples with satisfactory recoveries of 95.9-98.9% and recoveries ranging from 92.6% to 98.6% in canned food samples. When detection BPA in positive feeding bottles, the results agree well with those obtained by accredited method. The developed method proposed in this work to prepare ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor based on dual emission nanoparticles proved to be a convenient, reliable and practical way to prepared high sensitive and selective fluorescence sensors.

  10. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task 2 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-09-18

    Task report detailing low probability tail event analysis and mitigation in BPA control area. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, causing the imbalance between generation and load to become very significant.

  11. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-02-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism.

  12. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26911650

  13. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  14. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  15. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in fly viability for all CWs, with Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the

  16. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wadia, Perinaaz R; Cabaton, Nicolas J; Borrero, Michael D; Rubin, Beverly S; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a) associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b) dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E) 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  17. Comparison of the effects of BPA and BPAF on oocyte spindle assembly and polar body release in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kei; Nishio, Manami; Kobayashi, Norio; Hiradate, Yuuki; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a homolog of bisphenol A (BPA), is a widely used environmental chemical that has adverse effects on reproduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of BPA and BPAF exposure on oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes were cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (2, 20, 50 or 100 μg/ml) for 18 h. At concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml, BPA and BPAF inhibited oocyte maturation, with BPAF treatment causing a sharp decrease in the number of oocytes reaching maturity. Oocytes were exposed to BPA or BPAF at 2 μg/ml and cultured for different durations (6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 h). Both BPAF and BPA caused a cell cycle delay under these conditions. Oocytes cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (50 μg/ml) for 21 h were tested for the localization of α-tubulin and MAD2 using immunofluorescence. High concentrations of BPAF induced cell cycle arrest through the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. After 12 h of culture in BPAF (50 μg/ml), oocytes were transferred to control medium for 9 h. Only 63.3% oocytes treated in this manner progressed to metaphase II (MII). Oocytes exposed to high doses of BPA experienced a cell cycle delay, but managed to progress to MII when the culture period was prolonged. In addition, MAD2 was localized in the cytoplasm of these oocytes. In conclusion, both BPAF and BPA exposure affected oocyte maturation, however BPAF and BPA have differential effects on SAC activity.

  18. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  19. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity.

  20. “Stockpile” of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D’Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  1. How nonimaging optics began

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  2. Developmental programming: prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, E M; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5mg/kgBW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2-3mm, 4-5mm, and ≥6mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females.

  3. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure.

  4. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  5. Estrogenic Effects of Several BPA Analogs in the Developing Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Charlier, Thierry D.; Kah, Olivier; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA). The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4- or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B), expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: (1) Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols; (2) Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus); and (3) Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay) at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF, or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα). Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP) did not show estrogenic activity in our model. PMID:27047331

  6. Perinatal BPA exposure alters body weight and composition in a dose specific and sex specific manner: The addition of peripubertal exposure exacerbates adverse effects in female mice.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Beverly S; Paranjpe, Maneesha; DaFonte, Tracey; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Soto, Ana M; Obin, Martin; Greenberg, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    Body weight (BW) and body composition were examined in CD-1 mice exposed perinatally or perinatally and peripubertally to 0, 0.25, 2.5, 25, or 250μg BPA/kg BW/day. Our goal was to identify the BPA dose (s) and the exposure window(s) that increased BW and adiposity, and to assess potential sex differences in this response. Both perinatal exposure alone and perinatal plus peripubertal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BPA resulted in lasting effects on body weight and body composition. The effects were dose specific and sex specific and were influenced by the precise window of BPA exposure. The addition of peripubertal BPA exposure following the initial perinatal exposure exacerbated adverse effects in the females but appeared to reduce differences in body weight and body composition between control and BPA exposed males. Some effects of BPA on body weight and body composition showed a non-linear dose response.

  7. A novel model for neuroendocrine toxicology: neurobehavioral effects of BPA exposure in a prosocial species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Alana W; Beach, Elsworth C; Stetzik, Lucas A; Perry, Amy; D'Addezio, Alyssa S; Cushing, Bruce S; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-10-01

    Impacts on brain and behavior have been reported in laboratory rodents after developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), raising concerns about possible human effects. Epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, but potential mechanisms are unclear. Disruption of mesolimbic oxytocin (OT)/vasopressin (AVP) pathways have been proposed, but supporting evidence is minimal. To address these data gaps, we employed a novel animal model for neuroendocrine toxicology: the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which are more prosocial than lab rats or mice. Male and female prairie vole pups were orally exposed to 5-μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 50-μg/kg bw/d, or 50-mg/kg bw/d BPA or vehicle over postnatal days 8-14. Subjects were tested as juveniles in open field and novel social tests and for partner preference as adults. Brains were then collected and assessed for immunoreactive (ir) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (a dopamine marker) neurons in the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) and TH-ir, OT-ir, and AVP-ir neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Female open field activity indicated hyperactivity at the lowest dose and anxiety at the highest dose. Effects on social interactions were also observed, and partner preference formation was mildly inhibited at all dose levels. BPA masculinized principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis TH-ir neuron numbers in females. Additionally, 50-mg/kg bw BPA-exposed females had more AVP-ir neurons in the anterior PVN and fewer OT-ir neurons in the posterior PVN. At the 2 lowest doses, BPA eliminated sex differences in PVN TH-ir neuron numbers and reversed this sex difference at the highest dose. Minimal behavioral effects were observed in BPA-exposed males. These data support the hypothesis that BPA alters affective behaviors, potentially via disruption of OT/AVP pathways.

  8. BPA and phthalate fate in a sewage network and an elementary river of France. Influence of hydroclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the fate of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate contamination simultaneously in a sewage network and a watercourse, in relation with hydrological and climatic conditions. An elementary catchment of the Seine basin, receiving effluents from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), was chosen because of its basic hydrological features. BPA and DEHP concentrations in the WWTP inputs were 4 and 33 μg L(-1) whereas in the outputs, they were only 0.4 and 2 μg L(-1), respectively. Contaminant ratios in the suspended sediment phase of the WWTP inputs ranged from 0.5% to 88%, related to their molecular properties. BPA and phthalates were effectively removed in the WWTP (>90% for both compounds), by degradation and decantation. Upstream of the discharge, river concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.175 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.16 to 0.90 μg L(-1) for DEHP. Downstream from the WWTP outputs, concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.79 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.31 μg L(-1) to 1.7 μg L(-1) for DEHP: the WWTP discharge led to contaminant increases of 3.8 and 2 times, respectively. Far downstream, concentrations were lower ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.36 μg L(-1) to 1.1 μg L(-1) for DEHP. BPA and phthalates displayed opposite seasonal variations with a decrease for the first one and an increase for the second one during summer. BPA contamination in the Charmoise river derived mainly from the WWTP, while phthalate contamination was attributed to both WWTP discharges and diffuse sources such as atmospheric bulk deposition.

  9. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene--A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Bajouh, Osama S; AlBasri, Samera F; Assiri, Mansour M; Beg, Mohd A

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  10. Determination of free Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in breast milk of U.S. women using a sensitive LC/MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, Stephanie M; Browne, Eva P; O'Keefe, Patrick W; Anderton, Douglas L; Kramer, Lawrence; Reckhow, David A; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic, endocrine-disrupting compound. Free BPA has been detected in human samples indicating that humans are internally exposed to estrogenically active BPA. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect free BPA in human breast milk. BPA was isolated from the milk of 21 nursing mothers in the U.S. by solid-phase extraction. It was then derivatized to improve sensitivity and subsequently analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPA was detected in 62% of the milk samples (≤ 0.22-10.8 ng mL(-1), median 0.68 ng mL(-1), mean 3.13 ng mL(-1)). No statistical difference in BPA concentrations was observed between women with a low or high Body Mass Index (BMI) (<30 (n=11) and>30 (n=10), respectively). However, there was a significant association between BPA concentration and race. Caucasian women had significantly higher levels of free BPA in their breast milk than non-Caucasian women (mean=4.44 (n=14) and 0.52 (n=7), respectively; p<0.05). The difference between races could be attributed to variations in exposure, lifestyle or metabolism and suggests that certain populations should take extra precautions to limit BPA exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    PubMed Central

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  12. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  13. Co-crystal and crystal: Supramolecular arrangement obtained from 4-aminosalicylic acid, bpa ligand and cobalt ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Cunha, Ronaldo T.; Diniz, Renata; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the synthesis, spectroscopic properties (infrared and Raman) and crystal structures of two new compounds co-crystal and crystal named HASbpa (1) and [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]AS2ṡ4H2O (2) have been reported, where bpa is trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, HAS is 4-aminosalicylic acid and AS- is aminosalicylate anion. The crystalline arrangement of the compound 1 exhibits a triclinic system with space group P1¯. The formation of a structure known as co-crystal, composed by building blocks in their neutral form; being the first work of this type involving the HAS and nitrogen ligand as bpa. For compound 2, a monoclinic system was observed with P21/c space group. The crystalline arrangement of the structure consisted of a covalent one-dimensional cationic [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]2+ chain, which interacts by hydrogen bonding, π-stacking and electrostatic interactions with aminosalicylate anions and water molecules that were trapped in the crystal. These interactions form supramolecular cavities denominated as pseudo honeycombs. For compound 1, the infrared spectrum revealed the presence of bands at 1643 and 1601 cm-1 assigned to the stretching mode of CO [ν(CO)] and CC/CN groups [ν(CC/CN)]. For the Raman spectrum, these same modes appear around 1644 and 1602 cm-1 related to HAS and bpa blocks, respectively. For compound 2, the largest displacement of the bands compared to free ligand suggested the formation of covalent bonds between bpa ligand and metallic site and loss of the proton in HAS molecule. In the infrared spectrum we can observe the presence of bands around 1635 and 1618 cm-1 attributed to the stretching ν(COO-) and ν(CC/CN), for the Raman spectrum these same modes appear around 1631 and 1619 cm-1 related to AS- and bpa ligand respectively.

  14. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  15. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  16. Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on early embryo development in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: Effects on gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Balbi, Teresa; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Fabbri, Elena; Canesi, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in plastic manufacturing, is weakly estrogenic and a potential endocrine disruptor in mammals. Although it degrades quickly, it is pseudo-persistent in the environment because of continual inputs, with reported concentrations in aquatic environments between 0.0005 and 12 μg/L. BPA represents a potential concern for aquatic ecosystems, as shown by its reproductive and developmental effects in aquatic vertebrates. In invertebrates, endocrine-related effects of BPA were observed in different species and experimental conditions, with often conflicting results, indicating that the sensitivity to this compound can vary considerably among related taxa. In the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis BPA was recently shown to affect early development at environmental concentrations. In this work, the possible effects of BPA on mussel embryos were investigated at the molecular level by evaluating transcription of 13 genes, selected on the basis of their biological functions in adult mussels. Gene expression was first evaluated in trocophorae and D-veligers (24 and 48 h post fertilization) grown in physiological conditions, in comparison with unfertilized eggs. Basal expressions showed a general up-regulation during development, with distinct transcript levels in trocophorae and D-veligers. Exposure of fertilized eggs to BPA (10 μg/L) induced a general upregulation at 24 h pf, followed by down regulation at 48 h pf. Mytilus Estrogen Receptors, serotonin receptor and genes involved in biomineralization (Carbonic Anydrase and Extrapallial Protein) were the most affected by BPA exposure. At 48 h pf, changes in gene expression were associated with irregularities in shell formation, as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicating that the formation of the first shelled embryo, a key step in mussel development, represents a sensitive target for BPA. Similar results were obtained with the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol. The

  17. Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa (Rv3780) Is a Novel Ring-Shaped Interactor of the Mycobacterial Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Delley, Cyrille L.; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins. PMID:25469515

  18. Unusually high levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs): development and application of a robust LC-UV method to quantify BPA in CRs.

    PubMed

    Babu, Sainath; Uppu, Sannihith N; Martin, Brittany; Agu, Ogad A; Uppu, Rao M

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs). The method is suitable for analysis of other types of bisphenols and it involves an overnight extraction of CRs with acetonitrile (AN) at 50 °C followed by the HPLC analysis on a Supelcosil LC18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 μ) using 50% AN in water as the mobile phase (5 min, isocratic). The composition of AN in the mobile phase changed to 100% over a 10 min period (linear gradient) and then held at 100% AN for 10 min (isocratic). The flow rate was set at 1 mL/min (injection volume: 20 μL) and the eluent was monitored at 234 nm. The authentic BPA eluted with a retention time of 5.9 min and gave a linear detector response in the concentration range of 0.23-50 mg/L. BPA in the CR extracts also eluted with the same retention and had identical absorbance properties as the standard. When CR extracts were co-injected with authentic BPA, they were resolved as a single peak. Further, GC/MS/EI analysis of authentic BPA and the HPLC-purified CR extracts have identical ion chromatograms and fragmentation of the molecular ion (m/z = 228). We have analyzed 170 CRs collected from 62 different vendors including supermarkets, fast food restaurants, gas stations and banking outlets. Almost all cash receipts (n = 168) showed the presence of BPA in the concentration range of 0.45-4.26% (M ± SD, 1.54 ± 0.73%).

  19. Structural analysis, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of the 1D triple-bridged compounds [M(dca)2(bpa)] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Zn; dca = dicyanamide; bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) and the 3D [Ni(dca)(bpa)2]dca·6H2O.

    PubMed

    de la Pinta, Noelia; Martín, Susana; Urtiaga, M Karmele; Barandika, M Gotzone; Arriortua, M Isabel; Lezama, Luis; Madariaga, Gotzon; Cortés, Roberto

    2010-11-15

    The family of compounds [Mn(dca)(2)(bpa)] (1), [Fe(dca)(2)(bpa)] (2), [Co(dca)(2)(bpa)] (3), [Zn(dca)(2)(bpa)] (4), and [Ni(dca)(bpa)(2)]dca·6H(2)O (5), with dca = dicyanamide and bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, has been synthesized. These compounds have been characterized by single crystal (1, 2, 4, and 5) and powder X-ray diffraction (3), by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, and by magnetic measurements. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4, with a = 16.757(6), b = 9.692(3), and c = 13.073(4) Å, and β = 123.02(2)°; Compound 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4, with a = 16.588(5), b = 9.661(3), c = 12.970(5) Å, and β = 123.16(3)°; Compound 4 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4, with a = 16.519(2), b = 9.643(2), c = 12.943(2) Å, and β = 123.15(1)°; Compound 5 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4, with a = 18.504(4), b = 19.802(3), and c = 8.6570(18) Å, and β = 99.74(2)°. The compounds 1-4 are isostructural and show a one dimensional (1D) disposition, with the metal(II) ions bridged by double μ(1,5) dca ligands and unusually by a third bridge consisting of the bpa ligand, which adopts a very low torsion angle to accommodate in the structure. This kind of structure is unusual, even considering the voluminous bpa bridge. The compound 5 shows a 3D structure with layers of Ni-bpa joined by single dca bridges. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show antiferromagnetic couplings, increasing for 1-3. Compound 5 shows very slight antiferromagnetic interactions.

  20. The Molecular Mechanism of Bisphenol A (BPA) as an Endocrine Disruptor by Interacting with Nuclear Receptors: Insights from Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lanlan; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yan; Niu, Yuzhen; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA. PMID:25799048

  1. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanlan; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yan; Niu, Yuzhen; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  2. Curcumin attenuates BPA-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells through suppression of JNK/p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Shijia; Zhu, Weiwei; Xie, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoting; Wu, Jieshu; Zhu, Jianyun; Jiang, Ye; Yang, Xue; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yue; Wang, Xiaoqian; Meng, Yu; Zhu, Mingming; Wu, Rui; Huang, Cong; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-03-12

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an artificial environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to BPA contributes to insulin resistance through diverse mechanism including inflammation and oxidative stress. Previous studies have suggested curcumin as a safe phytochemical which can improve obesity-related insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of curcumin to prevent BPA-induced insulin resistance in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Following the establishmet of in vitro insulin resistance via BPA treatment in human liver HepG2 cells, the protective effects of curcumin were determiend. We showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with 100nM BPA for 5days induced significantly decreased glucose consumption, impaired insulin signaling, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and activation of signaling pathways; inhibition of JNK and p38 pathways, but not ERK nor NF-κB pathways, improved glucose consumption and insulin signaling in BPA-treated HepG2 cells. Moreover, we revealed that curcumin effectively attenuated the spectrum of effects of BPA-triggered insulin resistance, whereas pretreatment with JNK and p38 agonist anisomycin could significantly compensate the effects caused by curcumin. These data illustrated the role of JNK/p38 activation in BPA-induced insulin resistance and suggested curcumin as a promising candidate for the intervention of BPA-induced insulin resistance.

  3. Metabolism of borono-phenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-fr) and borocaptate sodium (BSH) in cancer patients--results from EORTC trial 11001.

    PubMed

    Bendel, Peter; Wittig, Andrea; Basilico, Fabrizio; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2010-01-05

    Within the clinical trial EORTC 11001, patients were infused with (10)B-enriched borono-phenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-fr), or borocaptate sodium (BSH) solutions, which are used as boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Urine samples were periodically collected and analyzed by (10)B NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed time-dependent metabolic changes of the administered compounds. BPA-fr dissociated to the constituents BPA and fructose, and the borate group was partly cleaved from BPA. BSH was partly aggregated to a dimer form, BSSB. These observations were previously reported for cultured cells and animal models, and are confirmed here in human cancer patients.

  4. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    SciTech Connect

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  5. Migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from epoxy can coatings to jalapeño peppers and an acid food simulant.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lopez, Elvia M; Peralta, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Leon, Alberto; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2002-12-04

    Effects of heat processing, storage time, and temperature on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from an epoxy type can coating to an acid food simulant and jalapeño peppers were determined. Commercial jalapeño pepper cans (8 oz, dimensions 211 x 300) were stored at 25 degrees C for 40, 70, and 160 days. A solution of 3% acetic acid was canned in 211 x 300 cans from the same batch used for jalapeño peppers. Heat processing was applied to two-thirds of the cans, and the remaining cans were not heat processed. Cans were stored at 25 and 35 degrees C for 0, 40, 70, and 160 days. Results showed that there is a minimal effect of heat treatment. An effect of storage time on migration of BPA during the first 40 days at 25 degrees C was observed. An increase on migration of BPA was observed with storage time at 35 degrees C. The highest level of migration was 15.33 microg/kg of BPA at 160 days at 35 degrees C. A correction factor of approximately 0.4 was calculated for migration under simulating conditions of storage compared to the real ones. The highest level of BPA found in jalapeño peppers cans, surveyed from three supermarkets, was 5.59 +/- 2.43 microg/kg. Migration of BPA, performed according to the European and Mercosur conditions, was 65.45 +/- 5.29 microg/kg. All the migration values found in this study were below those legislation limits (3 mg/kg).

  6. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-04

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission.

  7. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  8. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    PubMed

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Wadia, Perinaaz R; Murray, Tessa J; Settles, Matthew L; Treitman, Jo D; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND) 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments), with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50). BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene expression patterns

  9. In utero and peripubertal exposure to phthalates and BPA in relation to female sexual maturation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Lee, Joyce M.; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their third trimester (n=116) and from their female children at ages 8–13 years (n=129). Among girls, we measured concurrent serum hormone concentrations, Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development, and collected information on menarche onset. We used linear and logistic regression to model associations between in utero and peripubertal measures of exposure with hormones and sexual maturation, respectively, controlling for covariates. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in in utero urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was positively associated with 29% (95% CI:9.2–52.6%) higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an early indicator of adrenarche, and 5.3 (95% CI:1.13–24.9) times higher odds of a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development. Similar relationships were observed with other in utero but not peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in in utero monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were associated with 29% and 25% higher serum testosterone concentrations (95% CIs:4.3–59.3; 2.1–54.1), respectively. In addition, we observed suggestive associations between in utero and peripubertal MEP concentrations and increased odds of having undergone menarche, and between peripubertal MnBP concentrations and increased odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for both breast and pubic hair development. BPA was not associated with in utero or peripubertal serum hormones or sexual maturation. Our findings suggest in

  10. Temporal trends in bisphenol A exposure in the United States from 2003-2012 and factors associated with BPA exposure: Spot samples and urine dilution complicate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2015-10-01

    Nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA and its metabolites in the United States from the 2003-2004 to 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes and examine temporal trends. Additionally, NHANES data on lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors previously reported to be associated with BPA exposures were examined to assess the resiliency of the reported associations (whether the association is maintained across the five surveys). Finally, various approaches for addressing issues with the use of BPA concentration data from spot urine samples were examined for their effect on trends and associations. Three approaches were assessed here: (i) use of generic literature-based 24-h urine excretion volumes, (ii) use of creatinine adjustments, and (iii) use of individual urine flow rate data from NHANES. Based on 2011-2012 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, the median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 25 ng/kg day; median intake estimates were approximately two to three orders of magnitude below current health-based guidance values. Estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased significantly compared to those from the 2003-2004 NHANES. Estimates of associations between lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors and BPA exposure revealed inconsistencies related to both NHANES survey year and the three approaches listed above; these results demonstrate the difficulties in interpreting urinary BPA data, despite efforts to account for urine dilution and translation of spot sample data to 24-h data. The results further underscore the importance of continued research on how to best utilize urinary measures of environmental chemicals in exposure research. Until a consensus is achieved regarding the best biomonitoring approaches for assessing exposures to short-lived chemicals using urine samples, research on factors associated with BPA exposures should

  11. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Bob

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  12. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding (WP-07) : Administrator's Final Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding, with respect to the adoption of power rates for the three-year rate period commencing October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009. This ''2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding'' is designed to establish replacement rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) for those that expire on September 30, 2006. This power rate case also establishes the General Transfer Agreement (GTA) Delivery Charge for the period of October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2009. BPA's Power Subscription Strategy and Record of Decision (Subscription Strategy), as well as other Agency processes, provide much of the policy context for this rate case and are described in Section 2. This ROD follows a full evidentiary hearing and briefing, including an Oral Argument before the BPA Administrator. Sections 3 through 18, including any appendices or attachments, present the issues raised by parties in this proceeding, the parties positions, BPA staff positions on the issues, BPA's evaluations of the positions, and the Administrator's decisions. Parties had the opportunity to file briefs on exceptions to the Draft ROD, before issuance of this Final Record of Decision.

  13. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene—A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Bajouh, Osama S.; AlBasri, Samera F.; Assiri, Mansour M.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  14. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  15. A highly sensitive and specific capacitive aptasensor for rapid and label-free trace analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in canned foods.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang; Eda, Shigotoshi; Najafi Aghdam, Esmaeil; Badri Ghavifekr, Habib

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, highly sensitive, specific and low-cost capacitive affinity biosensor is presented here for label-free and single step detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). The sensor design allows rapid prototyping at low-cost using printed circuit board material by benchtop equipment. High sensitivity detection is achieved through the use of a BPA-specific aptamer as probe molecule and large electrodes to enhance AC-electroelectrothermal effect for long-range transport of BPA molecules toward electrode surface. Capacitive sensing technique is used to determine the bounded BPA level by measuring the sample/electrode interfacial capacitance of the sensor. The developed biosensor can detect BPA level in 20s and exhibits a large linear range from 1 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 152.93 aM. This biosensor was applied to test BPA in canned food samples and could successfully recover the levels of spiked BPA. This sensor technology is demonstrated to be highly promising and reliable for rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of BPA in food samples.

  16. H₃PW₁₂O₄₀/TiO₂ catalyst-induced photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA): kinetics, toxicity and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan; Lu, Ying; Liu, Fangyuan; Zhao, Kun; Yuan, Xing; Zhao, Yahui; Li, Yuan; Qin, Hongwei; Zhu, Jia

    2013-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) degradation using H₃PW₁₂O₄₀/TiO₂ (PW₁₂/TiO₂) composite catalyst, toxicity of BPA intermediate products and degradation pathways. The results showed that the BPA photodegradation using PW₁₂/TiO₂ catalyst followed the first-order kinetics, and under the optimal experimental conditions at H₃PW₁₂O₄₀ loading amount of 6.3%, BPA initial concentration of 5 mg L(-1), and the solution pH of 8.2, the kinetic constant was 3.7-fold larger than that of pristine TiO₂. The hydroxyl radicals derived from the electroreduction of dissolved oxygen with electrons via chain reactions was the main reactive oxygen species. According to the identified intermediates, 4-isopropanolphenol, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phenol, the possible BPA photodegradation pathways were proposed. Upon 12h irradiation, 77% BPA (20 mg L(-1)) was mineralized and the toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) was almost disappeared, implying the strong oxidation ability of PW₁₂/TiO₂ catalyst. The studies provide important information about the BPA degradation and promote the technical development for BPA removal.

  17. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA.

  18. BpaB, a novel protein encoded by the Lyme disease spirochete’s cp32 prophages, binds to erp Operator 2 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Logan H.; Adams, Claire A.; Riley, Sean P.; Jutras, Brandon L.; Bowman, Amy; Chenail, Alicia M.; Cooley, Anne E.; Haselhorst, Laura A.; Moore, Alisha M.; Babb, Kelly; Fried, Michael G.; Stevenson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi produces Erp outer surface proteins throughout mammalian infection, but represses their synthesis during colonization of vector ticks. A DNA region 5′ of the start of erp transcription, Operator 2, was previously shown to be essential for regulation of expression. We now report identification and characterization of a novel erp Operator 2-binding protein, which we named BpaB. erp operons are located on episomal cp32 prophages, and a single bacterium may contain as many as 10 different cp32s. Each cp32 family member encodes a unique BpaB protein, yet the three tested cp32-encoded BpaB alleles all bound to the same DNA sequence. A 20-bp region of erp Operator 2 was determined to be essential for BpaB binding, and initial protein binding to that site was required for binding of additional BpaB molecules. A 36-residue region near the BpaB carboxy terminus was found to be essential for high-affinity DNA-binding. BpaB competed for binding to erp Operator 2 with a second B. burgdorferi DNA-binding protein, EbfC. Thus, cellular levels of free BpaB and EbfC could potentially control erp transcription levels. PMID:20421207

  19. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed ...

  20. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  1. Interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) and soy phytoestrogens on sexually dimorphic sociosexual behaviors in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kimani D; Sullivan, Alana W; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Rebuli, Meghan; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-08-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to alter brain development and behavior. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous EDC, has been linked to altered sociosexual and mood-related behaviors in various animal models and children but effects are inconsistent across laboratories and animal models creating confusion about potential risk in humans. Exposure to endocrine active diets, such as soy, which is rich in phytoestrogens, may contribute to this variability. Here, we tested the individual and combined effects of low dose oral BPA and soy diet or the individual isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin (GIN)) on rat sociosexual behaviors with the hypothesis that soy would obfuscate any BPA-related effects. Social and activity levels were unchanged by developmental exposure to BPA but soy diet had sex specific effects including suppressed novelty preference, and open field exploration in females. The data presented here reinforce that environmental factors, including anthropogenic chemical exposure and hormone active diets, can shape complex behaviors and even reverse expected sex differences.

  2. An evaluation of association between common variants in C4BPB/C4BPA genes and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuihong; Lu, Houquan; Ni, Jianliang; Zhang, Jiangtao; Tang, Wenxin; Lu, Weihong; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Chen

    2015-03-17

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that both maternal bacterial and viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia among offspring, but to date there is not clear explanation for this increased risk. Previously, the decreased C4b-binding protein (C4BP), a potent circulating soluble inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, was reported to be associated with risk of schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C4BPB and 5 SNPs of C4BPA in a group of 556 schizophrenia patients and a matched group of 610 healthy controls to see if the genes C4BPB and C4BPA, which encode C4BP, may confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia. Comparing the genotype and allele frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls, we found no association between the C4BPB/C4BPA variants and schizophrenia. Our results provided preliminary evidence that C4BPB/C4BPA may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Further genetic studies from large-scale population are required to obtain more conclusive results.

  3. BPA exposure during in vitro oocyte maturation results in dose-dependent alterations to embryo development rates, apoptosis rate, sex ratio and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Mahboubi, Kiana; MacLusky, Neil; King, W Allan; Favetta, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the oocyte's environment can negatively affect embryo development. Oocyte quality, which can determine embryonic viability, is easily perturbed, thus factors affecting normal oocyte maturation are a concern. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that elicits a variety of reproductive effects. BPA has previously been found to disrupt meiosis, however the embryonic effects in mammals are not well documented. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment. Resulting embryos exhibited decreased embryonic development rates, increased apoptosis, and a skewed sex ratio. Gene expression in blastocysts was not altered, whereas treatment with 15ng/mL BPA resulted in increased expression of several of the genes studies, however this increase was largely due to a vehicle effect. BPA exposure during oocyte maturation in vitro can therefore, in a dose-dependent way, decrease oocyte and embryo quality and developmental potential and affect gene expression of developmentally important transcripts.

  4. Positron emission tomography and [18F]BPA: a perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, L; Cionini, L; Sauerwein, W A; Altieri, S; Solin, O; Minn, H; Salvadori, P A

    2009-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. (18)F, (11)C, (124)I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10(-9)-10(-12)M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of (10)B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[(18)F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of (10)B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[(18)F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable prognostic and therapeutic indicator for

  5. Dust measurement of two organophosphorus flame retardants, resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP), used as alternatives for BDE-209.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Sicco H; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2013-12-17

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer products. In this study, dust samples were collected from various microenvironments in The Netherlands (houses, cars), Greece (houses), and Sweden (apartments, cars, furniture stores, electronics stores) and analyzed for RBDPP and BPA-BDPP. Additionally, the dust samples from The Netherlands were analyzed for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) for comparison and for TPHP, which is a byproduct in the RBDPP and BPA-BDPP technical products. BPA-BDPP was detected in almost all dust samples from The Netherlands, Greece, and Sweden. Highest concentrations were found in dust samples collected on electronic equipment from all three countries with BPA-BDPP levels ranging from <0.1 to 1300 μg/g and RBDPP levels from <0.04 to 520 μg/g. RBDPP and BPA-BDPP levels in dust collected further away from the electronics (source) were usually lower. BDE-209 levels in The Netherlands dust samples collected on and around the electronics were similar and much lower than the BPA-BDPP/RBDPP levels, indicating that the electronics were not the source of BDE-209. Strong positive correlations were found between TPHP concentrations and those of RBDPP (r = 0.805) and BPA-BDPP (r = 0.924), probably due to TPHP being a byproduct in commercial RBDPP and BPA-BDPP mixtures in electronics. To our knowledge, this is the first time that RBDPP and BPA-BDPP were detected in dust samples from Europe.

  6. Perinatal Exposure to Low-Dose Bisphenol-A (BPA) Disrupts the Structural and Functional Development of the Hypothalamic Feeding Circuitry.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Harry; Patterson, Zachary R; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2017-02-07

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics to which humans are regularly exposed at low levels. BPA is characterized as an endocrine disruptor due to observations of its estrogenic activity in various experimental models. We have previously shown evidence of disrupted hypothalamic feeding circuitry and leptin sensitivity in adult BPA-exposed animals subject to a high-fat diet, but because these animals were already exhibiting a diet-induced obese phenotype, we could not rule out the possibility that these observations were simply consequences of the obesity, not a pre-existing phenotype produced by BPA exposure. Here we study leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic structure in young BPA-exposed animals prior to the onset of a body weight or metabolic phenotype. Pregnant and lactating CD-1 mice were exposed to either BPA or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at low, environmentally relevant doses via their diet. Studies of leptin function and neurobiology were conducted on offspring at a number of timepoints. Young adult offspring from this experiment were resistant to leptin-induced suppression of food intake, body weight loss, and hypothalamic POMC upregulation. Both male and female BPA-exposed mice showed a reduced density of Pro-Opiomelanocortin (POMC) projections into the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN). BPA-and DES-exposed pups had respectively delayed and blunted postnatal leptin surges, and POMC projections into the PVN were rescued in female BPA-exposed animals given daily injections of supplemental leptin. Our findings suggest that BPA, a putative obesogen, may exert its effects through developmental programming of the hypothalamic melanocortin circuitry, permanently altering the neurobiology of metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the dopamine system in two distinct cell models and corpus striatum of the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Brittney A; Hamada, Matt A; Robinson, Gina Y; Jones, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain dopamine (DA) system utilizing both in vitro models (GH3 cells, a rat pituitary cell line, and SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line) and an animal model such as Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. First, cellular DA uptake was measured 2 or 8 h following BPA exposure (0.1-400 μM) in SH-SY5Y cells, where a significant increase in DA uptake was noted. BPA exerted no marked effect on dopamine active transporter levels in GH3 cells exposed for 8 or 24 h. However, SH-SY5Y cells displayed an increase in dopamine transporter (DAT) levels following 24 h of exposure to BPA. In contrast to DAT levels, BPA exposure produced no marked effect on DA D1 receptor levels in SH-SY5Y cells, yet a significant decrease in GH3 cells following both 8- and 24-h exposure periods was noted, suggesting that BPA exerts differential effects dependent upon cell type. BPA produced no significant effects on prolactin levels at 2 h, but a marked fall occurred at 24 h of exposure in GH3 cells. Finally, to examine the influence of dietary developmental exposure to BPA on brain DA levels in F1 offspring, SD rats were exposed to BPA (0.5-20 mg/kg) through maternal transfer and/or diet and striatal DA levels were measured on postnatal day (PND) 60 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data demonstrated that chronic exposure to BPA did not significantly alter striatal DA levels in the SD rat.

  8. Mechanistic study of photo-oxidation of Bisphenol-A (BPA) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-15

    The removal of Bisphenol-A (BPA) from contaminated water using advanced oxidation methods such as UV-C assisted oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS) has been reported by the authors earlier (Sharma et al., 2015a). In the present study, the authors report the removal of BPA from aqueous solution by the above two methods and its degradation mechanism. UV-C light (254 nm wavelength, 40 W power) was applied to BPA contaminated water at natural pH (pHN) under room temperature conditions. Experiments were carried out with the initial BPA concentration in the range of 0.04 mM-0.31 mM and the oxidant/BPA molar ratio in the range of 294:1-38:1 for UV-C/H2O2 and 31.5-4.06:1 for UV-C/SPS systems. The removal of BPA enhanced with decreasing BPA concentration. The total organic carbon also decreased with the UV-C irradiation time under optimum conditions ([H2O2]0 = 11.76 mM; [SPS]0 = 1.26 mM; temperature (29 ± 3 °C). Competition of BPA for reaction with HO or [Formula: see text] radicals at its higher concentrations results in a decrease in the removal of BPA. The intermediates with smaller and higher molecular weights than that of BPA were found in the treated water. Based on GC-MS and FTIR spectra of the reaction mixture, the formation of hydroxylated by-products testified the HO mediated oxidation pathway in the BPA degradation, while the formation of quinones and phenoxy phenols pointed to the [Formula: see text] dominating pathway through the formation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl (HCHD) and BPA phenoxyl radicals. The main route of BPA degradation is the hydroxylation followed by dehydration, coupling and ring opening reactions.

  9. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  10. Behavioural effect of low-dose BPA on male zebrafish: Tuning of male mating competition and female mating preference during courtship process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Guo, Jia-Yu; Li, Xu; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Dong-Yan; Fang, Yong-Chun; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-02-01

    The ubiquity of environmental pollution by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) is progressively considered as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Numerous toxicological studies have proved that BPA are hazardous to aquatic environment, along with alterations in the development and physiology of aquatic vertebrates. However, generally, there is a paucity in knowledge of behavioural and physiological effects of BPA with low concentration, for example, 0.22 nM (50 ng/L) and 2.2 nM (500 ng/L). Here we show that treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) with 7 weeks low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, resulted in alteration in histological structure of testis tissue and abnormality in expression levels of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis. Furthermore, low-dose BPA treatment decreased the male locomotion during courtship; and was associated with less courtship behaviours to female but more aggressive behaviours to mating competitor. Interestingly, during the courtship test, we observed that female preferred control male to male under low-dose BPA exposure. Subsequently, we found that the ability of female to chose optimal mating male through socially mutual interaction and dynamics of male zebrafish, which was based on visual discrimination. In sum, our results shed light on the potential behavioural and physiological effect of low-dose BPA exposure on courtship behaviours of zebrafish, which could exert profound consequences on natural zebrafish populations.

  11. BPA-toxicity via superoxide anion overload and a deficit in β-catenin signaling in human bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Leem, Yea-Hyun; Oh, Seikwan; Kang, Hong-Je; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Juno; Chang, Jae-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), used in the manufacture of products based on polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is well known as an endocrine-disrupting monomer. In the current study, BPA increased cytotoxicity in hBMSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, concomitantly with increased lipid peroxidation. Increased cell death in BPA-treated cells was markedly blocked by pretreatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTBAP and MnTMPyP, but not by catalase, glutathione, the glutathione peroxidase mimetic ebselen, the NOS inhibitor NAME, or the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Furthermore, the decline in nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D1 levels in hBMSCs exposed to BPA was reversed by MnTBAP treatment. Finally, treatment of hBMSCs with the GSK3β inhibitor LiCl2 increased nuclear β-catenin levels and significantly attenuated cytotoxicity compared with BPA treatment. Our current results in hBMSCs exposed to BPA suggest that BPA causes a disturbance in β-catenin signaling via a superoxide anion overload. © 2016 The Authors Environmental Toxicology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 344-352, 2017.

  12. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, M; Seppälä, T; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15+/-8 and 320+/-70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7+/-0.1 microg/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  13. Perinatal administration of bisphenol A alters the expression of tight junction proteins in the uterus and reduces the implantation rate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Peña, Annia A; Rivera-Baños, Jorge; Méndez-Carrillo, Laura L; Ramírez-Solano, Marcos I; Galindo-Bustamante, Aarón; Páez-Franco, J Carlos; Morimoto, Sumiko; González-Mariscal, Lorenza; Cruz, M Esther; Mendoza-Rodríguez, C Adriana

    2017-02-17

    We studied the effect of bisphenol-A (BPA) administration to rats, during the perinatal period, on the fertility of F1 generation and on the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the uterus during early pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar dams (F0) received: BPA-L (0.05mg/kg/day), BPA-H (20mg/kg/day) or vehicle, from gestational day (GD) 6 to lactation day 21. F1 female pups were mated at 3 months of age and sacrificed at GD 1, 3, 6, and 7. Serum hormonal levels, ovulation rate, number of implantation sites and expression of TJ proteins in the uterus of F1 females were evaluated. BPA treatment induced no change in ovulation rate, but induced alterations in progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) serum levels, and in implantation rate. With regards to TJ proteins, BPA-H increased claudin-1 during all GDs; eliminated the peaks of claudins -3 and -4 at GD 3 and 6, respectively; and decreased claudin-7 at GD 6, ZO-1 from GD 1-6, and claudin-3 at GD 7 in stromal cells. BPA-L instead, eliminated claudin-3 peak at GD 3, increased claudin-4 and decreased claudin-7 from GD 1-6, decreased claudin-1 at GD 3 and 7 and claudin-4 at GD 7 in stromal cells. BPA-L also decreased ZO-1 at GDs 1 and 3 and increased ZO-1 at GD 6. Thus, BPA treatment during perinatal period perturbed, when the animals reached adulthood and became pregnant, the particular expression of TJ proteins in the uterine epithelium and reduced in consequence the number of implantation sites.

  14. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2017-04-12

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity is used in a variety of consumer products, including food contact materials made of paper and cardboard products. Due to restrictions for the use of BPA because of its potential health risks, BPA is gradually being replaced by other bisphenols, as no limitations exist for these substances. The present study presents a method for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) in paper and board products, using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Paper samples were extracted by liquid extraction, as well as by Folch extraction, derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and results were compared. The developed method showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9965) and precision, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.6% for reproducibility and 19.8% for repeatability. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the different bisphenols ranged from 0.23-2.70 µg kg(-1) paper and 0.78-9.10 µg kg(-1) paper, respectively. Analysis of different paper products (recycled, virgin fibre) showed that all of the analysed bisphenols were present in the samples, except for BPAF and BPB. A calculation of the "worst case" scenario assuming a maximum potential migration of 100% of the analytes into food showed that the analysed products can be assumed to be safe regarding the migration of bisphenols.

  15. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  16. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task One Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2009-04-01

    This is a report for task one of the tail event analysis project for BPA. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, the imbalance between generation and load becomes very significant. This type of events occurs infrequently and appears on the tails of the distribution of system power imbalance; therefore, is referred to as tail events. This report analyzes what happened during the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) reliability event on February 26, 2008, which was widely reported because of the involvement of wind generation. The objective is to identify sources of the problem, solutions to it and potential improvements that can be made to the system. Lessons learned from the analysis include the following: (1) Large mismatch between generation and load can be caused by load forecast error, wind forecast error and generation scheduling control error on traditional generators, or a combination of all of the above; (2) The capability of system balancing resources should be evaluated both in capacity (MW) and in ramp rate (MW/min), and be procured accordingly to meet both requirements. The resources need to be able to cover a range corresponding to the variability of load and wind in the system, additional to other uncertainties; (3) Unexpected ramps caused by load and wind can both become the cause leading to serious issues; (4) A look-ahead tool evaluating system balancing requirement during real-time operations and comparing that with available system resources should be very helpful to system operators in predicting the forthcoming of similar events and planning ahead; and (5) Demand response (only load reduction in ERCOT event) can effectively reduce load-generation mismatch and terminate frequency deviation in an emergency situation.

  17. Soy but not bisphenol A (BPA) or the phytoestrogen genistin alters developmental weight gain and food intake in pregnant rats and their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jinyan; Echelberger, Roger; Liu, Min; Sluzas, Emily; McCaffrey, Katherine; Buckley, Brian; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are hypothesized to promote obesity and early puberty but their interactive effects with hormonally active diets are poorly understood. Here we assessed individual and combinatorial effects of soy diet or the isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin GIN) with bisphenol A (BPA) on body weight, ingestive behavior and female puberal onset in Wistar rats. Soy-fed dams gained less weight during pregnancy and, although they consumed more than dams on a soy-free diet during lactation, did not become heavier. Their offspring (both sexes), however, became significantly heavier (more pronounced in males) pre-weaning. Soy also enhanced food intake and accelerated female pubertal onset in the offspring. Notably, pubertal onset was also advanced in females placed on soy diet at weaning. Males exposed to BPA plus soy diet, but not BPA alone, had lighter testes. BPA had no independent effects. PMID:26216788

  18. Effects of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA on growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Che, Jianmei; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Bo; Deng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Ge, Cibin; Liu, Guohong; Wang, Jieping

    2016-12-01

    A feeding expriment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation on the growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets were randomly assigned to different treatments groups, which were fed the same basic diet supplemented with 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation. The results showed that a diet supplemented with 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation could significantly increase the final body weight (P < 0.05) and decrease feed to gain ratio, which was 37.1 % lower than that of the control group. The addition of B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA exhibited a trend of reducing the contents of the Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Salmonella compared with the control. During the 35 day experimental period, cellulase and protease activities were significantly increased by the dietary inclusion of the B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation (P < 0.05). The cellulase activity for piglets fed diet containing 1 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 21.8 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The protease activity for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 50.4 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The amylase and hemicellulase activities for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than those on the control diet and other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, usage of feed dietary supplementation with B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA had positive effects on levels of enzymes and minerals in blood. The alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, Fe and Mg concentrations for weaned piglets fed diet containing B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than for those on the control diet (P < 0.05). Furthermore, concentration of IgG in serum was higher in weaned

  19. Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets and to the mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Carchia, E; Porreca, I; Almeida, P J; D'Angelo, F; Cuomo, D; Ceccarelli, M; De Felice, M; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C

    2015-10-29

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions.

  20. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  1. How Our Decimal Money Began.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how the decimal monetary system was created, considering colonial currency, continental currency, money under the Articles of Confederation, and money under the Constitution. Also discusses how money is taught in arithmetic textbooks during these times. (JN)

  2. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA.

    PubMed

    Chou, F I; Chung, H P; Liu, H M; Chi, C W; Lui, W Y

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 microgB/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  3. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Strakovsky, Rita S; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J; Flaws, Jodi A; Helferich, William G; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet.

  4. Relating Phthalate and BPA Exposure to Metabolism in Peripubescence: The Role of Exposure Timing, Sex, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mercado-García, Adriana; Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Cantoral, Alejandra; Meeker, John D.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2016-01-01

    Context: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during development may play a role in the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents by interfering with metabolic homeostasis. Objective: To explore associations between in utero and peripubertal urinary phthalate metabolite and bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations and markers of peripubertal metabolic homeostasis. Design: Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT): a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women in Mexico City and their offspring. Setting: Public maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Patients or Other Participants: Women recruited during pregnancy; offspring recruited for follow-up at age 8–14 years (n = 250). Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting serum c-peptide, IGF-1, leptin, and glucose concentrations among children at follow-up; calculated measures of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Results: Phthalate metabolites and BPA were associated with metabolism biomarkers at age 8–14 years in patterns that varied by sex, pubertal status, and exposure timing. For example, in utero monoethyl phthalate was associated with lower insulin secretion among pubertal boys (P = .02) and higher leptin among girls (P = .04). In utero di-2-ethylhexyl phthlate was associated with higher IGF-1 among pubertal girls; peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthlate was associated with higher IGF-1, insulin secretion, and resistance among prepubertal girls. In contrast, peripubertal dibutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate were associated with lower IGF-1 among pubertal boys. Peripubertal BPA was associated with higher leptin in boys (P = .01). Conclusions: Considering the long-term health effects related to metabolic syndrome, additional research on exposure and metabolic outcomes across developmental periods and early adulthood is needed. PMID:26529628

  5. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a higher quality Final Report with

  6. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells.

  7. Adult exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Patricia; Romano, Renata M; Kizys, Marina M L; Oliveira, Kelen C; Kasamatsu, Teresa; Giannocco, Gisele; Chiamolera, Maria I; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Romano, Marco A

    2015-03-02

    Reproductive physiology involves complex biological processes that can be disrupted by exposure to environmental contaminants. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on spermatogenesis and sperm quality is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity of BPA at dosages considered to be safe (5 or 25mg BPA/kg/day). We assessed multiple sperm parameters, the relative expression of genes involved in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and the serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH. BPA exposure reduced sperm production, reserves and transit time. Significant damage to the acrosomes and the plasma membrane with reduced mitochondrial activity and increased levels of defective spermatozoa may have compromised sperm function and caused faster movement through the epididymis. BPA exposure reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and FSH and increased the concentration of estradiol. The relative gene expression revealed an increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr), luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb), follicle stimulating hormone beta (Fshb), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2) and androgen receptor (Ar) transcripts in the pituitary and a reduction in estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) transcripts in the hypothalamus. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that adult male exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm production and specific functional parameters. The corresponding pattern of gene expression is indicative of an attempt by the pituitary to reestablish normal levels of LH, FSH and testosterone serum concentrations. In conclusion, these data suggest that at dosages previously considered nontoxic to reproductive function, BPA compromises the spermatozoa and disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  8. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2-4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2×10(-11) M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the test chemicals indicated TH circulation disruption. All four chemicals, especially BPA, were able to affect transcripts of phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes (UGT2A1, SULT1) in vitro. In conclusion, the zfTRβ reporter gene system developed here helps delineate an in vitro model to enable the analysis of the TH disruption effects of environmental pollutants in fish. BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways.

  9. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Helferich, William G.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  10. Oral administration of bisphenol A induces high blood pressure through angiotensin II/CaMKII-dependent uncoupling of eNOS.

    PubMed

    Saura, Marta; Marquez, Susana; Reventun, Paula; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; Arenas, María Isabel; Moreno-Gómez-Toledano, Rafael; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; González-Santander, Marta; Zaragoza, Carlos; Bosch, Ricardo J

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in human urine and fat tissue. Higher urinary BPA concentrations are associated with arterial hypertension. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we orally administered BPA (4 nM to 400 μM in drinking water) to 8-wk-old CD11 mice over 30 d. Mice developed dosage-dependent high blood pressure (systolic 130 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 12 mmHg; EC50 0.4 μM), impairment of acetylcholine (AcH)-induced carotid relaxation (0.66 ± 0.08 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1 mm), a 1.7-fold increase in arterial angiotensin II (AngII), an 8.7-fold increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, and significant eNOS-dependent superoxide and peroxynitrite accumulation. AngII inhibition with 0.5 mg/ml losartan reduced oxidative stress and normalized blood pressure and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which suggests that AngII uncouples eNOS and contributes to the BPA-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microarray analysis of mouse aortic endothelial cells revealed a 2.5-fold increase in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α) in response to 10 nM BPA, with increased expression of phosphorylated-CaMKII-α in carotid rings of BPA-exposed mice, whereas CaMKII-α inhibition with 100 nM autocamptide-2-related inhibitor peptide (AIP) reduced BPA-mediated increase of superoxide. Administration of CaMKII-α inhibitor KN 93 reduced BPA-induced blood pressure and carotid blood velocity in mice, and reverted BPA-mediated carotid constriction in response to treatment with AcH. Given that CaMKII-α inhibition prevents BPA-mediated high blood pressure, our data suggest that BPA regulates blood pressure by inducing AngII/CaMKII-α uncoupling of eNOS.

  11. Cross-generational effects of parental low dose BPA exposure on the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone3 system and larval behavior in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T; Smith, N L; Sherva, K M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Parental fish were exposed to BPA (200ng/ml) for either life-long or different developmental time windows. Fertilized F1 eggs were collected and raised in egg/fish water with no environmental exposure to BPA. All experiments were performed on F1 embryos/larvae, which were grouped based on the following parental (F0) BPA exposure conditions - (i) Group 1 (G1): through life; (ii) G2: during embryogenesis and early larval development [1-14days post fertilization (dpf)]; (iii) G3: during neurogenesis (1-5dpf); and (iv) G4: during sex differentiation (5-14dpf). Embryos from unexposed vehicle treated parents served as controls (G0). G1 embryos showed significantly reduced survival rates and delayed hatching time compared to other groups, while G4 embryos hatched significantly earlier than all other groups. At 3 dpf, the GnRH3-GFP intensity was increased by 47% in G3 embryos and decreased in G4 embryos by 59% compared to controls. At 4dpf, G1 fish showed 42% increased intensity, while GFP intensity was reduced by 44% in G3 subjects. In addition, the mean brain size of G1, G3 and G4 embryos were smaller than that of control at 4dpf. At 20dpf, all larvae from BPA-treated parents showed significantly decreased

  12. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi cp32 BpaB Modulates Expression of the Prophage NucP Nuclease and SsbP Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chenail, Alicia M.; Jutras, Brandon L.; Adams, Claire A.; Burns, Logan H.; Bowman, Amy; Verma, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi BpaB proteins of the spirochete's ubiquitous cp32 prophages are DNA-binding proteins, required both for maintenance of the bacteriophage episomes and for transcriptional regulation of the cp32 erp operons. Through use of DNase I footprinting, we demonstrate that BpaB binds the erp operator initially at the sequence 5′-TTATA-3′. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that BpaB also binds with high affinity to sites located in the 5′ noncoding regions of two additional cp32 genes. Characterization of the proteins encoded by those genes indicated that they are a single-stranded DNA-binding protein and a nuclease, which we named SsbP and NucP, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that BpaB binds erp, ssbP, and nucP in live B. burgdorferi. A mutant bacterium that overexpressed BpaB produced significantly higher levels of ssbP and nucP transcript than did the wild-type parent. PMID:22730122

  14. Development of molecular docking-based binding energy to predict the joint effect of BPA and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Chang; Hu, Xia-Lin; Yin, Da-Qiang; Lin, Zhi-Fen

    2011-04-01

    A general proposal for predicting the joint effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals by examining binding energy models was developed in this study. 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA) and 11 of its analogs were chosen, and the estrogenic activity of each compound was measured by determining its EC50 value using a recombinant gene yeast assay. Binding energies (BEs) were calculated using Surflex-Docking software. The analysis of the relationship between EC50 values and BEs showed that there is a linear correlation between the BEs and EC50 values. Furthermore, the analysis of the given binary and quaternary mixtures of BPA and three of its analogs showed that the joint effects of the mixtures were affected by the proportions of the chemicals in each mixture and their relative binding energy. The correlation between the joint effects of mixtures and the binding energy of the individual compounds has been described using one formula, which can be used to predict the joint effects of other mixtures.

  15. Surface aspects of discolouration in Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as lens in LED-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Udono, H.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2014-11-01

    The surface-related reactions during discolouration of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as LED lens plates, under thermal stress are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to monitor the changes in the surface chemistry of BPA-PC plates over a temperature range of 100-140 °C for a period up to 3000 h. Increasing time under thermal stress is associated with the discolouration, and increase in the yellowing index (YI) of PC plastic lens. The XPS results show that discolouration is associated with oxidation at the surface, finding a significant increase in the signal ratio O1s/C1s in the XPS spectra of degraded specimens. During thermal ageing, the Csbnd H concentration decreases and new oxide features Cdbnd O and Osbnd Cdbnd O form, with the latter being a support for oxidation at the surface being a major reaction during discolouration. Results also show that irradiation with blue light during thermal ageing accelerates the kinetics of discolouration and the increased O1s/C1s ratio in XPS spectra.

  16. Longitudinal load and cascading failure risk assessment (CASE): Bonneville Power Administration`s 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, M.

    1998-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 230/500-kV, single circuit, Longview-Olympia transmission line and to identify the cascading potential of the line under five different loading conditions. More specifically, BPA wanted to evaluate the cascading potential of the Type 2L, Type 2A1, and Type 238M tangent structures which comprise a significant portion of the line. While other cascading assessment methods primarily focus on the magnitude of the unbalanced loads acting on the first structure from the initiating event, EPRI`s CASE method incorporates the dynamic response and damping characteristics of the transmission line to determine the unbalanced longitudinal loads at any structure away from the initiating failure event. The CASE application constituted an investigation into the nature of the extreme loads that are expected to occur on the 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line during a cascading failure and the corresponding dynamic response. The goals of the investigation were: to quantify unbalanced longitudinal loads acting on structures adjacent to the broken insulator, shield wire, or conductor failure as well as down-line structures; and to assess the cascading potential of the Longview-Olympia transmission line by considering the energy dissipation at successive spans and supports. The results of the CASE method showed that BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria for the Type 2L, 2A1, and 238 M lattice towers satisfy BPA`s containment failure design philosophy with the addition of fiber optic cable. BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria applied simultaneously with extreme ice or wind does not provide adequate strength to prevent a cascade of less than ten towers.

  17. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  18. The Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on ErbB2 Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...can coatings into a fatty-food simulant and tuna fish. Food Addit Contam, 2005. 22(9): p. 892- 8. 11. Olea, N., et al., Estrogenicity of resin-based...inappropriate routes of administration, utilizing too narrow of a concentration range, pursing end points not directly tied to pathology, and using

  19. Environmental audit, Bonneville Power Administration, lower Columbia area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Audit conducted by the DOE Headquarters Office of Environmental Audit within the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) Lower Columbia Area. The BPA facilities included in the Audit are the Ross Complex in Vancouver, Washington; the substations of North Bonneville, North Bonneville Annex, Camas, and Longview within the state of Washington; and the Acton and Troutdale Substations within the state of Oregon. The independent Audit was conducted by a team of professionals from DOE and contractors. The purpose of the Audit is to provide the Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, Ret., with the status of environmental programs within BPA's Lower Columbia Area. The Environmental Audit team identified 25 findings dealing with the lack of conformance with federal and state laws and regulations and DOE Orders, and 7 findings in which BMPs were not attained. Although all findings require corrective action, none required cessation of operations or reflect situations that present an immediate risk to public health or the environment. The Audit team noted inadequacies in PCB management included storage, labeling, reporting, and spill control. The most significant causal factors for the findings include lack of policy implementation throughout the Lower Columbia Area, inadequate training of personnel charged with environmental protection, lack of standard operating procedures for many programs, lack of reviews and appraisals, and an inaccurate perception of low risk for environmental concerns.

  20. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  1. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  2. Effect of heat processing and storage time on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to aqueous food simulant from Mexican can coatings.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lopez, E M; Soto-Valdez, H

    2001-08-01

    Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and <0.25-4.3 microg/kg, respectively. Both were below European and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed.

  3. Reliability and Factor Structure of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the initial psychometric properties of the first scale specifically developed for behavior problems of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). The Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) consists of 20 items in which raters indicate if each item is…

  4. A Discriminant Analysis of Majors in the College Business and Public Administration at the University of North Dakota. North Dakota Economics Studies, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedefalk, Rolf K.

    Researchers have demonstrated that particular careers attract individuals with distinct identifiable personality profiles and learning styles, and this idea is extended to the selection of majors within the College of Business and Public Administration (BPA) at the University of North Dakota. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used both to…

  5. Union-Administrator Collaboration That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Burton M.

    Mounds View, a K-12 district serving 11,400 students in the St. Paul and Minneapolis (Minnesota) suburbs, used to experience prolonged, hostile negotiations between administrators and the teachers' association. After a particularly bitter round of bargaining in 1984, the district began searching for less adversarial approaches. The district hired…

  6. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola; Al-Rajoudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of

  8. Crystal structures of fibronectin-binding sites from Staphylococcus aureus FnBPA in complex with fibronectin domains

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Richard J.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Meenan, Nicola A. G.; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Höök, Magnus; Garman, Elspeth F.; Potts, Jennifer R.

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can adhere to and invade endothelial cells by binding to the human protein fibronectin (Fn). FnBPA and FnBPB, cell wall-attached proteins from S. aureus, have multiple, intrinsically disordered, high-affinity binding repeats (FnBRs) for Fn. Here, 30 years after the first report of S. aureus/Fn interactions, we present four crystal structures that together comprise the structures of two complete FnBRs, each in complex with four of the N-terminal modules of Fn. Each ≈40-residue FnBR forms antiparallel strands along the triple-stranded β-sheets of four sequential F1 modules (2–5F1) with each FnBR/2–5F1 interface burying a total surface area of ≈4,300 Å2. The structures reveal the roles of residues conserved between S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes FnBRs and show that there are few linker residues between FnBRs. The ability to form large intermolecular interfaces with relatively few residues has been proposed to be a feature of disordered proteins, and S. aureus/Fn interactions provide an unusual illustration of this efficiency. PMID:18713862

  9. Photoaffinity labeling of Ras converting enzyme using peptide substrates that incorporate benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) residues: improved labeling and structural implications.

    PubMed

    Kyro, Kelly; Manandhar, Surya P; Mullen, Daniel; Schmidt, Walter K; Distefano, Mark D

    2011-12-15

    Rce1p catalyzes the proteolytic trimming of C-terminal tripeptides from isoprenylated proteins containing CAAX-box sequences. Because Rce1p processing is a necessary component in the Ras pathway of oncogenic signal transduction, Rce1p holds promise as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. However, its mechanism of proteolysis and active site have yet to be defined. Here, we describe synthetic peptide analogues that mimic the natural lipidated Rce1p substrate and incorporate photolabile groups for photoaffinity-labeling applications. These photoactive peptides are designed to crosslink to residues in or near the Rce1p active site. By incorporating the photoactive group via p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (Bpa) residues directly into the peptide substrate sequence, the labeling efficiency was substantially increased relative to a previously-synthesized compound. Incorporation of biotin on the N-terminus of the peptides permitted photolabeled Rce1p to be isolated via streptavidin affinity capture. Our findings further suggest that residues outside the CAAX-box sequence are in contact with Rce1p, which has implications for future inhibitor design.

  10. Photoaffinity Labeling of Ras Converting Enzyme using Peptide Substrates that Incorporate Benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) Residues: Improved Labeling and Structural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kyro, Kelly; Manandhar, Surya P.; Mullen, Daniel; Schmidt, Walter K.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Rce1p catalyzes the proteolytic trimming of C-terminal tripeptides from isoprenylated proteins containing CAAX-box sequences. Because Rce1p processing is a necessary component in the Ras pathway of oncogenic signal transduction, Rce1p holds promise as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. However, its mechanism of proteolysis and active site have yet to be defined. Here, we describe synthetic peptide analogues that mimic the natural lipidated Rce1p substrate and incorporate photolabile groups for photoaffinity-labeling applications. These photoactive peptides are designed to crosslink to residues in or near the Rce1p active site. By incorporating the photoactive group via p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) residues directly into the peptide substrate sequence, the labeling efficiency was substantially increased relative to a previously-synthesized compound. Incorporation of biotin on the N-terminus of the peptides permitted photolabeled Rce1p to be isolated via streptavidin affinity capture. Our findings further suggest that residues outside the CAAX-box sequence are in contact with Rce1p, which has implications for future inhibitor design. PMID:22079863

  11. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined.

  12. Preloading with L-BPA, L-tyrosine and L-DOPA enhances the uptake of [(18)F]FBPA in human and mouse tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wingelhofer, Bettina; Kreis, Katharina; Mairinger, Severin; Muchitsch, Viktoria; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Langer, Oliver; Kuntner, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate if cellular [(18)F]FBPA uptake can be increased upon preloading with amino acids. [(18)F]FBPA uptake was assessed in HuH-7, CaCo-2 and B16-F1 cells pretreated with different concentrations or incubation times of L-BPA, L-tyrosine or L-DOPA. Without preloading, highest uptake of [(18)F]FBPA was observed in B16-F1 cells, followed by CaCo-2 cells and HuH-7 cells. In all cell lines higher [(18)F]FBPA accumulation (up to 1.65-fold) was obtained with increasing L-BPA, L-DOPA and L-tyrosine concentrations.

  13. BpaB and EbfC DNA-Binding Proteins Regulate Production of the Lyme Disease Spirochete's Infection-Associated Erp Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jutras, Brandon L.; Verma, Ashutosh; Adams, Claire A.; Brissette, Catherine A.; Burns, Logan H.; Whetstine, Christine R.; Bowman, Amy; Chenail, Alicia M.; Zückert, Wolfram R.

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens regulate their protein expression profiles, producing factors during host infection that differ from those produced during vector colonization. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces Erp surface proteins throughout mammalian infection and represses their synthesis during colonization of vector ticks. Known functions of Erp proteins include binding of host laminin, plasmin(ogen), and regulators of complement activation. A DNA region immediately 5′ of erp operons, the erp operator, is required for transcriptional regulation. The B. burgdorferi BpaB and EbfC proteins exhibit high in vitro affinities for erp operator DNA. In the present studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that both proteins bind erp operator DNA in vivo. Additionally, a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods demonstrated that BpaB functions as a repressor of erp transcription, while EbfC functions as an antirepressor. PMID:22155777

  14. Comparing different gas chromatographic methods for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) trace levels in paper and cardboard products from the market.

    PubMed

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including paper and cardboard products used as food contact materials. The present study compared four different gas chromatographic methods for the analysis of BPA in paper and cardboard food packages. Eighteen different food packages were extracted and BPA was determined using two different derivatisation reactions--trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and halide alkylation with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOCl)--and four different separation and detection techniques. The BSTFA derivatives were quantified with (1) GC-MS in single-ion monitoring (SIM) mode with electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) and (2) GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS/MS); while the PFBOCl derivatives were quantified with (3) GC-MS using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) as well as (4) GC-MS with negative chemical ionisation (NCI-GC-MS). All developed methods showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9938), precision (CV < 4.5% for reproducibility; CV < 2.2% for repeatability) and sensitivity, with limits of detection (LODs) between 0.02 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives measured with the NCI-GC-MS method and 6 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives determined with EI-GC-MS. Levels of BPA in the samples were in agreement for all methods, ranging from values below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 11.9 mg kg(-1) paper. In a last step, the maximum potential migration into food products was calculated for all tested paper and cardboard samples, assuming a 'worst case' scenario of 100% migration.

  15. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  16. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla; Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo; Pisarev, Mario; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  17. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  18. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  19. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  20. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  1. Using Ensemble Streamflows for Power Marketing at Bonneville Power Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. B.; Koski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a federal non-profit agency within the Pacific Northwest responsible for marketing the power generated from 31 federal hydro projects throughout the Columbia River Basin. The basin encompasses parts of five states and portions of British Columbia, Canada. BPA works with provincial entities, federal and state agencies, and tribal members to manage the water resources for a variety of purposes including flood risk management, power generation, fisheries, irrigation, recreation, and navigation. This basin is subject to significant hydrologic variability in terms of seasonal volume and runoff shape from year to year which presents new water management challenges each year. The power generation planning group at BPA includes a team of meteorologists and hydrologists responsible for preparing both short-term (up to three weeks) and mid-term (up to 18 months) weather and streamflow forecasts including ensemble streamflow data. Analysts within the mid-term planning group are responsible for running several different hydrologic models used for planning studies. These models rely on these streamflow ensembles as a primary input. The planning studies are run bi-weekly to help determine the amount of energy available, or energy inventory, for forward marketing (selling or purchasing energy up to a year in advance). These studies are run with the objective of meeting the numerous multi-purpose objectives of the basin under the various streamflow conditions within the ensemble set. In addition to ensemble streamflows, an ensemble of seasonal volume forecasts is also provided for the various water conditions in order to set numerous constraints on the system. After meeting all the various requirements of the system, a probabilistic energy inventory is calculated and used for marketing purposes.

  2. Behaviour of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) in oxidative water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lenz, K; Beck, V; Fuerhacker, M

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as natural and synthetic hormones or industrial chemicals can adversely affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. As such substances can be present in raw water used for drinking-water production, they potentially pose a health risk to humans. In this study laboratory tests were performed to determine removal efficiencies of selected oxidative drinking water treatment processes, namely ozonation (1.4 mg/l O3) and chlorination, using sodium hypochlorite (0.5 mg/l NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4-0.6 mg/l ClO2) under conditions applied in technical plants. 500-300,000 ng/l of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-nonylphenol-n-ethoxylates (NPnEO) were selected for investigations and measured by HPLC/FLD and HPLC/MS. To investigate possible oxidation by-products, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were determined and estrogenic activities were assessed with the help of an estrogen receptor binding assay (YES). Ozonation and chlorination with ClO2 removed both 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, corresponding with AOX and estrogenic activity. Concerning NPnEO ozonation removed NP1EO and NP2EO up to 28% and 30%, respectively, whereas ClO2 showed high removal efficiencies, eliminating >94% and 92%, respectively. NaCIO removed 4-NP and BPA below detection limits, but estrogenic activities increased and AOX could be measured. NP1EO and NP2EO were only marginally reduced corresponding to the slight decrease of estrogenic potential.

  3. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vähätalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Järviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppälä, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment.

  4. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  5. Development of a new DNA vaccine based on mycobacterial ESAT-6 antigen delivered by recombinant invasive Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; Saraiva, Tessália Diniz Luerce; Souza, Bianca Mendes; Zurita-Turk, Meritxell; Azevedo, Marcela Santiago Pacheco; De Castro, Camila Prósperi; Mancha-Agresti, Pamela; Dos Santos, Janete Soares Coelho; Santos, Ana Cristina Gomes; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Leclercq, Sophie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2015-02-01

    The use of the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis as a vehicle for the oral delivery of DNA vaccine plasmids constitutes a promising strategy for vaccination. The delivery of DNA plasmids into eukaryotic cells is of critical importance for subsequent DNA expression and effectiveness of the vaccine. In this context, the use of the recombinant invasive L. lactis FnBPA+ (fibronectin-binding protein A) strain for the oral delivery of the eukaryotic expression vector vaccination using lactic acid bacteria (pValac), coding for the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, could represent a new DNA vaccine strategy against tuberculosis. To this end, the ESAT-6 sequence was cloned into the pValac vector; the L. lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA)+ (pValac:ESAT-6) strain was obtained, and its immunological profile was checked in BALB/c mice. This strain was able to significantly increase interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in spleen cells, showing a systemic T helper 1 (Th1) cell response. The mice also showed a significant increase in specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) production in colon tissue and fecal extracts. Thus, this is the first time that L. lactis has been used to deliver a plasmid DNA harboring a gene that encodes an antigen against tuberculosis through mucous membranes.

  6. How did 'biopolymers' evolve before life began?

    PubMed

    Scott, J E

    1988-12-01

    The very reactive products of ionizing radiations acting on water (e(aq)(-), OH·, H·, etc.) probably had a very potent effect in selecting prebiopolymers from the polymers of the primordial soup. e(aq)(-), in particular, has properties that give considerable insight into the survival of nucleic acids, secondary structures in DNA and polypeptides, lipid membranes and electron transport systems. OH· could have played an important part in selecting specific binding sites ('specifity selection'). Experimental evidence is available for these proposals.

  7. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  8. We the Peoples: When American Education Began

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "The accomplishments of Indians and their actual place in the story of the United States have never been remotely touched by ... [most] historians. The major reason for this omission is that a substantial number of practicing historians simply do not know the source documents with sufficient precision to make sense of them; ... They spend a…

  9. How the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme began.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Martyn S

    2014-07-07

    Seventy years ago, the Curtin wartime government introduced legislation for a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). It was a response to the need to provide access to a wave of antibiotic drugs - sulfonamides, streptomycin, penicillin - to the whole population, not only to the minority able to afford them. The scheme was immediately and successfully opposed by doctors and the conservative opposition, which saw in universal health care an underhand plan to nationalise medicine. There were two High Court challenges, two referendums and a constitutional amendment; but it was not until 1960 that Australians had the comprehensive PBS envisaged by Curtin in 1944.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that…

  11. Soy but not Bisphenol A (BPA) Induces Hallmarks of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Related Metabolic co-Morbidities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Mabrey, Natalie; Adewale, Heather B.; Sullivan, Alana W.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder with a prevalence as high as 8–15% depending on ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria employed. The basic pathophysiology and mode of inheritance remain unclear, but environmental factors such as diet, stress and chemical exposures are thought to be contributory. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been hypothesized to exacerbate risk, in part because PCOS hallmarks and associated metabolic co-morbidities can be reliably induced in animal models by perinatal androgen exposure. Here we show that lifetime exposure to a soy diet, containing endocrine active phytoestrogens, but not developmental exposure (gestational day 6 – lactational day 40) to the endocrine disrupting monomer Bisphenol A (BPA), can induce key features of PCOS in the rat; results which support the hypothesis that hormonally active diets may contribute to risk when consumed throughout gestation and post-natal life. PMID:25242113

  12. Estimates of Dietary Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) from Light Metal Packaging using Food Consumption and Packaging usage Data: A Refined Deterministic Approach and a Fully Probabilistic (FACET) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oldring, P.K.T.; Castle, L.; O'Mahony, C.; Dixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19–64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005–0.012 mg dm−2. The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg−1 body weight day−1 for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg−1 body weight day. These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the lowest

  13. Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.

    PubMed

    Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J

    2014-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19-64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005-0.012 mg dm(-2). The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the

  14. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  15. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  16. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  17. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the removal and mineralization of an endocrine disrupting chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) at a concentration of 0.22 mM in aqueous solution using inorganic oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8;S2O8(2-)) under UV irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm and 40 W power (Io = 1.26 × 10(-6) E s(-1)) at its natural pH and a temperature of 29 ± 3 °C. With an optimum persulfate concentration of 1.26 mM, the UV/S2O8(2-) process resulted in ∼95% BPA removal after 240 min of irradiation. The optimum BPA removal was found to be ∼85% with a H2O2 concentration of 11.76 mM. At higher concentrations, either of the oxidants showed an adverse effect because of the quenching of the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals in the BPA solution. The sulfate-based oxidation process could be used over a wider initial pH range of 3-12, but the hydroxyl radical-based oxidation of BPA should be carried out in the acidic pH range only. The water matrix components (bicarbonate, chloride and humic acid) showed higher scavenging effect in hydroxyl radical-based oxidation than that in the sulfate radical-based oxidation of BPA. UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation system utilized less energy (307 kWh/m(3)) EE/O in comparison to UV/H2O2 system (509 kWh/m(3)) under optimum operating conditions. The cost of UV irradiation far outweighed the cost of the oxidants in the process. However, the total cost of treatment of persulfate-based system was much lower than that of H2O2-based oxidation system.

  18. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  19. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Georges; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2015-05-01

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  20. C4BPB/C4BPA is a new susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis with unknown protein S–independent mechanism: results from genome-wide association and gene expression analyses followed by case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Buil, Alfonso; Souto, Juan Carlos; Saut, Noémie; Germain, Marine; Rotival, Maxime; Tiret, Laurence; Cambien, Françcois; Lathrop, Mark; Zeller, Tanja; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gagnon, France; Emmerich, Joseph; Almasy, Laura; Blankenberg, Stefan; Soria, José-Manuel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Through its binding with protein S (PS), a key element of the coagulation/fibrinolysis cascade, the C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has been hypothesized to be involved in the susceptibility to venous thrombosis (VT). To identify genetic factors that may influence the plasma levels of the 3 C4BP existing isoforms, α7β1, α6β1, and α7β0, we conducted a genome-wide association study by analyzing 283 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia (GAIT) study composed of 352 persons. Three SNPs at the C4BPB/C4BPA locus were found genome-wide significantly associated with α7β0 levels. One of these SNPs was further found to explain approximately 11% of the variability of mRNA C4BPA expression in the Gutenberg Heart Study composed of 1490 persons, with no effect on C4BPB mRNA expression. The allele associated with increased α7β0 plasma levels and increased C4BPA expression was further found associated with increased risk of VT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [1.03-1.53]) in 2 independent case-control studies (MARseille THrombosis Association study [MARTHA] and FActeurs de RIsque et de récidives de la maladie thromboembolique VEineuse [FARIVE]) gathering 1706 cases and 1379 controls. This SNP was not associated with free PS or total PS. In conclusion, we observed strong evidence that the C4BPB/C4BPA locus is a new susceptibility locus for VT through a PS-independent mechanism that remains to be elucidated. PMID:20212171

  1. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  2. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management system to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Lu, Shuai; Miller, Carl H.; Nyeng, Preben; Ma, Jian; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.

    2008-06-30

    The entire project addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that occur at higher penetration of intermittent resources, including wind genera-tion, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent Sys-tem Operator (California ISO) control areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS) will address the additional regulation requirement through the energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and California ISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional regulation resources. The proposed project will benefit the regulation service in these service areas, regardless of the actual degree of penetration of the intermittent resources in the regions. The project develops principles, algorithms, market integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifications for the WAEMS system. The project is sponsored by BPA and supported in kind by California ISO, Beacon Power Corporation, and the Cali-fornia Energy Commission (CEC).

  3. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Nyeng, Preben; Miller, Carl H.; Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; McManus, Bart; Pease, John; Loutan, Clyde; RosenBlum, Grant R.

    2009-11-30

    The project described in the paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that will occur at higher penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy stor-age and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional balancing services. The work conducted developed principles, algorithms, mar-ket integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifica-tions for the WAEMS system. Main results obtained in the project are as follow: •Most suitable energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. •A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an ag-gregate of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or a con-ventional hydro plant). The aggregate to be integrated with BPA/CAISO automatic generation control systems. •An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, pre-vent violations, and keep the hydro (pumped storage) power output close to the most efficient operating point. •It has been shown that the WAEMS service could help to reduce the regulation requirement in BPA and CAISO con-trol areas by about 30% compared to a traditional regulation service with the same total regulation capacity.

  4. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  5. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  6. Precise time dissemination and applications development on the Bonneville Power Administration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ken E.; Esztergalyos, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) uses IRIG-B transmitted over microwave as its primary system time dissemination. Problems with accuracy and reliability have led to ongoing research into better methods. BPA has also developed and deployed a unique fault locator which uses precise clocks synchronized by a pulse over microwaves. It automatically transmits the data to a central computer for analysis. A proposed system could combine fault location timing and time dissemination into a Global Position System (GPS) timing receiver and close the verification loop through a master station at the Dittmer Control Center. Such a system would have many advantages, including lower cost, higher reliability, and wider industry support. Test results indicate the GPS has sufficient accuracy and reliability for this and other current timing requirements including synchronous phase angle measurements. A phasor measurement system which provides phase angle has recently been tested with excellent results. Phase angle is a key parameter in power system control applications including dynamic braking, DC modulation, remedial action schemes, and system state estimation. Further research is required to determine the applications which can most effectively use real-time phase angle measurements and the best method to apply them.

  7. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  8. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  9. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  10. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  11. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  12. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  13. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  14. Sustainability at BPA May 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-01

    BPA’s approach to sustainability is built on the agency’s foundation of environmental stewardship partnered with its commitment to operational excellence. Around the world today, sustainable business practices are driving innovation, opening opportunities for resource and cost efficiencies, as well as increasing employee engagement and productivity. Business jumped on the bandwagon early finding that sustainability can be an important component of their company’s competitive advantage. A 2010 survey by the United Nations Global Compact/Accenture of 766 CEOs from around the globe found that, despite the economic downturn, 93 percent of the CEOs surveyed see sustainability as critical to their company’s future success. Calling on the federal government to “lead by example,” President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13514 in October 2009 to green the government by improving “environmental, energy and economic performance.”

  15. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  16. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  17. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  18. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  19. Traditionalism and Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    Administration is defined as the enactment of moral choices influencing subordinates within an organizational setting. It is distinguished from management, which is considered to involve a lower level of discretion. Educational administration is therefore in the moral domain; it involves discretionary, moral choices in a field that is itself moral…

  20. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  1. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  2. Administrative Theory in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…

  3. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  4. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  5. Drug Education for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)

  6. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  7. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  8. Needed: Nursing Administration Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Eunice M.

    1976-01-01

    A master's program that synthesizes clinical nursing knowledge with management theory and skills is one way to prepare nursing service administrators capable of exerting an influence on today's complex health care system. (Editor)

  9. The Administrator Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael F.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)

  10. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  11. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  12. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  13. Company Administration Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    iTRATION CENTER AND FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON. INDIANA 46216 ATZI -XO 16 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...Mail, files, records management* publications, voting, etc.). ... AnnexA II ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...administration as follows: A. 2 I * * " " " ’+ " " ’ ’ ’ ’’ ’ , ’" I ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company Administration Study tea

  14. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  15. Impact Mitigation and Monitoring of the BPA 500-kV Garrison-Taft Transmission Line : Effects on Elk Security and Hunter Opportunity, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, Jodie E.

    1988-11-01

    This study was conducted by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks from 1984--1988 to assess the impacts of the Garrison-Taft segment of a 500-kV powerline on elk summer-fall habitat. Construction of the powerline began in 1983, and the powerline was energized in 1985. The Garrison-Taft powerline corridor crossed 251 km of mountainous terrain in western Montana; about 465 km of new roads were constructed to provide permanent access to the powerline towers. The objectives of the study were: (1) to monitor the effectiveness of mitigation measures, including timing restrictions on construction activities and road closures on newly-built access roads, and (2) to determine if opening previously-unroaded elk security habitats to hunters by powerline access roads affected elk habitat use, distribution, use of security areas, or elk harvest. In addition, both the potential for accelerated timber harvest in areas crossed by the powerline that would not have otherwise been logged because of marginal economics and lack of haul roads and the potential effect of powerline flashovers on future prescribed burning of elk winter-ranges were evaluated. 83 refs., 88 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Induction of oviposition by the administration of oxytocin in hawksbill turtles.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    We set out to develop an oviposition induction technique for captive female hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. The infertile eggs of nine females were induced to develop by the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone, after which we investigated the effects of administering oxytocin on oviposition. Seven of the turtles were held in a stationary horizontal position on a retention stand, and then oxytocin was administrated (0.6-0.8 units/kg of body weight; 5 mL). The seven turtles were retained for a mandatory 2 h period after oxytocin administration, and were then returned to the holding tanks. As the control, normal saline (5 mL) was administered to the other two turtles, followed by the administration of oxytocin after 24 h. The eggs in oviducts of all nine turtles were observed by ultrasonography at 24 h after oxytocin administration. The control experiment validated that stationary retention and normal saline administration had no effect on egg oviposition. Eight of the turtles began ovipositing eggs at 17-43 min after oxytocin administration, while one began ovipositing in the holding tank immediately after retention. All turtles finished ovipositing eggs within 24 h of oxytocin administration. This report is the first to demonstrate successful induced oviposition in sea turtles. We suggest that the muscles in the oviducts of hawksbill turtles may respond to relatively lower doses of oxytocin (inducing contractions) compared to land and freshwater turtles (4-40 units/kg) based on existing studies.

  17. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  18. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  19. Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time in a decade, Bonneville had to propose a double digit rate increase in 1993. Many of the causes were beyond our control, but self-examination and painful budget cuts put the focus squarely where it should be -- on the changes needed for BPA to compete in an increasingly market-driven business environment. As deregulation and change sweep the electricity industry, BPA has launched a major Competitiveness Project. It`s clear that we can, and will, cut costs and make ourselves more efficient. We can shape our products and services to better reflect what customers want and are willing to pay for. And more than ever we will measure and reward output -- results -- more than process. BPA today is the Northwest`s low-cost supplier of electricity and transmission services. To stay that way, we must adopt a more business-like model. The move does not signal a rejection of our role as a federal agency. In fact, close attention to sound business principles is the only way to strengthen our commitment to fish and wildlife, environment, and other community values.

  20. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  1. Administrative Sides of Librarying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author used administrative skills learned as a school library media specialist to meet the demands of a university department chair. Topics include the influence of decisions that are made; budgeting; evaluation concerns and responsibilities; determining guidelines and goals; political concerns; and the flow of information. (LRW)

  2. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  3. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  4. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  5. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  6. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  7. The Administrative Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A., Ed.; Warren, Andrea, Ed.

    This monograph was developed as part of the project known as Internships, Certification, Equity-Leadership, and Support (ICES). The Kansas project successfully field-tested a model for mobilizing statewide resources to prepare women for administrative careers and to place them in appropriate positions. The crucial component of the training program…

  8. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  10. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  11. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  12. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  13. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  14. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  15. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  16. Assessing the identity and expression level of the cytochrome P450 20A1 (CYP20A1) gene in the BPA-, BDE-47, and WAF-exposed copepods Tigriopus japonicus and Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Nelson, David R; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    CYP20A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, identified as an orphan P450 without any assigned biological function; hence, its continued status as an "orphan" gene. In order to address this shortcoming in our understanding of this superfamily, we sought to characterize the CYP20A1 gene in the copepods Tigriopus japonicus (Tj-CYP20A1) and Paracyclopina nana (Pn-CYP20A1) at their mRNA transcriptional level. We assessed the response of this gene's expression in various developmental stages and in response to treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. As shown in the vertebrate CYP20A1, both Tj-CYP20A1 and Pn-CYP20A1 contained characteristic conserved motifs and domain regions (I helix, K helix and heme-binding motifs) with unusual amino acid sequences apparent in their gene structure. Also molecular characterization of the putative responsive elements in the promoter regions was performed. We observed transcriptional up-regulation of these genes during post-embryonic developmental stages including sex-specific up-regulation in adults. In addition, concentration- and time-dependent mRNA transcripts in response to xenobiotics (BPA, BDE-47, and WAFs) were seen. This study focuses on the molecular elucidation of CYP20A1 genes and their interactions with xenobiotics in the copepods T. japonicus and P. nana that provides important insight into the biological importance of CYP20A1 in invertebrates.

  17. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and notice of floodplain and wetlands involvement. SUMMARY: BPA intends to... floodplain and wetlands environmental review requirements, BPA will prepare a floodplain and wetlands assessment to avoid or minimize potential harm to or within any affected floodplains and wetlands....

  18. Where Radiobiology Began in Russia: A Physician’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    White Archipelago”) (Gubarev, 2004): “Visiting a number of production facilities that worked with plutonium and polonium - 210 , I was struck by the...of Metlino and Nadyrov Most to examine dozens of residents there. Another 210 residents from the headwaters of the Techa were examined in the

  19. When It All Began: A Question of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the contrasting religions of the White man and the Indian and explains how the Indian has always practiced freedom of religion. Includes a statement given in 1805 by Red Jacket, an Indian leader of the Seneca Tribe, addressing religious freedom. (SB)

  20. The progene hypothesis: the nucleoprotein world and how life began.

    PubMed

    Altstein, Anatoly D

    2015-11-26

    In this article, I review the results of studies on the origin of life distinct from the popular RNA world hypothesis. The alternate scenario postulates the origin of the first bimolecular genetic system (a polynucleotide gene and a polypeptide processive polymerase) with simultaneous replication and translation and includes the following key features: 1. The bimolecular genetic system emerges not from mononucleotides and monoamino acids, but from progenes, namely, trinucleotides aminoacylated on 3'-end by a non-random amino acid (NpNpNp ~ pX ~ Aa, where N--deoxyribo- or ribonucleoside, p--phosphate, X--a bifunctional agent, for example ribose, Aa--amino acid, ~ macroerge bond). Progenes are used as substrates for simultaneous synthesis of a polynucleotide and a polypeptide. Growth of the system is controlled by the growing polypeptide, and the bimolecular genetic system emerges as an extremely rare event. The first living being (virus-like organism protoviroid, Protoviroidum primum) arises and reproduces in prebiotic liposome-like structures using progenes. A population of protoviroids possessing the genetic system evolves in accordance with the Darwinian principle. Early evolution from protoviroid world to protocell world is shortly described. 2. The progene forming mechanism (NpNp + Np ~ pX ~ Aa) makes it possible to explain the emergence of the prebiotic physicochemical group genetic code, as well as the selection of organic compounds for the future genetic system from the racemic environment. 3. The protoviroid is reproduced on a progene basis via replicative transcription-translation (RTT, the first molecular genetic process) that is similar to its modern counterparts. Nothing is required for the emergence and reproduction of the protoviroid except for progenes and conditions for their formation. 4. The general scheme of early evolution is as follows: prebiotic world → protoviroid (nucleoprotein) world → protocell (DNA-RNA-protein) world → LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) → modern cell world. This scheme exclude the existence of an independent RNA world as predecessor of the cellular world.

  1. STD rates began rising long ago, say researchers.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    Although recent increases in some sexually transmitted diseases have health officials worried about a rise in new HIV cases, a new study shows that risk behavior among HIV-positive people has been a problem for at least a decade. The results show a need for greater emphasis on 'prevention among positives,' says a researcher.

  2. The medical liability insurance crisis: how it began.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Economic pressures, awareness that physicians can be sued, improved medical care, and increased patient expectations have led to the skyrocketing liability insurance costs physicians face today. In the early days when the doctor could offer hope but little medicine, patients were not inclined to sue for medical "failures." But with the Great Depression, World War II, more recent medical advances changed the patient-physician relationship. Patients had gained the expertise of specialists, but often lost the personal relationship they once shared with their primary physician. Thus, when treatments were unsuccessful, the patient often-times blamed the physician. Insurance premiums (and patient costs) increased, while patients became even more aware that physicians were covered by insurance. This article reviews key economic, medical, and social events that led to the present medical liability insurance crisis.

  3. How it all began: a personal history of gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Arne Tiselius' moving boundary electrophoresis method was still in general use in 1951 when this personal history begins, although zonal electrophoresis with a variety of supporting media (e.g., filter paper or starch grains) was beginning to replace it. This chapter is an account of 10 years of experiments carried out by the author during which molecular sieving gel electrophoresis was developed and common genetic variants of two proteins, haptoglobin and transferrin, were discovered in normal individuals. Most of the figures are images of pages from the author's laboratory notebooks, which are still available, so that some of the excitement of the time and the humorous moments are perhaps apparent. Alkaline gels, acidic gels with and without denaturants, vertical gels, two-dimensional gels, and gels with differences in starch concentration are presented. The subtle details that can be discerned in these various gels played an indispensable role in determining the nature of the change in the haptoglobin gene (Hp) that leads to the polymeric series characteristic of Hp ( 2 ) /Hp ( 2 ) homozygotes. Where possible, the names of scientific friends who made this saga of gel electrophoresis so memorable and enjoyable are gratefully included.

  4. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  5. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  6. Flexible and dynamic thermal behavior of self-catenated [{Ni3(H2O)3(Bpa)4}(V6O18)]·8H2O constructed from 10-c heterometallic inorganic-organic clusters.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Luis, Roberto; Mesa, José L; Urtiaga, M Karmele; Larrea, Edurne S; Rojo, Teófilo; Arriortua, María I

    2012-02-20

    The hydrothermal treatment of Ni(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O, NaVO(3), and Bpa (1,2-Di(pyridyl)ethane) (C(12)H(12)N(2)) at 120 °C during 3 days leads to green single crystals of the title compound. The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that [{Ni(3)(H(2)O)(3)(Bpa)(4)}(V(6)O(18))]·8H(2)O crystallizes in the monoclinic system, P2(1)/c space group, with a = 13.5536 (2), b = 19.0463 (2), c = 27.7435 (3) Å, β = 112.3880 (10)°, V = 6622(3) Å(3), with R1(obs) = 0.0558, wR2(obs) = 0.1359, for 10278 observed reflections. The complexity of the crystal structure is based on different points, as the existence of: both "gauche" and "trans" conformations of the organic ligand, the [V(12)O(36)](-12) cycles, formed by 12 corner-sharing VO(4) tetrahedra, and, finally, the combination of both three-dimensional metal-organic and inorganic substructures, giving rise to a self-catenated highly connected net. The crystallization water molecules are semi-encapsulated in the channels along the [100] direction, and their loss gives rise to a dynamical and reversible structural contraction. Moreover, after the removal of the crystallization water molecules, the compound exhibits a negative thermal behavior in the 85-155 °C temperature range, and irreversible structural transformation due to the loss of coordinated water molecules up to 200 °C. The IR and UV-vis spectra were determined for the as-synthesized sample, after the removal of crystallization water molecules and after the irreversible transformation due to the loss of coordinated water molecules. The thermal evolution of χ(m) was adjusted to a magnetic model considering an isotropic dimer plus two Ni(II) d(8) isolated octahedra.

  7. Administrator Protections in Negotiated Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John Ralph; Sells, Jack D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents specific examples of provisions currently found in administrator-board collective bargaining agreements that protect administrators from the adverse effects of both bilateral decisions made by boards with teachers, and unilateral decisions made by boards concerning principals. (Author)

  8. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  9. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is ... Visit the Office of Community Services Website The Family Room Blog RSS Feed Building Community, Building Hope: ...

  10. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  11. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  12. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by…

  13. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  14. The Cultural Context of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    To explicate the relevance of cultural context to educational administration practices, this paper contrasts United States cultural attitudes and administrative practices with those of Latin America. Drawing on Leslie A. White's definition of culture, the author presents the Weberian model of administration as exemplary for the United States,…

  15. Comparing Administrators' Perceptions of SBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; Woodworth, Beth

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of administrators of small rural districts hold about school-based management (SBM) and to compare them with the perceptions of administrators in larger, nonrural districts. Administrators' perceptions of what should occur in SBM were compared with what they perceived does occur. Responses…

  16. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  17. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  18. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  19. Faculty and Administrators at Nova Southeastern University Respond to a Winter Term 2000 Office of Grants and Contracts Customer Satisfaction Survey. Research and Planning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    In 1996, the Office of Grants and Contracts at Nova Southeastern University (Florida) began a reporting process to determine the extent of constituent satisfaction with its services. This study, performed in the year 2000, repeated the established reporting process. The invited sample of 532 included full-time faculty, administrators, selected…

  20. [Administrative support for Asperger's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Shu

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, administrative support for developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, has come to be conspicuous with "Law for Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities", which went into effect in 2005, and promotion of "Special Support Education". However, these supports are still insufficient, because administrative support for the Asperger's syndrome in Japan, having just started very recently. Developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, are by no means mild as disabilities, it is required to fill up administrative support for them from now on.

  1. Development management for nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Heyden, R; Luyas, G; Henry, B

    1990-04-01

    What are the needs of a nurse administrator in a developing country? For that matter, what are the requirements for a nurse administrator in areas of lesser developed delivery in this country (e.g., care of the homeless, care of indigent populations)? Heyden, Luyas, and Henry look at the educational needs of these nurse managers and compare the needs to the typical education received in nursing administration programs.

  2. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Describes a human resources development program for school administrators, including training in management functions, leader behavior skills, instructional leadership skills, and more traditional topics. (Author/JM)

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

  4. The Educational Administrator's Survival Guide to Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    Guidelines are presented for use by educational administrators in selecting a microcomputer for administrative purposes. The selection process described is based on the determination of functions to be automated, and the identification of the software that best automates these functions. Topics addressed include general software applications that…

  5. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations.

  6. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  7. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  8. Attitudes, Administrative Styles, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, J. Stanley

    1984-01-01

    The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…

  9. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  10. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  11. Development Management for Nursing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyden, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the educational needs of nurse administrators in developing counties and in areas of lesser development in the United States and compares them to the typical education received in nursing administration programs. Concludes that a focus on development management is needed. (JOW)

  12. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  13. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  14. The Magic of Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.

    We are better prepared today to deal with the problems in library administration, because we not only have the basic work of management theorists, but also staffs who are better educated and more interested in participation. During the last 25 years, there have been two strands in library administration. The older, human relations approach allowed…

  15. Outsourcing real estate lease administration.

    PubMed

    Kardel, S

    1996-09-01

    Real estate lease administration is becoming increasingly important to healthcare organizations; however, not all organizations possess the in-house expertise to carry out this specialized function. For such organizations, outsourcing lease administration may be a more efficient way to manage their real estate portfolios and possibly improve their bottom lines.

  16. Cardinal Virtues of Academic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to articulate the basic elements of a comprehensive ethic of academic administration, organized around a set of three cardinal virtues: "commitment" to the good of the institution; good administrative "judgment"; and "conscientiousness" in discharging the duties of the office. In addition to explaining this framework and…

  17. College Administration: Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltner, Bill D., Ed.

    Ten colleges participated in a project to: (1) help organize and strengthen administrative teams in developing two-year and four-year colleges throughout the Southeast; (2) to assist administrative teams in identifying specific roles for each team member and in developing an understanding of team responsibilities; and (3) to assist administrative…

  18. Expanding Role of the Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jack R.

    The role of the secondary school administrator can be viewed in two ways: From a defensive point of view with the administrator marshaling the forces of organization, stimulating effort, capturing the imagination, inspiring teachers, coordinating efforts, and serving as a model of sustained effort; or from an alternative point of view with the…

  19. Idaho Driver Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This guide provides information for school administrators and directors of commercial driver training schools about conducting driver education courses in Idaho. The first part of the guide, which applies to both public schools and commercial schools, covers the following areas: administration, sample letters and forms, instructional time…

  20. Educational Administration: The Developing Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 18 papers originally prepared for a 1975 conference that attempted to assess past developments in the knowledge and practice of educational administration and to identify future directions for research, leadership, and preparation. Individual papers include "Educational Administration, 1954-1974,""Roald F. Campbell: Teacher,…

  1. The Dissimilarity of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John

    1970-01-01

    The responsibilities of educational administrators do not extend to the products of the educational institutions. Rather, they end at the point where they maintain satisfactory conditions for leisure activities. In this respect, educational administration may serve as a model for the governance of an increasing number of organizations, both public…

  2. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  3. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  4. Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    Through its Energy Smart Industrial program, BPA is informing and assisting utilities and industries to have a better understanding of the benefits that come from participating in energy-savings programs. Read about how BPA is encouraging energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

  5. A Woman Administrator Speaks: Openness and Secrecy in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Martha

    1975-01-01

    In a speech presented to NAWDAC, NASPA and ACPA in Chicago, April 15, 1974, the author addresses problems encountered by administrators regarding the need to maintain credibility while recognizing theneed to maintain some amount of confidentiality. (HMV)

  6. Bonneville Power Administration, Lower Columbia Region: Noxious Weed Management, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    1996-01-01

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integrated prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.

  7. Prenatal Exposure to BPA and Offspring Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Iván; Nadal, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the most common metabolic disorders, with prevalence rates that are reaching epidemic proportions. Both are complex conditions affecting virtually all ages and with serious health consequences. The underlying cause of the problem is still puzzling, but both genetic and environmental factors including unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, or the exposure to some environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are thought to have a causal influence. In addition, the impact of early environment has recently emerged as an important factor responsible for the increased propensity to develop adult-onset metabolic disease. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development is the most commonly studied factor affecting early programming of obesity and T2DM. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence shows that exposure to EDCs could also account for this phenomenon. In the present review, we will overview the most relevant findings that confirm the critical role of bisphenol-A, one of the most widespread EDCs, in the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:26676280

  8. Transcultural perspectives in nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M M

    1998-11-01

    Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined.

  9. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  10. Administrative Computing: Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes administrative computer use in the Concord (NH) School District. Applications discussed include procurement, cash flow and investment, accounting and control, and teacher contracts, all performed with in-house programs. (MCG)

  11. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  12. Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Fihn, Stephan D; Francis, Joseph; Clancy, Carolyn; Nielson, Christopher; Nelson, Karin; Rumsfeld, John; Cullen, Theresa; Bates, Jack; Graham, Gail L

    2014-07-01

    Health care has lagged behind other industries in its use of advanced analytics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has three decades of experience collecting data about the veterans it serves nationwide through locally developed information systems that use a common electronic health record. In 2006 the VHA began to build its Corporate Data Warehouse, a repository for patient-level data aggregated from across the VHA's national health system. This article provides a high-level overview of the VHA's evolution toward "big data," defined as the rapid evolution of applying advanced tools and approaches to large, complex, and rapidly changing data sets. It illustrates how advanced analysis is already supporting the VHA's activities, which range from routine clinical care of individual patients--for example, monitoring medication administration and predicting risk of adverse outcomes--to evaluating a systemwide initiative to bring the principles of the patient-centered medical home to all veterans. The article also shares some of the challenges, concerns, insights, and responses that have emerged along the way, such as the need to smoothly integrate new functions into clinical workflow. While the VHA is unique in many ways, its experience may offer important insights for other health care systems nationwide as they venture into the realm of big data.

  13. 45 CFR 1336.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative costs. 1336.71 Section 1336.71... Administrative costs. Reasonable administrative costs of the RLF may be paid out of the loan fund. The grant award agreement between the Loan Administrator and ANA will set forth the allowable administrative...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  16. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  17. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  18. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  19. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative offset. 179.307 Section 179.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.307 Administrative offset. (a) If the debtor does...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  2. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  3. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... employees of the federal government. (c) The Administrator shall submit to the Commission projected quarterly budgets at least sixty (60) days prior to the start of every quarter. The Commission must...

  4. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  5. An Analysis of Administrator Attitudes toward Tasks in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, Robin; Diamantes, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study reports attitudes of current school administrators toward routine tasks in an attempt to offer insight into why the job may or may not be considered a wise career choice or even a desirable job. The research question for this study is: What makes the principal's position desirable and what makes this important leadership position less…

  6. Nurse administrators: leading environmental change.

    PubMed

    Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Ballard, Karen A; Gallagher, Rita Munley; Carpenter, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is building about the impact of environmental contaminants on patients and health care providers. The nurse administrator has a professional responsibility to provide leadership in assuring that the health care organization does not have a negative impact on health. This article presents critical environmental health concerns and an overview of the nursing profession efforts to improve the environment, which includes development of the American Nurses Association's Principles of Environmental Health for Nursing Practice with Implementation Strategies. An example is provided as to how the nurse administrator can use Appreciative Inquiry to harness the nurses collaborative energy for an environmentally healthy organization.

  7. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  8. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  9. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  10. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  11. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513. 5....

  12. 7 CFR 201.3 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Administration § 201.3 Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  13. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  14. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  15. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  16. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  17. Reforming the Educational Administration Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, Erwin

    This paper discusses the conceptual reform of university-based graduate level administrator preparation programs. The functionalist, interpretative, and critical approaches to social science have important implications for the study of motivation, decision-making, communication and leadership. Interpretative and critical approaches must be woven…

  18. Meaningful Written Communication by Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Virginia L.; McConnahan, Wendell R.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight principals participated in this pilot study designed to examine the nature of school administrators' current practices in written communication. Work samples were examined against ISLLC standards that call for competency in facilitating vision, communicating culture and instruction, managing the organization, developing collaboration…

  19. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  20. Administrative Aspects of Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond, Comp.

    This seminar focused on the need for increased use of educational planning by politicians and administrators in developing and developed countries. The report includes examples of educational planning in centralized governments such as those of France and Rumania as well as in large Federal decentralized governments such as those of Brazil and…

  1. High-Stakes Administrative Hiring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    The risks are high when it comes to hiring a new principal. A principal is accountable for the safety, well-being and achievement of all the children in a school, as well as for representing the school to the community. With increasing demands on building administrators, the hiring of principals certainly may be considered high stakes. For several…

  2. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  3. African American Administrators and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne; Taylor, Janice D.; Burrell, Charlotte; Stewart, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the issues of African American participation in the administrative ranks of the academy. The authors find that African Americans tend to hold positions that are marginal in academic organizations, lacking power and influence, and that not much has changed over recent decades. Forces influencing this condition are explored,…

  4. Medication Administration Technician. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course for medication administration technicians in Oklahoma. The course consists of four units of instruction that cover the following: (1) exploring professional, ethical and legal issues; (2) administering medication; (3) document…

  5. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  6. Research Administrators as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Joann

    2011-01-01

    Within the sponsored research support offices in departments at research institutions, non-profits, and undergraduate institutions, research administrators are often perceived as servant leaders by their own membership organizations and those who work with them. This perception is influenced by survey results focusing on character. Parolini (2004)…

  7. School Discipline: The Administrator's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Patti Swoboda

    1979-01-01

    School administrators have the statutory authority and the legal obligation to maintain discipline in the schools. They must, however, preserve discipline with affirmative policies that respect student rights. Available from Willamette University College of Law, Salem, OR 97301. (Author/IRT)

  8. View from the Administrator's Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaub, Walter M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Carol Browner's views on facilitating practical approaches that address major environmental issues in the United States. Examines issues of helping local communities, climate impact and prevention, water quality and quantity, and the EPA's changing role in society. (WRM)

  9. Parents in Reading: Administrator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Adapted from Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, the materials in this booklet are designed for use by school administrators who want to begin a positive program that involves parents in reading. Various sections contain samples of board policy statements, press releases, and radio commercials; samples of letters to parents new to the…

  10. Administration and the Territorial Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Robert P.

    This paper explores some of the evidence relating similarities between lower animal behavior in defense of territory and administrative behavior in defense of position prerogative. The bureaucratic organization has a system of sanctions to penalize those who would infringe upon the territory of superordinates. Humans mark their domains by audio…

  11. New Roles for Research Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barpal, Isaac

    1988-01-01

    The research administrator of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Pennsylvania) discusses issues in the transformation of the company from a technology-driven to a business-driven organization, a process in which the technical and business segments of the organization work as teams toward successful innovation. (MSE)

  12. Transforming Administration in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honea, Sion M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the traditional hierarchical administrative structure in academic libraries. Also analyzes some of its features, and questions specific principles of management in order to propose a more balanced organizational type based on organizational behavior and leadership that will best enable academic libraries to meet challenges. (PEN)

  13. Teacher & Administrator Training in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a November 1985 meeting at which members of the Apple Education Advisory Council addressed the issues involved in training teachers and administrators on the best ways to use computers in education. In their discussions, Advisory Council members first summarized the roles that are played by each type of organization involved…

  14. Performance Incentives in Personnel Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Sue

    This article discusses several theories of management for motivating employees and applies these theories to educational administration. Since all of the cited theories are concerned with motivating people through their personal needs, ideas may be applicable to education as well as industry. (Author/MLF)

  15. Financial Management in School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronc, Keith, Ed.

    Because Australian school principals are being given increasing autonomy, knowledge of basic accounting principles and skill in elementary financial management are becoming more necessary. This book attempts to supply school administrators with information needed to handle new accounting duties and to lay a foundation for future fuller involvement…

  16. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  17. Administrator's Memo: Youth Tutoring Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    This manual, designed for the use of administrators in implementing a Youth Tutoring Youth Program (developed to encourage positive attitudes in tutors towards going to school, holding jobs, and helping others), outlines the employment of underachieving, disadvantaged 14- and 15-year-old Neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees as tutors for elementary…

  18. Educational Administration and Social Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Francis M.

    The American public school no longer exists for the purpose of producing respectable middle class citizens. Moreover, the school administrator, long trained to manage schools, teachers, parents, and children with unquestioned authority, is approaching extinction. Schools have not been for educating children but for producing conformity to socially…

  19. School Reform Meets Administrative Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Antoinette B.; And Others

    Maryland's Challenge Grant Program was designed to bring systemic change to schools with relatively low performance levels. This paper presents findings of an ethnographic study that examined the workings of an educational reform effort across several levels of administration. Specifically, the study explored conditions that facilitated and…

  20. Administrative Responses to Campus Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Mary L.; Roark, Eldridge W., Jr.

    Campus violence, whether it is physical, sexual, or psychological, is counterproductive to a positive college environment and to the healthy development of individuals. Student affairs administrators and directors of various student services hold a responsibility for directing the response of campus personnel to specific volatile and exploitive…

  1. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  2. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, Gregg; Cannamela, David; Downing, Richard

    1990-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded two 4-year research projects to develop recommendations for improving the sport fishery on Dworshak Reservoir. Research began during 1987 as a cooperative effort between the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The Nez Perce Tribe examined smallmouth bass and rainbow trout fisheries. The IDFG evaluated kokanee population dynamics and documented changes in reservoir productivity. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  3. 7 CFR 3431.20 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.20 Administration. The VMLRP will be administered by...

  4. 39 CFR 3002.11 - Administrative Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., for: Development, implementation, and administration of the Commission's financial management system... administration in conjunction with the Personnel Officer of a personnel program designed to meet the needs of...

  5. Prohibited or regulated? LSD psychotherapy and the United States Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Oram, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Over the 1950s and early 1960s, the use of the hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to facilitate psychotherapy was a promising field of psychiatric research in the USA. However, during the 1960s, research began to decline, before coming to a complete halt in the mid-1970s. This has commonly been explained through the increase in prohibitive federal regulations during the 1960s that aimed to curb the growing recreational use of the drug. However, closely examining the Food and Drug Administration's regulation of LSD research in the 1960s will reveal that not only was LSD research never prohibited, but that the administration supported research to a greater degree than has been recognized. Instead, the decline in research reflected more complex changes in the regulation of pharmaceutical research and development.

  6. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help reduce office administrative labor costs while increasing employee effectiveness. CAST supports business functions which rely on and store Privacy Act sensitive data (PII). Specific business processes included in CAST (and respective PII) are: -Civil Rights Cast Tracking (name, partial medical history, summary of case, and case correspondance). -Employment Law Case Tracking (name, summary of case). -Federal Tort Claims Act Incident Tracking (name, summary of incidents). -Ethics Program Support Tools and Tracking (name, partial financial history). -Summer Honors Application Tracking (name, home address, telephone number, employment history). -Workforce Flexibility Initiative Support Tools (name, alternative workplace phone number). -Resource and Personnel Management Support Tools (name, partial employment and financial history).

  7. Endotracheal administration of emergency medications.

    PubMed

    Powers, R D; Donowitz, L G

    1984-03-01

    When vascular access is delayed or unreliable in emergency situations, an endotracheal tube provides a rapid and reliable route for administration of medication. Epinephrine, lidocaine, and atropine have shown clinical efficacy when given by the endotracheal route. There is evidence that other medications including naloxone and diazepam may also be suitable for endotracheal use, but clear-cut recommendations await further studies of pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

  8. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  9. Vanadium distribution following decavanadate administration.

    PubMed

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Aureliano, M

    2006-01-01

    An acute exposure of two vanadate solutions-metavanadate and decavanadate-containing different vanadate oligomers, induces different patterns of subcellular vanadium distribution in blood plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and cardiac muscle subcellular fractions of the fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). The highest amount of vanadium was found in blood plasma 1 h after (5 mM) intravenous vanadate administration (295 +/- 64 and 383 +/- 104 microg V/g dry tissue, for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively), being 80-fold higher than in RBC. After 12 h of administration, the amount of vanadium in plasma, as well as in cardiac cytosol, decreased about 50%, for both vanadate solutions. During the period between 1 and 12 h, the ratio of vanadium in plasma/vanadium in RBC increased from 27 to 128 for metavanadate, whereas it remains constant (77) for decavanadate. Both vanadium solutions were primarily accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (138 +/- 0 and 195 +/- 34 ng V/g dry tissue for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively, after 12 h exposure), rather than in cytosol. The amount of vanadium in cardiac mitochondria was twofold higher than in cytosol, earlier for metavanadate (6 h) than for decavanadate (12 h). It is concluded that, in fish cardiac muscle, the vanadium distribution is dependent on the administration of decameric vanadate, with vanadium being mainly distributed in plasma, before being accumulated into the mitochondrial fraction.

  10. Effective Internships for Effective New Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey

    One challenge faced by any educational leadership program is how to develop effective entry-level school administrators. Many administrative interns receive no real administrative practice at all through their internship, and yet upon completion of the internship, they are expected to be competent administrators. The internship at Sam Houston…

  11. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 511.71... Administration § 511.71 Administrative costs. (a) Maximum amount. Any grantee may use not to exceed 10 percent of... years for administrative costs eligible under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Eligible...

  12. 20 CFR 632.174 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs. 632.174 Section 632.174 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... Administrative costs. Administrative costs for this subpart are limited to and shall not exceed 20 percent of...

  13. 24 CFR 583.135 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 583.135... Administrative costs. (a) General. Up to five percent of any grant awarded under this part may be used for the purpose of paying costs of administering the assistance. (b) Administrative costs. Administrative...

  14. 45 CFR 96.88 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative costs. 96.88 Section 96.88 Public... Assistance Program § 96.88 Administrative costs. (a) Costs of planning and administration. Any expenditure... be included in determining administrative costs subject to the statutory limitation on...

  15. 14 CFR § 1201.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administration. § 1201.103 Section § 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who...

  16. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  17. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  18. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  19. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  20. 19 CFR 201.206 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative offset. 201.206 Section 201.206... Collection § 201.206 Administrative offset. (a) Collection. The Director may collect a claim pursuant to 31 U... Government by administrative offset of monies payable by the Government. Collection by administrative...

  1. 28 CFR 11.9 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative offset. 11.9 Section 11.9... Administrative offset. (a) Collection. The organization head may collect a claim pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3716 from... administrative offset of monies other than salaries payable by the government. Collection by...

  2. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative offset. 608.3 Section 608.3 Public... AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.3 Administrative offset. (a) If NSF is unable to collect a claim from... administrative offset subject to the procedures and limitations of 31 U.S.C. 3716 and the applicable...

  3. 46 CFR 505.7 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative offset. 505.7 Section 505.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 505.7 Administrative offset. (a) If the debtor does not exercise the right to request a review within the...

  4. 5 CFR 1215.28 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative offset. 1215.28 Section... MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.28 Administrative offset. (a) The MSPB may collect debts owed by administrative offset if: (1) The debt is certain in amount; (2) Efforts to obtain direct payment have been,...

  5. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative offset. 179.307 Section... COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.307 Administrative offset. (a) If the debtor does not... offset shall be ordered in accordance with these regulations without further notice. (b) Request...

  6. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  7. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  8. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  9. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  10. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  11. 34 CFR 361.15 - Local administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local administration. 361.15 Section 361.15 Education... Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.15 Local administration. (a) If the State plan provides for the administration of the plan by a local agency, the...

  12. 34 CFR 361.15 - Local administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Local administration. 361.15 Section 361.15 Education... Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.15 Local administration. (a) If the State plan provides for the administration of the plan by a local agency, the...

  13. 34 CFR 361.15 - Local administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local administration. 361.15 Section 361.15 Education... Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.15 Local administration. (a) If the State plan provides for the administration of the plan by a local agency, the...

  14. 34 CFR 361.15 - Local administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Local administration. 361.15 Section 361.15 Education... Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.15 Local administration. (a) If the State plan provides for the administration of the plan by a local agency, the...

  15. 34 CFR 361.15 - Local administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local administration. 361.15 Section 361.15 Education... Other Requirements for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration § 361.15 Local administration. (a) If the State plan provides for the administration of the plan by a local agency, the...

  16. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.3 Administration. (a) (b) The Administrator may in specific classes of cases waive...

  17. 7 CFR 30.61 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 30.61 Section 30.61 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Administration § 30.61 Administration. The Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural... the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  18. 7 CFR 29.51 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.51 Section 29.51 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Administration § 29.51 Administration. The Director is charged with the supervision of the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  19. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  20. 16 CFR 1.71 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 1.71 Section 1.71 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.71 Administration. The general administration of the...

  1. 7 CFR 23.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 23.2 Section 23.2 Agriculture Office... Administration. (a) Title V will be administered by the Administrators of the Extension Service and the... Act of 1914 and the Hatch Act (as amended), August 11, 1955, the administration of the programs...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  3. 9 CFR 354.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 354.3 Section 354.3... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Administration § 354.3 Administration... prescribed in the regulations in this part and as the Secretary may require in the administration of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.51 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 29.51 Section 29.51 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Administration § 29.51 Administration. The Director is charged with the supervision of the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  5. 7 CFR 30.61 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 30.61 Section 30.61 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Administration § 30.61 Administration. The Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural... the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  6. 7 CFR 235.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 235.3 Section 235.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the program for payment...

  7. 46 CFR 296.50 - Administrative determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Scott Air Force Base, IL 62225-5357. (c) Process. The Administrator, or the Commander in the case of a... Administration or the Contracting Officer with respect to the administration of this part or any other dispute or... Contractor of the administrative determination of the Contracting Officer. Such an appeal should be...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  10. 24 CFR 982.54 - Administrative plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative plan. 982.54 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM HUD Requirements and PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.54 Administrative plan. (a) The PHA must adopt a written administrative plan...

  11. 28 CFR 0.126 - Administrative support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative support. 0.126 Section 0.126 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.126 Administrative support. The Department of Justice shall...

  12. 28 CFR 0.126 - Administrative support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative support. 0.126 Section 0.126 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.126 Administrative support. The Department of Justice shall...

  13. 28 CFR 0.126 - Administrative support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative support. 0.126 Section 0.126 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.126 Administrative support. The Department of Justice shall...

  14. 28 CFR 0.126 - Administrative support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative support. 0.126 Section 0.126 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.126 Administrative support. The Department of Justice shall...

  15. 28 CFR 0.126 - Administrative support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative support. 0.126 Section 0.126 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.126 Administrative support. The Department of Justice shall...

  16. 24 CFR 982.54 - Administrative plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative plan. 982.54 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM HUD Requirements and PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.54 Administrative plan. (a) The PHA must adopt a written administrative plan...

  17. 5 CFR 351.705 - Administrative assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative assignment. 351.705 Section 351.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.705 Administrative assignment. (a) An...

  18. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2 Section 702.170-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator...

  19. Effects of taurine administration on exercise.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime; Mishima, Hajime; Adachi, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Taurine concentration in rat skeletal muscles after endurance running, with and without taurine administration was studied. Taurine concentrations in skeletal muscles was significantly decreased in exercised groups without taurine administration. However, taurine administration reduced the decrease of taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. Oral administration of taurine has effect for maintaining taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. The duration of running time to exhaustion of rats, with and without taurine administration were studied. The duration of running time to exhaustion was significantly increased by taurine administration. Oral administration of taurine increases the ability of physical endurance. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) after treadmill running, with and without taurine administration were studied. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-MH after treadmill running was significantly decreased with taurine administration. Taurine administration was considered to reduce the exercise-induced muscle fatigue.

  20. 77 FR 20779 - Committee on Administration and Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Committee on Administration and Management AGENCY: Administrative... public meeting of the Committee on Administration and Management of the Assembly of the Administrative... ``About,'' then on ``The Committees,'' and then on ``Committee on Administration and...

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Christine M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education leadership at NASA resulted in changes in direction in the education program and the documents produced by each administration reflected both small and some significant changes in program direction. The result of the analysis of documents and interview data was the identification of several trends in the NASA education program. This study identified three significant trends in NASA education. First, the approach that NASA took in both its EPO efforts and in the efforts directed by the Office of Education is disjointed and seems to reflect individual preferences in education approaches designed to reach populations that are of interest to the individuals in decision-making positions rather than reflect a systematic approach designed to meet identified goals and outcomes. Second, this disjointed and person-driven approach led to a lack of consistent evaluation data available for review and planning purposes. Third, there was an ongoing assumption made by the education community that NASA education efforts were tied to larger education reports, concerns, needs, initiatives and evidence collected and presented in Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) education-related studies over the past twenty years. In fact, there is no evidence that the programs and projects initiated were a response to these identified needs or initiatives. That does not mean that NASA's efforts did not contribute to STEM education initiatives in the United States. This study, however, indicates that contributions to those initiatives occurred as a byproduct of the effort and not because of specific

  2. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... before an administrative law judge. 655.1315 Section 655.1315 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Administrative review—(1) Consideration. Whenever an employer has requested an administrative review before an ALJ of a decision by the...

  3. 14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... × 4 feet; (2) The Administrator's Flag has four stars; (3) The Deputy Administrator's Flag has three stars; and (4) The Associate Deputy Administrator's Flag has two stars. (b) Flags representing...

  4. 14 CFR § 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... × 4 feet; (2) The Administrator's Flag has four stars; (3) The Deputy Administrator's Flag has three stars; and (4) The Associate Deputy Administrator's Flag has two stars. (b) Flags representing...

  5. 14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... × 4 feet; (2) The Administrator's Flag has four stars; (3) The Deputy Administrator's Flag has three stars; and (4) The Associate Deputy Administrator's Flag has two stars. (b) Flags representing...

  6. 14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... × 4 feet; (2) The Administrator's Flag has four stars; (3) The Deputy Administrator's Flag has three stars; and (4) The Associate Deputy Administrator's Flag has two stars. (b) Flags representing...

  7. 14 CFR 1221.107 - Establishment of the NASA Administrator's, Deputy Administrator's, and Associate Deputy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... × 4 feet; (2) The Administrator's Flag has four stars; (3) The Deputy Administrator's Flag has three stars; and (4) The Associate Deputy Administrator's Flag has two stars. (b) Flags representing...

  8. Administrative substance. A mentoring experience.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, K S

    2001-01-01

    Leadership is an essential skill that must be passed on to the next generation of nursing leaders, if nursing is to continue to flourish. While some may argue that leadership ability is innate, certain acquired skills can enhance one's leadership abilities. Additionally, opportunities and appropriate experiences are essential to the development of effective leadership potential. The purpose of this article is to present a method of mentoring that allows the new academician to gain valuable leadership experience. This method encompasses an advanced doctoral student working with and under the leadership of an experienced nursing academic leader. The mentorship program attempts to fill the gap for needed leadership and administrative experiences in the academic setting among doctoral students and new doctoral graduates.

  9. 49 CFR 385.711 - Administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES... America-domiciled motor carrier may request FMCSA to conduct an administrative review if it believes...

  10. Educating Nurse Administrators: One Program's Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Joanne C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the master's program in nursing at the University of Iowa, which uses experienced nurse administrators as adjunct faculty members. Discusses core course content, the two-course sequence in nursing administration, and problems with the present curriculum. (CT)

  11. 14 CFR 1260.147 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1260.147 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of... of all purchases. Recipients shall evaluate contractor performance and document, as...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.147 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1260.147 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of... of all purchases. Recipients shall evaluate contractor performance and document, as...

  13. 48 CFR 3028.106 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 3028.106 Section 3028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... 3028.106 Administration....

  14. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  15. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  16. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  17. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  18. 49 CFR 385.113 - Administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.113 Administrative review. (a) A Mexico... must submit its request in writing, in English, to the Associate Administrator for Enforcement...

  19. Student Personnel Administration at the Small College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the roles of student personnel administrators at small and large colleges. Defines and explores the background of small colleges and emphasizes the need for administrators to be current with trends in higher education. (JAC)

  20. Administration of Education in the Asia Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy; Guruge, A. W. P.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzed are inadequacies of the educational administrative structures of Asian countries. Recommendations are made for improvement in administrator education, on-the-job training, and exposure to management problems in a variety of related fields. (Author/DB)