Science.gov

Sample records for administration budget estimates

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  2. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  3. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  5. Clinton Administration announces FY 2001 budget request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Blessed with a strong US. economy the Clinton Administration on February 7 released a fiscal year 2001 federal budget request totaling a whopping $1,835 billion. Most of the funding request is slated for big ticket items including Social Security defense spending, Medicaid, Medicare, and paying down the federal debt. However, within the 19% of the budget that funds non-defense discretionary programs,science agencies receive fairly healthy increases.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request would increase NSF funding by 17.3% $675 million and bring the total budget request to $4.6 billion. This includes significant increases for several initiatives: biocomplexity in the environment, information technology research, nanoscale science and engineering, and 21st century workforce. Among the major Earth science projects are launching the Earthscope initiative which includes the US Array and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

  6. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  7. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  8. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust number -- the carbon budget for CO2-induced warming only -- is also the least relevant for real-world policy. Including all greenhouse gases and using methods based on scenarios that avoid instead of exceed a given temperature limit results in lower carbon budgets. For a >66% chance of limiting warming below the internationally agreed temperature limit of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels, the most appropriate carbon budget estimate is 590-1,240 GtCO2 from 2015 onwards. Variations within this range depend on the probability of staying below 2 °C and on end-of-century non-CO2 warming. Current CO2 emissions are about 40 GtCO2 yr-1, and global CO2 emissions thus have to be reduced urgently to keep within a 2 °C-compatible budget.

  9. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  10. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Adherence to original budget estimates....

  11. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  13. Estimative of energy budget in Brazilian Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux using the eddy covariance method in a Cerrado "Campo Sujo" area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 2m height. The geographical position of the Cerrado, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Cerrado presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 25% and the latent heat flux (LE) 54%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 42% and the latent heat flux (LE) 30% of the energy budget.

  14. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  15. Science Receives Broad Support in Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    With the U.S. federal deficit on target to hit $1.5 trillion this year, President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of $3.73 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2012, which begins on 1 October, has been greeted with mixed reviews since its release on 14 February. The proposal, which calls for a 5-year overall freeze on discretionary spending outside of security, generally is favorable for science and science agencies—particularly the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) laboratories. However, some other agencies and bureaus, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), do not fare as well. A number of Republicans in Congress have panned the budget. Rep. Paul Ryan (R-Wis.), chair of the House of Representatives Committee on the Budget, said the president “has failed to tackle the urgent fiscal and economic threats before us.” Also, with the FY 2011 budget never having been enacted, House Committee on Appropriations chair Hal Rogers (R-Ky.) introduced a continuing resolution (H.R. 1) on 11 February that would fund the federal government for the remainder of the current fiscal year at a level $100 billion below the administration's request for this year.

  16. Estimated energy budget along drifting buoys trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Planton, S.; Caniaux, G.; Roquet, H.

    1994-12-31

    The heat budget of upper ocean is strongly constrained by ocean-atmosphere heat exchange. The energy surface fluxes are poorly determined by the classical empirical formulae. These determinations also need good quality atmospheric and surface observations which are sparse over the global ocean. Surface solar incoming radiation is now routinely retrieved from satellite observation with a satisfactory level of confidence. The calculation of satellite-derived infrared incoming radiation gives promising results when compared to direct observation at sea. A new method of determination of the last component of the energy budget which avoid a calculation through bulk formulae, has been experimented with oceanic data. It is applied here to drifting buoys measurements collected in 1992 and 1993 in the Azores region.

  17. College and University Budgeting: An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The intended audience for this primer includes new academic administrators and faculty members who seek involvement in campus governance and need a greater understanding of administrative processes, particularly those related to budgets and budgeting. After reading this publication, readers will have a better understanding of the budget process at…

  18. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S. Department of…

  19. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 2: Construction of facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Construction of Facilities (CoF) appropriation provides contractual services for the repair, rehabilitation, and modification of existing facilities; the construction of new facilities and the acquisition of related collateral equipment; the acquisition or condemnation of real property; environmental compliance and restoration activities; the design of facilities projects; and advanced planning related to future facilities needs. Fiscal year 1994 budget estimates are broken down according to facility location of project and by purpose.

  20. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  1. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  2. Proposed FY 2001 Budget Overview: Ryan Administration's Second Budget Request Introduces Funding Preferences. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matakis, Brian

    This special report discusses the budget allocations of the proposed Illinois Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 budget. The report highlights two critical issues with far-reaching implications: the use of tobacco settlement monies and phased-in tax relief measures. The report describes steady growth across most agency-level appropriations, with the Department…

  3. Estimation of the Water Budget for Major Canadian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, J.; Li, J.; Rivera, A.; Russell, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding regional water budgets is essential in water resources management, particularly for irrigation planning, drought, flood and pollution control, drainage system design, and climate modelling. A water budget for a drainage basin is needed to determine the magnitude of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on terrestrial water cycle and to evaluate possible mitigation actions. In this study, the monthly and 30-year (1979-2008) average water budgets were calculated for large Canadian river basins with an area > 90,000 km2. The total area studied takes about 58% of the entire Canadian landmass. The datasets used include two gridded precipitation products based on measurement, the land surface evapotranspiration product derived from the EALCO model, the river discharge measured from hydrometric stations, and the total water (surface water+groundwater) storage anomaly derived from GRACE satellite observations. These datasets are deemed as the best-available long-term national scale datasets that meet the requirement of this study. Our objectives are to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water budget across the vast Canadian landmass and to answer the questions of (1) how well can we close the water budget at both long-term and monthly time scales for the major Canadian river basins and (2) which component(s) of the water budget (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge, or total water storage change) and in which season and which region contribute the main error source to the water budget imbalance? We also examined the decadal change in total water storage in the major Canadian river basins and quantified the bias in evapotranspiration estimation by using the widely-accepted surface water budget approach. Our results show that the national scale water budget imbalance is very close to 0 (-0.2 mm year-1) due to the offset of positive and negative imbalances among the studies basins. Basins with positive

  4. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 1: Agency summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA FY 1994 budget request of $15,265 million concentrates on (1) investing in the development of new technologies including a particularly aggressive program in aeronautical technology to improve the competitive position of the United States, through shared involvement with industry and other government agencies; (2) continuing the nation's premier program of space exploration, to expand our knowledge of the solar system and the universe as well as the earth; and (3) providing safe and assured access to space using both the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles. Budget estimates are presented for (1) research and development, including space station, space transportation capability development, space science and applications programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, space research and technology, commercial programs, aeronautics technology programs, safety and mission quality, academic programs, and tracking and data advanced systems; and (2) space operations, including space transportation programs, launch services, and space communications.

  5. 14 CFR § 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates....

  6. Clinton Administration federal budget proposal alternately described as dream and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Some federal science agency heads and advisors are pinching themselves to make sure the Clinton Administrations fiscal year 2001 federal budget request, announced on February 7, is not just a dream.Neal Lane, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy calls the budget historic for its increases and commitment to science and technology. When asked what he thinks about the budget, NASA head Dan Goldin says, Look at the smile on my face. Rita Colwell, who leads the National Science Foundation (NSF), says, We couldn't ask for a better way to mark NSFs 50th anniversary Jim Baker, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), says the budget is a good one for his agency.

  7. Greenland precipitation estimates from the atmospheric moisture budget

    SciTech Connect

    Robasky, F.M.; Bromwich, D.H.

    1994-11-15

    Eight radiosonde stations surrounding Greenland at an average separation of 750 km are used to compute the atmospheric moisture budget. Radiosonde data were available from 1963-89, but were not used for 1963-79 due to insufficient data coverage which likely resulted in a major underestimation of large moisture inflow events. There is a mean annual inflow of moisture to the atmospheric volume over Greenland through its southeast and southwest sectors, and outflow to the northeast. Moisture convergences, equivalent to precipitation minus evaporation, yield an areal average of 32 cm yr{sup {minus}1} of water equivalent; they also show high inter- and intra-annual agreement with earlier modeled precipitation estimates found by the authors and serve as further confirmation of their modeling results. The time-averaged eddy component accounts for 90% of the total moisture convergence, reflecting the dominant contribution of precipitation from synoptic-scale cyclones. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Free-space optical communications link budget estimation.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Larry B; Kolodzy, Paul; Pike, Alan; Graves, Buzz; Dougherty, Dave; Douglass, Jeff

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a new methodology of estimating free-space optical communications link budgets to be expected in conditions of severe turbulence. The approach is derived from observing that the ability of an adaptive optics (AO) system to compensate turbulence along a path is limited by the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh range, proportional to the diameter of the optics squared and inverse of the wavelength of light utilized. The method uses the Fried parameter computed over the range outside of the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh ranges, to calculate the Strehl ratios that yield a reasonable prediction of the light impinging on the receiving telescope aperture and the power coupling into the fiber. Comparisons will be given between theory and field measurements. These comparisons show that AO is most effective within the Rayleigh ranges, or when an atmospheric gradient is present, and lesser so when the total range is much greater than the sum of the Rayleigh ranges.

  9. Academic Administration: Planning, Budgeting, and Decision Making with Multiple Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang M.; Van Horn, James C.

    A systematic approach to the management of higher education institutions is described. The methodology combines administration by objectives (ABO), a management technique that helps academic administrators structure decisions in a systematic manner, with goal programming (GP), a decision-science tool that is ideally suited to the analysis of…

  10. Administration's Proposed NSF Budget Includes a 5.5% Increase for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 proposed federal budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is $7.63 billion, 7.3% above the FY 2012 actual amount. NSF acting director Cora Marrett said the budget reflects the administration's recognition of NSF and the importance of funding basic research. "We are pleased about where we stand and hope that Congress will be just as pleased with the budget proposal and will help move things forward," she said during a meeting of the NSF Advisory Committee for Geosciences on 11 April. Budget comparisons are to FY 2012 because the 2013 appropriations were enacted at the end of March, less than 2 weeks before President Barack Obama sent the proposed budget to Congress.

  11. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  12. Estimation of IT energy budget during the St. Patrick's Day storm 2015: observations, modeling and challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Meng, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tsurutani, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present estimates for the energy budget of the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. Empirical models and coupling functions are used as proxies for energy input due to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Fluxes of thermospheric nitric oxide and carbon dioxide cooling emissions are estimated in several latitude ranges. Solar wind data and the Weimer 2005 model for high-latitude electrodynamics are used to drive GITM modeling for the storm. Model estimations for energy partitioning, Joule heating, NO cooling are compared with observations and empirical proxies. We outline challenges in the estimation of the IT energy budget (Joule heating, Poynting flux, particle precipitation) during geomagnetic storms.

  13. NOAA Would Receive an 11% Increase Under Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2014 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with 5.45 billion, 11% above the FY 2012 spend plan of 4.91 billion (see Table ). The proposal, which was sent to Congress on 10 April, would increase funding for operations, research, and facilities to 3.41 billion (up 7.97% over FY 2012) and for procurement, acquisition, and construction to 2.12 billion (up 17.51%). The budget proposal uses the FY 2012 spend plan as a comparison because Congress approved the FY 2013 appropriations only a few weeks before the FY 2014 proposal was released.

  14. Estimation of radiation budget and water balance with satellite data for savanna monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Olivier; Flouzat, Guy; Cherchali, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a functional characterization of West Africa's ecological systems using satellite data. It shows the capability of spatio-temporal determination of the hydrological budget well fitted to the chlorophyllian phenology. The method includes two parts: estimation of radiation budget at the earth surface, and actual evapotranspiration and, in addition, estimation of one hydrological budget and its capability to describe and possibly to predict growth process. The estimation of evaportranspiration is made with simplified relationships proposed by Jackson and Seguin. These descriptions need a limited number of input data, and their parametrization can be deduced from the main classes of vegetation. A hydrological budget model is then established using evapotranspiration, rainfall measurement, and the estimation of ground contribution at a suitable scale. In this model, we assume that the phenological state of the plant at a given time depends on the efficient stock of water during the months preceding the state development. The results show that the concept of the estimation of radiation budget at the earth surface and actual evapotranspiration can be applied generally for large areas at fine spatial resolution and the model of efficient water shows a good adjustment with the cycle normalized difference vegetation index.

  15. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  16. Post processing of zone budgets to generate improved groundwater influx estimates associated with longwall mining.

    PubMed

    Mackie, C D

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of underground longwall mining on groundwater systems are commonly assessed using numerical groundwater flow models that are capable of forecasting changes to strata pore pressures and rates of groundwater seepage over the mine life. Groundwater ingress to a mining operation is typically estimated using zone budgets to isolate relevant parts of a model that represent specific mining areas, and to aggregate flows at nominated times within specific model stress periods. These rates can be easily misinterpreted if simplistic averaging of daily flow budgets is adopted. Such misinterpretation has significant implications for design of underground dewatering systems for a new mine site or it may lead to model calibration errors where measured mine water seepage rates are used as a primary calibration constraint. Improved estimates of groundwater ingress can be made by generating a cumulative flow history from zone budget data, then differentiating the cumulative flow history using a low order polynomial convolved through the data set.

  17. Recalculating Watershed Nitrogen Budgets Using Estimates of Local N Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettez, N. D.; Groffman, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization has significant impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling. Previous studies in urban systems have used a single estimate of N deposition usually from the nearest NADP/CASTNet site, which are typically located away from urban areas. However, a portion of the emissions from mobile sources which are the largest N emission sources in the US have recently been shown to be deposited near where they are produced. In this study we assess the variability in N deposition in watersheds with increasing amounts of urbanization along a 30 km urban-rural gradient in Baltimore Maryland by measuring dry deposition of NH3 using passive samplers and wet and dry deposition using ion exchange resin throughfall collectors. We found that deposition was the lowest in the rural forested watershed, it was 28% higher in the suburban watershed and 54% higher in the urban watershed.

  18. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  19. Health Policy Roundtable—Policy by Numbers: The Role of Budget Estimates and Scoring in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Folz, Christina E

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this roundtable is to explore the imperfect art of estimating the budget costs of health insurance proposals—called scoring when done by government agencies. The panel addresses the complexities involved in generating these estimates, which usually depend on many untested and untestable assumptions. For example, the Medicare prescription drug “donut hole” was invented so that policymakers could achieve budget targets. These budget scores play a critical role in the design of health policies, as well as in the reform proposals put forth by candidates in an election. The roundtable discusses how policymakers can and do use health policy estimates and budget scores. PMID:15762895

  20. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 3: Research and program management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The research and program management (R&PM) appropriation provides the salaries, other personnel and related costs, and travel support for NASA's civil service workforce. This FY 1994 budget funds costs associated with 23,623 full-time equivalent (FTE) work years. Budget estimates are provided for all NASA centers by categories such as space station and new technology investments, space flight programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences, advanced concepts and technology, center management and operations support, launch services, mission to planet earth, tracking and data programs, aeronautical research and technology, and safety, reliability, and quality assurance.

  1. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  2. Estimation for Global Terrestrial Methane Budget Using A Coupled Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Model VISIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatomi, M.; Ito, A.

    2008-12-01

    Land-atmosphere exchange of methane (CH4) can exert considerable feedback effects on the human- induced climatic change. However, there remain large uncertainties in our understanding and quantification of the regional CH4 budget, owing to complexity and heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems. A process- based model, Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases model (VISIT), was constructed by introducing nitrogen cycle and methane exchange processes into a carbon-cycle model Sim-CYCLE , which provides an observation-verified framework of ecosystem structure and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange. In this study, VISIT was applied on the global scale to evaluate the net budget of CH4 over terrestrial ecosystems. The net budget of CH4 in terrestrial ecosystem is regulated by three different biogeochemical mechanisms: (1) CH4 oxidation at upland soils (i.e. forests, grassland, deserts, and croplands) estimated by NASA-CASA scheme, Ridgwell"fs scheme, DelGrosso"fs scheme and Curry"fs scheme; (2) CH4 emission from wetland including paddy field estimated by Cao"fs scheme; and (3) vegetation CH4 emission under aerobic condition (i.e. from tree and grass leaves) estimated by Kirschbaum"fs scheme. Using historical climate data of CRU-TS2.1 from 1901 to 2000 and AOGCM climate projections from 2001 to 2100, we simulated temporal and spatial patterns of net CH4 budget at 0.5-deg x 0.5-deg resolution under changing atmospheric composition, nitrogen deposition, climate, and land-use. As a result, total CH4 oxidation by upland soils in 2000 was estimated as 35.9 Tg CH4 per year (25.8-35.9 Tg CH4 per year by different schemes). Total CH4 emission from wetlands and paddy fields was estimated as 235.3 Tg CH4 per year. Vegetation CH4 emission under aerobic condition was also estimated as 91.8-137.4 Tg CH4 per year. Therefore, the net budget of CH4 for the global scale was estimated as 291.2-336.8 Tg CH4 per year in greenhouse-effect gas source to atmosphere. Preliminary results by

  3. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  4. New estimates of the large-scale Arctic atmospheric energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, David F.; Cassano, John J.; Serreze, Mark C.; Kindig, David N.

    2010-04-01

    New estimates of the current energy budget of the north polar cap (the region north of 70°N) are synthesized by combining data from new atmospheric reanalyses and satellite retrievals. For the period 2000-2005, monthly means from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite data set are considered to provide the most reliable top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. The remaining components of the energy budget, comprising of the energy storage, horizontal convergence of energy, and the net surface flux between the atmospheric and subsurface columns, are compiled using data from the Japanese 25 Year Reanalysis Project (JRA) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Reanalysis (NRA). The annual cycles of energy budget components for the polar cap are fairly consistent between the JRA and NRA, but with some systematic differences. JRA depicts an annual mean surface flux of 14 W m-2 (upward), compared to only 5 W m-2 in NRA. Most of this disparity appears to be due to differences in sea ice and albedo. Horizontal atmospheric energy flux divergence calculated using mass-corrected flux values contains artifacts leading to unphysical results. We argue that backing out the energy flux convergence as a residual from the net surface heat flux and time change in energy storage from each reanalysis, and the TOA radiation budget from CERES, provides for more physically realistic results in the Arctic. Monthly mean anomalies of budget terms, used to examine conditions leading to the extreme seasonal sea ice extent minimum of September 2005, point to the importance of albedo feedback.

  5. Estimating heat fluxes by merging profile formulae and the energy budget with a variational technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Qiu, Chongjian; Zhang, Weidong

    2004-08-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10 m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  6. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  7. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, E.; Braban, C. F.; Dragosits, U.; Theobald, M. R.; Billett, M. F.; Dore, A. J.; Tang, Y. S.; van Dijk, N.; Rees, R. M.; McDonald, C.; Murray, S.; Skiba, U. M.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N) flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore this interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland), forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, organic and synthetic fertiliser) accounted for most of the catchment N inputs with 80% in the grassland and 57% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment with 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 emissions from denitrification and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 3% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 55% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90% with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011). This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  8. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, E.; Braban, C. F.; Dragosits, U.; Theobald, M. R.; Billett, M. F.; Dore, A. J.; Tang, Y. S.; van Dijk, N.; Rees, R. M.; McDonald, C.; Murray, S.; Skiba, U. M.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N) flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore these interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland), forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Direct agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, N2 fixation, organic and synthetic fertiliser) accounted for most of the catchment N inputs, representing 82% in the grassland and 62% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment, contributing 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 exchange and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 13% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 61% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: Catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90%, with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011). This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  9. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003-2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Dieng, H.; Champollion, N.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E. J. O.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate the total land water storage change over 2003-2013 using a global water mass budget approach. It consists of comparing the ocean mass change from GRACE space gravimetry to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system : glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water vapour and land water storage (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). We first compute a mean trend over the study period. Then, we account for the change in rates (acceleration) seen in several terms of the mass budget equation (e.g., GRACE-based ocean mass, Greenland, Antarctica and glaciers mass balances). For the glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different sub-periods of the 2003-2013 decade. For each component, we compute a changing rate through time. We also consider time series of mass balance rates and associated accelerations. From the global water mass budget approach, we derive a time series of land water storage rate over the study period. The computed changing rate in global land water storage mainly represents direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of ground water depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs (estimates from hydrological models driven by meteorological forcing show that natural climate variability essentially cause interannual fluctuations in the net land water storage but negligible long term trend). Our results are compared with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology, in particular ground water depletion.

  10. An Algorithm to Estimate the Heating Budget from Vertical Hydrometeor Profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Stephen; McCumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Penc, Richard

    1990-12-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometer profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a non-hydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algorithm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  11. Estimating the Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests before Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clint

    1996-01-01

    Classical procedures for calculating the two indices of decision consistency (P and Kappa) for criterion-referenced tests require two testings on each child. Huynh, Peng, and Subkoviak have presented one-testing procedures for these indices. These indices can be estimated without any test administration using Ebel's estimates of the mean, standard…

  12. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  13. Fiscal 1983 Science Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Support for science generally is strong in President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal, released last week; agency budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), however, did not beat inflation.Total federal funding for research and development and related facilities rose 9.6% to $44.3 billion, beating the 7.3% inflation rate estimated for 1982 by the Office of Management and Budget. Obligations for basic research by various departments and agencies also topped inflation. The President proposes federal funding of $5.82 billion in fiscal 1983, compared with $5.35 billion in 1982.

  14. Chemical Data Assimilation Estimates of Continental US Ozone and Nitrogen Budgets during INTEX-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Robert B.; Schaack, Todd K.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Kittaka, Chieko; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Natarajan, Murali; Olson, Jennifer; Soja, Amber; Zapotocny, Tom; Lenzen, Allen; Stobie, James; Johnson, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Thompson, Anne; Cohen, Ron; Dibb, Jack E.; Crawford, James H.; Rault, Didier F.; Martin, Randall; Szykman, James J.; Fishman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Global ozone analyses, based on assimilation of stratospheric profile and ozone column measurements, and NOy predictions from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) are used to estimate the ozone and NOy budget over the Continental US during the July-August 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A). Comparison with aircraft, satellite, surface, and ozonesonde measurements collected during the INTEX-A show that RAQMS captures the main features of the global and Continental US distribution of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy with reasonable fidelity. Assimilation of stratospheric profile and column ozone measurements is shown to have a positive impact on the RAQMS upper tropospheric/lower stratosphere ozone analyses, particularly during the period when SAGE III limb scattering measurements were available. Eulerian ozone and NOy budgets during INTEX-A show that the majority of the Continental US export occurs in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere poleward of the tropopause break, a consequence of convergence of tropospheric and stratospheric air in this region. Continental US photochemically produced ozone was found to be a minor component of the total ozone export, which was dominated by stratospheric ozone during INTEX-A. The unusually low photochemical ozone export is attributed to anomalously cold surface temperatures during the latter half of the INTEX-A mission, which resulted in net ozone loss during the first 2 weeks of August. Eulerian NOy budgets are shown to be very consistent with previously published estimates. The NOy export efficiency was estimated to be 24 percent, with NOx+PAN accounting for 54 percent of the total NOy export during INTEX-A.

  15. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; CastañEda-Moya, Edward; Diele, Karen; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duke, Norman C.; Kristensen, Erik; Lee, Shing Y.; Marchand, Cyril; Middelburg, Jack J.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2008-06-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ˜218 ± 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ˜112 ± 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ˜30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far.

  16. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  17. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  19. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  20. Estimation of water budget by remote sensing in Taihu Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaosong; Liu, Yuanbo

    2011-11-01

    Taihu Basin is located in the lower reach of the Yangtze River basin. Recent years, severe pollution in Lake Taihu was frequently occurred, which need to evaluate overall water balance of the basin. Evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation are the key elements in water balance estimation that give scientifically sound information on water availability. Currently, satellite remote sensing is widely used for estimation of these two parameters. In this study, precipitation and ET from remote sensing and observing runoff are used to estimate annual variations in the water budget of the Taihu Lake Basin from 2005 to 2007. The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) data was applied to estimate precipitation in spatial and temporal variability of the Taihu Basin. The surface temperature-normalized difference vegetation index (Ts-NDVI) triangle method with topographic correction was used to estimate ET from MODIS datasets in this study. Runoff was observed from hydrological station. The ET is the largest consumption in water budget components over Taihu Basin. For the whole basin, the ratio of ET/Rainfall is about 0.85-0.95 from 2005 to 2007, and it is about 1.2-1.4 for Lake Taihu. In general, the income terms of water balance in the basin including precipitation and inflow from Yangtze River should be equal to outgo terms including ET, outflow and water storage. But the income terms is mostly larger than outgo terms in Taihu Basin, the imbalance percentage is about 0.4-9.6% for the whole basin, and 0.5-3.7% for Lake Taihu.

  1. Extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of the earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the Sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  2. Deconvolution estimation theory applied to Nimbus 6 ERB data. [Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) Experiment aboard the Nimbus 6 spacecraft has provided nearly 3 years of data thus far from its wide field of view (WFOV) radiometers. Each data point is an integral of the irradiance from all points within the field of view of the WFOV sensor, which is an approximately 60 deg diameter circular region on the earth. House (1972) proposed that the data, being a convolution of the flux field at the top of the atmosphere, could be convoluted so as to enhance the resolution. The problem was solved by Smith and Green (1975-76) for the case of earth emitted radiation. A parameter estimation approach to the deconvolution problem was formulated. A description is presented of the deconvolution estimation concept and the results obtained by its application to the Nimbus 6 ERB WFOV data for earth emitted radiation for August 1975.

  3. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  4. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  5. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  6. Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: Application of the covariation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Montalto, V.; Sarà, G.; Zippay, M.; Helmuth, B.

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models serve as a powerful tool for describing the flow of energy through organisms from assimilation of food to utilization for maintenance, growth and reproduction. The DEB theory has been successfully applied to several bivalve species to compare bioenergetic and physiological strategies for the utilization of energy. In particular, mussels within the Mytilus edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus) have been the focus of many studies due to their economic and ecological importance, and their worldwide distribution. However, DEB parameter values have never been estimated for Mytilus californianus, a species that is an ecological dominant on rocky intertidal shores on the west coast of North America and which likely varies considerably from mussels in the M. edulis complex in its physiology. We estimated a set of DEB parameters for M. californianus using the covariation method estimation procedure and compared these to parameter values from other bivalve species. Model parameters were used to compare sensitivity to environmental variability among species, as a first examination of how strategies for physiologically contending with environmental change by M. californianus may differ from those of other bivalves. Results suggest that based on the parameter set obtained, M. californianus has favorable energetic strategies enabling it to contend with a range of environmental conditions. For instance, the allocation fraction of reserve to soma (κ) is among the highest of any bivalves, which is consistent with the observation that this species can survive over a wide range of environmental conditions, including prolonged periods of starvation.

  7. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuxart, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martínez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Jiménez, Maria A.; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Hartogensis, Oscar; Dünnermann, Jens; Conangla, Laura; Garai, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB), for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddy-correlation method. The heterogeneities are estimated from satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader, while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection term becomes more important as the scales become finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast, surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values of the advection, which are probably only significant in the first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre scales.

  8. Comparison and testing of extended Kalman filters for attitude estimation of the Earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Rokni, Mohammad

    1990-01-01

    The testing and comparison of two Extended Kalman Filters (EKFs) developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is described. One EKF updates the attitude quaternion using a four component additive error quaternion. This technique is compared to that of a second EKF, which uses a multiplicative error quaternion. A brief development of the multiplicative algorithm is included. The mathematical development of the additive EKF was presented in the 1989 Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium along with some preliminary testing results using real spacecraft data. A summary of the additive EKF algorithm is included. The convergence properties, singularity problems, and normalization techniques of the two filters are addressed. Both filters are also compared to those from the ERBS operational ground support software, which uses a batch differential correction algorithm to estimate attitude and gyro biases. Sensitivity studies are performed on the estimation of sensor calibration states. The potential application of the EKF for real time and non-real time ground attitude determination and sensor calibration for future missions such as the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and the Small Explorer Mission (SMEX) is also presented.

  9. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  10. The Federal Highway Administration Gasohol Consumption Estimation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-28

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is responsible for estimating the portion of Federal highway funds attributable to each State. The process involves use of State-reported data (gallons) and a set of estimation models when accurate State data is unavailable. To ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable, FHWA periodically reviews the estimation models. Estimation of the use of gasohol is difficult because of State differences in the definition of gasohol, inability of many States to separate and report gasohol usage from other fuel types, changes in fuel composition in nonattainment areas to address concerns over the use of certain fuel additives, and the lack of a valid State-level surrogate data set for gasohol use. Under the sponsorship of FHWA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the regression-based gasohol estimation model that has been in use for several years. Based on an analytical assessment of that model and an extensive review of potential data sets, ORNL developed an improved rule-based model. The new model uses data from Internal Revenue Service, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, ORNL, and FHWA sources. The model basically consists of three parts: (1) development of a controlled total of national gasohol usage, (2) determination of reliable State gasohol consumption data, and (3) estimation of gasohol usage for all other States. The new model will be employed for the 2004 attribution process. FHWA is currently soliciting comments and inputs from interested parties. Relevant data, as identified, will be pursued and refinements will be made by the research team if warranted.

  11. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; et al

    2015-04-30

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we concludemore » that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the

  12. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-30

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half

  13. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the atmosphere

  14. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. C.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification), it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided by the biosphere is the

  15. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  16. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  17. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  18. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  19. An approach to improve precipitation estimation to model the water budget in Alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, E.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Egarter Vigl, L.; Tappeiner, U.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate quantification of precipitation is still one of the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the water budget of Alpine catchments. In fact, besides increasing data availability, usually most of the stations are located in the bottom of the valleys, while, at high elevations, rain gauge accuracy is limited by snow and wind, with strong underestimation of the total precipitation. Similar problems exist for snow measurement devices. In this contribution we present a novel empirical approach to improve precipitation estimation using rain gauge data, snow height and standard meteorological observations, and we evaluate the improvements in estimating the water budget of the Mazia Valley (100 km2 - Central Alps - South Tyrol, Italy). In fact, due to the screening effect of the surrounding mountains (mostly glaciated, maximum elevation: 3750 m a.s.l.) this valley has a relatively dry cold continental climate with strong precipitation gradients. In the framework of the projects "Klimawandel" and "HydroAlp", 17 monitoring stations were installed to measure standard micrometeorological variables, vegetation properties and soil moisture. For a correct climate analysis, a distinction between snow and rainfall is necessary. Due to energy limitations in remote alpine areas no heated rain gauges were installed. However, four stations are equipped with snow height sensors, from which snow data can be retrieved. For other stations the calculation of the snow water equivalent was more complicated because of the lack of snow height sensors. In the empirical approach, for every registered precipitation data record snow height change was reviewed and compared to air temperature and relative humidity, as well as to the calculated wet bulb temperature, in order to distinguish between rainfall and snowfall events. Also the global solar radiation was controlled to identify melt water production coming from accumulated snow on the top of the unheated rain gauges. With a formula

  20. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous

  1. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  2. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  3. Public marginal willingness to trade off among water quality programs: Estimates of statewide and watershed-specific budget values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Glenn C.; Newsome, Michael A.; Stone, D. Brad

    2000-05-01

    A budget survey is used to elicit individuals' relative values for various public water quality programs. Because a budget constraint is incorporated explicitly and people allocate across various statewide and watershed-specific programs, marginal willingness to trade off values is revealed. These values are useful in the decision making of state and federal agencies responsible for water quality programs. We estimate values using the results of a 1997 random sample of Kentucky residents, with oversampling of residents of a small watershed in eastern Kentucky. Results show that people allocate the largest amounts to combat illegal dumping, untreated sewage, and hazardous material disposal. The lowest-ranked budget category, farming erosion, receives less than half the amount allocated to illegal dumping. We find that in the watershed, while the top two categories are the same as for the state as a whole, mining drainage and logging erosion are more important.

  4. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from

  5. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    SciTech Connect

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.; Jain, Atul K.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1999-12-27

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17{+-}7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20{+-}8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  6. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.; Jain, Atul K.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17±7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20±8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints.

  7. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjo, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of organic carbon is stored in high-latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an Arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment at 50 m resolution. Integrating the observed carbon fluxes from aquatic systems with the modeled terrestrial carbon fluxes across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modeled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this study also highlights some limitations in modeling subarctic ecosystem responses to climate change, such as aquatic system flux dynamics, nutrient limitation, herbivory and other disturbances, and peatland expansion, our study provides one process-based approach to resolve the complexity of carbon cycling in subarctic ecosystems while simultaneously pointing out the key model developments for capturing

  8. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  9. Education Program Funding: A Comparison of the September 2009 Budget Update to the February 2009 Budget Estimates. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2009-EF-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the Education Program funding for 2009-2010 in the September 2009 budget update is about $128 million less than the funding allocated in the February 2009 budget announcement. As public-school funding comprises 95% of all Education Program Funding, this will have a significant impact on public education budgets. Instead of…

  10. Streambed Temperatures and Heat Budget Estimates in Groundwater-fed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, M.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    A streambed temperature monitoring network was installed in a groundwater-fed stream in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. A network of fifteen temperature loggers was installed in a short reach (<40 m) of Fishtrap Creek to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in streambed temperatures and identify potential mechanisms for localized cooling based on heat exchanges during the summer low flow period. This reach has uniform channel form and water depth, and consistent bed material. Streambed temperature data were collected hourly for the period of July 2008 through October 2012, spanning five summer low flow periods. Nearby climate, stream discharge, and groundwater monitoring stations provided the data to estimate the heat budget components. Over the five summer low flow periods, the network of dataloggers recorded a mean streambed temperature of 13.8oC, with a range of 10.2oC to 20.0oC across the streambed. In order to assess controls on streambed temperature at individual datalogger locations, the incoming heat from sources acting across the entire reach had to be removed from the observed temperature signals. The incoming heat was calculated for the air-water interface to estimate the energy flux into the reach using a heat balance. Incoming solar radiation dominates the heat balance, and evaporative heat fluxes were noticeable as small amplitude variations at a daily scale. Precipitation occurrence, or absence, was not an important component of the heat balance during the summer low flow period. Since incoming solar radiation dominates both air and water temperatures, air temperature (Ta) can be used as a proxy for streambed temperature (Ts). The actual lag time between the air and streambed temperature for this site was 30 hours; however, for the calculation of stream temperature at a daily time step, a lag of 24 hours was used. The relationship between daily streambed temperature and daily air temperature, at a lag of one day, was

  11. Sediment budget estimation in a small torrential catchment using DEM of difference approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezak, Nejc; Grigillo, Dejan; Rusjan, Simon; Šraj, Mojca; Urbančič, Tilen; Kozmus Trajkovski, Klemen; Petrovič, Dušan; Mikoš, Matjaž

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the sediment budget (net erosion change) in a small torrential catchment using the DEM of difference (DoD) approach. The Kuzlovec torrent (~ 0.7 km2; in the Gradaščica River catchment) is located approximately 20 km west of the City of Ljubljana and is part of the Sava River basin. The elevation ranges between 394 and 847 m.a.s.l, the mean catchment slope is 27.3°, the mean annual precipitation typically ranges between 1600 to 1800 mm, forest covers more than 85% of the area, and the predominant soil type is Rendzic Leptosol (according to the FAO classification). Using the Terestrical Laser Scanning (TLS) a digital terrain model (DTM) with a 5 cm grid cell was obtained. A smaller (about 25 m wide and 160 m long) specific study site with a mean slope of 37° was selected in order to ensure the high quality of data. A high resolution (several million points) surveys were performed in April 2013 and August 2014. In the night from 4th to 5th of August 2014 an extreme flash flood happened in the investigated area. Three tipping bucket rain gauges and one disdrometer, which are located in the Gradaščica River catchment, measured 110 to 185 mm of rainfall in less than 10 hours. Two rain gauges measured about 110 mm, one rain gauge (the closest to the Kuzloved torrent) recorded approximately 140 mm of rainfall, while the disdrometer measured 185 mm of rainfall. The estimated return period of this rainfall event (based on the rain gauge data) was between 100 and 250 years, however based on the disdrometer observations the return period was larger than 250 years. The Gumbel distribution was used in order to construct the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship and the data from 1976 to 2008 was used for this purpose. Furthermore, the maximum one minute rainfall intensity measured by the disdrometer was 288 mm/h. This high rainfall intensities triggered several shallow landslides and caused intense soil erosion processes

  12. Ground-water and surface-water flow and estimated water budget for Lake Seminole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    , and about 2 percent lake evaporation. Measurement error and uncertainty in flux calculations cause a flow imbalance of about 4 percent between inflow and outflow water-budget components. Most of this error can be attributed to errors in estimating ground-water discharge from the lake, which was calculated using a ground-water model calibrated to October 1986 conditions for the entire Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint River Basin and not just the area around Lake Seminole. Evaporation rates were determined using the preferred, but mathematically complex, energy budget and five empirical equations: Priestley-Taylor, Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, Papadakis, and the Priestley-Taylor used by the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network. Empirical equations require a significant amount of data but are relatively easy to calculate and compare well to long-term average annual (April 2000?March 2001) pan evaporation, which is 65 inches. Calculated annual lake evaporation, for the study period, using the energy-budget method was 67.2 inches, which overestimated long-term average annual pan evaporation by 2.2 inches. The empirical equations did not compare well with the energy-budget method during the 18-month study period, with average differences in computed evaporation using each equation ranging from 8 to 26 percent. The empirical equations also compared poorly with long-term average annual pan evaporation, with average differences in evaporation ranging from 3 to 23 percent. Energy budget and long-term average annual pan evaporation estimates did compare well, with only a 3-percent difference between estimates. Monthly evaporation estimates using all methods ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 inches and were lowest during December 2000 and highest during May 2000. Although the energy budget is generally the preferred method, the dominance of surface water in the Lake Seminole water budget makes the method inaccurate and difficult to use, because surface water makes up m

  13. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjö, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of organic carbon is stored in high latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment comprising both mineral and peatland soils. The model is applied at 50 m resolution and is shown to be able to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of observed fluxes at this fine scale. The modelled magnitudes of CO2 uptake generally follow the descending sequence: birch forest, non-permafrost Eriophorum, Sphagnum and then tundra heath during the observation periods. The catchment-level carbon fluxes from aquatic systems are dominated by CO2 emissions from streams. Integrated across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present, and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modelled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, integrating comprehensive and diverse fluxes including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this

  14. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Freitas, Vânia; van der Veer, Henk W.; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijsman, Johannes W. M.; Pecquerie, Laure; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters are abstract quantities that are not directly observable. We here present a new approach of parameter estimation, the covariation method, that permits all parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to be estimated from standard empirical datasets. Parameter estimates are based on the simultaneous minimization of a weighted sum of squared deviations between a number of data sets and model predictions or the minimisation of the negative log likelihood function, both in a single-step procedure. The structure of DEB theory permits the unusual situation of using single data-points (such as the maximum reproduction rate), which we call "zero-variate" data, for estimating parameters. We also introduce the concept of "pseudo-data", exploiting the rules for the covariation of parameter values among species that are implied by the standard DEB model. This allows us to introduce the concept of a generalised animal, which has specified parameter values. We here outline the philosophy behind the approach and its technical implementation. In a companion paper, we assess the behaviour of the estimation procedure and present preliminary findings of emerging patterns in parameter values across diverse taxa.

  15. A NOTE ON THE UNCERTAINTY IN ESTIMATES OF TRANSFORMITIES BASED ON GLOBAL WATER BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical potential energy in rainfall is often the largest renewable emergy input to a given land area. An average of five determinations of the transformity of rainfall using global water budgets showed that 95% of the values may be expected to fall within 11.6% of the mea...

  16. Estimation of future carbon budget with climate change and reforestation scenario in North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Damin; Lim, Chul-Hee; Song, Cholho; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Piao, Dongfan; Heo, Seongbong; Jeon, Seongwoo

    2016-09-01

    In terms of climate change, quantifying carbon budget in forest is critical for managing a role of forest as carbon sink. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace and caused to worsen the carbon budget. Under the circumstance, this study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and reforestation on the carbon budget in 2020s and 2050s, using the VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases) model. In order to analyze the impact of reforestation, future land cover maps for the 2020s and 2050s were prepared. Among the deforested areas (2.5 × 106 ha) identified by comparing land cover maps for different periods, the potential reforestation areas were selected by a reforestation scenario considering slope, accessibility from residence, and deforestation types. The extracted potential reforestation areas were 1.7 × 106 ha and the increased forest area was spatially distributed to each district. The percentage change in carbon budget caused by climate change from the 2000s to 2020s is 67.60% and that from the 2020s to 2050s is 45.98% on average. Based on the future land cover, NEP (net ecosystem production) with reforestation will increase by 18.18% than that without reforestation in the 2050s, which shows the contribution to carbon balance. In connection with this long term projection, it is revealed that the gross fluxes such as photosynthesis and respiration may be impacted more obviously by the climate change, especially global warming, than the net carbon flux because of the offset between the changes in the gross fluxes. It is analyzed that changes in carbon budget are very sensitive to climate changes, while the impact of reforestation is relatively less sensitive. Although it is impossible to significantly improve carbon sequestration by establishing forest in a short-term, reforestation is imperative in a long-term view as it clearly has a potential mechanism to offset emitted carbon.

  17. Estimating sediment budgets at the interface between rivers and estuaries with application to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.A.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Where rivers encounter estuaries, a transition zone develops where riverine and tidal processes both affect sediment transport processes. One such transition zone is the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a large, complex system where several rivers meet to form an estuary (San Francisco Bay). Herein we present the results of a detailed sediment budget for this river/estuary transitional system. The primary regional goal of the study was to measure sediment transport rates and pathways in the delta in support of ecosystem restoration efforts. In addition to achieving this regional goal, the study has produced general methods to collect, edit, and analyze (including error analysis) sediment transport data at the interface of rivers and estuaries. Estimating sediment budgets for these systems is difficult because of the mixed nature of riverine versus tidal transport processes, the different timescales of transport in fluvial and tidal environments, and the sheer complexity and size of systems such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Sediment budgets also require error estimates in order to assess whether differences in inflows and outflows, which could be small compared to overall fluxes, are indeed distinguishable from zero. Over the 4 year period of this study, water years 1999-2002, 6.6 ?? 0.9 Mt of sediment entered the delta and 2.2 ?? 0.7 Mt exited, resulting in 4.4 ?? 1.1 Mt (67 ?? 17%) of deposition. The estimated deposition rate corresponding to this mass of sediment compares favorably with measured inorganic sediment accumulation on vegetated wetlands in the delta.

  18. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Emery, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22-31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April-2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  19. National Science Foundation proposed budget could see another increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 would provide the agency with $7.37 billion, a $340 million increase, 4.8% above the FY 2012 estimated budget under which NSF has been operating. NSF has fared well during previous budget cycles, and the Obama administration's budget document for FY 2013 states that “NSF plays a critical role in the implementation of the President's Plan for Science and Technology.” With federal agencies operating under tighter budgets in a difficult financial climate, NSF director Subra Suresh said the budget includes substantial increases for core programs, frontier science, education, and human resources. “I am confident that NSF merits the $7.4 billion the president proposed. I'm optimistic Congress will approve the budget,” Suresh said at a 13 February NSF budget briefing.

  20. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  1. The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.; Singh, Nagendra; Marland, Gregg; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

  2. Estimation of nitrate contamination of an agro-ecosystem outwash aquifer using a nitrogen mass-balance budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Cowdery, T.K.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stoner, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    A mass-balance budget of N cycling was developed for an intensive agricultural area in west-central Minnesota to better understand NO3/- contamination of ground water in the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Fertilizer, biological fixation, atmospheric deposition, and animal feed were the N sources, and crop harvests, animal product exports, volatilization from fertilizer and manure, and denitrification were the N sinks in the model. Excess N, calculated as the difference between the sources and sinks, was assumed to leach to ground water as NO3/-. The budget was developed using ground water data collected throughout the 212-km2 study area. Denitrification was estimated by adjusting its value so the predicted and measured concentrations of NO3/- in ground water agreed. Although biological fixation was the largest single N source, most was removed when crops were harvested, indicating that inorganic fertilizer was the primary source of N reaching the water table. It was estimated that denitrification removed almost half of the excess NO3/- that leached below the root zone. Even after accounting for denitrification losses, however, it was concluded that the ground water system was receiving approximately three times as much N as would be expected under background conditions.

  3. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  4. Satellite Estimated Surface Heat Budgets in the Pacific Warm Pool During TOGA COARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1999-01-01

    Chou (1998) produced daily mean surface net shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes for the westem Pacific warm pool (from the Japan GMS data) for the COARE IOP (intensive observing period). In addition, daily mean air-sea turbulent fluxes have been produced from the SSM/I data using the method of Chou (1997). In this paper, we focus on three areas. The first area is to further assess accuracy of the retrieved daily mean surface fluxes using those from the IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV IWecoma. The second area is to describe the temporal and spatial variability of the surface heat budget (as well as the related parameters) over the warm pool during the IOP. The third area is to discuss the relation of SST (sea surface temperature) change to surface fluxes, including the tranmission of solar flux through the ocean mix-layer.

  5. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  8. Net mitigation potential of straw return to Chinese cropland: estimation with a full greenhouse gas budget model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Duan, Xiaonan; Zheng, Hua

    2010-04-01

    Based on the carbon-nitrogen cycles and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and emission processes related to straw return and burning, a compound greenhouse gas budget model, the "Straw Return and Burning Model" (SRBM), was constructed to estimate the net mitigation potential of straw return to the soil in China. As a full GHG budget model, the SRBM addressed the following five processes: (1) soil carbon sequestration, (2) mitigation of synthetic N fertilizer substitution, (3) methane emission from rice paddies, (4) additional fossil fuel use for straw return, and (5) CH4 and N2O emissions from straw burning in the fields. Two comparable scenarios were created to reflect different degrees of implementation for straw return and straw burning. With GHG emissions and mitigation effects of the five processes converted into global warming potential (GWP), the net GHG mitigation was estimated. We concluded that (1) when the full greenhouse gas budget is considered, the net mitigation potential of straw return differs from that when soil carbon sequestration is considered alone; (2) implementation of straw return across a larger area of cropland in 10 provinces (i.e., Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan) will increase net GHG emission; (3) if straw return is promoted as a feasible mitigation measure in the remaining provinces, the total net mitigation potential before soil organic carbon (SOC) saturation will be 71.89 Tg CO2 equivalent (eqv)/yr, which is equivalent to 1.733% of the annual carbon emission from fossil fuel use in China in 2003; (4) after SOC saturation, only 13 of 21 provinces retain a relatively small but permanent net mitigation potential, while in the others the net GHG mitigation potential will gradually diminish; and (5) the major obstacle to the feasibility or permanence of straw return as a mitigation measure is the increased CH4 emission from rice paddies. The paper also suggests that comparable

  9. Estimation of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellites and quasi-real-time monitoring of PV power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Inoue, T.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Teruyuki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. In this study, we developed the high speed and accurate algorithm for shortwave (SW) radiation budget and it's applied to five geostationary satellites for global analysis. There are validated by SKYNET and BSRN ground observation data. The analysis results showed a distinctive trend of direct and diffuse component of surface SW fluxes in North Pacific and North Atlantic ocean. Similarly, developed algorithm is applied to quasi-real time analysis synchronous to geostationary satellite observation. It enabled highly accurate monitoring of solar radiation and photo voltaic (PV) power generation. It indicates the possibility of the fusion analysis of climate study and renewable energy.

  10. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  11. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  12. A Data-constrained Estimate of the Global Ocean Iron Cycle: Budgets, Timescales, and Iron Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frants, M.; Holzer, M. B.; DeVries, T. J.; Matear, R.

    2014-12-01

    The oceanic iron cycle is estimated by optimizing a simple steady-state model based on a data-assimilated global circulation, with a prescribed optimized phosphorus cycle and a prescribed aeolian source pattern. Key biogeochemical parameters are determined by minimizing a suitably weighted quadratic misfit between the model's dissolved iron concentration and a global data set of sparse measurements. The global dissolved iron inventory is estimated to be (7.1±0.1)×1011 mol Fe, of which (6.9±0.1)×1011 mol Fe is bound to organic ligands and hence bioavailable, while the remainder is "free" iron. The aeolian iron input rate is estimated at (3.3±0.5)×109 mol Fe/year, corresponding to a bulk residence time for bioavailable iron of 215±40 years, comparable to the bulk biological cycling timescale estimated at 246±24 years. Iron limitation is quantified in terms of the difference [Fe∗] between the actual iron concentration and that needed to utilize the available phosphate. The optimized model captures the observed high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean as iron-limited regions with [Fe∗]<0. We define an iron age, ΓFe, as the mean time since iron at a given point was last injected from the atmosphere and compute ΓFe using an equivalent linear formulation of the model. In the euphotic zone, ΓFe ranges from a few decades or less in regions of high aeolian input to ˜1800 years in the Southern Ocean. The patterns of ΓFe show that iron is supplied to the Southern Ocean euphotic zone primarily from depth rather than being advected within the thermocline following deposition from continental dust plumes. Because [Fe∗] is negative in the deep southern oceans, upwelling waters maintain Southern Ocean iron limitation.

  13. Multi-Satellite Estimates of Land-Surface Properties for Determination of Energy and Water Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Rabin, Robert M.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Gallo, Kevin; Diak, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Using the WETNET database, existing methods for the estimation of surface wetness from SSM/I data have been assessed and further developed. A physical-statistical method for optimal estimation of daily surface heat flux and Bowen ratio on the mesoscale has been developed and tested. This method is based on observations of daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth from operational ravansonde and daytime land-surface temperature amplitude from Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites. The mesoscale patterns of these heat fluxes have been compared with an AVHRR-based vegetation index and surface wetness (separately estimated from SSM/I and in situ observations). Cases of the 1988 Midwest drought and a surface/atmosphere moisture gradient (dry-line) in the southern Plains were studied. The analyses revealed significant variations in sensible heat flux (S(sub 0), and Bowen ratio, B(sub 0)) associated with vegetation cover and antecedent precipitation. Relationships for surface heat flux (and Bowen ratio) from antecedent precipitation and vegetation index have been developed and compared to other findings. Results from this project are reported in the following reviewed literature.

  14. Test Administrator's Gender Affects Female and Male Students' Self-Estimated Verbal General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Vormittag, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Effects of test administrator's gender on test takers' self-estimated verbal general knowledge and de facto verbal general knowledge were investigated. Based on three theories previously applied in research dealing with the effects of test administrator's ethnicity, it was expected male and female test takers to show higher scores under female…

  15. Assimilating Earth observation data across the UK for estimating greenhouse gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Disney, Mathias; Lewis, Philip; Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Successful monitoring of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions at regional scale requires a research framework that brings together knowledge about the spatiotemporal variability of gas fluxes under current and anticipated environmental and anthropogenic conditions. In this framework, knowledge about emissions derived from finer spatiotemporal scales is aggregated to calibrate and validate models operating at coarser scales, while top-down estimates of surface biophysical conditions are used to constrain models operating at finer scales. A key challenge in forming this framework is finding a solid basis to link process-based knowledge of individual research sites with Earth Observation (EO) data covering the landscape at approximately a 500m to 1km resolution. Approaches to provide for this link have often considered data from individual satellites or overflights, posing important limitations on the number of observations available through space and time, especially for regions frequently covered in clouds. A novel approach considers a data assimilation scheme through which a vast set of data from a constellation of satellites can be used to inform upon the biophysical state of the land surface. The simultaneous use of these data in a data assimilation scheme requires normalization with respect to the various instrument specifications, including bandpass and sun-sensor-target geometry at times of overpass. In this study we demonstrate a linear mapping of spectral reflectances across an array of satellites, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MERIS), Sentinel 2 (S2), and Vegetation (VGT). The implications of this linear mapping scheme on data availability for the estimation of biophysical characteristics and associated uncertainties are discussed.

  16. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  17. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Castillo, Jerel Nelson

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentation of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file

  18. Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) to Estimate Ground Heat Flux and Reduce Surface Energy Budget Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Sharma, Varun; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Ground heat flux plays a crucial role in surface energy budget: an incorrect estimation of energy storage and heat fluxes in soils occur when probes such as heat flux plates are adopted, and these mistakes can account for up to 90% of the residual variance (Higgins, GRL, 2012). A promising alternative to heat flux plates is represented by Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP). They have proven to be accurate in thermal properties and heat fluxes estimation (e.g. Cobos, VZJ, 2003) and can be used to monitor and quantify subsurface evaporation in field experiments (Xiao et al., VZJ, 2011). We perform a laboratory experiment with controlled temperature in a small Plexiglas column (20cm diameter and 40cm height). The column is packed with homogeneously saturated sandy soil and equipped with three MFHPPs in the upper 4cm and thermocouples and dielectric soil moisture probes deeper. This configuration allows for accurate and simultaneous ground heat flux, soil moisture and subsurface evaporation measurements. Total evaporation is monitored using a precision scale, while an infrared gun and a long wave radiometer measure the soil skin temperature and the outgoing long-short wave radiation, respectively. A fan and a heat lamp placed above the column allow to mimick on a smaller and more controlled scale the field conditions induced by the diurnal cycle. At a reference height above the column relative humidity, wind speed and air temperature are collected. Results are interpreted by means of numerical simulations performed with an ad-hoc-developed numerical model that simulates coupled heat and moisture transfer in soils and is used to match and interpolate the temperature and soil moisture values got at finite depths within the column. Ground heat fluxes are then estimated by integrating over almost continuous, numerically simulated temperature profiles, which avoids errors due to use of discrete data (Lunati et al., WRR, 2012) and leads to a more reliable estimate of

  19. Initial Results from an Atmospheric Validation of Urban Greenhouse Gas Budget Estimates for the US Northeast Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrkorn, T.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hutyra, L.; Decola, P.; Callahan, W.; Sargent, M. R.; McKain, K.; Barrera, Y.; Jones, T.; Gately, C.; Hardiman, B. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Henderson, J.; Collatz, G. J.; Schaaf, C. L.; Miller, C. E.; Long, A.; Sloop, C.; Prinzivalli, S.

    2015-12-01

    The world's population is increasingly concentrated in urban areas. Urbanization has a profound impact on carbon dynamics, leading to higher anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and lower biogenic fluxes. We describe a model-data analysis framework that is designed to validate and improve greenhouse gas (GHG) budget estimates for the US Northeast (Washington DC to Boston) urban corridor. It encompasses an observational network of GHG in-situ measurements (at near surface sites, on tall buildings, and on towers), column amount measurements from ground-based and satellite sensors, miniMPL measurements of the planetary boundary layer structure, a high-resolution emission inventory, and a modeling framework for atmospheric transport and diffusion that is comprised of a mesoscale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. We present selected results from different aspects of the modeling-data framework, including emission inventories at high spatio-temporal resolution, verification of meteorological simulation using conventional and novel (e.g., miniMPL) observations, and aspects of the inversion methodology.

  20. Budgeting Based on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  1. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  2. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  3. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, underlying almost 112 million acres in the central United States, is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation. It is the primary water supply for drinking water, irrigation, animal production, and industry in the region. Expansion of irrigated agriculture throughout the past 60 years has helped make the High Plains one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Nation. Extensive withdrawals of groundwater for irrigation have caused water-level declines in many parts of the aquifer and increased concerns about the long-term sustainability of the aquifer. Quantification of water-budget components is a prerequisite for effective water-resources management. Components analyzed as part of this study were precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, surface runoff, groundwater discharge to streams, groundwater fluxes to and from adjacent geologic units, irrigation, and groundwater in storage. These components were assessed for 1940 through 1949 (representing conditions prior to substantial groundwater development and referred to as "pregroundwater development" throughout this report) and 2000 through 2009. Because no single method can perfectly quantify the magnitude of any part of a water budget at a regional scale, results from several methods and previously published work were compiled and compared for this study when feasible. Results varied among the several methods applied, as indicated by the range of average annual volumes given for each component listed in the following paragraphs. Precipitation was derived from three sources: the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model, data developed using Next Generation Weather Radar and measured precipitation from weather stations by the Office of Hydrologic Development at the National Weather Service for the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, and precipitation measured at weather stations and spatially distributed using an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation

  4. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to describe the budgeting process in school districts. Discusses general budget calendars and explains the process of constructing a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart of the budgeting process. Presents a detailed list of activities to be included in the budgeting process and a PERT chart indicating how these activities…

  5. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  6. 43 CFR 429.19 - What happens if the initial estimate for administrative costs is insufficient?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the initial estimate for administrative costs is insufficient? 429.19 Section 429.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR USE OF BUREAU OF RECLAMATION LAND,...

  7. Estimating evapotranspiration over agricultural landscapes with thermal infrared data: comparison of two approaches using Simple Energy Budget and SVAT modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.; Er-Raki, S.; Khabba, S.

    2012-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery, focusing on simulating fluxes at low spatial resolution with 2 methodologies: 1. Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2. Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and based on a high spatial resolution database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height, meteorological forcing and irrigation). In a first part we sum up previous results about in-situ capabilities of a SEB model (TSEB, Norman & al. 1995) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS, described by Coudert & al. 2006) over crops. TSEB is driven directly with TIR forcing and does not consider soil water transfers. SEtHyS doesn't rely on TIR data availability but it has more parameters and requires more inputs for initialization. Simulations of both models were compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes, with data from 3 sites in southern France and Morocco, covering several kinds of cultures, various vegetative states and various meteorological conditions. A sensitivity analysis on inputs was used to better characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges induced by spatialization. Globally, models provide estimations of latent heat flux (LE) with RMSD of around 55W/m2 for TSEB and 45W/m2 for SEtHyS. Energy fluxes partition in TSEB was shown to be relatively less sensitive to some inputs when using only a single set of parameters. However it has lower performances on rising vegetation and stressed vegetation

  8. Reaction to Global Change Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    A recent hearing of the Subcommittee on Veterans Administration/Department of Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies of the Senate Committee on Appropriations provided an early glimpse of congressional reaction to the administration's global change research budget.

  9. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  10. Budget brief, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to be undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)

  11. Estimating rates of biologically driven coral reef framework production and erosion: a new census-based carbonate budget methodology and applications to the reefs of Bonaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Edinger, E. N.; Kench, P. S.; Murphy, G. N.; Smithers, S. G.; Steneck, R. S.; Mumby, P. J.

    2012-09-01

    Census-based approaches can provide important measures of the ecological processes controlling reef carbonate production states. Here, we describe a rapid, non-destructive approach to carbonate budget assessments, termed ReefBudget that is census-based and which focuses on quantifying the relative contributions made by different biological carbonate producer/eroder groups to net reef framework carbonate production. The methodology is presently designed only for Caribbean sites, but has potential to be adapted for use in other regions. Rates are calculated using data on organism cover and abundance, combined with annual extension or production rate measures. Set against this are estimates of the rates at which bioeroding species of fish, urchins and internal substrate borers erode reef framework. Resultant data provide a measure of net rates of biologically driven carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1). These data have potential to be integrated into ecological assessments of reef state, to aid monitoring of temporal (same-site) changes in rates of biological carbonate production and to provide insights into the key ecological drivers of reef growth or erosion as a function of environmental change. Individual aspects of the budget methodology can also be used alongside other census approaches if deemed appropriate for specific study aims. Furthermore, the methodology spreadsheets are user-changeable, allowing local or new process/rate data to be integrated into calculations. Application of the methodology is considered at sites around Bonaire. Highest net rates of carbonate production, +9.52 to +2.30 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1, were calculated at leeward sites, whilst lower rates, +0.98 to -0.98 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1, were calculated at windward sites. Data are within the ranges calculated in previous budget studies and provide confidence in the production estimates the methodology generates.

  12. Fetal radiation dose estimates for I-131 sodium iodide in cases where conception occurs after administration

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.B.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    After administration of I-131 to the female patient, the possibility of radiation exposure of the embryo/fetus exists if the patient becomes pregnant while radioiodine remains in the body. Fetal radiation dose estimates for such cases were calculated. Doses were calculated for various maternal thyroid uptakes and time intervals between administration and conception, including euthyroid and hyperthyroid cases. The maximum fetal dose calculating was about 9.8E-03 mGy/MBq, which occurred with 100% maternal thyroid uptake and a 1 week interval between administration and conception. Placental crossover of the small amount of radioiodine remaining 90 days after conception was also considered. Such crossover could result in an additional fetal dose of 9.8E-05 mGy/MBq and a maximum fetal thyroid self dose of 3.5E-04 mGy/MBq.

  13. Department of Defense FY 1990/FY 1991 biennial budget estimates submitted to Congress January 1989. Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Chemical Demilitarization Program was established in response to Section 1412 of the 1986 Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 99-145) that directs the DOD to destroy the complete unitary chemical stockpile by 1994 in conjunction with the production of binary chemical weapons. The Fiscal Year 1989 Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 100-456) extended program completion to 1997. Estimates contained in this budget reflect the 1997 completion date. The Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Defense appropriation includes operations and maintenance, procurement, and research and development budget activities. Construction funds in support of chemical demilitarization are contained in the Military Construction, Army Budget request. The Chemical Demilitarization Program provides resources to develop and test monitoring and disposal technology; equip, operate, and maintain disposal facilities; provide safe and secure transportation of chemical agents and munitions for disposal; dispose of all waste products; and decontaminate and dismantle all disposal equipment at the conclusion of toxic operations. Chemical agents and munitions are stored within the continental United States, Johnston Atoll, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Funds within this appropriation will by used to destroy the entire unitary lethal chemical stockpile. Also included are funds for Emergency Response and Program Oversight.

  14. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentationmore » of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file« less

  16. The Clinton military budget

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. )

    1993-05-01

    In February, the Clinton administration presented the overall contours, if not the details, of its military budget plans for the next five years. $263.5 billion was requested in new budget authority for fiscal 1994. By fiscal 1995, according to the administration blueprint, the budget would be reduced to about $250 billion annually. The three points that stand out, apart from the modest nature of the reductions from the previous administration's five-year Pentagon plan, are discussed in this article. First, the Clinton team downplayed the magnitude of the cutbacks. Second, the Clinton reductions generated great confusion, as an extraordinary range of numbers was banded about. Third, the pro-military members of Congress were remarkably quiet about the Clinton defense plan. Explanations and implications of these points are explained.

  17. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  18. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  19. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  20. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge estimated using a water-budget model for the Island of Maui, Hawai‘i, 1978-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Adam G.; Engott, John A.; Bassiouni, Maoya

    2014-01-01

    Demand for freshwater on the Island of Maui is expected to grow. To evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater, estimates of groundwater recharge are needed. A water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Maui for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is 1,340 million gallons per day, or about 45 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 40 percent of total water inflow consisting of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Most recharge occurs on the wet, windward slopes of Haleakalā and on the wet, uplands of West Maui Mountain. Dry, coastal areas generally have low recharge. In the dry isthmus, however, irrigated fields have greater recharge than nearby unirrigated areas. For drought conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is about 1,035 million gallons per day, which is 23 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. For individual aquifer-system areas used for groundwater management, recharge for drought conditions is about 8 to 51 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. The spatial distribution of rainfall is the primary factor determining spatially distributed recharge estimates for most areas on Maui. In wet areas, recharge estimates are also sensitive to water-budget parameters that are related to runoff, fog interception, and forest-canopy evaporation. In dry areas, recharge estimates are most sensitive to irrigated crop areas and parameters related to evapotranspiration.

  1. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  3. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  4. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-07-14

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  5. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  6. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  7. Inaccuracies in sediment budgets arising from estimations of tributary sediment inputs: an example from a monitoring network on the southern Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald; Topping, David

    2015-01-01

    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain-size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a channel reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many studies have estimated sediment loads from ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of sediment loads in semi-arid climates, where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial variability.

  8. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  9. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  10. Budget timetable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  11. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  12. Estimation of the Components of the Carbon and Water Budgets for Winter Wheat by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Croplands occupy more than one third of Earth's terrestrial surface contributing to climate change and also being impacted by those changes, since their production is conditioned by climatic conditions and water resources. It is thus essential to quantify and analyze the production and the main components of the carbon and water cycles for crop ecosystems. We propose here a regional modeling approach that combines: high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data, a simple crop model and an extensive set of in-situ measurements for model's calibration and validation. The model, named SAFYE-CO2 (Simple Algorithm for Fluxes and Yield Estimates), is a daily time step model based on Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and coupled with a water budget module (FAO-56 method). SAFYE-CO2 estimates components of the carbon budget (gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), …) and of the crop water cycle (evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ETR) and soil water content) and also time courses of dry aboveground biomass and yield by assimilating Green Area Index (GAI) data obtained from HSTR satellite observations. For this work, we used a unique set of Formosat-2 and SPOT images acquired from 2006 to 2011 in southwest France. Crop and soil model parameters were set using both in-situ measurements and values found in the literature. Phenological parameters were calibrated by the GAI assimilation. The results indicate that the model correctly reproduces winter wheat biomass and yield production (relative error about 25%) for years with contrasted climatic conditions. The estimated net carbon flux components were overall in agreement with the flux measurements, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.9 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.84 for NEE). Regarding the ETR, a good correlation (R2 about 0.73) and satisfactory errors (RMSE about 0.47 mm.d-1) were found. Carbon and water budgets as well

  13. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  14. Regional distribution of perceived temperatures estimated by the human heat budget model (the Klima-Michel model) in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyu Rang; Choi, Byoung-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Geun; Kim, Jeong-Sik

    2009-03-01

    The regional distribution of perceived temperatures (PT) for 28 major weather stations in South Korea during the past 22 years (1983-2004) was investigated by employing a human heat budget model, the Klima-Michel model. The frequencies of a cold stress and a heat load by each region were compared. The sensitivity of PT in terms of the input of synoptic meteorological variables were successfully tested. Seogwipo in Jeju Island appears to be the most comfortable city in Korea. Busan also shows a high frequency in the comfortable PT range. The frequency of the thermal comfort in Seoul is similar to that of Daejeon with a relatively low frequency. In this study, inland cities like Daegu and Daejeon had very hot thermal sensations. Low frequencies of hot thermal sensations appeared in coastal cities (e.g., Busan, Incheon, and Seogwipo). Most of the 28 stations in Korea exhibited a comfort thermal sensation over 40% in its frequency, except for the mountainous regions. The frequency of a heat load is more frequent than that of a cold stress. There are no cities with very cold thermal sensations. In this study, we found the decreasing trend of mortality with an increasing PT. If the PT is over any critical temperature point, however, the mortality rate increases again. The mortality variation with the PT of a station seems to be associated with the latitudinal location of the station, implying that it results from a regional acclimation effect of inhabitants.

  15. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-10-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  16. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, A. J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; van der Molen, M. K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T. C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2012-06-01

    We determine the carbon balance of Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and inversion methods. Our current best estimate of the net biosphere to atmosphere flux is -0.66 Pg C yr-1. This sink is primarily caused by forests that using two independent methods are estimated to take up -0.69 Pg C yr-1. Using inverse models yields an average net biopshere to atmosphere flux of the same value with a interannual variability of 35 % (1σ). The total estimated biosphere to atmosphere flux from eddy covariance observations over a limited number of sites amounts to -1 Pg C yr-1. Fires emit 137 to 121 Tg C yr-1 using two different methods. The interannual variability of fire emissions is large, up to a factor 0.5 to 3. Smaller fluxes to the ocean and inland lakes, trade are also accounted for. Our best estimate for the Russian net biosphere to atmosphere flux then amounts to -659 Tg C yr-1 as the average of the inverse models of -653 Tg C yr-1, bottom up -563 Tg C yr-1 and the independent landscape approach of -761 Tg C yr-1. These three methods agree well within their error bounds, so there is good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The best estimate of the net land to atmosphere flux, including the fossil fuel emissions is -145 to -73 Tg C yr-1. Estimated methane emissions vary considerably with one inventory-based estimate providing a net land to atmosphere flux of 12.6 Tg C-CH4yr -1 and an independent model estimate for the boreal and Arctic zones of Eurasia of 27.6 Tg C-CH4 yr-1.

  17. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory-based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, A. J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; van der Molen, M. K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T. C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2012-12-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory-based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimates. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 Tg C yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom-up and top-down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux (-692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 Tg C yr-1) for net biome production (NBP), given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and undersampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) suggest a much lower uptake at -91 Tg C yr-1, and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  18. Budget Update: 2009-10 Operating Grant Estimates--What Changed between March Estimates and the Autumn Recalculation? BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2010-EF-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In March of each year, the ministry publishes the Operating Grants Manual showing estimated funding allocations for school districts for the upcoming school year. These estimates are based on enrolment projections. On September 30 of the new school year, enrolment is counted and the grants are recalculated based on actual enrolment. The ministry…

  19. Importance of budgets for estimating the input of groundwater-derived nutrients to an eutrophic tidal river and estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makings, Uriah; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Golsby-Smith, Lindsay; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater is often overlooked as a source of nutrients to estuaries and most previous groundwater-surface water exchange studies did not consider the input of dissolved organic nutrients. Here, we hypothesize that groundwater is contributing to high dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations in an eutrophic subtropical tidal river and estuary (Caboolture River, Queensland, Australia). Several spatial radon (222Rn, a natural groundwater tracer) surveys indicated that the majority of groundwater discharge occurred in the tidal river just upstream of the estuary, and that the radon hotspot did not necessarily coincide with the nutrient hotspot. A radon mass balance revealed that groundwater discharge into the tidal river was equivalent to about 50% of the gauged river flow in February 2012. Groundwater discharge apparently contributed 85% of ammonium and 35% of phosphate entering the estuary. In spite of significant correlations between radon and nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) during spatial surveys, groundwater could account for only 7% of nitrate and 9% of DON inputs due to low groundwater concentrations and other sources (i.e., apparently a sewage treatment plant for nitrate and floodplain tributaries for DON). Because total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) was dominated by DON (69%) and nitrate (23%), the groundwater ammonium inputs were a minor source to the TDN pool within the tidal river and estuary. This study demonstrated that correlations between a groundwater tracer and nutrient concentrations do not necessarily illustrate causation. To assess how groundwater drives nutrient dynamics in estuaries, it may be important to include the tidal river (not only the estuarine salinity gradient) in field investigations, consider DON (not only ammonium and nitrate), and perform detailed budgets that include minor tributaries.

  20. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the dynamic energy budget theory.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; Nordtug, Trond; Tamis, Jacqueline E

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for cod specific DEB-parameters. Furthermore, we explored the relevance of Fathead minnow DEB-parameters as surrogate by comparing LC50 values calculated from DEB-parameters with literature. Cod specific DEB-parameters could not be estimated based on available literature. LC50 values calculated from Fathead minnow DEB-parameters were higher than literature LC50 for early life stages of fish. Applying an extrapolation factor of 50 to the DEB-parameters resulted in LC50 values that were below literature irrespective of life stage. Therefore, we propose to use the last as an estimate for early life stages in cod and recommend relevant experiments with individual petroleum substances on cod.

  1. Estimating the Prevalence of Treated Epilepsy Using Administrative Health Data and Its Validity: ESSENCE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo-Young; Chung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon Chul; Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Do; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few of the epidemiologic studies of epilepsy have utilized well-validated nationwide databases. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of treated epilepsy based on a comprehensive medical payment database along with diagnostic validation. Methods We collected data on patients prescribed of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, which covers the entire population of Korea. To assess the diagnostic validity, a medical records survey was conducted involving 6,774 patients prescribed AEDs from 43 institutions based on regional clusters and referral levels across the country. The prevalence of treated epilepsy was estimated by projecting the diagnostic validity on the number of patients prescribed AEDs. Results The mean positive predictive value (PPV) for epilepsy was 0.810 for those prescribed AEDs with diagnostic codes that indicate epilepsy or seizure (Diagnosis-E), while it was 0.066 for those without Diagnosis-E. The PPV tended to decrease with age in both groups, with lower values seen in females. The prevalence was 3.84 per 1,000, and it was higher among males, children, and the elderly. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in Korea was comparable to that in other East Asian countries. The diagnostic validity of administrative health data varies depending on the method of case ascertainment, age, and sex. The prescriptions of AEDs even without relevant diagnostic codes should be considered as a tracer for epilepsy.

  2. Community College Budgeting and Financing Demystified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David S.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of budgeting and financial resources often strikes fear in the hearts of community college administrators and faculty, as they believe it is an arcane and complex art understood only by accountants and financial specialists. This chapter attempts to demystify the basic concepts involved in budgeting and addresses approaches to budgeting,…

  3. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  4. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  5. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production) and industrial (net emissions from forest industry) forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1). The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100 years increases the strength of

  6. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  7. A water-budget analysis of Medina and Diversion Lakes and the Medina/Diversion lake system, with estimated recharge to Edwards aquifer, San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slattery, Richard N.; Miller, Lisa D.

    2004-01-01

    In January 2001, the U.S. Geological Surveyin cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authoritybegan a study to refine and, if possible, extend previously derived (199596) relations between the stage in Medina Lake and recharge to the Edwards aquifer to include the effects of reservoir stages below 1,018 feet and greater than 1,046 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The principal objective of this present (200102) study was to estimate ground-water outflow (seepage) from Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and from the Medina/Diversion Lake system through the calculation of water budgets representing steady-state conditions over as wide a range as possible in the stages of Medina and Diversion Lakes. The water budgets were compiled for selected periods during which time the water-budget components were inferred to be relatively stable and the influence of precipitation, stormwater runoff, and changes in storage were presumably minimal. Water budgets for the Medina/Diversion Lake system were compiled for 127 water-budget periods ranging from 8 to 78 days from daily hydrologic data collected during March 1955September 1964, October 1995September 1996, and February 2001June 2002. Budgets for Medina and Diversion Lakes were compiled for 14 periods ranging from 8 to 23 days from daily hydrologic data collected only during October 1995September 1996 and April 2001June 2002. Linear equations were developed to relate the stage in Medina Lake to ground-water outflow from Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and the Medina/Diversion Lake system. The computed mean rates of outflow from Medina Lake ranged from about 18 to 182 acre-feet per day between stages of 1,019 and 1,064 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The computed rates of outflow from Diversion Lake ranged from about -85 to 52 acre-feet per day. The rates of outflow from the entire lake system ranged from about 5 to 178 acre-feet per day between Medina Lake stages of 963 to 1,064 feet. It is

  8. Varying Estimates of Sepsis Mortality Using Death Certificates and Administrative Codes--United States, 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lauren; Dantes, Ray; Magill, Shelley; Fiore, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response to infection (1). Because there is no confirmatory diagnostic test, the diagnosis of sepsis is based on evidence of infection and clinical judgement. Both death certificates and health services utilization data (administrative claims) have been used to assess sepsis incidence and mortality, but estimates vary depending on the surveillance definition and data source. To highlight the challenges and variability associated with estimating sepsis mortality, CDC compared national estimates of sepsis-related mortality based on death certificates using the CDC WONDER database with published sepsis mortality estimates generated using administrative claims data from hospital discharges reported in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2). During 2004-2009, using data rounded to thousands, the annual range of published sepsis-related mortality estimates based on administrative claims data was 15% to 140% higher (range = 168,000-381,000) than annual estimates generated using death certificate data (multiple causes) (range = 146,000-159,000). Differences in sepsis-related mortality reported using death certificates and administrative claims data might be explained by limitations inherent in each data source. These findings underscore the need for a reliable sepsis surveillance definition based on objective clinical data to more accurately track national sepsis trends and enable objective assessment of the impact of efforts to increase sepsis awareness and prevention. PMID:27054476

  9. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  10. Oregon-California Regional Carbon Budget Approach Using Model-Data Fusion to Estimate Gross Carbon Fluxes: Component of ORCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, J.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B.; Turner, D.; Cohen, W.

    2005-12-01

    This study presents preliminary results from the model-data fusion component of the ORCA project, which aims to quantify carbon stocks and fluxes across the whole of Oregon and north California (see Law et al., this meeting). Process models for gross primary production (GPP), autotrophic respiration (RA) and heterotrophic respiration (RH) are formulated that incorporate effects of disturbance (forest stand age) on growth and respiration. The model-data fusion approach utilizes both eddy covariance and atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements for parameter estimation, and is applied initially at three flux tower sites covering different age classes of ponderosa pine forest. Concentration data are interpreted within a one-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer model to infer daytime CO2 flux. These flux estimates cover a larger region than the eddy covariance measurements and footprint modeling allows partitioning among surrounding land cover types and age classes (see Goeckede et al., this meeting). The simple process models for GPP, RA and RH are formulated with a base rate for each flux component (this rate being the light-use-efficiency in the case of GPP), and modulation with climate variables, forest structure and stand age. The simplicity of the functions make them easy to parameterize and employ across large spatial regions, driven by distributed climate data and satellite observations, while encompassing sufficient mechanistic linkages between vegetation fluxes and climate and physiological drivers to reproduce the observations effectively. The parameter optimization procedure is used to determine the dominant parameters driving diurnal and seasonal variation in flux components, and parameter uncertainties and correlations are investigated. The influences of factors such as drought, diffuse light fraction and stand age on production and/or respiration and the link between production and respiration are discussed.

  11. First volcanic CO2 budget estimate for three actively degassing volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, Philippe; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Conde, Vladimir; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Avard, Geoffroy; Muñoz, Angélica

    2014-05-01

    CO2 is a key chemical tracer for exploring volcanic degassing mechanisms of basaltic magmatic systems (1). The rate of CO2 release from sub-aerial volcanism is monitored via studies on volcanic plumes and fumaroles, but information is still sparse and incomplete for many regions of the globe, including the majority of the volcanoes in the Central American Volcanic Arc (2). Here, we use a combination of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements of volcanic gas plumes to provide a first estimate of the CO2 output from three degassing volcanoes in Central America: Turrialba, in Costa Rica, and Telica and San Cristobal, in Nicaragua. During a field campaign in March-April 2013, we obtained (for the three volcanoes) a simultaneous record of SO2 fluxes (from the NOVAC network (3)) and CO2 vs. SO2 concentrations in the near-vent plumes (obtained via a temporary installed fully-automated Multi-GAS instrument (4)). The Multi-GAS time-series allowed to calculate the plume CO2/SO2 ratios for different intervals of time, showing relatively stable gas compositions. Distinct CO2 - SO2 - H2O proportions were observed at the three volcanoes, but still within the range of volcanic arc gas (5). The CO2/SO2 ratios were then multiplied by the SO2 flux in order to derive the CO2 output. At Turrialba, CO2/SO2 ratios fluctuated, between March 12 and 19, between 1.1 and 5.7, and the CO2flux was evaluated at ~1000-1350 t/d (6). At Telica, between March 23 and April 8, a somewhat higher CO2/SO2 ratio was observed (3.3 ± 1.0), although the CO2 flux was evaluated at only ~100-500 t/d (6). At San Cristobal, where observations were taken between April 11 and 15, the CO2/SO2 ratio ranged between 1.8 and 7.4, with a mean CO2 flux of 753 t/d. These measurements contribute refining the current estimates of the total CO2 output from the Central American Volcanic Arc (7). Symonds, R.B. et al., (2001). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303-341 Burton, M. R. et al. (2013). Reviews in

  12. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge for 2010 land cover estimated using a water-budget model for the island of O'ahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.; Johnson, Adam G.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Izuka, Scot K.

    2015-01-01

    Owing mainly to projected population growth, demand for freshwater on the Island of Oʻahu is expected to increase by about 26 percent between 2010 and 2030, according to the City and County of Honolulu. Estimates of groundwater recharge are needed to evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater. For this study, a water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Oʻahu for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Oʻahu is 661 million gallons per day, or about 36 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 34 percent of total water inflow, which consists of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, water-main leakage, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Recharge is highest along the crest of the Koʻolau Range, reaching as much as about 180 inches per year in the north-central part of the range. Recharge is much lower outside of the mountainous areas of the island, commonly less than 5 inches per year in unirrigated areas. The islandwide estimate of groundwater recharge for average climate conditions from this study is within 1 percent of the recharge estimate used in the 2008 State of Hawaiʻi Water Resource Protection Plan, which divides the Island of Oʻahu into 23 aquifer systems for groundwater management purposes. To facilitate direct comparisons with this study, these 23 aquifer systems were consolidated into 21 aquifer systems. Recharge estimates from this study are higher for 12 of the aquifer-system areas and lower for 9. Differences in mean rainfall distribution and the inclusion of irrigation in this study are the primary reasons for discrepancies in recharge estimates between this study and the 2008 Hawaiʻi Water Resources Protection Plan. For

  13. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  14. The Fiscal Year 1993 Bush Budget: Still Not Tackling the Nation's Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; Leonard, Paul A.

    On January 29, 1992, the Bush Administration unveiled its fiscal year 1993 budget. An examination of the budget reveals a substantial gap between the administration's rhetoric concerning the budget and what the budget actually contains. An analysis reveals a budget that continues to give priority to defense over domestic spending, one that favors…

  15. On the potential of the ICOS atmospheric CO2 measurement network for estimating the biogenic CO2 budget of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadygrov, N.; Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Rivier, L.; Gerbig, C.; Ciais, P.

    2015-11-01

    We present a performance assessment of the European Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) atmospheric network for constraining European biogenic CO2 fluxes (hereafter net ecosystem exchange, NEE). The performance of the network is assessed in terms of uncertainty in the fluxes, using a state-of-the-art mesoscale variational atmospheric inversion system assimilating hourly averages of atmospheric data to solve for NEE at 6 h and 0.5° resolution. The performance of the ICOS atmospheric network is also assessed in terms of uncertainty reduction compared to typical uncertainties in the flux estimates from ecosystem models, which are used as prior information by the inversion. The uncertainty in inverted fluxes is computed for two typical periods representative of northern summer and winter conditions in July and in December 2007, respectively. These computations are based on a observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework. We analyzed the uncertainty in a 2-week-mean NEE as a function of the spatial scale with a focus on the model native grid scale (0.5°), the country scale and the European scale (including western Russia and Turkey). Several network configurations, going from 23 to 66 sites, and different configurations of the prior uncertainties and atmospheric model transport errors are tested in order to assess and compare the improvements that can be expected in the future from the extension of the network, from improved prior information or transport models. Assimilating data from 23 sites (a network comparable to present-day capability) with errors estimated from the present prior information and transport models, the uncertainty reduction on a 2-week-mean NEE should range between 20 and 50 % for 0.5° resolution grid cells in the best sampled area encompassing eastern France and western Germany. At the European scale, the prior uncertainty in a 2-week-mean NEE is reduced by 50 % (66 %), down to ~ 43 Tg C month-1 (26 Tg C month-1) in July

  16. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H; Zhao, Kaiguang; Leduc, Stephen D; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C; Thomson, Allison M; West, Tristram O; Post, Wilfred M

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  17. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  18. Reconciling bottom-up and top-down estimates of regional scale carbon budgets through geostatistical inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeckede, M.; Yadav, V.; Mueller, K. L.; Gourdji, S. M.; Michalak, A. M.; Law, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    regional flux estimates from inventory studies and existing modeling results.

  19. Battling Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Higher-education institutions are facing financial crises in their capital programs. Constant increases in the cost of oil, combined with material shortages in copper, steel and gypsum products, have contributed to an inexorable rise in the cost of construction. At the same time, capital budgets are decreasing. The result is that the education…

  20. Experimental estimates of the energy budget of hydrothermal eruptions; application to 2012 Upper Te Maari eruption, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Cronin, Shane J.; Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-10-01

    . Further, we tested dry samples at the same pressure and temperature conditions. Results showed that host rock lithology and state of the interstitial fluid was a major influence on the fragmentation and ejection processes, as well as the energy partitioning. Clasts were ejected with velocities of up to 160 m/s as recorded by high-speed camera. In addition to rare large clasts (analogous to ballistics), a large amount of fine and very fine (<63 μm) ash was produced in all experiments. The efficiency of transformation of the total explosive energy into fragmentation energy was estimated between 10 to 15%, depending on the host rock lithology, while less than 0.1% of this was converted into kinetic energy. Our results suggest that liquid-to-vapor (flashing) expansion provides an order of magnitude higher energy release than steam expansion, which best explains the dynamics of the westward (and most energetic) directed blast at Te Maari. Considering the steam flashing as the primary energy source, the experiments suggested that a minimum explosive energy of 7 ×1010 to 2 ×1012 J was involved in the Te Maari blast. Experimental studies under controlled conditions, compared closely to a field example are thus highly useful in providing new insights into the energy release and hazards associated with eruptions in hydrothermal areas.

  1. Estimating the administrative cost of regulatory noncompliance: a pilot method for quantifying the value of prevention.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Charlton, M A; Mathis, J L

    2000-05-01

    Routine regulatory inspections provide a valuable independent quality assurance review of radiation protection programs that ultimately serves to improve overall program performance. But when an item of non-compliance is noted, regardless of its significance or severity the ensuing notice of violation (NOV) results in an added cost to both the permit holder and the regulatory authority. Such added costs may be tangible, in the form of added work to process and resolve the NOV, or intangible, in the form of damage to organizational reputation or worker morale. If the portion of the tangible costs incurred by a regulatory agency for issuing NOVs could be quantified, the analysis could aid in the identification of agency resources that might be dedicated to other areas such as prevention. Ideally, any prevention activities would reduce the overall number of NOVs issued without impacting the routine inspection process. In this study, the administrative costs of NOV issuance and resolution was estimated by obtaining data from the professional staff of the Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH-BRC). Based a focus group model, the data indicate that approximately $106,000 in TDH-BRC personnel resources were expended to process and resolve the 6,800 NOVs issued in Texas during 1997 inspection activities. The study's findings imply that an incremental decrease in the number of NOVs issued would result in corresponding savings of agency resources. Suggested prevention activities that might be financed through any resource savings include the dissemination of common violation data to permit holders or training for improving correspondence with regulatory agencies. The significance of this exercise is that any savings experienced by an agency could enhance permittee compliance without impacting the routine inspection process.

  2. Budget variance analysis using RVUs.

    PubMed

    Berlin, M F; Budzynski, M R

    1998-01-01

    This article details the use of the variance analysis as management tool to evaluate the financial health of the practice. A common financial tool for administrators has been a simple calculation measuring the difference between actual financials vs. budget financials. Standard cost accounting provides a methodology known as variance analysis to better understand the actual vs. budgeted financial streams. The standard variance analysis has been modified by applying relative value units (RVUs) as standards for the practice. PMID:10387247

  3. Installation restoration program: Hydrologic measurements with an estimated hydrologic budget for the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant, Joliet, Illinois. [Contains maps of monitoring well locations, topography and hydrologic basins

    SciTech Connect

    Diodato, D.M.; Cho, H.E.; Sundell, R.C.

    1991-07-01

    Hydrologic data were gathered from the 36.8-mi{sup 2} Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) located in Joliet, Illinois. Surface water levels were measured continuously, and groundwater levels were measured monthly. The resulting information was entered into a database that could be used as part of numerical flow model validation for the site. Deep sandstone aquifers supply much of the water in the JAAP region. These aquifers are successively overlain by confining shales and a dolomite aquifer of Silurian age. This last unit is unconformably overlain by Pleistocene glacial tills and outwash sand and gravel. Groundwater levels in the shallow glacial system fluctuate widely, with one well completed in an upland fluctuating more than 17 ft during the study period. The response to groundwater recharge in the underlying Silurian dolomite is slower. In the upland recharge areas, increased groundwater levels were observed; in the lowland discharge areas, groundwater levels decreased during the study period. The decreases are postulated to be a lag effect related to a 1988 drought. These observations show that fluid at the JAAP is not steady-state, either on a monthly or an annual basis. Hydrologic budgets were estimated for the two principal surface water basins at the JAAP site. These basins account for 70% of the facility's total land area. Meteorological data collected at a nearby dam show that total measured precipitation was 31.45 in. and total calculated evapotranspiration was 23.09 in. for the study period. The change in surface water storage was assumed to be zero for the annual budget for each basin. The change in groundwater storage was calculated to be 0.12 in. for the Grant Creek basin and 0. 26 in. for the Prairie Creek basin. Runoff was 7.02 in. and 7.51 in. for the Grant Creek and Prairie Creek basins, respectively. The underflow to the deep hydrogeologic system in the Grant Creek basin was calculated to be negligible. 12 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  5. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  6. Budget management.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G

    1997-05-01

    Budgetary responsibility gives you more control. Take time to master the fine detail, ask questions of your management and finance colleagues about anything you do not understand (you will not lose face), and develop the skills of lateral thinking and creative accountancy. Even if your budget is repeatedly overspent do not take it personally, ensure that management are aware of it and have a good night's sleep. Do not worry about it.

  7. 78 FR 69687 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... application of HACCP principles in food processing. Further, the burdens have been estimated using typical... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary...

  8. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  9. Most science spared big budget bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Most science budgets emerged unscathed from President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal. Total funding for research and development came out slightly ahead of inflation, as did funding for basic research (Eos, February 16, p. 162). The National Science Foundation (NSF) edged past the projected 7.3% inflation rate for 1982, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget is to be increased by 10.6%. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is budgeted for a 4.2% increase in funding, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will take an 8.3% cut.

  10. Estimation of Carbon Budgets for Croplands by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model and Validation Ground Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Dejoux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands occupy large areas of Earth's land surface playing a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence, it is essential to quantify and analyze the carbon fluxes from those agro-ecosystems, since they contribute to climate change and are impacted by the environmental conditions. In this study we propose a regional modeling approach that combines high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data with a crop model and a large set of in-situ measurements for model calibration and validation. The study area is located in southwest France and the model that we evaluate, called SAFY-CO2, is a semi-empirical one based on the Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and adapted for simulating the components of the net ecosystem CO2 fluxes (NEE) and of the annual net ecosystem carbon budgets (NECB) at a daily time step. The approach is based on the assimilation of satellite-derived green area index (GAI) maps for calibrating a number of the SAFY-CO2 parameters linked to crop phenology. HSTR data from the Formosat-2 and SPOT satellites were used to produce the GAI maps. The experimental data set includes eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from two experimental sites and partitioned into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). It also includes measurements of GAI, biomass and yield between 2005 and 2011, focusing on the winter wheat crop. The results showed that the SAFY-CO2 model correctly reproduced the biomass production, its dynamic and the yield (relative errors about 24%) in contrasted climatic, environmental and management conditions. The net CO2 flux components estimated with the model were overall in agreement with the ground data, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.93 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.86 for NEE). The evaluation of the modelled NECB for the different site-years highlighted the importance of having accurate estimates of each component of the NECB. Future works aim at considering

  11. Estimation of Some Oxidative Stress Parameters and Blood Pressure After Administration of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Kowalczyk, Agata; Ciesla, Wlodzimierz; Goraca, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the plasma antioxidative activity and in lipid peroxidation after administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin receptor blockers and additionally, to estimate blood pressure. The study was performed on male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group) divided into 4 groups which received: (1) saline, (2) endothelin-1 (ET-1) (3 μg/kg b.w.) + saline, (3) BQ123 (1 mg/kg) + ET-1 (3 μg/kg), and (4) BQ788 (3 mg/kg) + ET-1 (3 μg/kg b.w.). The endothelin receptor antagonist was injected intravenously 30 min before ET-1 administration. Blood pressure was monitored, and the blood was collected before the saline or ET-1 administration as well as 60 and 300 min after their administration. The antioxidative properties were examined by FRAP method (ferric reducing ability of plasma), and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products was examined by the reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS). It was estimated that intravenous administration of endothelin receptor blocker ETA increases plasma antioxidative properties (p < 0.01) and parallelly decreases the process of lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05 vs. ET-1) and blood pressure (p < 0.05).

  12. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    PubMed

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates. PMID:25547296

  13. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-05-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  14. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    PubMed

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates.

  15. NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The House of Representatives has authorized $161.7 million more than President Ronald Reagan proposed for the fiscal 1984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget. The House NASA authorization bill (H.R. 2065) passed by voice vote on April 26. Five days earlier, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Technology Committee marked up S. 1096, the Senate's NASA authorization bill, and recommended $171.6 million more than the Reagan proposal. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in mid May, after which time a conference committee will iron out the differences between the House and Senate versions.President Reagan requested a total NASA budget of $7.1065 billion: $5.7085 billion for research and development, $150.5 million for construction of facilities, and $1.2475 billion for research and program management (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).

  16. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  17. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  18. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  19. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906

    PubMed Central

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that—matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  20. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS..., and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in §...

  1. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS..., and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in §...

  2. Estimating Evapotranspiration Over Agricultural Landscapes with Thermal Infrared Data: Towards the Comparison of Two Approaches Using Simple Energy Budget and Svat Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery. We will focus on simulating fluxes at low resolution with 2 methodologies: 1- Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2- Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and forced by a spatialized database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height and meteorological forcing). By doing a sensitivity analysis and comparing both approaches we will point out mechanisms that govern scale switching, and how high resolution "informations" and aggregation scenarios impact low resolution estimates. Within this preliminary study, we compare in-situ potentialities of a SEB model (TSEB) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS). TSEB (Two Sources Equation Balance) is a model of turbulent exchange (Norman & al. 1995) partitioning the available energy between soil and vegetation and driven directly via remote sensing TIR sensors. SEtHyS (French acronym for soil moisture monitoring) is a SVAT model (described by Coudert & al. 2006) which is physically based and has more inputs and parameters requirements. Besides fluxes, it outputs brightness temperatures which can be compared and constrained with TIR data. Models fluxes simulations are compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes measurement stations. Models are then compared performing a sensitivity analysis on their inputs and parameters so as to characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges that will be induced by spatialization over

  3. Activity-Based Budgeting in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmary, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As other universities across the country struggle with their financial challenges, continuing education units can serve the same pioneering role in the development of new financial and budget systems. Confronted by serious financial shortfalls during the last three decades, university administrators started to focus on new budget and revenue…

  4. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Dennis

    The Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO) inaugurated the Meritorious Budget Awards Program (MBA) in July 1995. ASBO specifically created this program to help school business administrators achieve a standard of excellence in budget presentation. This book is intended to serve as a practical guide to the MBA program and…

  5. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  6. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  7. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  8. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves. PMID:25385010

  9. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves.

  10. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  11. 77 FR 46443 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; General Administrative Procedures: Citizen Petitions; Petition... information entitled ``General Administrative Procedures: Citizen Petitions; Petition for Reconsideration or Stay of Action; Advisory Opinions'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  12. 77 FR 15762 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; General Administrative Procedures: Citizen... proposed collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for.... Mizrachi, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr.,...

  13. 76 FR 72712 - Agency Emergency Processing Under the Office of Management and Budget Review; Submission for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Emergency Processing Under the Office of Management and Budget Review; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Economic Hardship Fee Reduction Guidance...

  14. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  15. Water budget estimation on a data limited wetland: The case of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylin, Anna; Jaramillo, Fernando; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2015-04-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the combination of climatic and anthropogenic developments resulted in hyper salinity conditions and subsequent massive mangrove mortality in the wetland Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) at the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Although salinity concentrations are generally related to the type and quantity of water entering and exiting a wetland and to its internal hydrological dynamics, there have been up to date no hydrological studies on the CGSM. Here we show how a water budget approach can be used as a first-order of approximation to describe the CGSM's hydrology, despite data limitations. We collected hydroclimatic data to calculate and analyze the fluxes of water entering and exiting CGSM and their corresponding uncertainties. We find that the water budget is mostly affected by precipitation, being the largest water budget parameter. Thus, precipitation largely controls the hydrological output of the wetland at its outlet to the Caribbean. The influence of precipitation on the wetland water budget and noticeable changes in ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) frequency and intensity from mid 70's might have severely affected the CGSM hydrological regime and consequently mangrove mortality. Scenario analyses show that currently the contribution of freshwater from the streams coming down from the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range on the eastern side of CGSM is now larger than that of the channels draining from the Magdalena River on the west, in contrast to what occurred before under natural hydrological conditions. However, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that changes to the eastern freshwater inflow cannot significantly affect the hydrological response of CGSM. These results outline the need to increase understanding of the internal connectivity and circulation of CGSM and develop a hydrologic monitoring network in this wetland.

  16. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  17. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  18. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  19. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen. PMID:24975958

  20. Estimating the cost of diabetes mellitus-related events from inpatient admissions in Sweden using administrative hospitalization data.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Clarke, Philip; Hayes, Alison; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia

    2009-01-01

    To estimate short- and long-term costs of inpatient hospitalization in Sweden for major diabetes mellitus-related events. Costs were estimated using administrative hospital data from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, which is linked to the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Data were available for 179 749 patients with diabetes in Sweden from 1998 to 2003 (mean and median duration of 6 years' follow-up). Costing of inpatient admissions was based on Nordic diagnosis-related groups (NordDRG). Multiple regression analysis (linear and generalizing estimating equation models) was used to estimate inpatient care costs controlling for age, sex and co-morbidities. The data on hospitalizations were converted to costs (euro) using 2003 exchange rates. The average annual costs (linear model) associated with inpatient admissions for a 60-year-old male in the year the first event first occurred were as follows: euro6488 (95% CI 5034, 8354) for diabetic coma; euro6850 (95% CI 6514, 7204) for heart failure; euro7853 (95% CI 7559, 8144) for non-fatal stroke; euro8121 (95% CI 7104, 9128) for peripheral circulatory complications; euro8736 (95% CI 8474, 9001) for non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI); euro10 360 (95% CI 10 085, 10 643) for ischaemic heart disease; euro11 411 (95% CI 10 298, 12 654) for renal failure; and euro14 949 (95% CI 13 849, 16 551) for amputation. On average, the costs were higher when co-morbidity was accounted for (e.g. MI with co-morbidity was twice as costly as MI alone). Average hospital inpatient costs associated with common diabetes-related events can be estimated using panel data regression methods. These could assist in modelling of long-term costs of diabetes and in evaluating the cost effectiveness of improving care.

  1. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  2. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  3. Conference OKs science budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  4. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  5. Heterogeneity in the validity of administrative-based estimates of immunization coverage across health districts in Burkina Faso: implications for measurement, monitoring and planning

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Slim; Bicaba, Abel; Feletto, Marta; Fournier, Pierre; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Background Data aggregation in national information systems begins at the district level. Decentralization has given districts a lead role in health planning and management, therefore validity of administrative-based estimates at that level is important to improve the performance of immunization information systems. Objective To assess the validity of administrative-based immunization estimates and their usability for planning and monitoring activities at district level. Methods DTP3 and measles coverage rates from administrative sources were compared with estimates from the EPI cluster survey (ECS) and Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) carried out in 2003 at national and regional levels. ECS estimates were compared with administrative rates across the 52 districts, which were classified into three groups: those where administrative rates were underestimating, overestimating or concordant with ECS estimates (differences within 95% CI of ECS rate). Results National rates provided by administrative data and ECS are similar (74% and 71% for DTP3 and 68% and 66% for measles, respectively); DHS estimates are much lower. Regional administrative data show large discrepancies when compared against ECS and DHS data (differences sometimes reaching 30 percentage points). At district level, geographical area is correlated with over- or underestimation by administrative sources, which overestimate DTP3 and measles coverage in remote areas. Underestimation is observed in districts near urban and highly populated centres. Over- and underestimation are independent of the antigen under consideration. Conclusions Variability in immunization coverage across districts highlights the limitations of using nationally aggregated indicators. If district data are to be used in monitoring and planning immunization programmes as intended by decentralization, heterogeneity in their validity must be reduced. The authors recommend: (1) strengthening administrative data systems; (2

  6. U.S. science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Science agency budgets were slashed July 30 by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee, which voted significant cuts to the proposed fiscal year 2000 budgets of NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and other agencies.While the funding levels may change in early September when the Senate takes up the appropriations bill for NASA, EPA, and NSF— which funds the Veterans Administration (VA), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and independent agencies—Congress appears to be trying to maintain budgetary caps established in 1997. A separate House appropriations bill covering the Commerce Department cut research funding at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) by 10%.

  7. Federal budget timetable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  8. School Budget Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State School Boards Association, Albany.

    This report is a compilation of the presentations made at three New York State School Boards Association seminars on school budgets. The programs consisted of presentations on the relationship of the school district's program to the budget and to budget development, timetable, control, and presentation, as well as to other considerations such as…

  9. School District Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  10. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  11. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  12. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  13. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  14. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Intakhab; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of duloxetine (DLX) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with DLX solution pharmacodynamically following intranasal administration. The study was further conducted to estimate DLX concentration in brain and blood. DLX was administered to albino Wistar rats either intranasally or orally in solution form (DLX solution) or encapsulated in NLC (DLX-NLC). These were evaluated in-vivo for pharmacodynamic studies for depression by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test. Intranasal DLX-NLC treatment exhibited improved behavioural analysis results (swimming, climbing, and immobility) than the DLX solution after 24 h of study. Furthermore, DLX-NLC significantly increased the total swimming and climbing time when compared with control and significantly reduced the immobility period. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated improved locomotor activity when compared with DLX solution. Amount of DLX was quantified in blood and brain after the forced swimming test. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated higher concentration in brain compared with DLX solution. Thus, intranasal DLX-NLC was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  15. Life under the Spending Caps: The Clinton Fiscal Year 1995 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Paul; Greenstein, Robert

    The stage for the introduction of the Clinton Administration's fiscal year 1995 budget was largely set by the passage of the budget reconciliation bill signed into law in August 1993. In developing the budget, the Administration had to come up with enough spending cuts to meet the spending caps--as well as billions of dollars in additional cuts to…

  16. Balancing the (carbon) budget: Using linear inverse models to estimate carbon flows and mass-balance 13C:15N labelling experiments in low oxygen sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, William Ross; Van Oevelen, Dick; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Over 1 million km2 of seafloor experience permanent low-oxygen conditions within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are predicted to grow as a consequence of climate change, potentially affecting oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The Arabian Sea OMZ impinges upon the western Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150 - 1500m) producing a strong depth dependent oxygen gradient at the sea floor. The influence of the OMZ upon the short term processing of organic matter by sediment ecosystems was investigated using in situ stable isotope pulse chase experiments. These deployed doses of 13C:15N labeled organic matter onto the sediment surface at four stations from across the OMZ (water depth 540 - 1100 m; [O2] = 0.35 - 15 μM). In order to prevent experimentally anoxia, the mesocosms were not sealed. 13C and 15N labels were traced into sediment, bacteria, fauna and 13C into sediment porewater DIC and DOC. However, the DIC and DOC flux to the water column could not be measured, limiting our capacity to obtain mass-balance for C in each experimental mesocosm. Linear Inverse Modeling (LIM) provides a method to obtain a mass-balanced model of carbon flow that integrates stable-isotope tracer data with community biomass and biogeochemical flux data from a range of sources. Here we present an adaptation of the LIM methodology used to investigate how ecosystem structure influenced carbon flow across the Indian margin OMZ. We demonstrate how oxygen conditions affect food-web complexity, affecting the linkages between the bacteria, foraminifera and metazoan fauna, and their contributions to benthic respiration. The food-web models demonstrate how changes in ecosystem complexity are associated with oxygen availability across the OMZ and allow us to obtain a complete carbon budget for the stationa where stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted.

  17. NASA Science Budget Choices Criticized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    NASA's decision to focus its science efforts on large missions at the expense of smaller missions and research is misguided and will have a long-term negative impact on attracting and retaining scientists and engineers to NASA-related science, several scientists testified at a 2 March hearing. Witnesses at the hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee included NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Mary Cleave and members or chairs of four U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) decadal surveys of various aspects of NASA science. The witnesses discussed cuts and delays to NASA projects proposed in the agency's Fiscal Year 2007 budget request. NASA's science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007, and then by just one percent per year in 2008-2011 (see Eos 87(9), 2006).

  18. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contractor's policies, procedures, and practices for budgeting and planning controls, and generating...) Flow of work, coordination, and communication; and (5) Budgeting, planning, estimating methods... personnel have sufficient training, experience, and guidance to perform estimating and budgeting tasks...

  19. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  20. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  1. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  2. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  3. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  4. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  5. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  6. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  7. Fiscal 1982 Budget highlights R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Geophysical research and development programs show growth beyond inflation in the $739.3 billion budget for fiscal 1982 that Jimmy Carter sent to Congress 5 days before completing his term. Included in the budget are provisions for increased support for the Ocean Margin Drilling Program and funds for an interagency Geological Applications Program, funds for an agriculture and resource surveys program that relies on remote sensing, and funds for the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission.Ronald Reagan is expected to make changes in the budget as early as late February, although in mid January the heads of the scientific agencies could not characterize possible changes. Some Washingtonians say sharp cuts are inevitable, with basic research a prime candidate. Others, however, contend that the Reagan administration's push for productivity and innovation could prevent severe carving. Eos will track the FY 1982 budget changes through congressional approval.

  8. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  10. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  12. Estimation of annual forest evapotranspiration from a coniferous plantation watershed in Japan (2): Comparison of eddy covariance, water budget and sap-flow plus interception loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takanori; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tamai, Koji; Iida, Shin'ichi; Kabeya, Naoki; Ikawa, Reo; Tateishi, Makiko; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated from a planted coniferous forest in southwestern Japan by applying three methods: the eddy covariance method; the measurement of rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) in a small watershed; and a combination of rainfall interception loss (IC), upper canopy transpiration based on a sap-flux density measurement in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don) stands (EUC), and modeled sub-canopy ET (ESC). After inverse multiplication of the energy imbalance ratio, ET by the eddy covariance method (ETEC) was 839.9 mm in 2007 and 811.8 mm in 2008. The yearly values of P-Q were partially affected by P in the previous autumn. After continuous data collection for more than 5 years, P-Q became stable. The 9-year (2000-2008) average P-Q, which was considered most reliable in this study, was 897.5 mm y-1. The cumulative ETEC during the daylight hours from the right stream bank, covered mainly with large Japanese cedars, was 894.1 mm from April 2007 to March 2008. The value was almost the same as that calculated as the components sum (ETCOMP = IC + EUC + ESC: 911.4 mm), and the comparison suggested that the annual totals of ETEC with an energy imbalance correction provide a reliable estimate of ET in a forest stand on a complex topography. Spatial variation in the watershed was likely caused by differences in soil water retention at each slope position. The slight difference in annual ETEC in 2007 compared with 2008 was attributed to differences in the radiative energy input. In the monthly-weekly analysis, ETCOMP was frequently higher than ETEC after heavy rainfall, while ETEC was higher under dry conditions and during active ET. Even under dry canopy conditions, daily ETEC was often higher than EUC + ESC. The results suggested a time-lag in evaporation from the ecosystem and/or under-estimated ETEC after rainfall.

  13. Efficient drug delivery to alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial lining fluid following pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin in rats with pneumonia and estimation of its antibacterial effects.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Tanino, Tomoharu; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of pulmonary administration of liposomal ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in pneumonia was evaluated. In brief, the pharmacokinetics following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX (particle size, 1,000 nm; dose, 200 microg/kg) were examined in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced pneumonia as an experimental pneumonia model. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of liposomal CPFX against the pneumonic causative organisms were estimated by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. The time-courses of the concentration of CPFX in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX to rats with pneumonia were markedly higher than that following the administration of free CPFX (200 microg/kg). The time course of the concentrations of CPFX in plasma following pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was markedly lower than that in AMs and ELF. These results indicate that pulmonary administration of liposomal CPFX was more effective in delivering CPFX to AMs and ELF compared with free CPFX, and it avoids distribution of CPFX to the blood. According to PK/PD analysis, the liposomal CPFX exhibited potent antibacterial effects against the causative organisms of pneumonia. This study indicates that pulmonary administration of CPFX could be an effective technique for the treatment of pneumonia.

  14. 78 FR 46347 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Environmental Impact Considerations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that...

  15. 76 FR 71576 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Premarket Notification for a New Dietary Ingredient AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  16. Time-integrated, flux-based monitoring using semipermeable membrane devices to estimate the contribution of industrial facilities to regional polychlorinated biphenyl budgets

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Ham, K.D.; Palmer, J.A.

    2000-02-01

    Passive monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) was employed to evaluate the contribution of point and nonpoint sources to the flux of PCB in a drainage system encompassing three US Department of Energy (US DOE) industrial and research facilities in eastern Tennessee, USA. Polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations were highest at outfalls containing process waste from the DOE industrial facilities. The significance of these releases was evaluated by calculating the PCB flux (mass per unit time) at different monitoring locations. The flux was calculated from the time-integrated estimates of the aqueous concentrations of PCB and estimates of the volumetric flow rates of discharges and receiving streams during the deployment period. The DOE discharges accounted for most of the flux of PCB entering the Clinch River from the DOE drainage areas, but these sources constituted only 10% of the flux in the Clinch River about the DOE sources. Principal components analysis was helpful in attributing sources of PCB. In a stream receiving multiple inputs of PCB, congener profiles from upstream sources and discrete discharges were consistent with a mixture of those congener profiles in the downstream receiving water. In another stream with a single upstream source of PCB, changes in PCB flux and congener profiles suggested an apparent steady-state distribution between dissolved PCB and PCB adsorbed to organic matter on the streambed. The flux of dissolved PCB along different stream reaches reflected changes in the sediment organic content. Subtle alterations in congener profiles moving downstream suggested preferential desorption of less chlorinated congeners and sorption of more highly chlorinated congeners to sediment. Time-integrated, flux-based monitoring can be useful across a range of spatial scales for evaluating the significance of point and nonpoint contaminant sources and can help identify and prioritize feasible remedial

  17. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  18. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  19. Reading Institutional Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabot, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Prepares two tables to illustrate how it is helpful to place worries about much smaller sums in the context of Miami University's overall academic budget; One table summarizes the academic budgets for every department during the 1997-98 academic year and a second contains the income-expense ratios for all Oxford departments over a five-year…

  20. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  1. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  2. PROGRAM BUDGETING FOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIRSCH, WERNER Z.

    THE APPLICATION OF PROGRAM BUDGETING TO EDUCATION IS RECOMMENDED. A NATIONAL-LEVEL PROGRAM BUDGET EXAMPLE IS PRESENTED, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR OBTAINING MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION. FINANCING OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES IS CURRENTLY UNDERTAKEN BY MORE THAN 40 AGENCIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 50 STATE GOVERNMENTS, AND MORE THAN…

  3. Unchanged Priorities: The Fiscal Year 1992 Bush Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; Leonard, Paul A.

    This report analyzes the impact of the 1992 budget proposed by the Bush Administration on Americans of different income levels. Several of the proposals merit consideration, but the overall impact of the budget would continue to favor upper-income individuals and place lower-income individuals increasingly at risk. The following findings are…

  4. The Link between Planning and Budgeting. NCHEMS Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Administrators in higher education feel mounting pressure to link planning and budgeting as resources become more scarce and environments more uncertain. Instead of turning to theoretically prescribed planning/budgeting systems as solutions, microeconomics provides a means of thinking about individual consumption that helps shed light on the…

  5. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  6. A Budget Simulation Model for Times of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Alfred Norris

    The Florida Community College Inter-Institutional Research Council (IRC) has developed a computerized budget simulation model which can help administrators determine the general fiscal impact of alternate approaches to resource utilization. This model uses three basic systems and one generalized subroutine, based on the budget requirements of the…

  7. Proposed State Budget Lacks Needed Focus on Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2014-15 state budget projects a surplus, due to painful budget cutting in recent years combined with the economic recovery and voter approval of new revenues. While the proposal invests some of the additional revenue in children, it falls well short of what is needed. California's kids have borne a…

  8. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applied VST budgeting. 638.601 Section 638.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... Applied VST budgeting. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to ensure that center...

  9. Proposed Department of Energy Budget Increases Support for Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    In the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, the Department of Energy (DOE) would get a total of 28.4 billion, up from 26.3 billion in FY 2012, an 8% increase (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  10. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  11. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  12. FY 2011 Federal Budget Process Begins with Bold Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The federal government's annual budget process was kick-started this year with a bold proposal that has implications for anyone who provides child care. But keeping child care front and center in Washington will take a lot of effort in 2010. On February 1, the Administration released the Budget Proposal for Federal Fiscal Year 2011. It calls for…

  13. Big Gains for R&D in Carter's Final Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janice R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes President Carter's 1982 budget proposal for research and development (R and D) in science, technology, and related areas, with largest increases going to defense, and NASA. Indicates that R and D money could be affected by the Reagan Administration budget cuts. (SK)

  14. Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water recharge is estimated from six monthly water budgets calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, estimated pan-evaporation and fog-drip data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by broad climatic and geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model. The long-term average water budget for east Maui was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The average rainfall, fog-drip, runoff, evapotranspiration, and ground-water recharge volumes for the east Maui study area are 2,246 Mgal/d, 323 Mgal/d, 771 Mgal/d, 735 Mgal/d, and 1,064 Mgal/d, respectively.

  15. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  16. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  17. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  18. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  19. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  20. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  1. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  2. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  3. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-01-01

    During this study, the disposal fields at sites A and B received a measured volume of effluent from two-person domestic residences equipped with an onsite low-pressure dosing system. A combined evapotranspiration measurement and modeling technique was used to estimate the amount of evapotranspirative loss from the disposal field and from the surrounding terrain. A portable hemispherical flux chamber was used to measure evapotranspiration at fixed locations on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B. Data from hemispherical flux chamber measurements were used to calibrate a Penman-Monteith modeled evapotranspiration rate on the disposal field and on the surrounding terrain at site A from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011, and from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, and at site B from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Micrometeorological and soil data from instrumentation on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B were used as input data into the Penman-Monteith equation. The mean potential recharge from disposal field effluent during 2011–12 at sites A and B was 63 percent of the volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field.

  4. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-08-04

    During this study, the disposal fields at sites A and B received a measured volume of effluent from two-person domestic residences equipped with an onsite low-pressure dosing system. A combined evapotranspiration measurement and modeling technique was used to estimate the amount of evapotranspirative loss from the disposal field and from the surrounding terrain. A portable hemispherical flux chamber was used to measure evapotranspiration at fixed locations on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B. Data from hemispherical flux chamber measurements were used to calibrate a Penman-Monteith modeled evapotranspiration rate on the disposal field and on the surrounding terrain at site A from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011, and from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, and at site B from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Micrometeorological and soil data from instrumentation on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B were used as input data into the Penman-Monteith equation. The mean potential recharge from disposal field effluent during 2011–12 at sites A and B was 63 percent of the volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field.

  5. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  6. ERDA and NSF Gain in Fiscal 1977 Budget Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Provides a breakdown of topics of support covered in the 1977 fiscal year proposed budgets for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). (CP)

  7. Carter Budget Tilts "Back to Basics" for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the proposed 1979 federal budget for basic research for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Defense, and Department of Energy. (SL)

  8. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  9. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization. PMID:12577658

  10. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  11. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  12. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  13. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  14. Spatial energy budgets in alpine tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenland, D.

    1993-12-01

    Modelling and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology are employed in order to extend spatially, estimated and observed growing season values of the components of the surface heat energy budget for an area of alpine tundra in the Colorado Front Range. A surface equilibrium temperature model is calibrated for one sub-class of vegetation surface and is used to model surface heat energy budget component values for other sub-classes of vegetation. The model values compare favorably with values independently estimated or observed. The data are spatially displayed using the Idrisi GIS. At the microclimatic scale the presence of different sub-classes of vegetation plays a large role in controlling the actual values of the surface heat budget components. This is in contrast to the larger scale at which climatic variables such as air temperature control the overall vegetation type found in the area.

  15. 28 CFR 58.15 - Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. 58.15 Section 58.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used in this section the term “agency” means nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency....

  16. 28 CFR 58.15 - Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. 58.15 Section 58.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used in this section the term “agency” means nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency....

  17. Congress trims NSF budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  18. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  19. Estimating Thermoelectric Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the Government Accountability Office recommended that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Energy-Energy Information Administration, (DOE-EIA) jointly improve their thermoelectric water-use estimates. Since then, the annual mandatory reporting forms returned by powerplant operators to DOE-EIA have been revised twice to improve the water data. At the same time, the USGS began improving estimation of withdrawal and consumption. Because of the variation in amount and quality of water-use data across powerplants, the USGS adopted a hierarchy of methods for estimating water withdrawal and consumptive use for the approximately 1,300 water-using powerplants in the thermoelectric sector. About 800 of these powerplants have generation and cooling data, and the remaining 500 have generation data only, or sparse data. The preferred method is to accept DOE-EIA data following validation. This is the traditional USGS method and the best method if all operators follow best practices for measurement and reporting. However, in 2010, fewer than 200 powerplants reported thermodynamically realistic values of both withdrawal and consumption. Secondly, water use was estimated using linked heat and water budgets for the first group of 800 plants, and for some of the other 500 powerplants where data were sufficient for at least partial modeling using plant characteristics, electric generation, and fuel use. Thermodynamics, environmental conditions, and characteristics of the plant and cooling system constrain both the amount of heat discharged to the environment and the share of this heat that drives evaporation. Heat and water budgets were used to define reasonable estimates of withdrawal and consumption, including likely upper and lower thermodynamic limits. These results were used to validate the reported values at the 800 plants with water-use data, and reported values were replaced by budget estimates at most of these plants. Thirdly, at plants without valid

  20. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites.

  1. NOAA Budget Proposal Calls for a Small Increase, But Several Programs Would Be Sharply Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget of 5.497 billion for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be good news for the agency overall if Congress goes along with the Obama administration's funding plan. The proposal would increase NOAA's discretionary budget by 174.1 million, 3.27% above the FY 2014 enacted budget (see Table ). The White House announced the overall federal budget on 4 March, and the NOAA budget "blue book" with specific funding numbers was issued in mid-March.

  2. President's Budget Proposal Favors NSF, Though Congress Could Push for Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the winners in the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2012, which begins on 1 October, with a proposed funding level of $7.767 billion; this would be an increase of 13% above the congressionally enacted FY 2010 budget level. However, the administration's proposed budget is just a starting point for discussions. Congress has approved a 2-week budget continuing resolution (CR) for the current fiscal year, 2011. A longer-term CR passed by the House of Representatives (HR 1) could dramatically cut this year's funding for some federal agencies and also affect budget discussions for FY 2012.

  3. Tough budget year ahead, says NASA's Fisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    1992-02-01

    Lennard Fisk, head of NASA's space science and applications division, painted a bleak picture for space scientists on February 14 as the Bush administration's fiscal 1993 budget headed to Congress. Speaking at the annual meeting of the Space Science Working Group in Washington, D.C., Fisk said “It's going to take a miracle to get the $2,985 billion request” for space science in this year's NASA budget.Fisk held out no hope that programs already cut from the budget, such as the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, would be reinstated. The CRAF cancellation was “a $50 million issue in fiscal 1993,” said Fisk, “and it was $50 million that simply wasn't there.” His office “was under enormous pressure to take something off the plate,” he said.

  4. Uncertainty propagation in an ecosystem nutrient budget.

    PubMed

    Lehrter, John C; Cebrian, Just

    2010-03-01

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated uncertainty for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of freedom. New aspects include the combined use of Monte Carlo simulations with classical error propagation methods, uncertainty analyses for GIS computations, and uncertainty propagation involving literature and subjective estimates of terms used in the budget calculations. The methods employed are broadly applicable to the mathematical operations employed in ecological studies involving step-by-step calculations, scaling procedures, and calculations of variables from direct measurements and/or literature estimates. Propagation of the standard error and the degrees of freedom allowed for calculation of the uncertainty intervals around every term in the budget. For scientists and environmental managers, the methods developed herein provide a relatively simple framework to propagate and assess the contributions of uncertainty in directly measured and literature estimated variables to calculated variables. Application of these methods to environmental data used in scientific reporting and environmental management will improve the interpretation of data and simplify the estimation of risk associated with decisions based on ecological studies.

  5. 76 FR 72980 - Occupational Safety and Health State Plans; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Safety and Health State Plans; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... and Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements associated with its...

  6. 78 FR 42549 - Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend the Office of Management and Budget's...

  7. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  8. The Carbon Budget of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  9. A Children's Defense Budget: An Analysis of the FY 1987 Federal Budget and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This analysis of the implications for children of the FY 1987 Federal budget begins by criticizing the Reagan administration's policy on poor children and families and recommending needed action. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for investing in children and families. Specific attention is given to costs of child poverty, declining Federal help for…

  10. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  11. The NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    I would like to make the members of AGU aware of the recent happenings in Congress with regard to the fiscal year (FY) 1986 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was scheduled for modest increases from FY 1985 levels in the President's budget (Eos, February 19, 1985, p. 73), which was approved by the House Science and Technology Committee. However, when the authorization bill (H.R. 1714) “hit the floor” on April 3, amendments were offered and overwhelmingly passed to freeze funding at FY 1985 levels. (A similar fate met the National Science Foundation bill, H.R. 1210, on April 17.) The process is under way in the Senate, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, which is the authorizing committee (under the chairmanship of Slade Gorton), plans to mark up its NASA bill in the next few days; the full committee—the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee—will then offer it to the floor.

  12. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  13. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  14. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  15. NOAA Budget Increases to $4.1 Billion, But Some Key Items Are Reduced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-02-01

    The Bush administration has proposed a US$4.1 billion budget for fiscal year (FY) 2009 for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The proposed budget, which would be the agency's largest ever, is $202.6 million, or 5.2%, above the FY 2008 enacted budget. By topping $4 billion and the amount Congress passed for FY 2008, the budget proposal crosses into ``a new threshold,'' according Navy Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA administrator.

  16. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  17. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  18. 77 FR 74021 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Experimental Study: Disease Information in Branded Promotional Material AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  19. 75 FR 78256 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Food and Drug Administration Public Health Notification Readership Survey (Formerly Known as the Safety Alert/Public Health Advisory Readership Survey... and clearance. Food and Drug Administration Public Health Notification Readership Survey...

  20. 76 FR 368 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... of information entitled ``Food Labeling Regulations'' has been approved by the Office of...

  1. 78 FR 8542 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Administrative Detention and Banned Medical... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  2. 78 FR 37546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Administrative Detention and Banned Medical Devices AGENCY... announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Administrative Detention and Banned Medical Devices'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  3. 75 FR 2871 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Administrative Detention and Banned Medical... in a March 9, 1979, Federal Register (44 FR 13234) on administrative detention procedures, which... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES:...

  4. 75 FR 47601 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Administrative Procedures for the Clinical... information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850,...

  5. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  6. Battling Budget Woes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how various school districts are addressing school quality on tight budgets. Options discussed include use of portable classrooms, streamlining non-educational services, leasing and performance contracting, and energy improvements and working with power utilities to cut costs. Argues for adopting and enforcing ISO 9000 standards to…

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  8. Marbling on a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art technique called marbling. Includes floating paints on water and transferring the patterns formed in the water to paper. Discusses how teachers can teach this technique with materials that fit their budgets. Describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  9. Obama Budget Choices Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Following an unprecedented increase for education aid in the federal economic-stimulus package, President Barack Obama's fiscal 2010 budget request for the U.S. Department of Education is being met with a tepid response from some school advocates. While few complained outright about the overall funding level, some educators are opposed to specific…

  10. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  11. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  12. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  13. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  14. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  15. Budgeting for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. E.

    Empirically and rationally derived bases for determining the costs for industrial libraries are suggested. Taken into consideration is the fact that recent accounting procedures and the advent of new technologies have introduced costs into the library budget so that literature and personnel costs may now account for only 75-80 percent of the…

  16. Planning for Results: Institutional Planning and Budgeting Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruth

    This third revision of Central Piedmont Community College's (CPCC's) institutional planning and budgeting guide focuses on expanding the involvement of staff in institutional planning, integrating the college's various planning processes, strengthening communication within the administration, and giving administrative areas more flexibility and…

  17. Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites and their interpretation for climate modeling and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged Earth atmosphere radiation budgets derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available are presented. The budgets were derived from a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. Annually and seasonally averaged radiation budgets are presented as global averages and zonal averages. The geographic distribution of the various radiation budget quantities is described. The annual cycle of the radiation budget was analyzed and the annual variability of net flux was shown to be largely dominated by the regular semi and annual cycles forced by external Earth-Sun geometry variations. Radiative transfer calculations were compared to the observed budget quantities and surface budgets were additionally computed with particular emphasis on discrepancies that exist between the present computations and previous surface budget estimates.

  18. Tough choices in proposed budget for Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    President Obama's proposed budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is $8.34 billion, a 1.2% decrease from the agency's 2012 enacted budget. "This budget is focused on fulfilling EPA's core mission to protect health and the environment for millions of American families. It demonstrates the fiscal responsibility called for at this moment, while still supporting clean air, healthy waters, and innovative safeguards that are essential to an America built to last," said EPA administrator Lisa Jackson in a 13 February briefing announcing the budget proposal. Balancing tight funding environments with EPA's goals "has required taking a step back from programs we have worked on for years, programs were we have had great success," she said. "There are difficult choices throughout this budget, but they enable us to do what is required for our immediate priorities as well as challenges down the road."

  19. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Cancer.gov

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  20. White House Budget Proposal Supports Science Agencies and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the Obama administration sent to Congress on 10 April, would provide overall strong support for federal science agencies in a tight budget environment. The proposal calls for 142.8 billion for federal research and development (R&D), an increase of almost 1.9 billion, or 1.3%, above the 2012 enacted level in current dollars. However, the proposed budget is a slight decrease when factoring in an expected 4% inflation between 2012 and 2014.

  1. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  2. Coaches Guide to Sport Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    This guide for athletic coaches offers a practical approach to the administrative functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling. Included are chapters on coaching administration, fund raising, organizing competitions, and designing effective budgets and controls. The guide addresses the following topics: (1) the categories of…

  3. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  4. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  5. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  6. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  7. Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool for Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: A New Tool for Program Administrators and Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP’s documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  8. Healthcare cost savings estimator tool for chronic disease self-management program: a new tool for program administrators and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP's documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs.

  9. Healthcare cost savings estimator tool for chronic disease self-management program: a new tool for program administrators and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP's documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  10. Federal budget: Look out 1996; here comes fiscal '97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The contradictions are everywhere. A 1997 federal budget proposal has been issued, but the 1996 budget still has not been passed. All of Washington is in a budget-cutting mood, but thinking in a election year mode. And while discretionary funding—particularly for science—is under siege, just about every federal agency is asking for more money.On March 18, President Bill Clinton delivered a detailed budget request for fiscal 1997 (FY '97) and a plan for 1998-2002. The Executive Branch and all its agencies are asking Congress for $1.65 trillion to spend in FY '97, roughly 4% more than is expected to be spent in FY '96. The budget deficit for FY '97 is estimated to be about $140 billion.

  11. Airborne flux measurements and budget estimates of trace species over the Amazon Basin during the GTE/ABLE 2B expedition. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    In situ airborne measurements of turbulent heat, moisture, momentum, ozone, and carbon monoxide fluxes in a convective boundary layer were obtained over a tropical rain forest between 1100 and 1630 LT on May 4, 1987. The aircraft flight path was chosen so as to fly over the tower site at the Ducke Forest Reserve near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Both turbulence statistics and mean quantities were used to study the budgets of heat, water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The ozone budget study shows an accumulation rate in the boundary layer of 0.3 + or - 0.2 ppbv/h. The surface resistance to ozone during this flight was determined to be 0.06 + or - 0.03 s/cm, while the aerodynamic resistance was 0.14-0.17 s/cm. Results from the CO budget analysis show a midday accumulation rate of 0.6 + or - 0.3 ppbv/h in the Amazonian boundary layer. The evidence suggests production of CO in the PBL. A source of CO may exist below the lowest flight level (about 150 m), although it was not possible to determine what part of the flux at flight level was due to chemical production and what part may be due to surface emission.

  12. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) archival and April 1985 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B.; Harrison, E.; Smith, G.; Kibler, J.; Green, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data products being made available to the community. The Science Team used ten validation criteria to judge the acceptability of the data for archival. These criteria are listed, and uncertainty estimates based on them for four typical data products are presented. A brief description of the radiation budget for April 1985 from the combined data of ERBE and NOAA-9 concludes this paper.

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  14. U.S. Science Agency Budgets Slated for Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    The Obama administration released more details on 7 May about its proposed US$3.6 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 and the planned significant increases for science agencies and for research and development (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009). The budget, which needs to be approved by Congress, includes $147.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. In addition, the 2009 budget includes $18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, said the FY 2009 and proposed 2010 budgets are among the two largest research and development investments in the nation's history, in real terms. “We in the science and technology community have done better than just about any other constituency in the budget,” Holdren explained in a 7 May budget overview briefing, noting that virtually every science agency is doing better now than it was doing 2 years ago. “We have, in the White House, a president who gets it, believes and gets that investments in science and technology are just that: investments that will pay off.”

  15. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  16. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  17. In Congress NOAA budget set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In late November, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget, which is part of the appropriations bill for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and related agencies; at the same time, he also signed into law an amendment attached to that bill that prohibits the sale of the weather satellites (Eos, May 17, 1983, p. 377, and March 22, 1983, p. 113). Commercialization of the land remote sensing satellite system is still being considered, however.As a result of the conference between the House of Representatives and the Senate appropriations committees, the appropriation for NOAA totals $1020.6 million, with a program level of $1073.1 million. The appropriation is the money that comes from the federal treasury; the program level represents all of the funds—including treasury funds, transfers, residuals, etc.—actually available for the program. Strictly in terms of dollars, the total fiscal 1984 NOAA appropriation is almost level with the fiscal 1983 appropriation of $1000.9 million. In fiscal 1984, NOAA's research core, called Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF), receives an appropriation of $988.2 million, with a program level of $1014.8 million

  18. Integrating Academic Planning and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Byron N.; Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1985-01-01

    Argues that effective college management depends upon the budget implementing the important values of the institution. Suggests a model integrating strategic and operational planning and resource allocation. (AYC)

  19. Understanding the Recent Methane Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Masarie, K.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources are thought to account for roughly 2/3 of the global atmospheric methane budget, with natural sources making up the other 1/3. Emissions from wetlands are the largest contribution from natural sources while agriculture (rice and ruminants) and waste dominate anthropogenic emissions. Fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction are thought to make up about 20% of the global atmospheric methane budget. It is generally recognized that observed inter-annual variability in global network observations can be attributed to natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning, while longer-term trends likely indicate changes in anthropogenic sources. Exceptions include an abrupt decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the early 1990s associated with political changes in the Former Soviet Union, and long-term trends in emissions from the Arctic due to a warming climate. The growth rate of global average atmospheric methane since the 1980s shows a steady decline until recent years when it started to increase again. Superimposed on these trends are episodes of higher growth rates. The cause of the recent increase is not currently well-understood, although climate-driven increases in wetland emissions likely played an important role, especially in the tropics. Recent increases in anthropogenic emissions, especially from rapidly expanding Asian economies cannot be ruled out. In addition, trends in the photochemical lifetime of methane must also be considered. In this paper we use both traditional data analysis of observations of methane and related species, and a state-of-the-art ensemble data assimilation system (CarbonTracker-CH4) to attribute methane variability and trends to anthropogenic and natural source processes. We pay particular attention to the Arctic, where some recent years have been the warmest on record, and to the tropics and the potential role of ENSO in driving variability of wetland emissions. Finally, we explore whether a signal in

  20. Novice Administrators: Psychological and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Novice school administrators find that demands for excellence have grown while budgets have shrunk. This paper reports on a study that examined the stress levels of beginning administrators. Two of the key questions for the study--Is the stress experienced by new school administrators manageable or out of control? and Does the job put beginning…

  1. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL...

  2. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article, the author…

  3. Station focus of NASA budget hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    One of the most important events in this year's consideration of the NASA fiscal year 1994 budget request occurred on April 28 with the appearance of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin and his senior staff before the House VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee, which largely determines the space agency's funding. Subcommittee chairman Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) said that “we face some very special problems this year.” He cautioned that the subcommittee is “totally dependent on the allocation which we are given,” referring to the money his subcommittee is given to fund all of the programs under its jurisdiction.

  4. Debating personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  5. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  6. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has authority... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the Chief, Accounting...

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    NASA has requested a $14.3 billion budget for fiscal year 1995, which is $250 million below the $14.5 billion it received in fiscal 1994. NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin said the budget conveys the president's commitment to a strong and vital aeronautics and space program while reflecting today's very real fiscal constraints. No major programs were canceled.“The president's budget plan for NASA is a sound one, with reductions that still preserve a meaningful space program, but this is it. We can't get any closer to the bone,” Goldin warned. In real terms, this 5-year fiscal 1995 budget represents a 30% cut in the last 2 years. “We must hold the line at this level and will work closely with Congress to do so,” Goldin said.

  8. 7 CFR 253.11 - Administrative funds for State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Administrative costs must be included in annual or revised budget information submitted by the State agency to... rendered by volunteers, part 277 notwithstanding, shall be allowable to meet the matching administrative... beginning of a Federal fiscal year. The application shall include budget information, reflecting by...

  9. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  10. Program Budgeting for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Merlyn Ludwig

    In recognition of the increasing concern for the expenditure of tax dollars and the resulting need for accountability in budgeting, this study provides a model for program budgeting at the collegiate level in industrial education. Course outlines for drafting and woodworking at the University of Northern Colorado were analyzed and activities were…

  11. FY 1986 science budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.; Robb, David W.

    Continental lithosphere research, scientific ocean drilling, investigative surveys in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and the Mars Observer were among those programs that fared best in the federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1986 that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. However, the Sea Grant and Coastal Zone Management programs were among those that fell victim to the budget ax once again.

  12. Health Cost Strain School Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the rising cost of health insurance is being picked as the top budget concern of school businesses. These data were the result of a survey conducted by the Association of School Business Officials International. Schools report that the cost of insuring employees is outpacing increases in state and local budgets that…

  13. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  14. Service Increases Fueling Budget Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Reactionary stances against pending budget cuts should be considered to be less favorable positioning for library leaders versus more proactive and anticipatory strategies. By changing the attitudinal and service posturing of library staff and services, libraries can show themselves as a more essential function to their colleges. Budget cuts…

  15. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal…

  16. Budgeting Based on Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jason; Hill, Matt

    2011-01-01

    School finance reform has become a key component for transforming public schools in the United States. Over the last decade, a growing number of districts have turned to an approach known by different names--student-based budgeting, weighted student funding and fair student funding, among others--in which budgets are allocated to schools in…

  17. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  18. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  19. [Estimation for bugeting and evaluation of surgical procedures within the scope of comparative hospital administration. Value of LKA, PPR and DRG systems].

    PubMed

    Pinnau, R; Rostock, K; Gudath, R; Mansky, T; Meyer-Pannwitt, U

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of costing and performances of individual departments or hospitals are required by the statute book of social affairs (Sozialgesetzbuch V; SGB V), but have not been fully introduced in Germany. LBK Hamburg, a trust of 8 hospitals with 17 surgical departments, evaluated the significance of performance and cost-accounting systems such as performance and cost-accounting (LKA), nursing staff regulation (PPR), and the diagnosis-related group system in order to distribute a three-year budget (1996-1998) and to compare, e.g., performance of surgical departments. The DRG system seems to be the best choice, since it weights all cases by means in 640 groups according to the degree of difficulty. With a given closed budget, the DRG system may compare the actual cost with the target figures.

  20. 28 CFR 58.15 - Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... directives established by the EOUST; (2) Not withhold a certificate of counseling completion because of a... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. 58.15 Section 58.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As...

  1. 76 FR 23819 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Exceptions or Alternatives to Labeling Requirements for Products Held by the Strategic National Stockpile AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  2. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  3. 77 FR 43843 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Financial Disclosure by Clinical Investigators... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  4. The President's Budget: New Investments, a Vision for Vulnerable Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha

    2014-01-01

    President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget, released on March 4, reflects the Administration's commitment to helping low-income individuals and vulnerable families access pathways to economic mobility, healthy development, and high quality of life. The budget proposal adheres to spending levels established in the Bipartisan Budget…

  5. 76 FR 32217 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Data To Support Drug Product Communications, as... has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850,...

  6. 77 FR 24961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Product Labeling: Medication... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (the PRA... INFORMATION CONTACT: Juanmanuel Vilela, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  7. 78 FR 28224 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Prescription Drug Product Labeling; Medication Guide...; Medication Guide Requirements'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850, 301-796-7726,...

  8. An Integrated Performance-Based Budgeting Model for Thai Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenkul, Nantarat; Siribanpitak, Pruet

    2012-01-01

    This research mainly aims to develop an administrative model of performance-based budgeting for autonomous state universities. The sample population in this study covers 4 representatives of autonomous state universities from 4 regions of Thailand, where the performance-based budgeting system has been fully practiced. The research informants…

  9. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  10. 75 FR 33811 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; The Mammography Quality Standards Act... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  11. 45 CFR 74.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER... Management § 74.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or program as approved during the award process. It may include either the sum of...

  12. Convective boundary layer budgets of moisture and sensible heat over an unstressed prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of convective boundary layer budgets of sensible heat and moisture were examined for two days over the unstressed vegetation of the tallgrass Konza National Prairie. In addition to the budget evaluation the study had these goals: to estimate the area-average surface fluxes and compare them to independent, ground-based measurements, to estimate the near surface evaporative fraction, and to compare different evaluations of the ratio of surface to inversion fluxes, i.e., the entrainment parameter. The budget analyses indicate that vertical and horizontal advection were significant terms in the budget and cannot be ignored.

  13. U.S. Homeland Security R&D budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, Craig S.

    2009-05-01

    The FY09 budgets for homeland security research and development programs in the U.S. are summarized. Homeland security policy developments that can influence future efforts are discussed. Initial indications of the new administration direction on homeland security R&D are summarized. An overview of the Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V conference is presented.

  14. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Applied Vocational Skills Training (VST) § 638.601 Applied VST budgeting. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to ensure that center...

  15. Building Budgets and Trust through the Alchemy of Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendents have the burden and the opportunity to exert leadership through the budget-building process. This article details a dozen tenets which can be implemented by practicing superintendents. Doing so increases the chances of building trust among the stakeholders of administrators, staff, community, and school board members. The district…

  16. An On-Line Budget Information Retrieval System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jesse L.

    Described is an On-Line Budget Information Retrieval System developed at Southern University at Baton Rouge to upgrade financial management capability. The system is designed to provide top administrators, deans, department heads, grant directors and finance or accounting staff with information less than 24 hours old. It is noted that the system…

  17. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF... prospectively and the amount of the assistance for any month for all assistance units required to file a monthly... month follows the budget month. (5) Recent work history means the individual received earned income...

  18. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....125 Section 600.125 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery Management Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. (a) Council grant activities are governed by 15...

  19. Educators Guide for Budgeting School Equipment. Second Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joseph L.; Schmidt, James R.

    A publication designed to assist the administrator or department head in the critical area of budgeting school equipment provides a comprehensive guide drawn from hundreds of sources covering all areas of capital equipment. Each section is prefaced with suggestions as to how the items described may be most efficiently utilized. The guide is also…

  20. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  1. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152.323 Section 152.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  2. The Oregon Planning Programming Budgeting Systems Institute. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Harold V.

    The Oregon Planning-Programming-Budgeting-Systems Institute, which was held August 19 through 30, 1968, was one of three such institutes financed by the U.S. Office of Education, Bureau of Vocational Education. It was designed to acquaint State level vocational education administrators with the potential and workings of planning, programming,…

  3. Homelessness and the Fiscal Year 1993 Federal Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    This paper analyzes the Bush Administration's budget request for homelessness programs, and argues that it promised little to alleviate the suffering of homeless people. The paper asserts that the proposal is the weakest in years, with overall spending down by 7 percent when adjusted for inflation. Programs hardest hit are new funding to increase…

  4. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  9. Colleges Use Video Conferences to Trim Their Travel Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are using video conferencing to cut administrative travel budgets and improve productivity. Texas A&M University uses the technology to link eight campuses statewide. Declining costs and enhanced picture quality make video conferencing more appealing to many institutions. It is also used for distance…

  10. U.S. Homeland Security R&D Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, C S

    2009-03-30

    The FY09 budgets for homeland security research and development programs in the U.S. are summarized. Homeland security policy developments that can influence future efforts are discussed. Initial indications of the new administration direction on homeland security R&D are summarized. An overview of the Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V conference is presented.

  11. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  12. Proposed State Budget Doesn't Do Enough for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2015-16 state budget does not do enough for California's top priority--the children. The failure to fund new preschool slots breaks last year's commitment to provide access to quality preschool for every low-income 4-year-old. The proposal also misses opportunities to fully support and improve access…

  13. Obama Pushes Pre-K, Competitive Grants in Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's latest budget proposal envisions a sweeping, multi-billion-dollar expansion of prekindergarten programs and doubles down on the administration's strategy of using competitive grants to drive big change in states and districts--all as school districts try to cope with the largest cuts to federal education spending in recent…

  14. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  15. 7 CFR 1217.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... revenue, with comparative data for at least one preceding fiscal year, except for the initial budget; (3... administrative expense breakdowns, with comparative data for at least one preceding fiscal year, except for the... provide for a reserve as set forth in this Order. (c) Subject to this section, any amendment or...

  16. 20 CFR 653.112 - State agency program budget plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State agency program budget plans. 653.112 Section 653.112 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) §...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.40 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... anticipated revenue, with comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3... administrative expense breakdowns, with comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the...

  18. 77 FR 23730 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Clinical Trial Sponsors: Establishment and Operation of Clinical Trial Data Monitoring Committees AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration.... Guidance for Clinical Trial Sponsors: Establishment and Operation of Clinical Trial Data...

  19. 76 FR 368 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Testing of Dietary Ingredients; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Dietary Supplements'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the...

  20. 78 FR 76840 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Unique Device Identification System'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  1. 77 FR 14810 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Cooperative Manufacturing Arrangements for Licensed Biologics...) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Cooperative Manufacturing Arrangements...

  2. 75 FR 12758 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... submitted the following proposed collection of information to OMB for review and clearance....

  3. 76 FR 45261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry: Fast Track Drug Development Programs: Designation, Development, and Application Review AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  4. 75 FR 24707 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Guidance for Industry, Food and Drug Administration, and Foreign Governments: Fiscal Year 2010 Medical Device User Fee Small Business Qualification and... Foreign Governments: Fiscal Year 2010 Medical Device User Fee Small Business Qualification...

  5. 76 FR 72710 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Adverse Experience Reporting for Licensed Biological Products... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Adverse Experience..., the Agency submitted a proposed collection of information entitled ``Adverse Experience Reporting...

  6. 75 FR 8960 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office and Management Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a proposed collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  7. 45 CFR 233.38 - Waiver of monthly reporting and retrospective budgeting requirements; AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and budgeting requirements of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 as amended. (b) The Secretary will not... waiver would simplify administration of both programs and would not result in a net cost to the...

  8. 75 FR 379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a proposed collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  9. 76 FR 70461 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Orphan Drugs; Common European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration Application Form for Orphan Medicinal Product Designation (Food and Drug Administration Form...

  10. 77 FR 38302 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Implementation of the Food and Drug Administration...

  11. 77 FR 21565 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Food and Drug Administration Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food... announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Recall Regulations'' has... entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Recall Regulations'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44...

  12. 77 FR 47397 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; MedWatch: The Food and Drug Administration Medical Products... Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``MedWatch: The Food and Drug... submitted a proposed collection of information entitled ``MedWatch: The Food and Drug Administration...

  13. Budget Risk & Prioritization Analysis Tool

    2010-12-31

    BRPAtool performs the following: •Assists managers in making solid decisions on what scope/activities to reduce and/or eliminate, to meet constrained budgets, based on multiple risk factors •Enables analysis of different budget scenarios •Can analyze risks and cost for each activity based on technical, quantifiable risk criteria and management-determined risks •Real-time analysis •Enables managers to determine the multipliers and where funding is best applied •Promotes solid budget defense

  14. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  15. Ambitious U.S. Federal Budget Proposal Strong on Science, Short on Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    The proposed $3.6 trillion U.S. federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010, which the Obama administration released on 26 February, includes significant funding for federal science agencies. The budget also emphasizes the development of a comprehensive energy and climate change plan-including a cap and trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions-``to transform our energy supply and slow global warming,'' according to the budget document released by the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB). However, the 134-page budget document-which also emphasizes a theme of rebuilding environmental and resource agencies-is thin on specifics. Programmatic budget details will be released in April, according to an OMB senior official.

  16. A spectral analysis of the earth's angular momentum budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Dickey, J. O.; Callahan, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The exchange of angular momentum between the solid earth and the atmosphere from January 1976 through March 1982 is investigated using estimates of the earth's rotation from optical astrometry and lunar laser ranging and meteorological estimates of the atmospheric angular momentum M(atm). The physics of the earth's angular momentum budget is described, and earth rotation measurements are related to changes in the angular momentum of the fluid parts of the earth. The availability and reliability of earth rotation and M(atm) data are reported, and the possibility of estimating the exchange of angular momentum with the oceans and with the core is examined. Estimates of the power spectrum, cospectral coherence, and linear transfer functions and an analysis of the unmodeled part of the angular momentum budget are presented and discussed. The amplitude and phase of the semiannual, monthly, and fortnightly tidal variations in the length of day are estimated after removing observed atmospheric excitation.

  17. Federal budget process: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.

    Much geophysical research funding originates from the federal government, and many who obtain federal funding consider the executive branch to be its source. In fact, the federal budget results from a complex ballet between the executive and legislative branches. Because it is both little understood and essential to our work, this report will review the fundamentals of the three-year budgetary process.The Constitution assigns the power of the purse to the Congress. Before the 1920s, executive branch agencies and departments submitted their own separate budgets to Congress, and deliberate planning and priority setting was minimal. In 1921 Congress empowered the president to submit an executive branch budget reflecting his priorities for the next fiscal year. Following this protocol, former President Reagan submitted his budget for Fiscal Year 1990 in January, and President Bush outlined his FY'90 priorities in February.

  18. Carter Revises the Science Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviews budget changes made by President Carter in the following science areas: basic science research; fusion research and breeder reactor projects; oil and gas recovery; coal conversion techniques; and space exploration. (CS)

  19. Budget priorities of the nation.

    PubMed

    Ooms, V D

    1992-12-11

    Changes in the federal budget over the last several decades have raised current consumption at the expense of the investment needed for stronger economic growth. These changes have occurred in the budget's fiscal policy, which has reduced national saving and private investment; in its expenditure policy, which has emphasized short-term benefits rather than public investments; and in its transfer policy, which has not adequately addressed the increasing child poverty that threatens the productivity of our future labor force. PMID:17831654

  20. Evolution of Triton's volatile budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's volatile budget provides important links to planetary formation processes in the cold outer solar nebula. However, the budget has been modified by processes subsequent to the accretion of this body. It is of interest to assess whether certain formation environments can be ruled out for Triton on the basis of its current volatile abundances, and also to quantify some of the post-accretional processes by which the abundances have been modified.

  1. How To Develop an Effective Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1999-01-01

    An effective college or university budget process is dependent on the culture of the institution. Different processes and budget types are appropriate to different institutions. Understanding the interrelationships of budgeting, planning, and financial modeling can help make the budget more predictable and relevant to the college's values and…

  2. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  3. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  4. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  5. U.S. Budget Requests More for Some Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    Under the Bush Administration's budget request for Fiscal Year 2007, which was announced on 6 February, some agencies would receive deep cuts, while science funding at three others would see significant increases if Congress approves. Those agencies, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) also would see their science budgets doubled within 10 years as part of the president's new American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI see Eos 87(6), 2006). However, continuing a trend of flat funding for science, U.S. federal non-defense research and development (R&D) would receive only a 1.9 percent increase under the budget request.

  6. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level.

  7. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and nonloan... station equipment, right-of-way procurement, land, buildings, removal costs, special projects,...

  8. A Program Budgeting Cost Model for School District Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougharty, Laurence A.; And Others

    This report provides a detailed description of an education program cost model designed to accept descriptions of the size and composition of resources used in a particular program and translate them into an estimate of program cost, for convenient comparison of alternatives. The model also translates ("crosswalks") the program budget into…

  9. Database Support for Research in Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, James Cory

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which databases support student and faculty research in the area of public administration. A list of journals in public administration, public policy, political science, public budgeting and finance, and other related areas was compared to the journal content list of six business databases. These databases…

  10. The global carbon budget 1959-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr-1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the

  11. Contribution of Fire Emissions to the Global Methane Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, J.; Bloom, A. A.; Jiang, Z.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Fire emissions of methane potentially represent a significant but highly uncertain component of the global methane budget with estimates ranging from 14 to 88 Tg / yr. This range of estimates is driven in part by knowledge of dry matter burned, the fuel type, and variations in combustion efficiency. Here we use global estimates of CO emissions based on CO profiles from the NASA Terra MOPITT instrument and CH4/CO emission ratios from NASA Aura TES data to constrain estimates of the global contribution to atmospheric methane from fires. For the years 2001 to the present we find that fire emissions of methane are approximately 3% (or ~ 15 Tg / yr) of the global methane budget. Furthermore, fire emissions have likely been decreasing during this time period indicating that non-fire methane fluxes have primarily contributed to the recent increase in global atmospheric methane concentrations.

  12. Geophysical science in the 1996 Budget: NSF gets qualified good news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Clinton Administration is seeking a 3% hike for the National Science Foundation (NSF) in FY 1996. NSF Director Neal Lane characterized the $3.36 billion request as “good news in tight times.” The request, which represents the smallest increase proposed by any recent president, would essentially keep funding flat in real dollars.However, money within the NSF budget for research and related activities would see a roughly 8% or $174 million increase. Within this $2.45 billion account, NSF is also giving a high priority to supporting individuals and small research groups. This increase would be offset by cuts in education and research facility construction. In the geosciences, NSF estimates that the funding rate for competitive awards would be frozen at about 35% in FY 1996. Both the median and average annuated award size would increase by about 4% to $65,000 and $87,500, respectively.

  13. Conference reviews R&D budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    About 85 university officials, laboratory directors, industrial research executives, scientists, and engineers gathered in Washington, D.C., at the invitation of National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press, to discuss the outlook for and the implications of the federal research and development budget for fiscal 1982 and beyond. The consensus of the group is that President Reagan's proposed 12% across-the-board cut, if effected, would severely damage science; that the White House should review research funding to make more productive use of research dollars; that science and technology are vital to the Reagan administration's goals; and that basic research should take priority over development.George A. Keyworth, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), and Fred Khedouri, associate director for natural resources, energy, and science in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), also attended the meeting on October 26 and 27. They advised the group to be realistic and not assume the worst case. In addition they told the conference that during this period of fiscal restraint growth will be restricted; nevertheless, science will be treated with sensitivity.

  14. Proposed National Science Foundation Budget on Target to Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-06-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is US$7.05 billion, $555 million (8.5%) above its FY 2009 budget, and is in addition to $3 billion in stimulus funding from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The proposed funding, which represents strong support from the administration for NSF and for science and technology, would put the foundation on track to double its budget between 2006 and 2016 (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009; 90(20), 175, 2009; and 90(21), 183, 2009). Agency-wide, the FY 2010 request would increase most appropriations accounts. Research and Related Activities would receive $5.73 billion, up $550.1 million (10.6%) compared with the FY 2009 budget. Education and Human Resources would register a slight rise to $857.8 million, up $12.5 million (1.5%). Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction ( MREFC) would dip to $117.3 million, down $34.7 million (22.8%). The MREFC account would include $46.3 million for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory, $42.8 million for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (down from $82.3 million), $14.3 million for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (which received $105.9 million in stimulus funding), and $0.95 million for IceCube (down from $11.3 million in its final year of funding).

  15. IMPEDANCE BUDGET FOR CRAB CAVITY IN MEIC ELECTRON RING

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, B. Yunn, G. Krafft

    2012-07-01

    The Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab has been envisioned as a first stage high energy particle accelerator beyond the 12 GeV upgrade of CEBAF. The estimate of impedance budget is important from the view point of beam stability and matching with other accelerator components driving currents. The detailed study of impedance budget for electron ring has been performed by considering the current design parameters of the e-ring. A comprehensive picture of the calculations involved in this study has been illustrated in the paper.

  16. Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single- and multi-layer energy budget scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiying; Ryder, James; Bastrikov, Vladislav; McGrath, Matthew J.; Naudts, Kim; Otto, Juliane; Ottlé, Catherine; Peylin, Philippe; Polcher, Jan; Valade, Aude; Black, Andrew; Elbers, Jan A.; Moors, Eddy; Foken, Thomas; van Gorsel, Eva; Haverd, Vanessa; Heinesch, Bernard; Tiedemann, Frank; Knohl, Alexander; Launiainen, Samuli; Loustau, Denis; Ogée, Jérôme; Vessala, Timo; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    Canopy structure is one of the most important vegetation characteristics for land-atmosphere interactions, as it determines the energy and scalar exchanges between the land surface and the overlying air mass. In this study we evaluated the performance of a newly developed multi-layer energy budget in the ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 land surface model (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems - CANopy), which simulates canopy structure and can be coupled to an atmospheric model using an implicit coupling procedure. We aim to provide a set of acceptable parameter values for a range of forest types. Top-canopy and sub-canopy flux observations from eight sites were collected in order to conduct this evaluation. The sites crossed climate zones from temperate to boreal and the vegetation types included deciduous, evergreen broad-leaved and evergreen needle-leaved forest with a maximum leaf area index (LAI; all-sided) ranging from 3.5 to 7.0. The parametrization approach proposed in this study was based on three selected physical processes - namely the diffusion, advection, and turbulent mixing within the canopy. Short-term sub-canopy observations and long-term surface fluxes were used to calibrate the parameters in the sub-canopy radiation, turbulence, and resistance modules with an automatic tuning process. The multi-layer model was found to capture the dynamics of sub-canopy turbulence, temperature, and energy fluxes. The performance of the new multi-layer model was further compared against the existing single-layer model. Although the multi-layer model simulation results showed few or no improvements to both the nighttime energy balance and energy partitioning during winter compared with a single-layer model simulation, the increased model complexity does provide a more detailed description of the canopy micrometeorology of various forest types. The multi-layer model links to potential future environmental and ecological studies such as the assessment of in

  17. NSF, NASA budgets approved by Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The final fiscal year 1991 appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation contained both good news and bad for geophysical research in the year ahead. On the positive side, the House/Senate conference committee report on H.R. 5158, the VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies appropriations bill, provided new start funding for NASA's Earth Observing System program, more than doubled the allocation for NASA's Earth Probes, and restored most of the requested funding for the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, which the Senate version of the bill had deleted.The Earth Observing System received $67 million and a separate budget line was created for the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS), which will be funded at $36 million this year. The Earth Probes received an additional $31 million to its $25 million request, and the CRAF/Cassini project received $145 million, $3 million less than its full request.

  18. SOT project cut from NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    About a decade ago, the solar physics community decided that its next major project should be the building of a Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) that would be flown on the space shuttle as a Spacelab payload. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) deemed the project “facility class instrumentation,” issued an announcement of opportunity, chose investigators, contractors, and a science working group, and began funding SOT planning efforts. After what one source involved with the project called “a long and lusty history,” SOT was cut out of the agency's budget request for fiscal year (FY) 1987, released last month (Eos, February 25, 1986, p. 95). The project may be revived, planners say, but in a scaled-down, renamed form.

  19. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  20. Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderes, Thomas

    This plan for outcome-based budgeting (OBB) is the result of growing demands for increased fiscal accountability, measurable outcomes, strengthened assessment processes, and more meaningful performance indicators as mandated by many State and Federal legislators. OBB focuses on linking funding with outputs and outcomes. Higher education…

  1. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  2. [The weighted health care unit: a new tool for hospital budgeting].

    PubMed

    Bestard Perelló, J J; Sevilla Pérez, F; Corella Monzón, I; Elola Somoza, J

    1993-01-01

    Hospital budgets must be based on estimated workload in order to fairly distribute available financial resources. A tool to measure hospital production is need to achieve this aim. We present in this article the results of a study on hospital cost which was carried out to design a new unit for measuring intermediate hospital products: the Weighted Health Care Unit (Unidad Ponderada Asistencial: UPA). Thereafter we use multiple regression to find out structure, services and activity variables which explain the variations in expenses per UPA among 64 hospitals of INSALUD. Significant variables include: doctors per hospital bed, hospital staff (sanitary personnel except doctors plus administrative assistants) per bed, hospital size (less than 200 beds), ICU beds percentage, oncology service, UPAs per bed average length of stay. These variables, along with interactions between them, explain 91.4% of the variance of expenses per UPA. The UPA and statistical modeling allow a better understanding of hospital expenses and can be very useful in coordinating budgets to hospital activity taking into account the different characteristics of each hospital. PMID:8169037

  3. Using Atmospheric Budgets as a Constraint on Surface Fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1997-11-01

    Possible methods for estimating surface fluxes include (i) use of bulk fluxes and in situ observations, (ii) use of model parameterizations to interpret specified inputs and compute surface fluxes, and (iii) various indirect methods, which rely on the fact that the mass and surface heat, energy, and momentum budgets must balance and so, given computations of all the other components in the various budget equations applied to fields either within the ocean or the atmosphere, fluxes may be inferred as a residual. This paper reviews the third approach using indirect methods and outlines the advantages associated with the use of global atmospheric analyses from four-dimensional data assimilation (4DDA). The time mean increment required in producing analyses in 4DDA is identical to the systematic short-term (6 h) assimilating model forecast error and is most likely due to errors in the model physics. Therefore, the analyses include a desirable fix, which allows the sum of the `physics' to be deduced from `dynamics.' The focus is on the heat and moisture budgets to infer surface heat fluxes and freshwater fluxes, but with the recognition of the need to balance the mass budget as well. The diurnal cycle of the vertically integrated mass budget for July 1985 and January 1996 from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly the National Meteorological Center) reanalyses is presented, revealing the strong semidiurnal tide and highlighting the need for at least four-times-daily data. The new results reveal that gross violations of the mass budget continue to be present, but these can be allowed for. A discussion is given of other sources of errors contributing to the heat and moisture budgets.

  4. Global Budget of Gravity Wave Momentum and Energy Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play a key role in the middle and upper atmosphere. These waves carry momentum and energy fluxes as they propagate, and can deposit momentum and energy when waves dissipate due to either instability or background diffusion. The global budgets of gravity wave momentum fluxes have previously been estimated by using ground-based observations, and more recently deduced from satellite observations. There have been less reports on the global energy flux budget. In this study, we analyze the momentum and energy fluxes calculated from mesoscale-resolving Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), including their global distribution, altitude dependence, and seasonal variation. The momentum fluxes and their spatial and seasonal variation are found to be in general agreement with satellite observations. With this verification of the momentum flux, the energy flux budget, in particular the altitude dependence of the total energy flux, is examined.

  5. A Comparison of Mail and Telephone Administration of District-Level Questionnaires for the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006: Effects on Estimates and Data Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Maxine; Brener, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national study periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. For SHPPS 2006, district-level questionnaires were designed for telephone administration, but mixed-mode data collection that also used…

  6. GEWEX Water and Energy Budget Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J.; Bainto, E.; Masuda, K.; Rodell, Matthew; Rossow, W. B.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the global water and energy budgets has been an elusive Global Energy and Water-cycle Experiment (GEWEX) goal. It has been difficult to gather many of the needed global water and energy variables and processes, although, because of GEWEX, we now have globally gridded observational estimates for precipitation and radiation and many other relevant variables such as clouds and aerosols. Still, constrained models are required to fill in many of the process and variable gaps. At least there are now several atmospheric reanalyses ranging from the early National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and NCEP/Department of Energy (DOE) reanalyses to the more recent ERA40 and JRA-25 reanalyses. Atmospheric constraints include requirements that the models state variables remain close to in situ observations or observed satellite radiances. This is usually done by making short-term forecasts from an analyzed initial state; these short-term forecasts provide the next guess, which is corrected by comparison to available observations. While this analysis procedure is likely to result in useful global descriptions of atmospheric temperature, wind and humidity, there is no guarantee that relevant hydroclimate processes like precipitation, which we can observe and evaluate, and evaporation over land, which we cannot, have similar verisimilitude. Alternatively, the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), drives uncoupled land surface models with precipitation, surface solar radiation, and surface meteorology (from bias-corrected reanalyses during the study period) to simulate terrestrial states and surface fluxes. Further constraints are made when a tuned water balance model is used to characterize the global runoff observational estimates. We use this disparate mix of observational estimates, reanalyses, GLDAS and calibrated water balance simulations to try to characterize and close global and terrestrial atmospheric

  7. The total phosphorus budget of a peat-covered catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine S.; Clay, Gareth D.; Burt, Tim P.; Rose, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have considered the carbon or greenhouse gas budgets of peat ecosystems, only a few have considered the nutrient budget of peat soils, and this, in turn, has limited the ability of studies to consider the impact of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition on the phosphorus budget of a peat soil. This study considered the total phosphorus (P) budget of an upland peat-covered catchment over the period 1993 to 2012. The study has shown (i) total atmospheric deposition of phosphorus varied from 62 to 175 kg P/km2/yr; (ii) the carbon:phosphorus ratio of the peat profile declines significantly from values in the litter layer (C:P = 1326) to approximately constant at 30 cm depth (C:P = 4240); (iii) the total fluvial flux of phosphorus varied from 49 to 111 kg P/km2/yr, of which between 45 and 77% was dissolved P; and (iv) the total phosphorus sink varied from -5.6 to +71.7 kg P/km2/yr with a median of +29.4 kg P/km2/yr, which is within the range of the estimated long-term accumulation rate of phosphorus in the peat profile of between 3 and 32 kg P/km2/yr. The phosphorus budget of the peat ecosystem relies on rapid recycling near the soil surface, and this means that any vegetation management may critically deprive the ecosystem of this nutrient.

  8. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  9. Budgeting Based on Results: A Return-on-Investment Model Contributes to More Effective Annual Spending Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    One major problem in developing school district budgets immune to cuts is the model administrators traditionally use--an expenditure model. The simplicity of this model is seductive: What were the revenues and expenditures last year? What are the expected revenues and expenditures this year? A few adjustments here and there and one has a budget.…

  10. Sports Finances in Small Texas High Schools: Statistical Measures to Serve as Athletic Budget-Making Guidelines and Evaluation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Leo

    Assuming that superintendents and other administrators of small Texas schools need comparative data for planning and evaluating their annual athletic budgets, this report presents 10 statistical measures for predicting or appraising the levels of each of 3 main budget components--expenditures, revenues, and deficits. Computed from the 1972-73…

  11. Collection Development and Finance: A Guide to Strategic Library-Materials Budgeting. Frontiers of Access to Library Materials: No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Murray S.

    This guide discusses how collections budgets are planned, built, defended, and implemented. Each topic is illustrated with sample budgets and allocations typical of academic and public libraries serving their respective communities. Step-by-step guidance is offered to administrators and boards for meeting patrons' needs while addressing today's…

  12. Programme Budgets for Graduate Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelquist, Claes G.; And Others

    The development of a methodological framework for planning, programming, and budgeting which is specific to graduate training and research activities at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden is described. This pilot project is regarded as a step towards developing and implementing a generalized approach to an output-oriented finance…

  13. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  14. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  15. Congress Wraps Up 2011 Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates are already bracing for protracted budget battles in the coming year, even as they sort the winners and losers in the bill approved by Congress late last week financing the U.S. Department of Education and the rest of the federal government through September. The hard-fought agreement followed months of wrangling between…

  16. Rational Budgeting? The Stanford Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    The budget decision making process at Stanford University, California, from 1970 through 1979 was evaluated in relation to the allocation of general funds to 38 academic departments. Using Simon's theory of bounded rationality and an organizational level of analysis, the Stanford decision process was tested for its rationality through…

  17. Reconceptualization of the Budget Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    This paper reconceptualizes the purposes of education's budget envelope. Citing numerous examples of how policymakers consider resource allocations apart from the main concerns of individual programs, the people reallocations affect, and education's most important programs, it suggests that policymakers and finance officers reemphasize program and…

  18. 75 FR 65491 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guide To Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice....

  19. 75 FR 72827 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Adoption of Food and Drug Administration Food Code by Local... of FDA Food Code by Local, State and Tribal Governments'' has been approved by the Office...

  20. 77 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Data To Support Food and Nutrition Product Communications as... ``Data to Support Food and Nutrition Product Communications as Used by the Food and Drug Administration... Support Food and Nutrition Product Communications as Used by the Food and Drug Administration'' to OMB...

  1. 76 FR 4918 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Juice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  2. Budget increases for U.S. science agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The majority of the appropriations bills for the U.S. federal budget for fiscal year 2002 have been signed by President George W. Bush, and the overall outlook for science looks good. A number of science agencies received healthy increases that are above the figures proposed by the Bush administration earlier this year.The appropriations bill for Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies (H.R. 2620) is one of the most important, as it funds both NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Signed into law by the president on November 26, the “VA-HUD” bill provides NASA with a budget of $14.8 billion. This is an increase of $540 million, or 3.8%, above FY01 levels, and 1.9% above the administration's request of $14.51 billion. The increment for NSF's $4.79-billion budget for FY02 is $372.5 million, an increase of 8.4% above the previous year's funding. This amount is $319 million more than the agency requested. The Bush administration requested an increase of only 1.3%.

  3. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  4. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  5. Power Budget Analysis for High Altitude Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various potential applications and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The energy source considered for the HAA s power budget is solar photon energy that allows the use of either photovoltaic (PV) cells or advanced thermoelectric (ATE) converters. Both PV cells and an ATE system utilizing high performance thermoelectric materials were briefly compared to identify the advantages of ATE for HAA applications in this study. The ATE can generate a higher quantity of harvested energy than PV cells by utilizing the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE in a tandem mode configuration. Assuming that each stage of ATE material has the figure of merit of 5, the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE system approaches the overall conversion efficiency greater than 60%. Based on this estimated efficiency, the configuration of a HAA and the power utility modules are defined.

  6. 75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The information collection...

  7. 75 FR 11623 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision From the Office of Management and Budget of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Budget of a Currently Approved Information Collection Activity, Request for Comments; Washington, DC... flight restrictions for certain operations in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area. OMB has granted this...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Title: Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules....

  8. Proposed NASA Budget Includes Asteroid Capture but Cuts Planetary Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed 17.7 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides 105 million for several asteroid-related initiatives, including preliminary studies for a potential mission that would capture an asteroid and drag it into orbit around the Moon. The agency's total proposed budget is down slightly compared to FY 2012 (see Table ; comparisons are to FY 2012 because government agencies had been operating on a continuing resolution for 2013 and final spending levels for 2013 were not available at the time the president released his proposed 2014 budget).

  9. 40 CFR 97.608 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... the Administrator under the TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  10. 40 CFR 97.608 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... the Administrator under the TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  11. 40 CFR 97.608 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... the Administrator under the TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  12. 40 CFR 97.508 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... decisions of the Administrator under the TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  13. 40 CFR 97.508 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... decisions of the Administrator under the TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  14. 40 CFR 97.508 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... decisions of the Administrator under the TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  15. 40 CFR 97.408 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... the Administrator under the TR NOX Annual Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  16. 40 CFR 97.408 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... the Administrator under the TR NOX Annual Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  17. 40 CFR 97.408 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... the Administrator under the TR NOX Annual Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this chapter....

  18. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  19. Planning to Communicate: A Budget Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Failing to have a plan to communicate with stakeholders during the budget process is a plan to fail. Without community support, getting budget approval can be difficult. Thus, school business officials must have a plan to ensure the appropriate budget message is conveyed throughout all communication channels. In fact, a communication plan is the…

  20. Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, David L.

    Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…