Science.gov

Sample records for administration budget estimates

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  2. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  3. Clinton Administration announces FY 2001 budget request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Blessed with a strong US. economy the Clinton Administration on February 7 released a fiscal year 2001 federal budget request totaling a whopping $1,835 billion. Most of the funding request is slated for big ticket items including Social Security defense spending, Medicaid, Medicare, and paying down the federal debt. However, within the 19% of the budget that funds non-defense discretionary programs,science agencies receive fairly healthy increases.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request would increase NSF funding by 17.3% $675 million and bring the total budget request to $4.6 billion. This includes significant increases for several initiatives: biocomplexity in the environment, information technology research, nanoscale science and engineering, and 21st century workforce. Among the major Earth science projects are launching the Earthscope initiative which includes the US Array and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  5. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  6. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  7. Administration of the School District Budget. School Business Administration Publication No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento.

    Administrative procedures for the state of California are presented in this manual. The basic legal requirements that must be observed in preparing and adopting a budget are summarized and factors that influence expenditures in planning a long-range budget are listed. Steps are outlined for developing the general fund budget, special funds…

  8. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Adherence to original budget estimates....

  9. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  11. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3: Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8: Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9: Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10: Support to Other Nations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    1982 Budget Man Costs 5) Officer Retention$ 6) Enlisted Retention 1/ (116) (123) 7) Submarine Motivatio 2/ 79 42 UDT/SEAL 3/ 44 42 8) Officer/Enlisted...Costs 5) Officer Retention -7W ~ 4§ 4 6) Enlisted Retention 1/ 216 266 216 271 7) Submarine Motivatio 2/ 81 44 81 45 UDT/SEAL 3/ 44 43 44 44 8) Officer

  12. Administration of the School District Budget. 1983 Edition. School Business Administration Publication No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Chapter 1 of this manual for school district officials, board members, and students of school administration introduces educational programs, expenditures, and revenues as the three basic considerations of budget making. While chapter 2 discusses major aspects of the general fund budget (resources availabale to finance the school district's…

  13. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  14. Science Receives Broad Support in Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    With the U.S. federal deficit on target to hit $1.5 trillion this year, President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of $3.73 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2012, which begins on 1 October, has been greeted with mixed reviews since its release on 14 February. The proposal, which calls for a 5-year overall freeze on discretionary spending outside of security, generally is favorable for science and science agencies—particularly the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) laboratories. However, some other agencies and bureaus, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), do not fare as well. A number of Republicans in Congress have panned the budget. Rep. Paul Ryan (R-Wis.), chair of the House of Representatives Committee on the Budget, said the president “has failed to tackle the urgent fiscal and economic threats before us.” Also, with the FY 2011 budget never having been enacted, House Committee on Appropriations chair Hal Rogers (R-Ky.) introduced a continuing resolution (H.R. 1) on 11 February that would fund the federal government for the remainder of the current fiscal year at a level $100 billion below the administration's request for this year.

  15. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Testify before House Energy and Commerce Subcommittees on FY16 Budget

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will testify Wednesday on EPA's FY 2016 budget before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittees on Energy and Power and Environment and the Economy. EPA's proposed budget provides resources

  16. WEDNESDAY: EPA Administrator to Testify before Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on FY 2016 Budget

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and Acting Chief Financial Officer David Bloom will testify Wednesday, April 29 before the Senate Interior, Environment and Related Agencies Subcommittee on the FY 2016 Budget. EPA's proposed budget

  17. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Fiscal Year 1995 Budget Estimates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    systems into these interim migration systems. Current plans will reduce 123 systems that currently support accounting operations to 50 systems over...AD-A278 311lfhI|Illl| llH - I DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE FISCAL YEAR 1995 BUDGET ESTIMATES FEBRUARY 1994 DTIC S E1...I •II II III4 4I. 5 DEPARTMENT OF DEPENSE DEFENSE FIANNCZ AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE FY 1995 BUDGET ESTIMATES INDEZ Index i Summary v 43A Report on

  18. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S.…

  19. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  20. Proposed FY 2001 Budget Overview: Ryan Administration's Second Budget Request Introduces Funding Preferences. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matakis, Brian

    This special report discusses the budget allocations of the proposed Illinois Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 budget. The report highlights two critical issues with far-reaching implications: the use of tobacco settlement monies and phased-in tax relief measures. The report describes steady growth across most agency-level appropriations, with the Department…

  1. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  2. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 2: Construction of facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Construction of Facilities (CoF) appropriation provides contractual services for the repair, rehabilitation, and modification of existing facilities; the construction of new facilities and the acquisition of related collateral equipment; the acquisition or condemnation of real property; environmental compliance and restoration activities; the design of facilities projects; and advanced planning related to future facilities needs. Fiscal year 1994 budget estimates are broken down according to facility location of project and by purpose.

  3. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  4. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 1: Agency summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA FY 1994 budget request of $15,265 million concentrates on (1) investing in the development of new technologies including a particularly aggressive program in aeronautical technology to improve the competitive position of the United States, through shared involvement with industry and other government agencies; (2) continuing the nation's premier program of space exploration, to expand our knowledge of the solar system and the universe as well as the earth; and (3) providing safe and assured access to space using both the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles. Budget estimates are presented for (1) research and development, including space station, space transportation capability development, space science and applications programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, space research and technology, commercial programs, aeronautics technology programs, safety and mission quality, academic programs, and tracking and data advanced systems; and (2) space operations, including space transportation programs, launch services, and space communications.

  5. College and University Budgeting: An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.

    This book is designed to help college/university faculty and academic administrators become more constructive and knowledgeable participants in the budgetary process. Chapter 1 introduces budgets and the budgetary process, with an explanation of the importance of budgeting in policy making, Chapter 2 discusses economic and political contexts of…

  6. Administration's 1992 Budget Proposes a Healthy Boost for R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, David J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the 1992 comprehensive federal budget proposed for the United States. The proposed budgets for the Defense Department, Health and Human Services, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute of Standards and…

  7. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without strict adherence to individual allocations within the proposed budgets, except that recipients...

  8. 14 CFR § 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates....

  9. Academic Administration: Planning, Budgeting, and Decision Making with Multiple Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang M.; Van Horn, James C.

    A systematic approach to the management of higher education institutions is described. The methodology combines administration by objectives (ABO), a management technique that helps academic administrators structure decisions in a systematic manner, with goal programming (GP), a decision-science tool that is ideally suited to the analysis of…

  10. Administration's Proposed NSF Budget Includes a 5.5% Increase for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 proposed federal budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is $7.63 billion, 7.3% above the FY 2012 actual amount. NSF acting director Cora Marrett said the budget reflects the administration's recognition of NSF and the importance of funding basic research. "We are pleased about where we stand and hope that Congress will be just as pleased with the budget proposal and will help move things forward," she said during a meeting of the NSF Advisory Committee for Geosciences on 11 April. Budget comparisons are to FY 2012 because the 2013 appropriations were enacted at the end of March, less than 2 weeks before President Barack Obama sent the proposed budget to Congress.

  11. Free-space optical communications link budget estimation.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Larry B; Kolodzy, Paul; Pike, Alan; Graves, Buzz; Dougherty, Dave; Douglass, Jeff

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a new methodology of estimating free-space optical communications link budgets to be expected in conditions of severe turbulence. The approach is derived from observing that the ability of an adaptive optics (AO) system to compensate turbulence along a path is limited by the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh range, proportional to the diameter of the optics squared and inverse of the wavelength of light utilized. The method uses the Fried parameter computed over the range outside of the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh ranges, to calculate the Strehl ratios that yield a reasonable prediction of the light impinging on the receiving telescope aperture and the power coupling into the fiber. Comparisons will be given between theory and field measurements. These comparisons show that AO is most effective within the Rayleigh ranges, or when an atmospheric gradient is present, and lesser so when the total range is much greater than the sum of the Rayleigh ranges.

  12. Radiative Energy Budget Estimates for the 1979 Southwest Summer Monsoon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1987-10-01

    Obsemations of temperature moisture, cloud amount, cloud height and soil-derived aerosols are incorporated into radiative transfer models to yield estimates of the tropospheric and surface radiative energy budgets for the summer Monsoon of 1979. Results are presented for six phases of the monsoon for the region 30°S to 40°N latitude and 30°E to 100°E longitude. The derived radiative fields are significantly different from climatological estimates. The evolution of the radiative energy budgets are discussed in relation to monsoon activity. Total tropospheric convergence (TTC) for the January and February phases exhibits a minimum cooling over the southern Indian Ocean and a maximum tropospheric radiative energy loss over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The early May, pre-onset, onset and post-onset periods exhibit cellular patterns in TTC, with maximum cooling over the cloud-free oceanic regions, and minimum cooling associated with continental regions and areas with large amounts of cloud. This cellular structure is still evident when TTC is averaged over 10° regions. Large seasonal variations in TTC are observed over the deserts, due to the presence of dust in the summer. Regions with large seasonal variations in cloud cover (e.g., the Arabian Sea) also display large variations in TTC. Regionally averaged radiative heating profiles also change significantly with period. These variations result primarily from changes in the cloud distribution associated with the evolution of the monsoon.The net surface radiative flux varies markedly from period to period, and within the same period. As expected, all six periods have a maximum surface radiative energy gain for the cloud-free oceanic regions, while cloudy and continental regions tend to have relative minimae. Large spatial and temporal variations exist in the net surface flux.

  13. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Testify before House Appropriations Subcommittee on FY 2016 Budget

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and David Bloom, U.S. EPA Acting Chief Financial Officer, will testify Thursday before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy on Interior, Environment and Related Agencies on FY 2016 Budget.

  14. 9AM and 2 PM: EPA Administrator to Testify before House Subcommittees on FY 2017 Budget

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and Acting Chief Financial Officer David Bloom will testify on the FY 2017 Budget today at 9 AM before the Interior, Environment and Related Agencies Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committe

  15. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  16. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for FY1991 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY oSUPPORTING DATA FOR FY 1991 BUDGET ESTIMATES DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES (U) SUBMITTED TO CONGRESS JANUARY 1990 RESEARCH...all non-special access RDT&E Program Elements and Projects. K - .- , 2. Comparison of FY 1990 Data . A direct comparison of FY 1990 data in the...and FY 1990 data to achieve comparability with the program structure for FY 1991. 3. Relationship with FY 1991 Budget Structure to the FY 1990 Budget

  17. NOAA Would Receive an 11% Increase Under Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2014 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with 5.45 billion, 11% above the FY 2012 spend plan of 4.91 billion (see Table ). The proposal, which was sent to Congress on 10 April, would increase funding for operations, research, and facilities to 3.41 billion (up 7.97% over FY 2012) and for procurement, acquisition, and construction to 2.12 billion (up 17.51%). The budget proposal uses the FY 2012 spend plan as a comparison because Congress approved the FY 2013 appropriations only a few weeks before the FY 2014 proposal was released.

  18. Radiative energy budget estimates for the 1979 southwest summer monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1987-01-01

    A major objective of the summer monsoon experiment (SMONEX) was the determination of the heat sources and sinks associated with the southwest summer monsoon. The radiative component is presented here. The vertically integrated tropospheric radiation energy budget is negative and varies significantly as a function of monsoon activity. The gradient in the latitudinal mean tropospheric cooling reverses between the winter periods and the late spring/early summer periods. The radiative component of the vertical profile of the diabatic heating is derived. These profiles are a strong function of the stage of the monsoon as well as the geographic region. In general, the surface experiences a net gain of radiative energy during the late spring and early summer periods. During the winter periods, areas northward of 25 N display net surface losses, while the remaining areas exhibit net gains.

  19. Post processing of zone budgets to generate improved groundwater influx estimates associated with longwall mining.

    PubMed

    Mackie, C D

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of underground longwall mining on groundwater systems are commonly assessed using numerical groundwater flow models that are capable of forecasting changes to strata pore pressures and rates of groundwater seepage over the mine life. Groundwater ingress to a mining operation is typically estimated using zone budgets to isolate relevant parts of a model that represent specific mining areas, and to aggregate flows at nominated times within specific model stress periods. These rates can be easily misinterpreted if simplistic averaging of daily flow budgets is adopted. Such misinterpretation has significant implications for design of underground dewatering systems for a new mine site or it may lead to model calibration errors where measured mine water seepage rates are used as a primary calibration constraint. Improved estimates of groundwater ingress can be made by generating a cumulative flow history from zone budget data, then differentiating the cumulative flow history using a low order polynomial convolved through the data set.

  20. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  1. Elderly School Syndrome--Or, How to Make Budget Estimates for Major School Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Stanton; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explains a method for converting school building rehabilitation costs into costs per square foot (unit costs) for seven categories of building components. Unit costs are useful in budgeting, consistent with standard practices of building cost estimating, and easily adjusted for variations due to locality and the economy. (MLF)

  2. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  3. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 3: Research and program management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The research and program management (R&PM) appropriation provides the salaries, other personnel and related costs, and travel support for NASA's civil service workforce. This FY 1994 budget funds costs associated with 23,623 full-time equivalent (FTE) work years. Budget estimates are provided for all NASA centers by categories such as space station and new technology investments, space flight programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences, advanced concepts and technology, center management and operations support, launch services, mission to planet earth, tracking and data programs, aeronautical research and technology, and safety, reliability, and quality assurance.

  4. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  5. The 1km estimation of Vegetation carbon budgets in South Korea using a terrestrial ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Ito, A.; Lee, W.; Son, Y.; Kwak, D.; Oh, S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem can store atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the major factors of global warming, in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis process. Human induced CO2 emission has been rapidly increased by industrialization. On the current situation, Terrestrial ecosystem could be regarded as one of the major sinks of CO2 for mitigating global warming. So it is very important to quantify carbon dynamics and budget for preparing adaptation measures to climate change. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been developed and used for investigating the terrestrial carbon dynamics and quantifying budget. In this study, we simulated biogeochemistry model, VISIT, in whole South Korea territory to quantify ecosystem carbon budgets. Before simulating this model, we modified model parameters such as maximum photosynthetic rate and phonological parameters with flux measurement data. And then, we prepared high resolution input variables for simulation from reliable national source. As a result, the model estimated the vegetation ecosystems in South Korea are a net carbon sink, with a value of 3.51 Tg C year-1 during the period 1999-2008. Compared with the anthropogenic emission of South Korea, vegetation ecosystems offset 3.3% of human emissions. Spatially, evident latitudinal and topographical gradients were found in all estimates over entire areas due to the environmental difference surrounding ecosystems. In addition, seasonal and inter-annual variability could be found in the estimates, especially biomass growth and carbon uptake, in consequence of the variation of annual weather conditions. However, to achieve a reliable estimate of a carbon budget, the result should be examined and validated carefully by the independent approaches. And also, to overcome the uncertainties in the simulation model, we need to develop a method for consideration of disturbances, such as land-use change, fertilizing, timber production, and air pollution. This modeling approach can

  6. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  7. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  8. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  9. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  10. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The...

  11. Common Core Curriculum for Vocational Education. Category D: Administration and Supervision. D-2: Writing a Vocational Education Project/Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, William

    This module on writing a vocational education project/budget is one of a set of eight on administration and supervision and is part of a larger series of thirty-four modules constituting a core curriculum intended for use in the professional preparation of vocational educators in the areas of agricultural, business, home economics, and industrial…

  12. Changes in Federal Aid to State and Local Governments, as Proposed in the Bush Administration FY2002 Budget. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence

    This report analyzes the effect of President George W. Bush's administration's budget proposal on federal discretionary grant-in-aid programs provided to state and local governments. These programs are projected to be cut by 6.9 percent in fiscal year (FY) 2002 and, by 2011, by 11.2 percent. The report provides data on proposed changes in spending…

  13. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  14. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  15. Event-based estimation of water budget components using the network of multi-sensor capacitance probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-scale-free approach was developed for estimation of water fluxes at boundaries of monitoring soil profile using water content time series. The approach uses the soil water budget to compute soil water budget components, i.e. surface-water excess (Sw), infiltration less evapotranspiration (I-E...

  16. An Algorithm to Estimate the Heating Budget from Vertical Hydrometeor Profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Stephen; McCumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Penc, Richard

    1990-12-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometer profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a non-hydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algorithm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  17. An algorithm to estimate the heating budget from vertical hydrometeor profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Lang, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometeor profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a nonhydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algoritm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  18. Using "snapshot" measurements of CH4 fluxes from peatlands to estimate annual budgets: interpolation vs. modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sophie M.; Baird, Andy J.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in estimating annual budgets of peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchanges. Such budgeting is required for calculating peatland carbon balance and the radiative forcing impact of peatlands on climate. There have been multiple approaches used to estimate CO2 budgets; however, there is a limited literature regarding the modelling of annual CH4 budgets. Using data collected from flux chamber tests in an area of blanket peatland in North Wales, we compared annual estimates of peatland-atmosphere CH4 emissions using an interpolation approach and an additive and multiplicative modelling approach. Flux-chamber measurements represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site. In contrast to CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. It is unclear how much error is involved with such a simple integration method. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Our fits of the CH4 flux models yielded r2 > 0.5 in 38 of the 48 models constructed, with 55% of these having a weighted rw2 > 0.4. Comparison of annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation and modelling reveals no correlation between the two data sets; indeed, in some cases even the sign of the flux differs. The difference between the methods seems also to be related to the size of the flux - for modest annual fluxes there is a fairly even scatter of points around the 1:1 line, whereas when the modelled fluxes are high, the corresponding interpolated fluxes tend to be low. We consider the

  19. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  20. Chemical Data Assimilation Estimates of Continental US Ozone and Nitrogen Budgets during INTEX-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Robert B.; Schaack, Todd K.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Kittaka, Chieko; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Natarajan, Murali; Olson, Jennifer; Soja, Amber; Zapotocny, Tom; Lenzen, Allen; Stobie, James; Johnson, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Thompson, Anne; Cohen, Ron; Dibb, Jack E.; Crawford, James H.; Rault, Didier F.; Martin, Randall; Szykman, James J.; Fishman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Global ozone analyses, based on assimilation of stratospheric profile and ozone column measurements, and NOy predictions from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) are used to estimate the ozone and NOy budget over the Continental US during the July-August 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A). Comparison with aircraft, satellite, surface, and ozonesonde measurements collected during the INTEX-A show that RAQMS captures the main features of the global and Continental US distribution of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy with reasonable fidelity. Assimilation of stratospheric profile and column ozone measurements is shown to have a positive impact on the RAQMS upper tropospheric/lower stratosphere ozone analyses, particularly during the period when SAGE III limb scattering measurements were available. Eulerian ozone and NOy budgets during INTEX-A show that the majority of the Continental US export occurs in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere poleward of the tropopause break, a consequence of convergence of tropospheric and stratospheric air in this region. Continental US photochemically produced ozone was found to be a minor component of the total ozone export, which was dominated by stratospheric ozone during INTEX-A. The unusually low photochemical ozone export is attributed to anomalously cold surface temperatures during the latter half of the INTEX-A mission, which resulted in net ozone loss during the first 2 weeks of August. Eulerian NOy budgets are shown to be very consistent with previously published estimates. The NOy export efficiency was estimated to be 24 percent, with NOx+PAN accounting for 54 percent of the total NOy export during INTEX-A.

  1. Tropical precipitation rates during SOP-1, FGGE, estimated from heat and moisture budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedigo, Catherine B.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1990-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Laboratory analyses collected during the first FGGE Special Observing Period, global estimates of precipitation rates were derived for the domain between 30-deg N to 30-deg S, and the results were compared to OLR patterns and to each other to evaluate their consistency and reliability. Regional averages are presented to examine the variability of rainfall rates among selected regions of the Southern Hemisphere tropics. Finally, precipitable water was computed and compared to results derived from SMMR estimates and to the precipitation patterns. Results show that the heat and moisture budget estimates of precipitation compare favorably. Vertical profiles reveal that maximum convective heating occurs in the middle troposphere. The profile of the South Pacific convergence zone region compares best with profiles obtained over the western North Pacific.

  2. Land use transformation and the estimation of sediment budgets in small tropical catchments, Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgitt, David

    2010-05-01

    A field-based monitoring programme has been conducted in forested and urbanized catchments in Singapore to elucidate the nature of sediment budgets and to define sediment and carbon flux. There have been relatively few studies of sediment budgets in tropical environments and these have mostly focused on disturbed systems. Here results from investigations of a headwater catchment in a remnant primary forest and in a freshwater swamp forest environment provide a context for examining the impact of land use change. Two centuries ago, the island Singapore was dominated by lowland Diterocarp forest, extensive estuarine mangroves and lowland freshwater swamp forest. Within 30 years of European arrival, less than 10% of the forest cover remained, although subsequently many areas which were cleared for plantations were reafforested to protect water supply reservoirs. Large scale engineering works in the urban drainage system have largely obliterated fluvial sedimentary archives, posing challenges for the reconstruction of longer term sediment budgets. Current concerns about the vulnerability of biodiversity to hydrological and water quality related impacts, coupled with the demands of water resource management and a turn towards river restoration, dictate the need for better understanding of sediment and nutrient fluxes. Very low sediment yields of less than 10 t km-2 yr-1 in the primary forest, comparable with other regional studies from undisturbed forest, can in part explain the poorly defined channel morphology of forest steams. However, both forest and urban streams exhibit flashy responses to rainfall events and a large proportion of the annual sediment load can be transported in a single event. Preliminary estimates of sediment and carbon fluxes for Singapore streams will be presented and approaches to the difficult task of reconstructing the impact of past land use change on sediment budgets discussed.

  3. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  4. A numerical study on dust devil dust transport: Implications to regional and global dust budget estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, M.; Shao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The amount of dust transported by dust devils (DDs) is subject to large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. Reducing this uncertainty is essential to estimate the contribution of DDs to the global dust budget and to study their impact on climate and the environment. Here, large-eddy simulation coupled with a dust emission scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs are identified from the simulations using various threshold values for pressure drop and vorticity in the DD center. The results show that DD dust lifting can be largely explained by convective turbulent dust emission. DD dust entrainment varies strongly between individual DDs even for similar atmospheric conditions, but the maximum emissions are determined by atmospheric stability. By relating DD emission and counts to Richardson number, we propose a new and simple method to estimate regional and global DD dust transport. The method is applied to results of regional model simulations for Australia, thus providing an estimate of the contribution of DDs to the Australian dust budget.

  5. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver, C.; Pison, I.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Schmidt, M.; Bousquet, P.; Ramonet, M.; Jordan, A.; Søvde, A.; Engel, A.; Fisher, R.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.; Levin, I.; Hammer, S.; Necki, J.; Bartyzel, J.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Maione, M.; Arduini, I.; O'Doherty, S.; Grant, A.; Sturges, W.; Lunder, C. R.; Privalov, V.; Paramonova, N.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, soil uptake distinct from surface emissions and finally, soil uptake, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions and N2 fixation-related emissions separately were inverted in several scenarios. The various inversions generate an estimate for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere) varies between -8 and 8 Tg yr-1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on soil uptake measurements. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is -59 ± 4.0 Tg yr-1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions considering their respective uncertainties. To constrain a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks would need additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements.

  7. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  8. Estimating N Budget in a Deep Alluvial Unsaturated Zone: Potential for Nitrate Leaching to Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsoy, Y.; Harter, T.; Ginn, T. R.

    2002-12-01

    Intensive use of agrochemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides for obtaining high agricultural productivity is recognized as a major source of surface and ground water deterioration, and associated ecological problems. Among agrochemicals that pose danger to the environment, nitrate in the subsurface is of particular interest due to its extensive use, high mobility and persistence in the environment. Nitrate monitoring tends to be limited to upper soil layers (root zone) due to difficulties in sampling soil at great depths over sufficiently long time and space. Scientifically, there are critical gaps in understanding nitrate fate and transport processes between near surface horizons and the water table and in turn, quantification of nitrate transport to aquifers. As part of an overall study of the role of alluvial unsaturated zone in controlling the long term impact of California Central Valley agricultural practices on groundwater quality, we here report on quantitative analysis of the subsurface nitrate budget in a 15 m thick vadose zone. Analyses are done utilizing data obtained from a 12 year fertilizer experiment (1982-1995) using multiple application rates conducted at Kearney Research Site in Fresno, California. Three alternative N management practices with an annual fertilizer rate of 0, 100 and 325 lbs N/ac are compared to estimate the risk of nitrate loss from the root zone. Two methods are employed to estimate field scale N budget. The first method includes approximate quantification of annual N fluxes due to dominant processes and the corresponding annual balance of N. To accomplish our goal, dominant N cycle processes are identified from field trial data and literature reference values, where needed. In the second method, kriging interpolation is used to estimate nitrate mass distribution at the three management sites based on 800 samples collected in 60 boreholes to 15 m depth. Since nitrate is measured on a dry soil basis, proper estimation of

  9. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martina; Shao, Yaping

    2016-09-01

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs are identified from the simulations using various threshold values for pressure drop and vorticity in the DD center. A vortex-tracking algorithm is presented, which automatically detects and tracks vortices based on different pressure drop and vorticity criteria. The results show that DD dust lifting can be largely explained by convective turbulent dust emission. DD dust entrainment varies strongly between individual DDs even for similar atmospheric conditions, but the maximum emissions are determined by atmospheric stability. By relating DD emission and counts to the Richardson number, we propose a new and simple method to estimate regional and global DD dust transport.

  10. Deconvolution estimation theory applied to Nimbus 6 ERB data. [Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) Experiment aboard the Nimbus 6 spacecraft has provided nearly 3 years of data thus far from its wide field of view (WFOV) radiometers. Each data point is an integral of the irradiance from all points within the field of view of the WFOV sensor, which is an approximately 60 deg diameter circular region on the earth. House (1972) proposed that the data, being a convolution of the flux field at the top of the atmosphere, could be convoluted so as to enhance the resolution. The problem was solved by Smith and Green (1975-76) for the case of earth emitted radiation. A parameter estimation approach to the deconvolution problem was formulated. A description is presented of the deconvolution estimation concept and the results obtained by its application to the Nimbus 6 ERB WFOV data for earth emitted radiation for August 1975.

  11. Extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of the earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the Sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  12. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver, C. E.; Pison, I. C.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Schmidt, M.; Chevallier, F.; Ramonet, M.; Jordan, A.; Søvde, O. A.; Engel, A.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Levin, I.; Hammer, S.; Necki, J.; Bartyzel, J.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; O'Doherty, S.; Grant, A.; Sturges, W. T.; Forster, G. L.; Lunder, C. R.; Privalov, V.; Paramonova, N.; Werner, A.; Bousquet, P.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and European surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, then deposition velocity and surface emissions and finally, deposition velocity, biomass burning, anthropogenic and N2 fixation-related emissions were simultaneously inverted in several scenarios. These scenarios have focused on the sensibility of the soil uptake value to different spatio-temporal distributions. The range of variations of these diverse inversion sets generate an estimate of the uncertainty for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere) varies between -8 and +8 Tg yr-1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on bottom-up and top-down estimations. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is -59±9 Tg yr-1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions within the range of their respective uncertainties. Additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements would be needed to infer a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks.

  13. Estimating uncertainties on a Gulf Stream mixed-layer heat budget from stochastic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Nadia K.; Lucas, Marc; De Mey, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to explore the robustness of the mixed-layer heat budget as estimated from an eddy-permitting model with respect to uncertainties in atmospheric forcing. We illustrate how statistics from an ensemble can be used in a first step towards the calculation of error bars of any simulated quantity, such as the mixed-layer heat budget. The statistics from an ensemble of 33 simulations are derived in order to infer information on the model errors space and time variability of the main terms of the heat budget. The ensemble is generated by perturbing the wind forcing and the incoming solar radiation as uncertainties on these fields are expected to be a main source of errors for the surface layer representation in the model at monthly to seasonal scales. We focus on the mixed-layer in the Gulf Stream system during the deepening period (Sept.-March). The results indicate that large errors are expected at the Gulf Stream front location and just north of it. The largest errors are found on the zonal and meridional advection and vertical diffusion terms: they can locally reach values that are larger than the terms themselves. We observe a rapid increase with time of the errors for both these terms. The error growth is mainly due to the mesoscale decorrelation. The impact of wind errors on southward Ekman transport and surface turbulence generates uncertainties on the vertical diffusion term just north of the Gulf Stream front. We work with an eddy-permitting configuration similar to those used in ocean reanalysis projects (e.g. SODA, and GLORYS). Our results suggest that for such configurations, at monthly to seasonal time scales, the impact of uncertainties in the atmospheric forcing is weak on the mixed-layer cooling but very large on the zonal and meridional advection and vertical diffusion heat budget terms. In consequence, the estimate of these quantities from ocean reanalyses is not robust with respect to the atmospheric forcing and should be provided with

  14. New estimates of the Earth radiation budget under cloud-free conditions and cloud radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Folini, Doris; Schär, Christoph; Long, Charles

    2017-02-01

    In previous studies1, 2 we derived new estimates for the magnitude of the components of the global mean energy budget using to the extent possible the information contained in direct observations from surface and space. Here we establish complementary estimates for the global mean energy budget specifically under cloud-free conditions. The energy fluxes under cloud-free conditions at the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) can be determined with high accuracy from satellite measurements (CERES-EBAF). For the estimation of their counterparts at the Earth's surface we follow the approach presented in our recent studies, based on an analysis of 39 state of the art global climate models from CMIP5 and their bias structure compared to a comprehensive set of high quality surface observations from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Thereby we infer a best estimate of 249 Wm-2 for the global mean clear-sky downward shortwave radiation at the surface, and a corresponding clear-sky surface shortwave absorption of 216 Wm-2, considering a global mean surface albedo of 13 %. Combined with a best estimate for the global mean net shortwave influx at the TOA under cloud-free skies from CERES-EBAF of 287 Wm-2, this leaves an amount of 71 Wm-2 absorbed shortwave radiation in the cloud-free atmosphere. The 71 Wm-2 coincide with our earlier estimate for this quantity in Wild et al. (2006)3 based on older models and fewer direct observations, suggesting that this estimate is fairly robust. For the clear-sky downward longwave radiation at the Earth surface we obtain a best estimate of 314 Wm-2. A comparison of the clear-sky global energy balance diagram presented here with the corresponding all-sky diagram established in our previous studies enables a quantification of the global mean shortwave, longwave and net cloud-radiative effects at the TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as an assessment of their representation in climate models.

  15. [Knowledge and use of the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) by municipal health administrators, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Keila Silene de Brito E; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano

    2010-02-01

    Considering the importance of Brazil's Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) as a tool for planning, management, and social control of public expenditures in health, this article aimed to evaluate the relationship between the regularity of data entry into the SIOPS and knowledge and use of the system by municipal health administrators in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Ten municipalities were selected from the State's five meso-regions, five of which entered information into the system and five only on an irregular basis. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the municipal health secretaries. Analysis of the data showed that command of information technology and knowledge of the System do not affect the regularity of data entry, as a function of the distance between the Municipal Health Secretariat administrators and the SIOPS, such that the data are normally entered by outsourced services. Thus, the resulting information has not been fully explored by systems administrators as a management tool.

  16. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  17. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  18. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Algorithms to Estimate Lake Tahoe Water Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The evaporative loss is a dominant component in the Lake Tahoe hydrologic budget because watershed area (813km2) is very small compared to the lake surface area (501 km2). The 5.5 m high dam built at the lake's only outlet, the Truckee River at Tahoe City can increase the lake's capacity by approximately 0.9185 km3. The lake serves as a flood protection for downstream areas and source of water supply for downstream cities, irrigation, hydropower, and instream environmental requirements. When the lake water level falls below the natural rim, cessation of flows from the lake cause problems for water supply, irrigation, and fishing. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to correctly estimate the lake hydrologic budget. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ). We generated the stream flows and pollutants loadings of the streams using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) supported watershed model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC). The bulk transfer coefficients were calibrated using correlation coefficient (R2) as the objective function. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the meteorological inputs and model parameters. The DLM-WQ estimated lake water level and water temperatures were in agreement to those of measured records with R2 equal to 0.96 and 0.99, respectively for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average evaporation from the lake, stream inflow, precipitation over the lake, groundwater fluxes, and outflow from the lake during 1994 to 2008 were found to be 32.0%, 25.0%, 19.0%, 0.3%, and 11.7%, respectively.

  19. The Federal Highway Administration Gasohol Consumption Estimation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-28

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is responsible for estimating the portion of Federal highway funds attributable to each State. The process involves use of State-reported data (gallons) and a set of estimation models when accurate State data is unavailable. To ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable, FHWA periodically reviews the estimation models. Estimation of the use of gasohol is difficult because of State differences in the definition of gasohol, inability of many States to separate and report gasohol usage from other fuel types, changes in fuel composition in nonattainment areas to address concerns over the use of certain fuel additives, and the lack of a valid State-level surrogate data set for gasohol use. Under the sponsorship of FHWA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the regression-based gasohol estimation model that has been in use for several years. Based on an analytical assessment of that model and an extensive review of potential data sets, ORNL developed an improved rule-based model. The new model uses data from Internal Revenue Service, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, ORNL, and FHWA sources. The model basically consists of three parts: (1) development of a controlled total of national gasohol usage, (2) determination of reliable State gasohol consumption data, and (3) estimation of gasohol usage for all other States. The new model will be employed for the 2004 attribution process. FHWA is currently soliciting comments and inputs from interested parties. Relevant data, as identified, will be pursued and refinements will be made by the research team if warranted.

  20. Stroke surveillance in Manitoba, Canada: estimates from administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Moore, D F; Lix, L M; Yogendran, M S; Martens, P; Tamayo, A

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of population-based administrative databases for stroke surveillance. First, a meta-analysis was conducted of four studies, identified via a PubMed search, which estimated the sensitivity and specificity of hospital data for ascertaining cases of stroke when clinical registries or medical charts were the gold standard. Subsequently, case-ascertainment algorithms based on hospital, physician and prescription drug records were developed and applied to Manitoba's administrative data, and prevalence estimates were obtained for fiscal years 1995/96 to 2003/04 by age group, sex, region of residence and income quintile. The meta-analysis results revealed some over-ascertainment of stroke cases from hospital data when the algorithm was based on diagnosis codes for any type of cerebrovascular disease (Mantel-Haenszel Odds-Ratio [OR] - 1.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53 - 1.88]). Analyses of Manitoba administrative data revealed that while the total number of stroke cases varied substantially across the algorithms, the trend in prevalence was stable regardless of the algorithm adopted.

  1. Estimating the Tradeoff Between Risk Protection and Moral Hazard with a Nonlinear Budget Set Model of Health Insurance*

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Amanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Insurance induces a tradeoff between the welfare gains from risk protection and the welfare losses from moral hazard. Empirical work traditionally estimates each side of the tradeoff separately, potentially yielding mutually inconsistent results. I develop a nonlinear budget set model of health insurance that allows for both simultaneously. Nonlinearities in the budget set arise from deductibles, coinsurance rates, and stoplosses that alter moral hazard as well as risk protection. I illustrate the properties of my model by estimating it using data on employer sponsored health insurance from a large firm. PMID:26664035

  2. Comparison and testing of extended Kalman filters for attitude estimation of the Earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Rokni, Mohammad

    1990-01-01

    The testing and comparison of two Extended Kalman Filters (EKFs) developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is described. One EKF updates the attitude quaternion using a four component additive error quaternion. This technique is compared to that of a second EKF, which uses a multiplicative error quaternion. A brief development of the multiplicative algorithm is included. The mathematical development of the additive EKF was presented in the 1989 Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium along with some preliminary testing results using real spacecraft data. A summary of the additive EKF algorithm is included. The convergence properties, singularity problems, and normalization techniques of the two filters are addressed. Both filters are also compared to those from the ERBS operational ground support software, which uses a batch differential correction algorithm to estimate attitude and gyro biases. Sensitivity studies are performed on the estimation of sensor calibration states. The potential application of the EKF for real time and non-real time ground attitude determination and sensor calibration for future missions such as the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and the Small Explorer Mission (SMEX) is also presented.

  3. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuxart, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martínez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Jiménez, Maria A.; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Hartogensis, Oscar; Dünnermann, Jens; Conangla, Laura; Garai, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB), for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddy-correlation method. The heterogeneities are estimated from satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader, while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection term becomes more important as the scales become finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast, surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values of the advection, which are probably only significant in the first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre scales.

  4. Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: Application of the covariation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Montalto, V.; Sarà, G.; Zippay, M.; Helmuth, B.

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models serve as a powerful tool for describing the flow of energy through organisms from assimilation of food to utilization for maintenance, growth and reproduction. The DEB theory has been successfully applied to several bivalve species to compare bioenergetic and physiological strategies for the utilization of energy. In particular, mussels within the Mytilus edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus) have been the focus of many studies due to their economic and ecological importance, and their worldwide distribution. However, DEB parameter values have never been estimated for Mytilus californianus, a species that is an ecological dominant on rocky intertidal shores on the west coast of North America and which likely varies considerably from mussels in the M. edulis complex in its physiology. We estimated a set of DEB parameters for M. californianus using the covariation method estimation procedure and compared these to parameter values from other bivalve species. Model parameters were used to compare sensitivity to environmental variability among species, as a first examination of how strategies for physiologically contending with environmental change by M. californianus may differ from those of other bivalves. Results suggest that based on the parameter set obtained, M. californianus has favorable energetic strategies enabling it to contend with a range of environmental conditions. For instance, the allocation fraction of reserve to soma (κ) is among the highest of any bivalves, which is consistent with the observation that this species can survive over a wide range of environmental conditions, including prolonged periods of starvation.

  5. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  6. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. ||

    1993-12-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

  7. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-30

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half

  8. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; ...

    2015-04-30

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we concludemore » that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the

  9. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the atmosphere

  10. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. C.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification), it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided by the biosphere is the

  11. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  12. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  13. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous

  14. An approach to improve precipitation estimation to model the water budget in Alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, E.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Egarter Vigl, L.; Tappeiner, U.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate quantification of precipitation is still one of the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the water budget of Alpine catchments. In fact, besides increasing data availability, usually most of the stations are located in the bottom of the valleys, while, at high elevations, rain gauge accuracy is limited by snow and wind, with strong underestimation of the total precipitation. Similar problems exist for snow measurement devices. In this contribution we present a novel empirical approach to improve precipitation estimation using rain gauge data, snow height and standard meteorological observations, and we evaluate the improvements in estimating the water budget of the Mazia Valley (100 km2 - Central Alps - South Tyrol, Italy). In fact, due to the screening effect of the surrounding mountains (mostly glaciated, maximum elevation: 3750 m a.s.l.) this valley has a relatively dry cold continental climate with strong precipitation gradients. In the framework of the projects "Klimawandel" and "HydroAlp", 17 monitoring stations were installed to measure standard micrometeorological variables, vegetation properties and soil moisture. For a correct climate analysis, a distinction between snow and rainfall is necessary. Due to energy limitations in remote alpine areas no heated rain gauges were installed. However, four stations are equipped with snow height sensors, from which snow data can be retrieved. For other stations the calculation of the snow water equivalent was more complicated because of the lack of snow height sensors. In the empirical approach, for every registered precipitation data record snow height change was reviewed and compared to air temperature and relative humidity, as well as to the calculated wet bulb temperature, in order to distinguish between rainfall and snowfall events. Also the global solar radiation was controlled to identify melt water production coming from accumulated snow on the top of the unheated rain gauges. With a formula

  15. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow using water budgets in Palo Verde Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Kimsey, Steven L.

    1987-01-01

    Palo Verde Valley, California, is an agricultural area in the flood plain of the Colorado River where irrigation water is diverted from the river and groundwater is discharged to a network of drainage ditches and (or) the river. Consumptive use by vegetation and groundwater return flow were calculated using water budgets. Consumptive use by vegetation was 484,000 acre-ft in 1981, 453,600 acre-ft in 1982, 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and 374,300 acre-ft in 1984. The consumptive-use estimates are most sensitive to two measured components of the water budget, the diversion at Palo Verde Dam and the discharge from drainage ditches to the river. Groundwater return flow was 31,700 acre-ft in 1981, 24,000 acre-ft in 1982, 2,500 acre-ft in 1983, and 7 ,900 acre-ft in 1984. The return-flow estimates are most sensitive to discharge from drainage ditches; various irrigation requirements and crop areas, particularly alfalfa; the diversion at Palo Verde Dam; and the estimate of consumptive use. During increasing flows in the river, the estimate of groundwater return flow is sensitive also to change in groundwater storage. Change in groundwater storage was estimated to be -5,700 acre-ft in 1981, -12,600 acre-ft in 1982, 5,200 acre-ft in 1983, and 11 ,600 acre-ft in 1984. Changes in storage can be a significant component in the water budget used to estimate groundwater return flow but is negligible in the water budget used to estimate consumptive use. Change in storage was 1 to 3% of annual consumptive use. Change in storage for the area drained by the river ranged from 7 to 96% of annual groundwater return flow during the 4 years studied. Consumptive use calculated as diversions minus return flows was consistently lower than consumptive use calculated in a water budget. Water-budget estimates of consumptive use account for variations in precipitation, tributary inflow, river stage, and groundwater storage. The calculations for diversions minus return flows do not account for these

  16. An estimation on budget and control of phosphorus in the Changjiang River catchment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Liang; Li, Zheng; Miao, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Based on field investigations in the Changjiang River mouth, rain sampling from the river's upper reaches to the mouth, historical data, and relevant literatures, the budget and major control factors of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in the river catchment were estimated and discussed from the catchment scale. It will supply a base for effective controlling P concentration in the Changjiang River and its mouth. Results show that the export fluxes of TP and DIP were mainly controlled by the river runoff. The TP and DIP in the Changjiang River came mainly from agricultural nonpoint source P losses from fertilizer and soil and point sources of industrial waste and residential sewage discharges. The export fluxes of TP and DIP in the river mouth were only 27.0% and 28.3% of the imports from the river catchment, respectively, suggesting that most of P were removed in transportation. A mass of freshwater marshes in the river catchment were the main areas to remove P. Significant increasing in utilization of fertilizer P and incessant increasing in water and soil loss areas were the primary reasons of agricultural nonpoint source P losses. How to decrease the agricultural nonpoint source P loss from the catchment scale is a key controlling P concentration in the Changjiang River and its mouth. The point source industrial waste P discharge has been primarily treated in the river catchment, but the residential sewage P discharge needs further control.

  17. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  18. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  19. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from

  20. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  1. Education Program Funding: A Comparison of the September 2009 Budget Update to the February 2009 Budget Estimates. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2009-EF-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the Education Program funding for 2009-2010 in the September 2009 budget update is about $128 million less than the funding allocated in the February 2009 budget announcement. As public-school funding comprises 95% of all Education Program Funding, this will have a significant impact on public education budgets. Instead of…

  2. Ground-water and surface-water flow and estimated water budget for Lake Seminole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    , and about 2 percent lake evaporation. Measurement error and uncertainty in flux calculations cause a flow imbalance of about 4 percent between inflow and outflow water-budget components. Most of this error can be attributed to errors in estimating ground-water discharge from the lake, which was calculated using a ground-water model calibrated to October 1986 conditions for the entire Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint River Basin and not just the area around Lake Seminole. Evaporation rates were determined using the preferred, but mathematically complex, energy budget and five empirical equations: Priestley-Taylor, Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, Papadakis, and the Priestley-Taylor used by the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network. Empirical equations require a significant amount of data but are relatively easy to calculate and compare well to long-term average annual (April 2000?March 2001) pan evaporation, which is 65 inches. Calculated annual lake evaporation, for the study period, using the energy-budget method was 67.2 inches, which overestimated long-term average annual pan evaporation by 2.2 inches. The empirical equations did not compare well with the energy-budget method during the 18-month study period, with average differences in computed evaporation using each equation ranging from 8 to 26 percent. The empirical equations also compared poorly with long-term average annual pan evaporation, with average differences in evaporation ranging from 3 to 23 percent. Energy budget and long-term average annual pan evaporation estimates did compare well, with only a 3-percent difference between estimates. Monthly evaporation estimates using all methods ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 inches and were lowest during December 2000 and highest during May 2000. Although the energy budget is generally the preferred method, the dominance of surface water in the Lake Seminole water budget makes the method inaccurate and difficult to use, because surface water makes up m

  3. Estimation of 1D proximity budget impacts due to light source for advanced node design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, R. C.; Wu, Tony; Liu, H. H.

    2014-03-01

    The laser impacts on the proximity error are well known in many previous studies and papers. The proximity budget control is more and more important for advanced node design. The goal of this paper is to describe the laser spectral bandwidth and wavelength stability contributions to the proximity budget by considering general line/space and trench pattern design. We performed experiments and modeled the photolithography response using Panoramic Technology HyperLith simulation over a range of laser bandwidth and wavelength stability conditions to quantify the long term and short term stability contributions on wafer-to-wafer and field-to-field proximity variation. Finally, we determine the requirements for current system performance to meet patterning requirements and minimize the laser contribution on proximity error and within 4% of target CD Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) budget process requirement [2]. This paper also discusses how the wafer lithography drivers are enabled by ArFi light source technologies.

  4. Estimating Examination Failure Rates and Reliability Prior to Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Vergil M.

    Using estimates of item ease and item discrimination, procedures are provided for computing estimates of the reliability and percentage of failing scores for tests assembled from these items. Two assumptions are made: that the average item coefficient will be approximately equal to the average of the estimated coefficients and that the score…

  5. A NOTE ON THE UNCERTAINTY IN ESTIMATES OF TRANSFORMITIES BASED ON GLOBAL WATER BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical potential energy in rainfall is often the largest renewable emergy input to a given land area. An average of five determinations of the transformity of rainfall using global water budgets showed that 95% of the values may be expected to fall within 11.6% of the mea...

  6. Estimation of future carbon budget with climate change and reforestation scenario in North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Damin; Lim, Chul-Hee; Song, Cholho; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Piao, Dongfan; Heo, Seongbong; Jeon, Seongwoo

    2016-09-01

    In terms of climate change, quantifying carbon budget in forest is critical for managing a role of forest as carbon sink. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace and caused to worsen the carbon budget. Under the circumstance, this study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and reforestation on the carbon budget in 2020s and 2050s, using the VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases) model. In order to analyze the impact of reforestation, future land cover maps for the 2020s and 2050s were prepared. Among the deforested areas (2.5 × 106 ha) identified by comparing land cover maps for different periods, the potential reforestation areas were selected by a reforestation scenario considering slope, accessibility from residence, and deforestation types. The extracted potential reforestation areas were 1.7 × 106 ha and the increased forest area was spatially distributed to each district. The percentage change in carbon budget caused by climate change from the 2000s to 2020s is 67.60% and that from the 2020s to 2050s is 45.98% on average. Based on the future land cover, NEP (net ecosystem production) with reforestation will increase by 18.18% than that without reforestation in the 2050s, which shows the contribution to carbon balance. In connection with this long term projection, it is revealed that the gross fluxes such as photosynthesis and respiration may be impacted more obviously by the climate change, especially global warming, than the net carbon flux because of the offset between the changes in the gross fluxes. It is analyzed that changes in carbon budget are very sensitive to climate changes, while the impact of reforestation is relatively less sensitive. Although it is impossible to significantly improve carbon sequestration by establishing forest in a short-term, reforestation is imperative in a long-term view as it clearly has a potential mechanism to offset emitted carbon.

  7. National Science Foundation proposed budget could see another increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 would provide the agency with $7.37 billion, a $340 million increase, 4.8% above the FY 2012 estimated budget under which NSF has been operating. NSF has fared well during previous budget cycles, and the Obama administration's budget document for FY 2013 states that “NSF plays a critical role in the implementation of the President's Plan for Science and Technology.” With federal agencies operating under tighter budgets in a difficult financial climate, NSF director Subra Suresh said the budget includes substantial increases for core programs, frontier science, education, and human resources. “I am confident that NSF merits the $7.4 billion the president proposed. I'm optimistic Congress will approve the budget,” Suresh said at a 13 February NSF budget briefing.

  8. Method for estimating errors for radiation budget based on a scanning radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Avis, L. M.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The conduction of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) will involve the utilization of three sets of instruments. Each set consists of a nonscanning package and a scanning radiometer. The instruments will fly on the NOAA F and G operational satellites and on a dedicated spacecraft, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). The ERBS will be in a 57 deg inclination orbit and will precess around the earth to provide sampling of the diurnal cycle of regions between + or - 57 deg latitude. The primary function of the scanning radiometer is to provide measurements for the calculation of the earth-emitted and absorbed solar radiation at the top of the earth-atmosphere system, averaged over 250 x 250 km regions. The present paper is concerned with errors found in these regional averages. Attention is given to details regarding the problem, scene identification probabilities, scene identification error effects, total pixel error, and errors due to regional averaging.

  9. Estimating sediment budgets at the interface between rivers and estuaries with application to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2005-09-01

    Where rivers encounter estuaries, a transition zone develops where riverine and tidal processes both affect sediment transport processes. One such transition zone is the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a large, complex system where several rivers meet to form an estuary (San Francisco Bay). Herein we present the results of a detailed sediment budget for this river/estuary transitional system. The primary regional goal of the study was to measure sediment transport rates and pathways in the delta in support of ecosystem restoration efforts. In addition to achieving this regional goal, the study has produced general methods to collect, edit, and analyze (including error analysis) sediment transport data at the interface of rivers and estuaries. Estimating sediment budgets for these systems is difficult because of the mixed nature of riverine versus tidal transport processes, the different timescales of transport in fluvial and tidal environments, and the sheer complexity and size of systems such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Sediment budgets also require error estimates in order to assess whether differences in inflows and outflows, which could be small compared to overall fluxes, are indeed distinguishable from zero. Over the 4 year period of this study, water years 1999-2002, 6.6 ± 0.9 Mt of sediment entered the delta and 2.2 ± 0.7 Mt exited, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.1 Mt (67 ± 17%) of deposition. The estimated deposition rate corresponding to this mass of sediment compares favorably with measured inorganic sediment accumulation on vegetated wetlands in the delta.

  10. Estimating sediment budgets at the interface between rivers and estuaries with application to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2005-09-01

    Where rivers encounter estuaries, a transition zone develops where riverine and tidal processes both affect sediment transport processes. One such transition zone is the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a large, complex system where several rivers meet to form an estuary (San Francisco Bay). Herein we present the results of a detailed sediment budget for this river/estuary transitional system. The primary regional goal of the study was to measure sediment transport rates and pathways in the delta in support of ecosystem restoration efforts. In addition to achieving this regional goal, the study has produced general methods to collect, edit, and analyze (including error analysis) sediment transport data at the interface of rivers and estuaries. Estimating sediment budgets for these systems is difficult because of the mixed nature of riverine versus tidal transport processes, the different timescales of transport in fluvial and tidal environments, and the sheer complexity and size of systems such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Sediment budgets also require error estimates in order to assess whether differences in inflows and outflows, which could be small compared to overall fluxes, are indeed distinguishable from zero. Over the 4 year period of this study, water years 1999-2002, 6.6 +/- 0.9 Mt of sediment entered the delta and 2.2 +/- 0.7 Mt exited, resulting in 4.4 +/- 1.1 Mt (67 +/- 17%) of deposition. The estimated deposition rate corresponding to this mass of sediment compares favorably with measured inorganic sediment accumulation on vegetated wetlands in the delta.

  11. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Emery, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22-31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April-2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  12. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  13. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  17. The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.; Singh, Nagendra; Marland, Gregg; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

  18. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  19. Net mitigation potential of straw return to Chinese cropland: estimation with a full greenhouse gas budget model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Duan, Xiaonan; Zheng, Hua

    2010-04-01

    Based on the carbon-nitrogen cycles and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and emission processes related to straw return and burning, a compound greenhouse gas budget model, the "Straw Return and Burning Model" (SRBM), was constructed to estimate the net mitigation potential of straw return to the soil in China. As a full GHG budget model, the SRBM addressed the following five processes: (1) soil carbon sequestration, (2) mitigation of synthetic N fertilizer substitution, (3) methane emission from rice paddies, (4) additional fossil fuel use for straw return, and (5) CH4 and N2O emissions from straw burning in the fields. Two comparable scenarios were created to reflect different degrees of implementation for straw return and straw burning. With GHG emissions and mitigation effects of the five processes converted into global warming potential (GWP), the net GHG mitigation was estimated. We concluded that (1) when the full greenhouse gas budget is considered, the net mitigation potential of straw return differs from that when soil carbon sequestration is considered alone; (2) implementation of straw return across a larger area of cropland in 10 provinces (i.e., Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan) will increase net GHG emission; (3) if straw return is promoted as a feasible mitigation measure in the remaining provinces, the total net mitigation potential before soil organic carbon (SOC) saturation will be 71.89 Tg CO2 equivalent (eqv)/yr, which is equivalent to 1.733% of the annual carbon emission from fossil fuel use in China in 2003; (4) after SOC saturation, only 13 of 21 provinces retain a relatively small but permanent net mitigation potential, while in the others the net GHG mitigation potential will gradually diminish; and (5) the major obstacle to the feasibility or permanence of straw return as a mitigation measure is the increased CH4 emission from rice paddies. The paper also suggests that comparable

  20. Comparison Of Landscape-level Carbon Flux Estimates from Budgeting The Planetary Boundary Layer And Footprinting On Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon balance estimation at the landscape/regional scale is a challenge because of the heterogeneity of the land surface and the nonlinearity inherent in ecophysiological processes. Two methodologies, a simple atmospheric boundary-layer budgeting method and an integrated modeling method, were explored and compared in this study. Studies of the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) budget of CO2 have the potential to provide information on carbon balance of the land surface on a regional scale. Indeed, the surface area of integration by the ABL moving through a tower in one day was estimated to be ~104 km2. Two novel methodologies to retrieve the landscape/regional carbon balance information captured by the CO2 concentration measurements are explored and compared in this study: boundary-layer budgeting and remote sensing-based footprint integration. We investigated four boreal continental sites in this study. Boundary-layer budgeting: By assuming the horizontal advection is negligible, the regional surface net flux (representative of an upwind area ~105 km2) can be calculated as, Fc=(Cm-CFT)ù+dC/dt*zi, where ù is the mean vertical velocity, zi is the mean ABL height, and and are the biweekly mean mixing ratio of CO2 in the ABL and the free troposphere, respectively. ù is from the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data, while zi was simulated by an one-dimensional ABL model. The CO2 flux in the upwind area of the tower was also estimated based on ecosystem modeling using remote sensing measurements. Remote sensing-based footprint integration: The total regional flux captured by the sensor on a tower (mixing ratio) is the weighted sum of the upwind footprint source areas (Ømega), Fc= Σ FiWi, where Fi and Wi are the CO2 flux and its weighting factor for each pixel, respectively. Fiis calculated using an ecosystem model (BEPS: Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator). Wiis comparative contribution factor of footprint function for each

  1. Department of the Army FY 1994 Budget Estimates, Military Construction, Family Housing and Homeowners Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    De.scription of Proposed Construction Construct a battalion headquarters building. Project includes administrative space, classrooms for organizational...equipment installation courses. The classrooms will be utilized for group learning, individual problem testing, team testing, Training and Doctrine Command...requirement. This project will provide permanent consolidated facilities for battalion headquarters, classrooms and support functions. CURRENT

  2. Diurnal Characteristics of Ecosystem Respiration of Alpine Meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Carbon Budget Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Yi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Accurately estimating daily mean ecosystem respiration rate (Re) is important for understanding how ecosystem carbon budgets will respond to climate change. Usually, daily mean Re is represented by measurement using static chamber on alpine meadow ecosystems from 9:00 to 11:00 h a.m. local time directly. In the present study, however, we found that the calculated daily mean Re from 9:00 to 11:00 h a.m. local time was significantly higher than that from 0:00 to 23:30 h local time in an alpine meadow site, which might be caused by special climate condition on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our results indicated that the calculated daily mean Re from 9:00 to 11:00 h a.m. local time cannot be used to represent daily mean Re directly. PMID:23864824

  3. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS AND SED PARAMETERS: IMPROVED TECHNIQUES AND A REALISTIC ERROR BUDGET

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.

  4. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  5. The global iron budget: estimates of isotopic composition and elemental fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantle, M. S.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of Fe isotope geochemistry show that isotope fractionation occurs under controlled conditions as a result of reduction, organic complexation, aqueous speciation, and/or hydroxide precipitation. These processes are integral to weathering, and are especially important for mobilizing Fe in an oxidizing environment. Our measurements of the Fe isotopic composition of soils, rivers, and marine sediments demonstrate significant isotopic variations (ca. 4‰ in 56Fe/54Fe) due to continental weathering. Based on these measurements, we hypothesize that dissolved Fe in rivers is variable but may be up to 3‰ lighter than igneous rocks. The flux and isotopic composition of dissolved riverine Fe could significantly affect the δ 56Fe of the ocean over geologic time, indicating changes in the productivity of the terrestrial biosphere or oxidation state at the Earth's surface. A preliminary global Fe budget is constructed for the modern oxidized surface Earth based on studies of global Fe fluxes in the literature. The total Fe flux to the modern ocean is dominated by riverine material, but the flux of dissolved Fe is roughly equally partitioned between atmospheric, riverine, and hydrothermal sources. There may be a significant diagenetic Fe flux to the water column from marine sediments, which we hypothesize has an Fe isotope composition that is substantially lighter than igneous rocks. A diagenetic Fe flux may be especially important in high productivity regions, such as the coastal ocean and enclosed near-shore basins, and during periods in Earth history when large portions of the ocean turn anoxic. The Fe isotopic signals of the diagenetic and riverine Fe fluxes, if preserved in the geologic record, may be useful for characterizing changing levels of biological productivity and oxidation state at the Earth's surface through time.

  6. The use of a simple sediment budget model to estimate long-term contaminant export from small catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Perk, Marcel; Jetten, Victor G.

    2006-09-01

    A novel approach is presented to estimate the long-term contaminant export from agricultural fields or small catchments due to soil erosion using the spatial pattern of contaminant inventories in soil. This approach uses a simple geographical information system based sediment budget model, which provides a spatially distributed relative index of erosion and deposition. The observed contaminant inventories in the soil profile are related to this relative index of erosion and deposition. The contaminant export from the area is then estimated as the difference between the intercept of this relation, which represents the 'reference contaminant inventory' in the absence of erosion and deposition, and the mean observed soil contaminant inventory. This approach was applied to quantify copper fungicides losses from two vineyard fields in south-eastern France. The relative index of erosion and deposition explained between 32% and 56% of the variation in the soil Cu inventories. The respective average rates of Cu export from the two vineyards studied were estimated to be 0.74 kg ha - 1 year - 1 and 1.02 kg ha - 1 year - 1 . The proposed method is especially useful in cases where 'reference sites', where the contaminant input into soil has been equal to the field or catchment under study but where no erosion or deposition has occurred, are lacking. As effective reference sites are often absent in locations where agricultural contaminants have been used, further refinement of this model is warranted.

  7. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates, but Opportunities Exist to Further Enhance Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    discussed further in this report. What GAO Found The annual joint report submitted by the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy ...the cost range in DOE’s internal plans. Figure: Departments of Defense (DOD) and Energy (DOE) 10-Year Estimates for Sustaining and Modernizing...Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 35 Appendix II Comments from the Department of Defense 39 Appendix III Comments from the Department of Energy 41

  8. Multi-Satellite Estimates of Land-Surface Properties for Determination of Energy and Water Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Rabin, Robert M.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Gallo, Kevin; Diak, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Using the WETNET database, existing methods for the estimation of surface wetness from SSM/I data have been assessed and further developed. A physical-statistical method for optimal estimation of daily surface heat flux and Bowen ratio on the mesoscale has been developed and tested. This method is based on observations of daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth from operational ravansonde and daytime land-surface temperature amplitude from Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites. The mesoscale patterns of these heat fluxes have been compared with an AVHRR-based vegetation index and surface wetness (separately estimated from SSM/I and in situ observations). Cases of the 1988 Midwest drought and a surface/atmosphere moisture gradient (dry-line) in the southern Plains were studied. The analyses revealed significant variations in sensible heat flux (S(sub 0), and Bowen ratio, B(sub 0)) associated with vegetation cover and antecedent precipitation. Relationships for surface heat flux (and Bowen ratio) from antecedent precipitation and vegetation index have been developed and compared to other findings. Results from this project are reported in the following reviewed literature.

  9. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Colin R.; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Finlayson, C. Max

    2013-03-01

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice.

  10. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s FY2006 Budget Request: Description, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-24

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 JAN 2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National...n t ve r s i o n [http://www1.nasa.gov/about/budget/], although the most recent, dated September 30, 2005, is not available there. † The final... Applications ($52 million was requested) was included in a recommendation of “$102,837,000 million within this account to supplement the areas of earth

  11. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Castillo, Jerel Nelson

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentation of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file

  12. Assimilating Earth observation data across the UK for estimating greenhouse gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Disney, Mathias; Lewis, Philip; Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Successful monitoring of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions at regional scale requires a research framework that brings together knowledge about the spatiotemporal variability of gas fluxes under current and anticipated environmental and anthropogenic conditions. In this framework, knowledge about emissions derived from finer spatiotemporal scales is aggregated to calibrate and validate models operating at coarser scales, while top-down estimates of surface biophysical conditions are used to constrain models operating at finer scales. A key challenge in forming this framework is finding a solid basis to link process-based knowledge of individual research sites with Earth Observation (EO) data covering the landscape at approximately a 500m to 1km resolution. Approaches to provide for this link have often considered data from individual satellites or overflights, posing important limitations on the number of observations available through space and time, especially for regions frequently covered in clouds. A novel approach considers a data assimilation scheme through which a vast set of data from a constellation of satellites can be used to inform upon the biophysical state of the land surface. The simultaneous use of these data in a data assimilation scheme requires normalization with respect to the various instrument specifications, including bandpass and sun-sensor-target geometry at times of overpass. In this study we demonstrate a linear mapping of spectral reflectances across an array of satellites, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MERIS), Sentinel 2 (S2), and Vegetation (VGT). The implications of this linear mapping scheme on data availability for the estimation of biophysical characteristics and associated uncertainties are discussed.

  13. Budgeting Based on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  14. An automated performance budget estimator: a process for use in instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Philippe; Schnetler, Hermine; Rees, Phil

    2016-08-01

    Current day astronomy projects continue to increase in size and are increasingly becoming more complex, regardless of the wavelength domain, while risks in terms of safety, cost and operability have to be reduced to ensure an affordable total cost of ownership. All of these drivers have to be considered carefully during the development process of an astronomy project at the same time as there is a big drive to shorten the development life-cycle. From the systems engineering point of view, this evolution is a significant challenge. Big instruments imply management of interfaces within large consortia and dealing with tight design phase schedules which necessitate efficient and rapid interactions between all the stakeholders to firstly ensure that the system is defined correctly and secondly that the designs will meet all the requirements. It is essential that team members respond quickly such that the time available for the design team is maximised. In this context, performance prediction tools can be very helpful during the concept phase of a project to help selecting the best design solution. In the first section of this paper we present the development of such a prediction tool that can be used by the system engineer to determine the overall performance of the system and to evaluate the impact on the science based on the proposed design. This tool can also be used in "what-if" design analysis to assess the impact on the overall performance of the system based on the simulated numbers calculated by the automated system performance prediction tool. Having such a tool available from the beginning of a project can allow firstly for a faster turn-around between the design engineers and the systems engineer and secondly, between the systems engineer and the instrument scientist. Following the first section we described the process for constructing a performance estimator tool, followed by describing three projects in which such a tool has been utilised to illustrate

  15. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  16. Budgeting for Early Retirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald R.

    1999-01-01

    School business administrators are devoting a significant portion of their time to retirement-related issues. Describes the retirement systems in place in Illinois and provides some budgeting examples for retirements and early retirements of school district personnel. (MLF)

  17. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1. Strategic Forces Budget Activity 2. General Purpose Forces Budget Activity 4. Airlift and Sealift.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Criteria. FY 1986 FY 1987 FY 1988 FY 1989 Operations of Utilities Total Energy Consumed (MBIU’s) 2,648,349 2,932,782 3,192,545 3,277,551 Total Non...118,328 1-1-62 Tec-hnIca --p-era-ting Budgets -121,958 AVDLR Withdrawal Credits (Non Add) -2,050 -2,123 0 0 Total BA-1 1,790,329 1,949,728 1,623,026...211,315 0 0 0 AVDLR Credits -439,800 -270,666 0 0 Total 11,210,680 11,799,441 11,121,676 11,626,186 BUDGET ACTIVITY 4: FY 1986 FY 1987 FY 1988 FY

  18. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  19. Estimating the Impact of State Budget Cuts and Redirection of Prevention Resources on the HIV Epidemic in 59 California Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Wolitski, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the wake of a national economic downturn, the state of California, in 2009–2010, implemented budget cuts that eliminated state funding of HIV prevention and testing. To mitigate the effect of these cuts remaining federal funds were redirected. This analysis estimates the impact of these budget cuts and reallocation of resources on HIV transmission and associated HIV treatment costs. Methods and Findings We estimated the effect of the budget cuts and reallocation for California county health departments (excluding Los Angeles and San Francisco) on the number of individuals living with or at-risk for HIV who received HIV prevention services. We used a Bernoulli model to estimate the number of new infections that would occur each year as a result of the changes, and assigned lifetime treatment costs to those new infections. We explored the effect of redirecting federal funds to more cost-effective programs, as well as the potential effect of allocating funds proportionately by transmission category. We estimated that cutting HIV prevention resulted in 55 new infections that were associated with $20 million in lifetime treatment costs. The redirection of federal funds to more cost-effective programs averted 15 HIV infections. If HIV prevention funding were allocated proportionately to transmission categories, we estimated that HIV infections could be reduced below the number that occurred annually before the state budget cuts. Conclusions Reducing funding for HIV prevention may result in short-term savings at the expense of additional HIV infections and increased HIV treatment costs. Existing HIV prevention funds would likely have a greater impact on the epidemic if they were allocated to the more cost-effective programs and the populations most likely to acquire and transmit the infection. PMID:23520447

  20. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, underlying almost 112 million acres in the central United States, is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation. It is the primary water supply for drinking water, irrigation, animal production, and industry in the region. Expansion of irrigated agriculture throughout the past 60 years has helped make the High Plains one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Nation. Extensive withdrawals of groundwater for irrigation have caused water-level declines in many parts of the aquifer and increased concerns about the long-term sustainability of the aquifer. Quantification of water-budget components is a prerequisite for effective water-resources management. Components analyzed as part of this study were precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, surface runoff, groundwater discharge to streams, groundwater fluxes to and from adjacent geologic units, irrigation, and groundwater in storage. These components were assessed for 1940 through 1949 (representing conditions prior to substantial groundwater development and referred to as "pregroundwater development" throughout this report) and 2000 through 2009. Because no single method can perfectly quantify the magnitude of any part of a water budget at a regional scale, results from several methods and previously published work were compiled and compared for this study when feasible. Results varied among the several methods applied, as indicated by the range of average annual volumes given for each component listed in the following paragraphs. Precipitation was derived from three sources: the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model, data developed using Next Generation Weather Radar and measured precipitation from weather stations by the Office of Hydrologic Development at the National Weather Service for the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, and precipitation measured at weather stations and spatially distributed using an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation

  1. Department of the Navy FY 1990/FY 1991 Biennial Budget Estimates. Military Construction and Family Housing Program FY 1991. Justification Data Submitted to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    resources needed to provide military families with adequate housing either through the private cnmmunitv or in government quarters. Navy and Marine Corps...Department of the Navy DTIC .l.LECTE SFEB 2 3 9jJ FY 1990/FY 1991 BIENNIAL Lo BUDGET ESTIMATES 0 (N MILITARY CONSTRUCTION AND FAMILY HOUSING PROGRAM...SUPPORT ’.. . .. ..... 13 ........................ I-, LU STATE LIST Department of the Navy FY 1991 Military Construction and Family Housing Program Summary

  2. Fetal radiation dose estimates for I-131 sodium iodide in cases where conception occurs after administration

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.B.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    After administration of I-131 to the female patient, the possibility of radiation exposure of the embryo/fetus exists if the patient becomes pregnant while radioiodine remains in the body. Fetal radiation dose estimates for such cases were calculated. Doses were calculated for various maternal thyroid uptakes and time intervals between administration and conception, including euthyroid and hyperthyroid cases. The maximum fetal dose calculating was about 9.8E-03 mGy/MBq, which occurred with 100% maternal thyroid uptake and a 1 week interval between administration and conception. Placental crossover of the small amount of radioiodine remaining 90 days after conception was also considered. Such crossover could result in an additional fetal dose of 9.8E-05 mGy/MBq and a maximum fetal thyroid self dose of 3.5E-04 mGy/MBq.

  3. AIDS Prevention: Views on the Administration's Budget Proposals. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) conducted a study in response to Senator Lawton Chiles' request that the GAO explore the adequacy of the funding levels proposed for the Department of Health and Human Services' Public Health Service and the appropriateness of priorities reflected in the administration's proposed budget for prevention of…

  4. Estimating evapotranspiration over agricultural landscapes with thermal infrared data: comparison of two approaches using Simple Energy Budget and SVAT modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.; Er-Raki, S.; Khabba, S.

    2012-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery, focusing on simulating fluxes at low spatial resolution with 2 methodologies: 1. Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2. Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and based on a high spatial resolution database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height, meteorological forcing and irrigation). In a first part we sum up previous results about in-situ capabilities of a SEB model (TSEB, Norman & al. 1995) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS, described by Coudert & al. 2006) over crops. TSEB is driven directly with TIR forcing and does not consider soil water transfers. SEtHyS doesn't rely on TIR data availability but it has more parameters and requires more inputs for initialization. Simulations of both models were compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes, with data from 3 sites in southern France and Morocco, covering several kinds of cultures, various vegetative states and various meteorological conditions. A sensitivity analysis on inputs was used to better characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges induced by spatialization. Globally, models provide estimations of latent heat flux (LE) with RMSD of around 55W/m2 for TSEB and 45W/m2 for SEtHyS. Energy fluxes partition in TSEB was shown to be relatively less sensitive to some inputs when using only a single set of parameters. However it has lower performances on rising vegetation and stressed vegetation

  5. Development of Airborne LiDAR based Sky View Factors to Estimate Micro-scale Energy Budget of Forest Areas: a Case Study of Taehwa Forest, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, S.; Woo, J.; Kim, B.; Hong, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.; Quan, S.

    2012-12-01

    About 6% of earth incoming solar radiation energy (nearly 173 petawatts) is absorbed by the ground surface, which fuels earth surface energy budget and physical/biological/ecological cycles including biogenic emission processes. Many key factors and indices have been proposed to understand the phenomenon initiated from solar energy. In this study, we proposed a new solar energy estimation parameter, the Sky View Factor (SVF), to understand energy budget of vegetated surface. The SVF is a ratio between an open sky area and covered surroundings, such as building and colonnade, which represents an estimation of the visible area of the sky from an earth view point. The high resolution airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) dataset instead of low resolution satellite information was used to develop SVFs, because the more reliable ground surface information are very important to correctly estimate the factors. The airborne LiDAR-based SVF calculator tool was also developed to estimate SVFs efficiently then applied to estimate SVFs at Taehwa forest area in support of surface landcover composition analysis. The validation results using shortwave and longwave radiation flux data monitored from Taehwa flux tower and the satellite remote sensing data (LANDSAT ETM+) will be discussed.

  6. Creating a Flexible Budget Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frew, James; Olson, Robert; Pelton, M. Lee

    2009-01-01

    The budget process is often an especially thorny area in communication between administrators and faculty members. Last year, Willamette University took a step toward reducing tensions surrounding the budget. As university administrators planned for the current year, they faced the high degree of uncertainty that the financial crisis has forced on…

  7. Budget brief, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to be undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)

  8. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  9. Dry deposition and canopy uptake in Mediterranean holm-oak forests estimated with a canopy budget model: A focus on N estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguillaume, L.; Izquieta-Rojano, S.; García-Gómez, H.; Elustondo, D.; Santamaría, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Avila, A.

    2017-03-01

    Bulk/wet and throughfall fluxes of major compounds were measured from June 2011 to June 2013 at four Mediterranean holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Regression analysis between net throughfall fluxes and precipitation indicated that the best defined canopy process was leaching for K+ and uptake for NH4+ at all sites. A more variable response between sites was found for Na+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl-, which suggests that the interplay of dry deposition, leaching and uptake at the canopy was different depending on site climate and air quality characteristics. A canopy budget model (CBM) was used to try to discriminate between the canopy processes and enable to estimate dry deposition and uptake fluxes at three of the sites that complied with the model specifications. To derive N uptake, an efficiency factor of NH4+vs. NO3- uptake (xNH4) corresponding to moles of NH4+ taken up for each NO3- mol, has to be determined. Up to now, a value of 6 has been proposed for temperate forests, but we lack information for Mediterranean forests. Experimental determination of N absorption on Quercus ilex seedlings in Spain suggests efficiency factors from 1 to 6. Based on these values, a sensitivity analysis for xNH4 was performed and the NH4sbnd N and NO3sbnd N modeled dry deposition was compared with dry deposition estimated with independent methods (inferential modeling and washing of branches). At two sites in NE Spain under a milder Mediterranean climate, the best match was obtained for xNH4 = 6, corroborating results from European temperate forests. Based on this value, total DIN deposition was 12-13 kg N ha-1 y-1 at these sites. However, for a site in central Spain under drier conditions, variation of the NH4+ efficiency factor had little effect on DD estimates (which ranged from 2 to 2.6 kg N ha-1 y-1 with varying xNH4); when added to wet deposition, this produced a total N deposition in the range 2.6-3.4 kg N ha-1 y-1. Dry deposition was the predominant

  10. Estimation of a water budget for 1972-2000 for the Grasslands Area, central part of the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brush, Charles F.; Belitz, Kenneth; Phillips, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    Equitable implementation of regulations restricting discharges from agricultural drains into the San Joaquin River requires a greater understanding of the influence of extreme precipitation events on the ground-water flow system. As part of a larger investigation, this study estimated ground-water recharge and ground-water pumpage, two important components of the water budget in the Grasslands drainage area in the central part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California, for the water years 1972 through 2000. These estimates will be used as inputs to a numerical simulation model of the regional ground-water flow system in the continuing investigation. Crop-acreage and surface-water delivery data were compiled for 14 water districts and 6 other areas comprising approximately 97 percent of the 600-square-mile study area. Little ground-water pumpage data exists for the study area. A climate-based approach was employed to estimate annual water-table recharge flux and ground-water pumpage for 11 water-budget areas. Ground-water pumpage was estimated from the residual irrigation demand after crop consumption of surface water. Estimated recharge flux to the water table for the entire study area averaged 0.8 ft/yr, and estimated ground-water pumpage per unit area for the entire study area averaged 0.5 ft/yr. Increased discharges from agricultural drains in the late 1990s may have been due partly to 4 years of high recharge from precipitation over the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. Knowledge of the ratio of annual crop water demand to annual potential evapotranspiration, expressed as an aggregate crop coefficient, Kd, will facilitate estimation of annual water-budget components in future studies. Annual aggregate crop coefficients, calculated each year for the entire study area, were nearly constant at 0.59 from 1983 to 2000, and reasonably constant at 0.53 prior to 1983. The overall trend suggests continuous reductions in recharge from irrigation over time. This

  11. The 1987 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. This volume examines the Reagan administration's 1987 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is also part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  12. The 1988 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. Like its predecessors, this volume critically examines the Reagan administration's 1988 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  13. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates FY 1991 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1990: Military Construction & Family Housing Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    NAVY FY 1991 MILITARY CONSTRUCTION AND FAMILY HOUSING PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS STATE LIST ............................ TAB "A" MISSION STATUS INDEX ...TAB "B" INSTALLATION INDEX ........... ........................ .TAB "C" BUDGET APPENDIX EXTRACT...ii m~mlll m~ =m • • • • • • DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY FY 1991 MILITARY CONSTRUCTION AND FAMILY HOUSING PROGRAM INDEX OF LOCATIONS - AUTH. APPROP

  14. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  16. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  17. Budgeting for PACS

    PubMed Central

    Sim, LH

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model – although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations. While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates. A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade – depending upon a facility’s financial management processes. The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state. It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project. PMID:21611017

  18. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  19. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  20. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  2. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-07-14

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  3. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  4. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  5. Inaccuracies in sediment budgets arising from estimations of tributary sediment inputs: an example from a monitoring network on the southern Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald; Topping, David

    2015-01-01

    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain-size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a channel reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many studies have estimated sediment loads from ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of sediment loads in semi-arid climates, where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial variability.

  6. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  7. [Guidelines for budget impact analysis of health technologies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Da-Silva, Andre Luis; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Santos, Vânia Cristina Canuto; Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; d'Oliveira, Alexandre Lemgruber Portugal; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2012-07-01

    Budget impact analysis (BIA) provides operational financial forecasts to implement new technologies in healthcare systems. There were no previous specific recommendations to conduct such analyses in Brazil. This paper reviews BIA methods for health technologies and proposes BIA guidelines for the public and private Brazilian healthcare system. The following recommendations were made: adopt the budget administrator's perspective; use a timeframe of 1 to 5 years; compare reference and alternative scenarios; consider the technology's rate of incorporation; estimate the target population by either an epidemiological approach or measured demand; consider restrictions on technologies' indication or factors that increase the demand for them; consider direct and averted costs; do not adjust for inflation or discounts; preferably, integrate information on a spreadsheet; calculate the incremental budget impact between scenarios; and summarize information in a budget impact report.

  8. Water budget and estimated suspended-sediment inflow for Reelfoot Lake, Obion and Lake Counties, Northwestern Tennessee, May 1984-April 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Clarence H.

    1985-01-01

    Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee, with a surface area of 15,500 acres at normal pool elevation, is the largest natural lake in Tennessee. Over the years, the lake has become an important economic, environmental, and recreational resource to the people in the area, and to the State of Tennessee. The natural eutrophic succession rate of the lake has apparently been accelerated by land use practices within the Reelfoot Lake drainage basin during the past several decades. The potential loss of Reelfoot Lake has prompted the State to make management and restoration of the lake and its resources a priority objective. The U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative study in May 1984 with the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Division of Water Management, to collect and analyze hydrologic data and prepare an annual water budget for Reelfoot Lake. The purpose of the water budget is to provide an analysis of the surface-groundwater-lake-atmospheric water relation at Reelfoot Lake. Results of the analysis can be used by lake managers to evaluate the potential effects of proposed lake management strategies upon the lake and surrounding hydrologic system. The water budget for the 12-month study period (May 1, 1984 through April 30, 1985) is presented in this report. In addition, estimates of suspended-sediment discharge from tributary streams in the Reelfoot Lake basin and an analysis of concentrations of constituents in stream-bottom material at three inflow sites are also presented. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  10. Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, L. James

    The concept of Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) is discussed in terms of its application, advantages, disadvantages, and implementation in an effective planning, management, and evaluation (PME) system. A ZBB system requires administrators to: review all programs and expenditures annually, set clear cut goals, and analyze all possible alternatives for…

  11. Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sápi, Johanna; Kovács, Levente; Drexler, Dániel András; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Sápi, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab is an exogenous inhibitor which inhibits the biological activity of human VEGF. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of bevacizumab therapy according to different cancer types but these days there is an intense debate on its utility. We have investigated different methods to find the best tumor volume estimation since it creates the possibility for precise and effective drug administration with a much lower dose than in the protocol. Materials and Methods We have examined C38 mouse colon adenocarcinoma and HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma. In both cases, three groups were compared in the experiments. The first group did not receive therapy, the second group received one 200 μg bevacizumab dose for a treatment period (protocol-based therapy), and the third group received 1.1 μg bevacizumab every day (quasi-continuous therapy). Tumor volume measurement was performed by digital caliper and small animal MRI. The mathematical relationship between MRI-measured tumor volume and mass was investigated to estimate accurate tumor volume using caliper-measured data. A two-dimensional mathematical model was applied for tumor volume evaluation, and tumor- and therapy-specific constants were calculated for the three different groups. The effectiveness of bevacizumab administration was examined by statistical analysis. Results In the case of C38 adenocarcinoma, protocol-based treatment did not result in significantly smaller tumor volume compared to the no treatment group; however, there was a significant difference between untreated mice and mice who received quasi-continuous therapy (p = 0.002). In the case of HT-29 adenocarcinoma, the daily treatment with one-twelfth total dose resulted in significantly smaller tumors than the protocol-based treatment (p = 0.038). When the tumor has a symmetrical, solid closed shape (typically without treatment), volume can be evaluated accurately from caliper-measured data with the applied two

  12. Estimating the Prevalence of Treated Epilepsy Using Administrative Health Data and Its Validity: ESSENCE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo-Young; Chung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon Chul; Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Do; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few of the epidemiologic studies of epilepsy have utilized well-validated nationwide databases. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of treated epilepsy based on a comprehensive medical payment database along with diagnostic validation. Methods We collected data on patients prescribed of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, which covers the entire population of Korea. To assess the diagnostic validity, a medical records survey was conducted involving 6,774 patients prescribed AEDs from 43 institutions based on regional clusters and referral levels across the country. The prevalence of treated epilepsy was estimated by projecting the diagnostic validity on the number of patients prescribed AEDs. Results The mean positive predictive value (PPV) for epilepsy was 0.810 for those prescribed AEDs with diagnostic codes that indicate epilepsy or seizure (Diagnosis-E), while it was 0.066 for those without Diagnosis-E. The PPV tended to decrease with age in both groups, with lower values seen in females. The prevalence was 3.84 per 1,000, and it was higher among males, children, and the elderly. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in Korea was comparable to that in other East Asian countries. The diagnostic validity of administrative health data varies depending on the method of case ascertainment, age, and sex. The prescriptions of AEDs even without relevant diagnostic codes should be considered as a tracer for epilepsy. PMID:27273925

  13. Estimation of the Components of the Carbon and Water Budgets for Winter Wheat by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Croplands occupy more than one third of Earth's terrestrial surface contributing to climate change and also being impacted by those changes, since their production is conditioned by climatic conditions and water resources. It is thus essential to quantify and analyze the production and the main components of the carbon and water cycles for crop ecosystems. We propose here a regional modeling approach that combines: high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data, a simple crop model and an extensive set of in-situ measurements for model's calibration and validation. The model, named SAFYE-CO2 (Simple Algorithm for Fluxes and Yield Estimates), is a daily time step model based on Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and coupled with a water budget module (FAO-56 method). SAFYE-CO2 estimates components of the carbon budget (gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), …) and of the crop water cycle (evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ETR) and soil water content) and also time courses of dry aboveground biomass and yield by assimilating Green Area Index (GAI) data obtained from HSTR satellite observations. For this work, we used a unique set of Formosat-2 and SPOT images acquired from 2006 to 2011 in southwest France. Crop and soil model parameters were set using both in-situ measurements and values found in the literature. Phenological parameters were calibrated by the GAI assimilation. The results indicate that the model correctly reproduces winter wheat biomass and yield production (relative error about 25%) for years with contrasted climatic conditions. The estimated net carbon flux components were overall in agreement with the flux measurements, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.9 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.84 for NEE). Regarding the ETR, a good correlation (R2 about 0.73) and satisfactory errors (RMSE about 0.47 mm.d-1) were found. Carbon and water budgets as well

  14. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  15. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, A. J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; van der Molen, M. K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T. C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2012-06-01

    We determine the carbon balance of Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and inversion methods. Our current best estimate of the net biosphere to atmosphere flux is -0.66 Pg C yr-1. This sink is primarily caused by forests that using two independent methods are estimated to take up -0.69 Pg C yr-1. Using inverse models yields an average net biopshere to atmosphere flux of the same value with a interannual variability of 35 % (1σ). The total estimated biosphere to atmosphere flux from eddy covariance observations over a limited number of sites amounts to -1 Pg C yr-1. Fires emit 137 to 121 Tg C yr-1 using two different methods. The interannual variability of fire emissions is large, up to a factor 0.5 to 3. Smaller fluxes to the ocean and inland lakes, trade are also accounted for. Our best estimate for the Russian net biosphere to atmosphere flux then amounts to -659 Tg C yr-1 as the average of the inverse models of -653 Tg C yr-1, bottom up -563 Tg C yr-1 and the independent landscape approach of -761 Tg C yr-1. These three methods agree well within their error bounds, so there is good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The best estimate of the net land to atmosphere flux, including the fossil fuel emissions is -145 to -73 Tg C yr-1. Estimated methane emissions vary considerably with one inventory-based estimate providing a net land to atmosphere flux of 12.6 Tg C-CH4yr -1 and an independent model estimate for the boreal and Arctic zones of Eurasia of 27.6 Tg C-CH4 yr-1.

  16. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory-based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, A. J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; van der Molen, M. K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T. C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2012-12-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory-based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimates. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 Tg C yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom-up and top-down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux (-692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 Tg C yr-1) for net biome production (NBP), given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and undersampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) suggest a much lower uptake at -91 Tg C yr-1, and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  17. Community College Budgeting and Financing Demystified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David S.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of budgeting and financial resources often strikes fear in the hearts of community college administrators and faculty, as they believe it is an arcane and complex art understood only by accountants and financial specialists. This chapter attempts to demystify the basic concepts involved in budgeting and addresses approaches to budgeting,…

  18. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  19. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  20. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  1. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  2. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  3. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  4. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  5. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  6. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  7. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  8. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  9. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  10. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  11. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee...

  12. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  13. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  14. Another bleak budget picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Though the budget proposed on March 18 by the Clinton Administration would provide a slight boost for many science programs in fiscal year 1997 (Eos, April 2), the realities of federal deficit cutting mean that funds for such programs will be cut sharply between 1998 and 2002. In a report released on April 17 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), policy analysts project that the budget for non-defense research and development (R&D) will shrink by as much as 11.7% in constant 1995 dollars by the year 2002.

  15. Department of Defense, Department of the Navy FY 1995 Budget Estimates Submission Report on Information Technology Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    awarded in 1984 to Martin Marietta Data System. A one-year extension to this contract has been approved, with the option of an additional year, if needed...DescriDtion: This program brings various Regional Administrative Service Center ( RASC ) and USMC base-level information technology infrastructure...remaining enhancements currently available with the Increment I software. B. Contracts: Martin Marietta, Information Systems Group is the systems

  16. Importance of budgets for estimating the input of groundwater-derived nutrients to an eutrophic tidal river and estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makings, Uriah; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Golsby-Smith, Lindsay; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater is often overlooked as a source of nutrients to estuaries and most previous groundwater-surface water exchange studies did not consider the input of dissolved organic nutrients. Here, we hypothesize that groundwater is contributing to high dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations in an eutrophic subtropical tidal river and estuary (Caboolture River, Queensland, Australia). Several spatial radon (222Rn, a natural groundwater tracer) surveys indicated that the majority of groundwater discharge occurred in the tidal river just upstream of the estuary, and that the radon hotspot did not necessarily coincide with the nutrient hotspot. A radon mass balance revealed that groundwater discharge into the tidal river was equivalent to about 50% of the gauged river flow in February 2012. Groundwater discharge apparently contributed 85% of ammonium and 35% of phosphate entering the estuary. In spite of significant correlations between radon and nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) during spatial surveys, groundwater could account for only 7% of nitrate and 9% of DON inputs due to low groundwater concentrations and other sources (i.e., apparently a sewage treatment plant for nitrate and floodplain tributaries for DON). Because total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) was dominated by DON (69%) and nitrate (23%), the groundwater ammonium inputs were a minor source to the TDN pool within the tidal river and estuary. This study demonstrated that correlations between a groundwater tracer and nutrient concentrations do not necessarily illustrate causation. To assess how groundwater drives nutrient dynamics in estuaries, it may be important to include the tidal river (not only the estuarine salinity gradient) in field investigations, consider DON (not only ammonium and nitrate), and perform detailed budgets that include minor tributaries.

  17. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the dynamic energy budget theory.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; Nordtug, Trond; Tamis, Jacqueline E

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for cod specific DEB-parameters. Furthermore, we explored the relevance of Fathead minnow DEB-parameters as surrogate by comparing LC50 values calculated from DEB-parameters with literature. Cod specific DEB-parameters could not be estimated based on available literature. LC50 values calculated from Fathead minnow DEB-parameters were higher than literature LC50 for early life stages of fish. Applying an extrapolation factor of 50 to the DEB-parameters resulted in LC50 values that were below literature irrespective of life stage. Therefore, we propose to use the last as an estimate for early life stages in cod and recommend relevant experiments with individual petroleum substances on cod.

  18. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  19. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  20. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production) and industrial (net emissions from forest industry) forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1). The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100 years increases the strength of

  1. A water-budget analysis of Medina and Diversion Lakes and the Medina/Diversion Lake system, with estimated recharge to Edwards aquifer, San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slattery, Richard N.; Miller, Lisa D.

    2004-12-22

    In January 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey—in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority—began a study to refine and, if possible, extend previously derived (1995–96) relations between the stage in Medina Lake and recharge to the Edwards aquifer to include the effects of reservoir stages below 1,018 feet and greater than 1,046 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The principal objective of this present (2001–02) study was to estimate ground-water outflow (seepage) from Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and from the Medina/Diversion Lake system through the calculation of water budgets representing steady-state conditions over as wide a range as possible in the stages of Medina and Diversion Lakes. The water budgets were compiled for selected periods during which time the water-budget components were inferred to be relatively stable and the influence of precipitation, stormwater runoff, and changes in storage were presumably minimal.Water budgets for the Medina/Diversion Lake system were compiled for 127 water-budget periods ranging from 8 to 78 days from daily hydrologic data collected during March 1955–September 1964, October 1995–September 1996, and February 2001–June 2002. Budgets for Medina and Diversion Lakes were compiled for 14 periods ranging from 8 to 23 days from daily hydrologic data collected only during October 1995–September 1996 and April 2001–June 2002.Linear equations were developed to relate the stage in Medina Lake to ground-water outflow from Medina Lake, Diversion Lake, and the Medina/Diversion Lake system. The computed mean rates of outflow from Medina Lake ranged from about 18 to 182 acre-feet per day between stages of 1,019 and 1,064 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The computed rates of outflow from Diversion Lake ranged from about -85 to 52 acre-feet per day. The rates of outflow from the entire lake system ranged from about 5 to 178 acre-feet per day between Medina Lake stages of 963

  2. Estimates of fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Winter, Thomas C.; Parkhurst, Renee S.

    2004-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) often are affected to some degree by errors arising from limited fetch. A recently developed model was used to estimate fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of ET made at a small wetland with fetch-to-height ratios ranging from 34 to 49. Estimated errors were small, averaging −1.90%±0.59%. The small errors are attributed primarily to the near-zero lower sensor height, and the negative bias reflects the greater Bowen ratios of the drier surrounding upland. Some of the variables and parameters affecting the error were not measured, but instead are estimated. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty arising from these estimates is small. In general, fetch-induced error in measured wetland ET increases with decreasing fetch-to-height ratio, with increasing aridity and with increasing atmospheric stability over the wetland. Occurrence of standing water at a site is likely to increase the appropriate time step of data integration, for a given level of accuracy. Occurrence of extensive open water can increase accuracy or decrease the required fetch by allowing the lower sensor to be placed at the water surface. If fetch is highly variable and fetch-induced errors are significant, the variables affecting fetch (e.g., wind direction, water level) need to be measured. Fetch-induced error during the non-growing season may be greater or smaller than during the growing season, depending on how seasonal changes affect both the wetland and upland at a site.

  3. Estimating the administrative cost of regulatory noncompliance: a pilot method for quantifying the value of prevention.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Charlton, M A; Mathis, J L

    2000-05-01

    Routine regulatory inspections provide a valuable independent quality assurance review of radiation protection programs that ultimately serves to improve overall program performance. But when an item of non-compliance is noted, regardless of its significance or severity the ensuing notice of violation (NOV) results in an added cost to both the permit holder and the regulatory authority. Such added costs may be tangible, in the form of added work to process and resolve the NOV, or intangible, in the form of damage to organizational reputation or worker morale. If the portion of the tangible costs incurred by a regulatory agency for issuing NOVs could be quantified, the analysis could aid in the identification of agency resources that might be dedicated to other areas such as prevention. Ideally, any prevention activities would reduce the overall number of NOVs issued without impacting the routine inspection process. In this study, the administrative costs of NOV issuance and resolution was estimated by obtaining data from the professional staff of the Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH-BRC). Based a focus group model, the data indicate that approximately $106,000 in TDH-BRC personnel resources were expended to process and resolve the 6,800 NOVs issued in Texas during 1997 inspection activities. The study's findings imply that an incremental decrease in the number of NOVs issued would result in corresponding savings of agency resources. Suggested prevention activities that might be financed through any resource savings include the dissemination of common violation data to permit holders or training for improving correspondence with regulatory agencies. The significance of this exercise is that any savings experienced by an agency could enhance permittee compliance without impacting the routine inspection process.

  4. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Tregillis, Ian Lee

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  5. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  6. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  7. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  8. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  9. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  10. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  11. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  12. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures...

  13. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget...

  14. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  15. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  16. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time...

  17. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  18. The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-24

    Order Code RL31235 The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit Updated January 24, 2007 Brian W. Cashell Specialist in Quantitative Economics...number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 JAN 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit ...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit Summary The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates that the federal

  19. On the potential of the ICOS atmospheric CO2 measurement network for estimating the biogenic CO2 budget of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadygrov, N.; Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Rivier, L.; Gerbig, C.; Ciais, P.

    2015-11-01

    We present a performance assessment of the European Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) atmospheric network for constraining European biogenic CO2 fluxes (hereafter net ecosystem exchange, NEE). The performance of the network is assessed in terms of uncertainty in the fluxes, using a state-of-the-art mesoscale variational atmospheric inversion system assimilating hourly averages of atmospheric data to solve for NEE at 6 h and 0.5° resolution. The performance of the ICOS atmospheric network is also assessed in terms of uncertainty reduction compared to typical uncertainties in the flux estimates from ecosystem models, which are used as prior information by the inversion. The uncertainty in inverted fluxes is computed for two typical periods representative of northern summer and winter conditions in July and in December 2007, respectively. These computations are based on a observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework. We analyzed the uncertainty in a 2-week-mean NEE as a function of the spatial scale with a focus on the model native grid scale (0.5°), the country scale and the European scale (including western Russia and Turkey). Several network configurations, going from 23 to 66 sites, and different configurations of the prior uncertainties and atmospheric model transport errors are tested in order to assess and compare the improvements that can be expected in the future from the extension of the network, from improved prior information or transport models. Assimilating data from 23 sites (a network comparable to present-day capability) with errors estimated from the present prior information and transport models, the uncertainty reduction on a 2-week-mean NEE should range between 20 and 50 % for 0.5° resolution grid cells in the best sampled area encompassing eastern France and western Germany. At the European scale, the prior uncertainty in a 2-week-mean NEE is reduced by 50 % (66 %), down to ~ 43 Tg C month-1 (26 Tg C month-1) in July

  20. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  1. Forage Budgeting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management in tropical agro-ecosystems is challenging because of unique soil, climate, and animal interactions. Budgeting forage as part of the grazing system can be difficult because of the strong seasonality of forage production and rapidly changing forage quality. Planning, measuring, and...

  2. Battling Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Higher-education institutions are facing financial crises in their capital programs. Constant increases in the cost of oil, combined with material shortages in copper, steel and gypsum products, have contributed to an inexorable rise in the cost of construction. At the same time, capital budgets are decreasing. The result is that the education…

  3. The FY2011 Federal Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-04

    Finance August 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41097 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The FY2011 Federal Budget Congressional Research Service Summary While considering the...current form may pass substantial economic burdens to future generations. The Obama Administration released its FY2011 budget on February 1, 2010. The

  4. The FY2011 Federal Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    Finance March 9, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41097 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The FY2011 Federal Budget Congressional Research Service Summary While considering the...current form may pass substantial economic burdens to future generations. The Obama Administration released its FY2011 budget on February 1, 2010

  5. Administration time estimates for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV subtests, composites, and short forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Brown, Cassandra N

    2007-04-01

    The administration times for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) subtests, indexes, and the Full Scale IQ were recorded for 57 school children. Also determined were administration times for eight short forms and the General Ability Index (GAI). All eight short forms reduced testing time by >50%, but the GAI required approximately 56 minutes. The time to administer the 10 core subtests that yield the Full Scale IQ and index scores averaged 72 minutes (range = 42 to 100), but 31% of the administrations required 80 minutes or longer. These results indicate that administration times are quite variable and that D. Wechsler's (2003) guideline of 65 to 80 minutes can be misleading for certain settings and for specific examinees. The present research found administration time to be positively correlated with examinee age, grade placement, and Full Scale IQ. In addition, the extent of examiner experience is known to be positively related to administration speed. In the present research, as in many settings, the examiners were competent, but not highly experienced.

  6. Experimental estimates of the energy budget of hydrothermal eruptions; application to 2012 Upper Te Maari eruption, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Cronin, Shane J.; Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-10-01

    . Further, we tested dry samples at the same pressure and temperature conditions. Results showed that host rock lithology and state of the interstitial fluid was a major influence on the fragmentation and ejection processes, as well as the energy partitioning. Clasts were ejected with velocities of up to 160 m/s as recorded by high-speed camera. In addition to rare large clasts (analogous to ballistics), a large amount of fine and very fine (<63 μm) ash was produced in all experiments. The efficiency of transformation of the total explosive energy into fragmentation energy was estimated between 10 to 15%, depending on the host rock lithology, while less than 0.1% of this was converted into kinetic energy. Our results suggest that liquid-to-vapor (flashing) expansion provides an order of magnitude higher energy release than steam expansion, which best explains the dynamics of the westward (and most energetic) directed blast at Te Maari. Considering the steam flashing as the primary energy source, the experiments suggested that a minimum explosive energy of 7 ×1010 to 2 ×1012 J was involved in the Te Maari blast. Experimental studies under controlled conditions, compared closely to a field example are thus highly useful in providing new insights into the energy release and hazards associated with eruptions in hydrothermal areas.

  7. Estimation of the Heat and Water Budgets of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf using a two-way, coupled Gulf-atmosphere regional model (GARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, P.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the scarcity of observational data, existing estimates of the heat and water budgets of the Persian Gulf are rather uncertain. This uncertainty leaves open the fundamental question of whether this water body is a net heat source or a net heat sink to the atmosphere. Previous regional modeling studies either used specified surface fluxes to simulate the hydrodynamics of the Gulf or prescribed SST in simulating the regional atmospheric climate; neither of these two approaches is suitable for addressing the above question or for projecting the future climate in this region. For the first time, a high-resolution, two-way, coupled Gulf-atmosphere re-gional model (GARM) is developed, forced by solar radiation and constrained by observed lateral boundary conditions, suited for the study of current and future climates of the Persian Gulf. Here, this study demonstrates the unique capability of this model in consistently predicting surface heat and water fluxes and lateral heat and water exchanges with the Arabian Sea, as well as the variability of water temperature and water mass. Although these variables are strongly coupled, only SST has been directly and sufficiently observed. The coupled model succeeds in simulating the water and heat budgets of the Persian Gulf without any artificial flux adjustment, as demonstrated in the close agreement of model simulation with satellite and in situ observations.The coupled regional climate model simulates a net surface heat flux of +3W/m^2, suggesting a small net heat flux from the atmosphere into the Persian Gulf. The annual evaporation from the Persian Gulf is 1.84 m/yr, and the annual influx and outflux of water through the Strait of Hormuz between the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea are equivalent to Persian Gulf-averaged precipitation and evaporation rates of 33.7 and 32.1 m/yr, with a net influx of water equivalent to a Persian Gulf-averaged precipitation rate of 1.6 m/yr. The average depth of the Persian Gulf water is

  8. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  9. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  10. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  11. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  12. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  13. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  14. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  15. Estimation of Carbon Budgets for Croplands by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model and Validation Ground Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Dejoux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands occupy large areas of Earth's land surface playing a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence, it is essential to quantify and analyze the carbon fluxes from those agro-ecosystems, since they contribute to climate change and are impacted by the environmental conditions. In this study we propose a regional modeling approach that combines high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data with a crop model and a large set of in-situ measurements for model calibration and validation. The study area is located in southwest France and the model that we evaluate, called SAFY-CO2, is a semi-empirical one based on the Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and adapted for simulating the components of the net ecosystem CO2 fluxes (NEE) and of the annual net ecosystem carbon budgets (NECB) at a daily time step. The approach is based on the assimilation of satellite-derived green area index (GAI) maps for calibrating a number of the SAFY-CO2 parameters linked to crop phenology. HSTR data from the Formosat-2 and SPOT satellites were used to produce the GAI maps. The experimental data set includes eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from two experimental sites and partitioned into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). It also includes measurements of GAI, biomass and yield between 2005 and 2011, focusing on the winter wheat crop. The results showed that the SAFY-CO2 model correctly reproduced the biomass production, its dynamic and the yield (relative errors about 24%) in contrasted climatic, environmental and management conditions. The net CO2 flux components estimated with the model were overall in agreement with the ground data, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.93 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.86 for NEE). The evaluation of the modelled NECB for the different site-years highlighted the importance of having accurate estimates of each component of the NECB. Future works aim at considering

  16. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  17. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  18. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a...

  19. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  20. Estimated radiation dose to breast feeding infant following maternal administration of 57Co labelled to vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Kay M; Sawyer, Laura J; Evans, Martyn J

    2005-09-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.

  1. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation. Army Appropriation Fiscal Year 1984. Supporting Data Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress--February 1983. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Water Kit with aucceesful completion of all developmn and operational teNd% creation of a technical dat package (MIX) Kmitl for procurement redrafting...Activity. # 4 - Tactical Programs Tactical Molft Defense (3) (U) FY 1984 Planned Program and Bals for Budget Year Request Complete training for first half...Fire Combat Budget ActMW. # 4 - Tactca Programs scale engineering devellopment of the XM797 106mm training round by one year , and an Internal Army

  2. Clash over NOAA budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At the April 26 hearing on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) budget by a Senate Appropriations subcommittee, Sen. Lowell P. Weicker, Jr . (R-Conn.), decried the budget cuts proposed by NOAA and the Reagan Administration. ‘I think it would be almost criminal’ to agree to the proposed cuts, Weicker said, adding that although he understands the broad policy to trim the budget, the proposed cuts amounted to ‘piecemeal emasculation … I won't be part of it.’‘I cannot help but note with regret that for the third year in a row the Administration proposed drastic reductions in oceans-related research and development,’ said Weicker during the hearing conducted by the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on the departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, and the Judiciary. ‘The proposed 37% cut in funding for fisheries programs combined with a 40% cut in other oceans and coastal activities would add up to an $85 million loss for NOAA's oceans programs. To make cuts of this magnitude would be, in effect, to write off the great potential the oceans have for feeding our people and helping to power our economy,’ the Connecticut senator said. ‘In short, the potential of the oceans as well as the pressures placed upon them have never been so great—and they will be even greater tomorrow. In the face of Administration indifference and outright hostility, Congress must maintain its commitment to the oceans and to the positive contributions they can make to our future.’

  3. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2017-03-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  4. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-05-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  5. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  6. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906

    PubMed Central

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that—matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  7. 28 CFR 70.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 70... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and program plan revisions,...

  8. 28 CFR 70.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 70... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and program plan revisions,...

  9. 28 CFR 70.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 70... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and program plan revisions,...

  10. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  11. Misclassification in administrative claims data: quantifying the impact on treatment effect estimates

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Michele Jonsson; Landi, Suzanne N.

    2015-01-01

    Misclassification is present in nearly every epidemiologic study, yet is rarely quantified in analysis in favor of a focus on random error. In this review, we discuss past and present wisdom on misclassification and what measures should be taken to quantify this influential bias, with a focus on bias in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. To date, pharmacoepidemiology primarily utilizes data obtained from administrative claims, a rich source of prescription data but susceptible to bias from unobservable factors including medication sample use, medications filled but not taken, health conditions that are not reported in the administrative billing data, and inadequate capture of confounders. Due to the increasing focus on comparative effectiveness research, we provide a discussion of misclassification in the context of an active comparator, including a demonstration of treatment effects biased away from the null in the presence of nondifferential misclassification. Finally, we highlight recently developed methods to quantify bias and offer these methods as potential options for strengthening the validity and quantifying uncertainty of results obtained from pharmacoepidemiologic research. PMID:26085977

  12. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The application for funds and budget requirements for the Food Distribution Program on Indian... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  13. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The application for funds and budget requirements for the Food Distribution Program on Indian... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  14. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The application for funds and budget requirements for the Food Distribution Program on Indian... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  15. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The application for funds and budget requirements for the Food Distribution Program on Indian... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE...

  16. Activity-Based Budgeting in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmary, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As other universities across the country struggle with their financial challenges, continuing education units can serve the same pioneering role in the development of new financial and budget systems. Confronted by serious financial shortfalls during the last three decades, university administrators started to focus on new budget and revenue…

  17. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  18. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  19. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  20. Estimating Evapotranspiration Over Agricultural Landscapes with Thermal Infrared Data: Towards the Comparison of Two Approaches Using Simple Energy Budget and Svat Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery. We will focus on simulating fluxes at low resolution with 2 methodologies: 1- Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2- Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and forced by a spatialized database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height and meteorological forcing). By doing a sensitivity analysis and comparing both approaches we will point out mechanisms that govern scale switching, and how high resolution "informations" and aggregation scenarios impact low resolution estimates. Within this preliminary study, we compare in-situ potentialities of a SEB model (TSEB) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS). TSEB (Two Sources Equation Balance) is a model of turbulent exchange (Norman & al. 1995) partitioning the available energy between soil and vegetation and driven directly via remote sensing TIR sensors. SEtHyS (French acronym for soil moisture monitoring) is a SVAT model (described by Coudert & al. 2006) which is physically based and has more inputs and parameters requirements. Besides fluxes, it outputs brightness temperatures which can be compared and constrained with TIR data. Models fluxes simulations are compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes measurement stations. Models are then compared performing a sensitivity analysis on their inputs and parameters so as to characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges that will be induced by spatialization over

  1. Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Budget Estimates. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defense-Wide. Volume 1 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    cell ASIC designs by incorporating full-custom design optimizations into standard libraries. (U) Program Plans: − Conduct simulation and...Demonstrate full scale ASIC development using MSP architectures and techniques focusing on MSP design methodologies that reduce design time...semi-custom ASIC designs, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and commercial off the shelf (COTS) processors. UNCLASSIFIED RDT&E BUDGET ITEM

  2. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  3. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  4. Age- and sex-specific estimation of dose to a normal thyroid from clinical administration of iodine-131

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to /sup 131/I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the data available consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum at 24 hours after administration (the /sup 131/I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K x (exp(-..mu../sub 1/t) - exp(-..mu../sub 2/t)) ..mu..Ci where ..mu../sub i/ = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and the lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal-rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). An addendum (Appendix C) extends the method to other radioiodines and gives age- and sex-dependent dose conversion factors for most isotopes.

  5. Impact of the Administration's Proposed Budget Cuts on Children. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Ways and Means and the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, 97th Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    Joint hearings of two subcommittees of the House of Representatives, reflecting a continuation of previous field hearings, were held to receive additional testimony concerning the impact of the administration's proposed budget cuts on a broad range of health, nutrition, welfare, and educational programs serving children and their families. Five…

  6. Chronic disease prevalence from Italian administrative databases in the VALORE project: a validation through comparison of population estimates with general practice databases and national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative databases are widely available and have been extensively used to provide estimates of chronic disease prevalence for the purpose of surveillance of both geographical and temporal trends. There are, however, other sources of data available, such as medical records from primary care and national surveys. In this paper we compare disease prevalence estimates obtained from these three different data sources. Methods Data from general practitioners (GP) and administrative transactions for health services were collected from five Italian regions (Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Marche and Sicily) belonging to all the three macroareas of the country (North, Center, South). Crude prevalence estimates were calculated by data source and region for diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For diabetes and COPD, prevalence estimates were also obtained from a national health survey. When necessary, estimates were adjusted for completeness of data ascertainment. Results Crude prevalence estimates of diabetes in administrative databases (range: from 4.8% to 7.1%) were lower than corresponding GP (6.2%-8.5%) and survey-based estimates (5.1%-7.5%). Geographical trends were similar in the three sources and estimates based on treatment were the same, while estimates adjusted for completeness of ascertainment (6.1%-8.8%) were slightly higher. For ischaemic heart disease administrative and GP data sources were fairly consistent, with prevalence ranging from 3.7% to 4.7% and from 3.3% to 4.9%, respectively. In the case of heart failure administrative estimates were consistently higher than GPs’ estimates in all five regions, the highest difference being 1.4% vs 1.1%. For COPD the estimates from administrative data, ranging from 3.1% to 5.2%, fell into the confidence interval of the Survey estimates in four regions, but failed to detect the higher prevalence in the most Southern region (4.0% in

  7. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  8. 12 CFR 1271.35 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1271.35 Section 1271.35... BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES Financing Corporation Operations § 1271.35 Budget and expenses. (a... budget of proposed expenditures for the next calendar year that includes administrative and...

  9. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  10. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  11. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  12. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  13. Protecting and Expanding the Honors Budget in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In difficult budget times, especially at state colleges and universities, honors programs might seem too easy for budget-cutters to reduce, cut, or lose in the shuffle of administrative reorganization. Recent years have been financially perilous and hardly an easy time for honors programs or colleges to increase budgets. Using Western Carolina…

  14. Budget Making and Financial Accountability for Physical Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinoff, Marc A.

    The importance of fiscal management and its reflection in the administrative program (placement of emphasis, priorities in long range planning, and activities that need developing) is reviewed in this report. Guidelines are provided for (1) cost analysis in education budgets; (2) purposes of budgets; (3) types of budgets (Planning Programming…

  15. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  16. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  17. Selling School Budgets in Hard Times. Fastback 215.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, William

    Financial planning for education is a difficult task as schools struggle for a share of diminishing tax resources. The presentation of school budgets for voter approval must be done as effectively as possible. When presenting budgets, administrators should take into account that the public has a low tolerance for detail, budgets are boring, a well…

  18. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157 Section 982.157 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each...

  19. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates FY 1990/1991 Biennial Budget Submitted to Congress January 1989: Operation and Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 8: Training, Medical and OGPA, Budget Activity 9: Administration and Association Acts, Budget Activity 10: Support to Other Nations, Budget Activity 11: Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    W4 .i .- 44Ai Ii F 1 0 0. 8- m i V4 Eii0 1, ) 0 -j 4 4 W 4 e 4 as 1 9 " A S4 Ag II ’o Ř 9 6 ma- I " 4 4 Ř ~ p. OW La04 4 ww br.14AV ’Uvj"a0, 4A I...tI od 4 AS~ AA. 8 z "i ja0 5v 4 A w; 04J 04 aQ *J. AG t *j *A- 0 c -4 -4 ’h.4 A. 5S !;og P- 4U .z~ jF 1 4j K K ) " ) -W -- 4 4 -f 0 - a ’ fil a i...u4A -4W - LA go Ag uCtv 4L O 04 4mc4. o 0 4 1 -1J. L V cL a? w L LtoA0 8 %WJ m 0 4jL 0 to .4 0 0 400. t ~ . -4 A4j4-0 04. go~ ..0S.WI4 v g 4 .4 4 ,-ZL

  20. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  1. Water budget estimation on a data limited wetland: The case of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylin, Anna; Jaramillo, Fernando; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2015-04-01

    At the end of the 20th century, the combination of climatic and anthropogenic developments resulted in hyper salinity conditions and subsequent massive mangrove mortality in the wetland Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) at the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Although salinity concentrations are generally related to the type and quantity of water entering and exiting a wetland and to its internal hydrological dynamics, there have been up to date no hydrological studies on the CGSM. Here we show how a water budget approach can be used as a first-order of approximation to describe the CGSM's hydrology, despite data limitations. We collected hydroclimatic data to calculate and analyze the fluxes of water entering and exiting CGSM and their corresponding uncertainties. We find that the water budget is mostly affected by precipitation, being the largest water budget parameter. Thus, precipitation largely controls the hydrological output of the wetland at its outlet to the Caribbean. The influence of precipitation on the wetland water budget and noticeable changes in ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) frequency and intensity from mid 70's might have severely affected the CGSM hydrological regime and consequently mangrove mortality. Scenario analyses show that currently the contribution of freshwater from the streams coming down from the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range on the eastern side of CGSM is now larger than that of the channels draining from the Magdalena River on the west, in contrast to what occurred before under natural hydrological conditions. However, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that changes to the eastern freshwater inflow cannot significantly affect the hydrological response of CGSM. These results outline the need to increase understanding of the internal connectivity and circulation of CGSM and develop a hydrologic monitoring network in this wetland.

  2. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  3. Taking climate, land use, and social economy into estimation of carbon budget in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Li, Jing; Zhou, Zixiang; Wang, Yanze; Yang, Xiaonan; Qin, Keyu; Liu, Jingya

    2017-03-09

    Carbon sequestration is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by soil and vegetation, so mapping and valuing the carbon budget by considering both ecological and social factors is an important trend in evaluating ecosystem services. In this work, we established multiple scenarios to evaluate the impacts of land use change, population growth, carbon emission per capita, and carbon markets on carbon budget. We quantified carbon sinks (aboveground and belowground) under different scenarios, using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model and an improved carbon cycle process model, and studied carbon sources caused by human activities by analyzing the spatial distribution of human population and carbon emission per capita. We also assessed the net present value (NPV) for carbon budgets under different carbon price and discount rate scenarios using NPV model. Our results indicate that the carbon budget of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region is surplus: Carbon sinks range from 1.50 × 10(10) to 1.54 × 10(10) t, while carbon sources caused by human activities range from 2.76 × 10(5) to 7.60 × 10(5) t. And the NPV for carbon deficits range from 3.20 × 10(11) RMB to 1.52 × 10(12) RMB. From the perspective of ecological management, deforestation, urban sprawl, population growth, and excessive carbon consumption are considered as the main challenges in balancing carbon sources and sinks. Levying carbon tax would be a considerable option when decision maker develops carbon emission reduction policies. Our results provide a scientific and credible reference for harmonious and sustainable development in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

  4. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1: Strategic Forces, Budget Activity 2: General Purpose Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    installation of TASPE and training capability is being funded in RDT&EN. A 059lf/3 B. Schedule of Increases and Decreases (con’t) FY 1984 b. NARDAC NIF ...achieved by changing the processing facilities from Navy Industrial Fund ( NIF ) operations to direct funding in FY 1984. Projected economies relate...primarily to elimination of both depreciation and the requirements to recover previous NIF operating losses. c. Administration -311 Decreases refelcts

  5. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  6. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  7. Budget Issues: Budget Enforcement Compliance Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with the requirements of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, more commonly known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings ( GRH ), as...amended. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1997 (BEA-97) extended GRH budget enforcement provisions through fiscal year 2002 and made other technical changes...To assess compliance with GRH , we reviewed 0MB and CBO reports issued under the act to determine if they complied with all of the act’s requirements

  8. Break-even Analysis: Tool for Budget Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, Roger A.

    1976-01-01

    Multiple funding creates special management problems for the administrator of a human service agency. This article presents a useful analytic technique adapted from business practice that can help the administrator draw up and balance a unified budget. Such a budget also affords reliable overview of the agency's financial status. (Author)

  9. Link Budget Analysis for Undersea Acoustic Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    wireless communications for estimating signal-to- noise ratio ( SNR ) at the receiver. Link-budget analysis considers transmitter power, transmitter...is represented as an intermediate result called the channel SNR . The channel SNR includes ambient-noise and transmission-loss components. Several...to satellite and wireless communications for estimating signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) at the receiver. Link-budget analysis considers transmitter

  10. Administration: Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Staffing Standards System MSA Manpower Standards Application MSLS Missiles Procurement, Army (appropriation) MTMC Military Traffic Management Command MTOE...command. Military Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ), assigned to U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) National command authorities The President and

  11. 77 FR 21565 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Food and Drug Administration Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  12. Budget Cuts Would Harm Research and Patients.

    PubMed

    2017-03-22

    Cancer researchers and administrators have attacked the Trump administration's proposal to cut the NIH budget by nearly 20%. Researchers say that the reduction could hamstring efforts to expand immunotherapies and other novel treatments to more patients. They also worry that the proposal could drive away biomedical scientists and shift top-notch research to other countries.

  13. Agreement on FY 1990 budget plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bush administration has reached agreement with congressional leaders over a thumbnail version of the Fiscal Year 1990 budget. The plan contains few details but could have implications for NASA's Space Station Freedom and other big science projects.Overall, the budget agreement would achieve Gramm-Rudman-Hollings targets for budget deficit reduction without raising taxes, mostly through accounting manipulation and unspecified cuts in social programs. But a supplemental bill that calls for $1.2 billion in new spending for FY 1989 is expected to go to the House floor soon. That measure would violate the new agreement and add to the deficit.

  14. USGS Budget Would Decrease and Face Inflationary Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    For fiscal year 2005, the Bush administration's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey would reduce its funding to $919.8 million. That is a 2% dip from the 2004 enacted budget of $937.9 million, and brings the agency nearly back to its 2003 level of $919.3 million. The proposed budget calls for overall belt-tightening, and targets some specific areas for larger reductions, including mineral resources and cooperative topographic mapping. But the FY2005 budget does not propose wholesale slashing of the agency's funding, as had earlier budgets.

  15. The Special Library Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by librarians in developing and living with a budget are described. PPBS (Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems) is shown to be the most effective method of budgeting to insure acceptance and adequate funding of the library's facilities and activities. (46 references) (Author)

  16. Program Budgeting: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual recognizes there is a wide spectrum of budgeting practices in today's colleges and universities. In particular, universities in Ohio are at different stages in their utilization of program budgeting principles and also have different needs. Thus, this program budgeting manual was written to meet the specific needs of universities in…

  17. Budget and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeuser, Patricia N.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how a close integration of university-level planning and budgeting is required to drive change. Discusses major professional challenges of achieving this integration, the infrastructure of an office of budget and planning, and professional pathways for planning and budgeting officers. Also describes the author's personal career path in…

  18. DoD Base Realignment and Closure Account 2. DISA (BRAC 93) FY 1995 Budget Estimates. Justification Data Submitted to Congress February 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    costs, Voluntary Early Retirement Authority/Voluntary Separation Incentive Pay, and severance pay for the estimated 130 civilian separations in FY95...Operation and Maintenance: Includes civilian PCS, Priority Placement costs, Voluntary Early Retirement Authority/Voluntary Separation Incentive Pay... Early Retirement Authority/Voluntary Separation Incentive Pay, and severance pay for the estimated 112 civilian separations in FY95. Also includes

  19. The OSSA budget: Another view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    The recent letter by L. H. Meredith commenting on the proposed fiscal year (FY) 1989 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) fails to recognize the public procedures and planning processes that were involved in the determination of the budget. The letter also ignores the long-range planning that OSSA has been pursuing in very close consultation with the scientific community in order to achieve, insofar as possible, a rationalization of the budget and programmatic decision-making process. This planning, which addresses well the issues Meredith seems concerned about, does not absolutely guarantee budgetary success for the long term. However, without the planning, any success will be nearly impossible to achieve. I strongly suggest that Meredith (and any other interested member of AGU) obtain and read carefully copies of the minutes of the last two or three meetings of the OSSA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee (SESAC) and a copy of the initial OSSA Strategic Plan. These minutes document a portion of the dialog between NASA and the science community which was instrumental in formulating this year's budget and the plans for following years.

  20. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland: 1. In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper focuses on in situ measurements obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) needed to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations (SREBS) used to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are analyzed. Data collection and processing procedures are presented along with the measurement analysis for the entire 1987 experimental period. The two Florida State University (FSU) stations, which were part of a 22-station surface flux network, used a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer to measure surface layer moisture gradients. Evapotranspiration was determined using the Bowen ratio method. A case study of FIFE Golden Day 2 illustrates the capabilities of a SREBS system. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are compared among themselves and against the 22-site domain means. The FSU site intercomparison demonstrates clear evidence of site-to-site differences, but a lengthy time series is required to interpret them correctly. Consistent relationships are observed between the SREBS fluxes and the all-site means on the FIFE Golden Days. The 1987 surface flux data show variations on annual, intraseasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales. The annual time scale, arising from a continually changing solar declination, is evident in the available heating although cloudiness variability serves to disguise the signal until late summer. The intraseasonal time scale is observed to be a response to the large scale rainfall pattern of 1987 (alternating wet and dry conditions during the summer months resulted in daytime daily mean Bowen ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, with highest values occurring during plant senescence in October). Fluxes are also modulated on a synoptic time scale (5-7 days) resulting mostly from cloudiness perturbations which have a direct impact on surface available heating. The diurnal time scale, which

  1. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  2. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  3. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  4. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  5. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  6. Balancing the (carbon) budget: Using linear inverse models to estimate carbon flows and mass-balance 13C:15N labelling experiments in low oxygen sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, William Ross; Van Oevelen, Dick; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Over 1 million km2 of seafloor experience permanent low-oxygen conditions within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are predicted to grow as a consequence of climate change, potentially affecting oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The Arabian Sea OMZ impinges upon the western Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150 - 1500m) producing a strong depth dependent oxygen gradient at the sea floor. The influence of the OMZ upon the short term processing of organic matter by sediment ecosystems was investigated using in situ stable isotope pulse chase experiments. These deployed doses of 13C:15N labeled organic matter onto the sediment surface at four stations from across the OMZ (water depth 540 - 1100 m; [O2] = 0.35 - 15 μM). In order to prevent experimentally anoxia, the mesocosms were not sealed. 13C and 15N labels were traced into sediment, bacteria, fauna and 13C into sediment porewater DIC and DOC. However, the DIC and DOC flux to the water column could not be measured, limiting our capacity to obtain mass-balance for C in each experimental mesocosm. Linear Inverse Modeling (LIM) provides a method to obtain a mass-balanced model of carbon flow that integrates stable-isotope tracer data with community biomass and biogeochemical flux data from a range of sources. Here we present an adaptation of the LIM methodology used to investigate how ecosystem structure influenced carbon flow across the Indian margin OMZ. We demonstrate how oxygen conditions affect food-web complexity, affecting the linkages between the bacteria, foraminifera and metazoan fauna, and their contributions to benthic respiration. The food-web models demonstrate how changes in ecosystem complexity are associated with oxygen availability across the OMZ and allow us to obtain a complete carbon budget for the stationa where stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted.

  7. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for....455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social...

  8. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for....455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social...

  9. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for....455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social...

  10. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for....455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social...

  11. 20 CFR 404.455 - Request by Social Security Administration for reports of earnings and estimated earnings; effect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Request by Social Security Administration for....455 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.455 Request by Social...

  12. NASA budget, EOS face cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    The hefty FY 1992 increase for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposed by President George Bush has begun to attract Congressional budget-cutting axes, as predicted. The first cuts, however, have come from an unexpected ax-wielder—the space subcommittee of the House Committee on Space, Science, and Technology—normally a cheerleader for NASA in recent years.The subcommittee trimmed $488 million from NASA's budget request of $15.8 billion on April 11, according to a staff member of the space subcommittee. Notably, the panel did not touch the allotment for Space Station Freedom. The subcommittee has submitted the NASA authorization bill to the full committee, which is slated to act on it by the end of April, according to the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report.

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  14. Strategies for Dealing with the Defense Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-17

    Q) Reference: Lipsey & Steiner, " Economics ," Fifth Edition, Harper & Row, New York, 1978. D-2 curve. The first is the region of steeply...Growth, Cost Indexes, Cost Overrums, Cost Reduction, Defense Appropriations, Defense Economics , Design to Cost, DoD Budgets, DoD budget estimates...Turbulence Characteristics APPENDIX C - Causes of Turbulence APPENDIX D - Economic and Effectiveness Comparisons VOLUME III APPENDIX E - Acquisition

  15. Best NOAA budget ever, Knauss says

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's budget request of $1.7 billion for fiscal year 1993 is “the best budget we have presented to date,” said John Knauss, Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce. It is an increase of 7.8% over fiscal 1992. NOAA's proposed budget focuses on four major areas: the modernization of the National Weather Service, improving predictions of global change, understanding coastal ocean processes, and managing marine fisheries.The budget “reflects our conviction that we are working to assure the president's belief in the interconnectedness of the environment and the economy,” particularly in the weather service and fisheries programs, said Knauss, testifying before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies on April 9.

  16. USGS budget request up for 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  17. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  19. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  20. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; ...

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  1. Radiation budget study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, D. L.

    Scientific applications of satellite measurements of the radiative flux density at the top of the atmosphere are discussed in a general review and illustrated with diagrams, maps, and graphs. Topics examined include model development and verification, empirical studies of the global radiation budget, regional energy budgeting, interannual-variability studies, and seasonal and nonseasonal variations in ocean-land radiation budgets. The need for long-term homogeneous series of observations with good spatial and temporal resolution is stressed.

  2. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3. Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8. Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9. Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10. Support to Other Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Foreign National Direct Hire 1,335 :. 5. Program Supplemental 630 A. Health Benefits 476 B. Social Security 154 6. Other Increases 19,434 A. Programmatic...Classified +10,644 B. Wage Board +2,256 C. Foreign National Direct Hire +638 0 5. Program Supplemental +4,479 A. Health Benefits +1,528 B. Social ...upgrade will reduce commercial timesharing - costs in the outyears. provide the meanis for improvements in local and national market research and analysis

  3. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3. Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8. Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9. Administration & Assoc. Acts. Budget Activity 10. Support to Other Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    is designed to improve organizational and individual effectiveness and to promote increased personnel management skills that impact on retention...of full-time permanent and temporary employees . 2) Decrease in equipment -2,867 installations in FY 1988. 3) Reduction in WWMCCS contract -358 support...Clock and the Alternate Clock in Florida. 2) One employee will return from 6 New Zealand resulting in Permanent Change of Station expense. B. Other

  4. Department of the Navy FY 1992/FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates. Military Construction and Family Housing Program FY 1993. Justification Data Submitted to Congress February 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    do not have sufficient number of convenience outlets and lack a dedicated circuit for the modern home appliances, and need 3- way light switch. There is...1,400 9. COST ESTIMATES ITEM U/M QUANTITY FUNIT COST COST ($O0O) ANTENNA SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS ............ . LS .- 1,250 HOIST- WAY ENCLOSURE AND DOOR...each intermediate level platform and at ladder openings; enclose elevator hoist- way ; inter-locking doors at each platform level. 11. REQUIREMENT: AS

  5. 77 FR 23732 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Related Regulations...'' AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  6. 76 FR 42713 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Applications for Food and Drug Administration...; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  7. 78 FR 72894 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Medical Devices; Third-Party Review Under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  8. 76 FR 13623 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Medical Devices; Third Party Review Program Under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  9. 76 FR 2123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Current Good Manufacturing Practice Quality System Regulation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  10. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal, and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in §...

  11. Estimation of rhG-CSF absorption kinetics after subcutaneous administration using a modified Wagner-Nelson method with a nonlinear elimination model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Aso, H; Higashida, M; Kinoshita, H; Ohdo, S; Yukawa, E; Higuchi, S

    2001-05-01

    The clearance of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is known to decrease with dose increase, and to be saturable. The average clearance after intravenous administration will be lower than that after subcutaneous administration. Therefore, the apparent absolute bioavailability with subcutaneous administration calculated from the AUC ratio is expected to be an underestimate. The absorption pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration was examined using the results of the bioequivalency study between two rhG-CSF formulations with a dose of 2 microg/kg. The analysis was performed using a modified Wagner-Nelson method with the nonlinear elimination model. The apparent absolute bioavailability for subcutaneous administration was 56.9 and 67.5% for each formulation, and the ratio between them was approximately 120%. The true absolute bioavailability was, however, estimated to be 89.8 and 96.9%, respectively, and the ratio was approximately 108%. The absorption pattern was applied to other doses, and the predicted clearance values for subcutaneous and intravenous administrations were then similar to the values for several doses reported in the literature. The underestimation of bioavailability was around 30%, and the amplification of difference was 2.5 times, from 8 to 20%, because of the nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The neutrophil increases for each formulation were identical, despite the different bioavailabilities. The reason for this is probably that the amount eliminated through the saturable process, which might indicate the amount consumed by the G-CSF receptor, was identical for each formulation.

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; ...

    2016-11-14

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongsidemore » methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-14

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are

  17. Estimation of annual forest evapotranspiration from a coniferous plantation watershed in Japan (2): Comparison of eddy covariance, water budget and sap-flow plus interception loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takanori; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tamai, Koji; Iida, Shin'ichi; Kabeya, Naoki; Ikawa, Reo; Tateishi, Makiko; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated from a planted coniferous forest in southwestern Japan by applying three methods: the eddy covariance method; the measurement of rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) in a small watershed; and a combination of rainfall interception loss (IC), upper canopy transpiration based on a sap-flux density measurement in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don) stands (EUC), and modeled sub-canopy ET (ESC). After inverse multiplication of the energy imbalance ratio, ET by the eddy covariance method (ETEC) was 839.9 mm in 2007 and 811.8 mm in 2008. The yearly values of P-Q were partially affected by P in the previous autumn. After continuous data collection for more than 5 years, P-Q became stable. The 9-year (2000-2008) average P-Q, which was considered most reliable in this study, was 897.5 mm y-1. The cumulative ETEC during the daylight hours from the right stream bank, covered mainly with large Japanese cedars, was 894.1 mm from April 2007 to March 2008. The value was almost the same as that calculated as the components sum (ETCOMP = IC + EUC + ESC: 911.4 mm), and the comparison suggested that the annual totals of ETEC with an energy imbalance correction provide a reliable estimate of ET in a forest stand on a complex topography. Spatial variation in the watershed was likely caused by differences in soil water retention at each slope position. The slight difference in annual ETEC in 2007 compared with 2008 was attributed to differences in the radiative energy input. In the monthly-weekly analysis, ETCOMP was frequently higher than ETEC after heavy rainfall, while ETEC was higher under dry conditions and during active ET. Even under dry canopy conditions, daily ETEC was often higher than EUC + ESC. The results suggested a time-lag in evaporation from the ecosystem and/or under-estimated ETEC after rainfall.

  18. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  19. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  20. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  1. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  2. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  3. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applied VST budgeting. 638.601 Section 638.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... Applied VST budgeting. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to ensure that center...

  4. FY 2011 Federal Budget Process Begins with Bold Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The federal government's annual budget process was kick-started this year with a bold proposal that has implications for anyone who provides child care. But keeping child care front and center in Washington will take a lot of effort in 2010. On February 1, the Administration released the Budget Proposal for Federal Fiscal Year 2011. It calls for…

  5. Proposed State Budget Lacks Needed Focus on Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2014-15 state budget projects a surplus, due to painful budget cutting in recent years combined with the economic recovery and voter approval of new revenues. While the proposal invests some of the additional revenue in children, it falls well short of what is needed. California's kids have borne a…

  6. Proposed Department of Energy Budget Increases Support for Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    In the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, the Department of Energy (DOE) would get a total of 28.4 billion, up from 26.3 billion in FY 2012, an 8% increase (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  7. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  8. FY 1989 Budget: Familiar Themes for R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    Highlights some of the FY 1989 budget proposals for various agencies as of March, 1988 with regard to science and technology. Budget projections are discussed for the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and six other federal agencies. (TW)

  9. Big Gains for R&D in Carter's Final Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janice R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes President Carter's 1982 budget proposal for research and development (R and D) in science, technology, and related areas, with largest increases going to defense, and NASA. Indicates that R and D money could be affected by the Reagan Administration budget cuts. (SK)

  10. Estimating potential evapotranspiration with improved radiation estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is of great importance to estimation of surface energy budget and water balance calculation. The accurate estimation of PET will facilitate efficient irrigation scheduling, drainage design, and other agricultural and meteorological applications. However, accuracy o...

  11. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  12. Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water recharge is estimated from six monthly water budgets calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, estimated pan-evaporation and fog-drip data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by broad climatic and geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model. The long-term average water budget for east Maui was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The average rainfall, fog-drip, runoff, evapotranspiration, and ground-water recharge volumes for the east Maui study area are 2,246 Mgal/d, 323 Mgal/d, 771 Mgal/d, 735 Mgal/d, and 1,064 Mgal/d, respectively.

  13. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  14. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  15. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  16. Taming the Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slosson, James

    2000-01-01

    Ideally, school budgeting should be divided into distinct rational steps: educating staff about budgets, determining the building allocation, setting education goals for upcoming years, determining fixed costs and sharing this information, making requests public, building a cash reserve, and determining and publishing final allocations. (MLH)

  17. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  18. Interim Budget Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides the interim budget plan of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA) for fiscal year 2000. It reviews factors influencing OSFA's budget request, including legislative requirements, recent accomplishments, the need to maintain both the Direct Loan and Federal Family Education Loan…

  19. Estimating the glacial melt water contribution to the fresh water budget from salinity and δ18O measurements in Godthåbsfjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzner, Antje; van As, Dirk; Bendtsen, Jorgen; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fettweis, Xavier; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, Soren

    2013-04-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet increases due to changes in the surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge through numerous outlet glaciers at the margins. The melt has global and local consequences. Globally the sea level rises and locally the increased fresh water inflow affects fishery and transportation. In this study we focus on the fjord system near Nuuk in West Greenland, Godthåbsfjord. Godthåbsfjord is a unique fjord with its length of about 300 km and a shallow sill at the fjord entrance that protects the fjord system. There are several tidewater glaciers terminating into the fjord and two land-terminating glaciers along the fjord contributing to the fresh water content in the fjord. The largest tidewater glacier is Kangiata Nunåta Sermia. The freshwater originates primarily from three processes: surface melt, ice berg calving and basal melt. Observations and climate models can give estimates for calving and surface melt. Basal melt, however, cannot be observed directly. Even though mass loss by basal melting is neglected on the global scale, it plays an important role in the small regional environment like fjords and the glaciers itself. Warmer ocean temperatures increase basal melt, and resulting lubrication accelerates tidewater glaciers. Overall, the freshwater content in the fjord increases. Salinity measurements taken in the fjord between 2007 and 2011 show a seasonal variability originating from the variation in fresh water inflow. Based on salinity records only, it is not possible to distinguish between the different fresh water sources like precipitation and melt. Hence, δ18O measurements are used in addition to salinity records to determine the origin of the fresh water because of the different δ18O signatures of run-off and glacial melt water. The resulting fresh water inflow and the glacial melt contribution are compared to independent estimates and regional climate model output.

  20. 77 FR 47397 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; MedWatch: The Food and Drug Administration Medical Products... Administration Medical Products Reporting Program'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850,...

  1. Carter Budget Tilts "Back to Basics" for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the proposed 1979 federal budget for basic research for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Defense, and Department of Energy. (SL)

  2. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  3. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-08-04

    During this study, the disposal fields at sites A and B received a measured volume of effluent from two-person domestic residences equipped with an onsite low-pressure dosing system. A combined evapotranspiration measurement and modeling technique was used to estimate the amount of evapotranspirative loss from the disposal field and from the surrounding terrain. A portable hemispherical flux chamber was used to measure evapotranspiration at fixed locations on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B. Data from hemispherical flux chamber measurements were used to calibrate a Penman-Monteith modeled evapotranspiration rate on the disposal field and on the surrounding terrain at site A from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011, and from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, and at site B from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Micrometeorological and soil data from instrumentation on the disposal fields and on the surrounding terrain at sites A and B were used as input data into the Penman-Monteith equation. The mean potential recharge from disposal field effluent during 2011–12 at sites A and B was 63 percent of the volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field.

  4. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites.

  5. 2 CFR 215.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 215.25 Section 215.25 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS...

  6. 2 CFR 215.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 215.25 Section 215.25 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... budget revision requiring prior written approval). (2) Change in a key person specified in the... administrative prior written approvals required by this Circular and OMB Circulars A-21 and A-122. Such...

  8. 41 CFR 105-72.305 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management § 105-72.305 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression... associated budget revision requiring prior written approval). (2) Change in a key person specified in the... administrative prior written approvals required by this regulation and OMB Circulars A-21 and A-122. Such...

  9. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  10. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  11. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  12. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  13. Administrative Sides of Librarying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author used administrative skills learned as a school library media specialist to meet the demands of a university department chair. Topics include the influence of decisions that are made; budgeting; evaluation concerns and responsibilities; determining guidelines and goals; political concerns; and the flow of information. (LRW)

  14. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  15. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  16. NOAA Budget Proposal Calls for a Small Increase, But Several Programs Would Be Sharply Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget of 5.497 billion for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be good news for the agency overall if Congress goes along with the Obama administration's funding plan. The proposal would increase NOAA's discretionary budget by 174.1 million, 3.27% above the FY 2014 enacted budget (see Table ). The White House announced the overall federal budget on 4 March, and the NOAA budget "blue book" with specific funding numbers was issued in mid-March.

  17. Measurement of 7-methylguanine as an estimate of the amount of dimethylnitrosamine formed following administration of aminopyrine and nitrite to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gombar, C.T.; Zubroff, J.; Strahan, G.D.; Magee, P.N.

    1983-11-01

    A dose-related increase in the excretion of 7-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylguanine ( (/sup 14/C)m7Gua) following p.o. administration of di(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylnitrosamine to rats. Urine was collected for 24 hr after di(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylnitrosamine administration, and the purines were precipitated from an aliquot of the urine with silver nitrate. Purines were released from the precipitate with HCl, and (/sup 14/C)m7Gua was quantified by chromatography on an Aminex A-6 column. The excretion of (/sup 14/C)m7Gua increased linearly with the dose of dimethylnitrosamine. This relationship was used to estimate the amount of di(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylnitrosamine formed in the reaction of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine with sodium nitrite in rats gavaged with these compounds. The dose of dimethylnitrosamine was also estimated from the amount of alkylation of liver DNA in the same animals. These estimates usually differed by less than a factor of 2. (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine and sodium nitrite were administered. The possibility of using this assay to obtain data on nitrosation in humans is discussed.

  18. Winning the Budget Battle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Limitations of accounting or budgeting practices can confuse a company's long-term investment in training and development. Companies disciplined enough to invest in their people can achieve significant long-term returns. (JOW)

  19. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and...

  20. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and...

  1. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and...

  2. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and...

  3. Budgeting in the Agricultural Libraries and Documentation Centres in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedigba, Yakub A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of Nigerian agricultural libraries and documentation centers that examined budgeting techniques. The factors examined include who prepares budgets, the basis of cost estimates, establishment of goals and planning guidelines, criteria for funding approval, and maintenance of financial records. Common problems are…

  4. Tips for Treasurers: Budget Basics for a PTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Presents four steps that PTAs can use in developing a budget: determine the programs and projects to be carried out for the coming year; make realistic estimates of how much each will cost and how they will be funded; seek approval from the board and membership; and establish a system for keeping track of how well the projected budget is matching…

  5. 40 CFR 93.124 - Using the motor vehicle emissions budget in the applicable implementation plan (or implementation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... budget in the applicable implementation plan (or implementation plan submission). 93.124 Section 93.124... implementation plan (or implementation plan submission) with respect to its motor vehicle emissions budget(s... MPO may not interpret the budget to be higher than the implementation plan's estimate of...

  6. 40 CFR 93.124 - Using the motor vehicle emissions budget in the applicable implementation plan (or implementation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... budget in the applicable implementation plan (or implementation plan submission). 93.124 Section 93.124... implementation plan (or implementation plan submission) with respect to its motor vehicle emissions budget(s... MPO may not interpret the budget to be higher than the implementation plan's estimate of...

  7. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2 of 3. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    detonation, provide increased warhesad thermal pomtection, and iqrove propulsion and arming. 518 9) Increased funding to reduc to zero the EY 1988...2,185 11. EY 1989 President’s Budget Request $208,733 70,029 Activity GrVp: Other Aviatin By -- M A (o nt-med) Claimant: Naval r SAstier fnctM III...President’s Apro- Qurrent Budget Budget EY 1986 M Prglat’ Esj te Inpectim and Ottract Aministraticm $34,275 $37,363 37,279 37,996 39,064 40,075 Project

  8. Tough budget year ahead, says NASA's Fisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    1992-02-01

    Lennard Fisk, head of NASA's space science and applications division, painted a bleak picture for space scientists on February 14 as the Bush administration's fiscal 1993 budget headed to Congress. Speaking at the annual meeting of the Space Science Working Group in Washington, D.C., Fisk said “It's going to take a miracle to get the $2,985 billion request” for space science in this year's NASA budget.Fisk held out no hope that programs already cut from the budget, such as the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, would be reinstated. The CRAF cancellation was “a $50 million issue in fiscal 1993,” said Fisk, “and it was $50 million that simply wasn't there.” His office “was under enormous pressure to take something off the plate,” he said.

  9. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    00-.4 0 00 0 I s C4 C, ,40 0)< )~0 Cc 0 cSI t-- 0 to 00 ’-Il Cl ɘ ,4 oo c C-4 M, to C tD t 00 - Z ~ 0 E"om I C11 C0 czr- 00 CD 0Z to U ’T ai C6 e -4...34Wr4-~ r-m~ CO)flnC’JI-. mO)O.C flL V .f- C.( 0 ~ O~ w " w 0; ’ a " lw a ac%4 mkn ~mm OcO-4 W Qm w ( w 0 rJ o ( r-a cn o o c Qw c 00C - ; c -a1 4c c41...to4 CD4’ -t -w~ Nn N) CD mCn-( ~ co-n 4 o o C’( m0 ’-’C 4mC 0w a)N m)C CD D C’C a)’ N tD o 40) (04 NC’) NO) CD C’, NC’, No CD I’! D" ) In - 2 t - CD

  10. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    transaction occurred. • Reappropriations (the extension of availability of previously appropriated funds) are scored as BA in the first year of extended...inflation figure. For example, if typewriters were regularly purchased in 1970, but by 2000 had become obsolete in favor of PCs, a chain-weighted...2.0 2.0 2.0 64 FIRST SECOND THIRD FOURTH FIFTH SIXTH SEVENTH YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR Military Personnel Army 75.26 19.79 4.95 Navy 88.29

  11. Flow-Field Simulations and Hemolysis Estimates for the Food and Drug Administration Critical Path Initiative Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Heck, Margaret L; Yen, Allen; Snyder, Trevor A; O'Rear, Edgar A; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2017-02-07

    The design of blood pumps for use in ventricular assist devices, which provide life-saving circulatory support in patients with heart failure, require remarkable precision and attention to detail to replicate the functionality of the native heart. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated a Critical Path Initiative to standardize and facilitate the use of computational fluid dynamics in the study and development of these devices. As a part of the study, a simplified centrifugal blood pump model generated by computer-aided design was released to universities and laboratories nationwide. The effects of changes in fluid rheology due to temperature, hematocrit, and turbulent flow on key metrics of the FDA pump were examined in depth using results from a finite volume-based commercial computational fluid dynamics code. Differences in blood damage indices obtained using Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations were considered. These results are presented and discussed awaiting future validation using experimental results, which will be released by the FDA at a future date.

  12. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  13. The Carbon Budget of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  14. The NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    I would like to make the members of AGU aware of the recent happenings in Congress with regard to the fiscal year (FY) 1986 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was scheduled for modest increases from FY 1985 levels in the President's budget (Eos, February 19, 1985, p. 73), which was approved by the House Science and Technology Committee. However, when the authorization bill (H.R. 1714) “hit the floor” on April 3, amendments were offered and overwhelmingly passed to freeze funding at FY 1985 levels. (A similar fate met the National Science Foundation bill, H.R. 1210, on April 17.) The process is under way in the Senate, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, which is the authorizing committee (under the chairmanship of Slade Gorton), plans to mark up its NASA bill in the next few days; the full committee—the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee—will then offer it to the floor.

  15. 76 FR 28045 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  16. 76 FR 11789 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Testing Communications on Medical Devices and Radiation... Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Testing Communications on...

  17. 78 FR 10179 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry and Food and...

  18. 76 FR 62148 - Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Request for Comment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Information Officer (NPO 400), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, W51-204, Department...

  19. 77 FR 42500 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Examination of Online Direct-to- Consumer Prescription Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Examination of Online...

  20. 78 FR 18351 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Food Labeling; Notification Procedures for Statements on Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. 76 FR 368 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... of information entitled ``Food Labeling Regulations'' has been approved by the Office of...

  2. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  3. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  4. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  5. 75 FR 61495 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Export of Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products: Export Certificates AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the...

  6. Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites and their interpretation for climate modeling and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged Earth atmosphere radiation budgets derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available are presented. The budgets were derived from a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. Annually and seasonally averaged radiation budgets are presented as global averages and zonal averages. The geographic distribution of the various radiation budget quantities is described. The annual cycle of the radiation budget was analyzed and the annual variability of net flux was shown to be largely dominated by the regular semi and annual cycles forced by external Earth-Sun geometry variations. Radiative transfer calculations were compared to the observed budget quantities and surface budgets were additionally computed with particular emphasis on discrepancies that exist between the present computations and previous surface budget estimates.

  7. Tough choices in proposed budget for Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    President Obama's proposed budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is $8.34 billion, a 1.2% decrease from the agency's 2012 enacted budget. "This budget is focused on fulfilling EPA's core mission to protect health and the environment for millions of American families. It demonstrates the fiscal responsibility called for at this moment, while still supporting clean air, healthy waters, and innovative safeguards that are essential to an America built to last," said EPA administrator Lisa Jackson in a 13 February briefing announcing the budget proposal. Balancing tight funding environments with EPA's goals "has required taking a step back from programs we have worked on for years, programs were we have had great success," she said. "There are difficult choices throughout this budget, but they enable us to do what is required for our immediate priorities as well as challenges down the road."

  8. Equipment vibration budget for the TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing observatories, for adaptive optics performance in particular. To ensure that that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding optical error budget allocation, a vibration budget has been created that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). In addition to its primary purpose, the vibration budget allows us to make design trade-offs, specify isolation requirements for equipment, and tighten or widen individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. Defining this budget relies on two types of information: (i) vibration transmission analysis that determines the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations in the Observatory and at different frequencies; and (ii) initial estimates for plausible source amplitudes in order to allocate force budgets to different sources in the most realistic and cost-effective manner. The transmission of vibration from sources through to their optical consequences uses the finite element model of the telescope structure, including primary mirror seg- ment models and control loops. Both the image jitter and higher-order deformations due to M1 segment motion are included, along with the spatial- and temporal-correctability by the adaptive optics system. Measurements to support estimates of plausible soil transmissibility are described in a companion paper. As the detailed design progresses and more information is available regarding what is achievable at realistic cost, the vibration budget will be refined.

  9. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  10. Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagielski, John

    In outline form, this document presents basic information on the school district, the reasons the district considered zero-base budgeting (ZBB), the formation and membership of the advisory School Cost Analysis Team, the district's investigation of the ZBB concept, an overview of the ways the district used the ZBB process, the identification of…

  11. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  12. Obama Budget Choices Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Following an unprecedented increase for education aid in the federal economic-stimulus package, President Barack Obama's fiscal 2010 budget request for the U.S. Department of Education is being met with a tepid response from some school advocates. While few complained outright about the overall funding level, some educators are opposed to specific…

  13. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  14. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  15. Stretch That Budget!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses ways in which industrial education teachers can stretch their budgets, which include reducing waste to a minimum, keeping an accurate and up-to-date inventory, trading surplus or excess materials with neighboring schools, and planning programs more carefully. Money-saving tips concerned with metals, plastics, woods, and printing are also…

  16. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  17. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  18. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12…

  19. Battling Budget Woes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how various school districts are addressing school quality on tight budgets. Options discussed include use of portable classrooms, streamlining non-educational services, leasing and performance contracting, and energy improvements and working with power utilities to cut costs. Argues for adopting and enforcing ISO 9000 standards to…

  20. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  1. White House Budget Proposal Supports Science Agencies and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the Obama administration sent to Congress on 10 April, would provide overall strong support for federal science agencies in a tight budget environment. The proposal calls for 142.8 billion for federal research and development (R&D), an increase of almost 1.9 billion, or 1.3%, above the 2012 enacted level in current dollars. However, the proposed budget is a slight decrease when factoring in an expected 4% inflation between 2012 and 2014.

  2. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Cancer.gov

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  3. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  4. Federal budget: Look out 1996; here comes fiscal '97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The contradictions are everywhere. A 1997 federal budget proposal has been issued, but the 1996 budget still has not been passed. All of Washington is in a budget-cutting mood, but thinking in a election year mode. And while discretionary funding—particularly for science—is under siege, just about every federal agency is asking for more money.On March 18, President Bill Clinton delivered a detailed budget request for fiscal 1997 (FY '97) and a plan for 1998-2002. The Executive Branch and all its agencies are asking Congress for $1.65 trillion to spend in FY '97, roughly 4% more than is expected to be spent in FY '96. The budget deficit for FY '97 is estimated to be about $140 billion.

  5. Budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Leelahavarong, Pattara

    2014-05-01

    A budget impact analysis (BIA) is used to assess whether the adoption of a new health technology is affordable, given the resource and budget constraints of the context. Increasingly, BIAs are coming to be viewed as an important-if not essential-part of health technology assessment (HTA). BIA data is often examined in conjunction with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) data to help inform decisions makers when developing reimbursement policies within the resource constraints of their health care system. This article presents a review of existing BIA guidelines from around the world and makes some initial recommendations for the development of Thai BIA guidelines, as part of the newly-developed Economic Evaluation guidelines for Thailand. Initial recommendations include guidelines on appropriate analytic framework design, study design, perspective, scenarios for comparison, target population, costing and resource use, uncertainty analysis, and discounting.

  6. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  7. FY 1986 budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    The FY 1986 budget request for DOE supports the energy, general science and defense missions of the Department in a comprehensive manner, while being responsive to the President's directive to all Federal agencies to freeze or reduce Government spending wherever possible to reduce the Federal deficit. The discussion displays the budget in a format designed to emphasize the varied activities of DOE. ''Research and Development'' describes the nature of the scientific and technical effort which underlies the Department's programs in a number of areas, such as energy, general science, and weapons research, which previously appeared in three distinct sections of our budget presentation. ''Defense Production and Support'' highlights a significant element of our defense activities which have production, whether of weapons or materials, as a common thread. ''Waste Activities'' combines programs from the civilian and defense areas to bring attention to a major effort of DOE ''Business Enterprises'' focuses attention on the fact that a number of the Department's activities are operated like businesses, marketing products and generating revenues. ''Grants and Other Energy Functions'' is how we group non-research and development grant programs and such essential activities as energy information and regulation. Finally, ''Department Management'' includes the various ''overhead'' organizations which keep the Department functioning at headquarters and in the field.

  8. The Federal Budget: Current and Upcoming Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-31

    R40088 . c11173008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI... form may pass on substantial economic burdens to future generations. This report will not be updated. . The Federal Budget: Current and Upcoming

  9. Novice Administrators: Psychological and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Novice school administrators find that demands for excellence have grown while budgets have shrunk. This paper reports on a study that examined the stress levels of beginning administrators. Two of the key questions for the study--Is the stress experienced by new school administrators manageable or out of control? and Does the job put beginning…

  10. The Impact of Strategic Guidance on Army Budget Submissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services ...who consolidates service budgets on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Once the budget is approved by the Secretary of Defense, it is forwarded to...are issued from the Department of Treasury to the USD(C). The USD(C) then apportions funding to the individual services . Once this apportionment of

  11. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  12. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  13. U.S. Science Agency Budgets Slated for Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    The Obama administration released more details on 7 May about its proposed US$3.6 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 and the planned significant increases for science agencies and for research and development (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009). The budget, which needs to be approved by Congress, includes $147.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. In addition, the 2009 budget includes $18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, said the FY 2009 and proposed 2010 budgets are among the two largest research and development investments in the nation's history, in real terms. “We in the science and technology community have done better than just about any other constituency in the budget,” Holdren explained in a 7 May budget overview briefing, noting that virtually every science agency is doing better now than it was doing 2 years ago. “We have, in the White House, a president who gets it, believes and gets that investments in science and technology are just that: investments that will pay off.”

  14. NASA Targeted for Flat Budget for Fiscal 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed $18.72 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2012, which begins 1 October, would represent overall flat funding for the agency compared with the FY 2010 budget, the most recent full-year budget approved by Congress. However, continuing budget resolutions to fund the federal government through the end of the current fiscal year, 2011, add uncertainty to current and future NASA budgets. In addition, while some members of Congress have indicated their overall support for NASA, they are also looking for ways to trim the agency's FY 2012 budget as it wends its way through the legislative branch. “Those in Congress have to speak forcefully on the need for our country to continue to invest in science,” Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-Pa.), ranking member of the House of Representatives' Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, said at a 3 March hearing, a few weeks after the budget proposal was released. “You have, from the chairman and myself and other members of the committee, lots of support for the work that NASA is doing now and work for the future.”

  15. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  16. Estimate of production of gaseous nitrogen in the human body based on (15)N analysis of breath N2 after administration of [(15)N2]urea.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    After oral administration of [(15)N2]urea (1.5 mmol, 95 atom% (15)N), we found that breath N2 was significantly (15)N-labelled. The result suggests that molecular nitrogen in breath must be partly produced endogenously. Based on a metabolic model, the endogenous N2 production was estimated to be 0.40±0.25 mmol kg(-1) d(-1) or 2.9±1.8 % of the total (urinary and faecal) N excretion in fasted healthy subjects (n=4). In patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (n=5), the endogenous N2 production was increased to 1.24±0.59 mmol kg(-1) d(-1) or 9.0±4.3 % of the total N excretion compared to the healthy controls (p<0.05). We conclude that N balance and gas exchange measurements may be affected by endogenously produced nitrogen, especially in metabolic situations with elevated nitrosation, for instance in oxidative and nitrosative stress-related diseases such as H. pylori infections.

  17. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... employees of the federal government. (c) The Administrator shall submit to the Commission projected quarterly budgets at least sixty (60) days prior to the start of every quarter. The Commission must...

  18. BUDGET PROCESS: Evolution and Challenges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1985—commonly known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings or GRH —that the focus of the process changed from increasing Congressional control over the budget to...reducing the deficit. Both the original GRH and the 1987 amendments ( GRH H) sought to achieve a balanced budget by establishing annual deficit...targets to be enforced by "sequesters" if legislation failed to achieve them. Measured against its stated objective of a balanced budget, GRH failed

  19. In Congress NOAA budget set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In late November, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget, which is part of the appropriations bill for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and related agencies; at the same time, he also signed into law an amendment attached to that bill that prohibits the sale of the weather satellites (Eos, May 17, 1983, p. 377, and March 22, 1983, p. 113). Commercialization of the land remote sensing satellite system is still being considered, however.As a result of the conference between the House of Representatives and the Senate appropriations committees, the appropriation for NOAA totals $1020.6 million, with a program level of $1073.1 million. The appropriation is the money that comes from the federal treasury; the program level represents all of the funds—including treasury funds, transfers, residuals, etc.—actually available for the program. Strictly in terms of dollars, the total fiscal 1984 NOAA appropriation is almost level with the fiscal 1983 appropriation of $1000.9 million. In fiscal 1984, NOAA's research core, called Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF), receives an appropriation of $988.2 million, with a program level of $1014.8 million

  20. Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  1. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  2. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  3. Understanding the Recent Methane Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Masarie, K.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources are thought to account for roughly 2/3 of the global atmospheric methane budget, with natural sources making up the other 1/3. Emissions from wetlands are the largest contribution from natural sources while agriculture (rice and ruminants) and waste dominate anthropogenic emissions. Fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction are thought to make up about 20% of the global atmospheric methane budget. It is generally recognized that observed inter-annual variability in global network observations can be attributed to natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning, while longer-term trends likely indicate changes in anthropogenic sources. Exceptions include an abrupt decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the early 1990s associated with political changes in the Former Soviet Union, and long-term trends in emissions from the Arctic due to a warming climate. The growth rate of global average atmospheric methane since the 1980s shows a steady decline until recent years when it started to increase again. Superimposed on these trends are episodes of higher growth rates. The cause of the recent increase is not currently well-understood, although climate-driven increases in wetland emissions likely played an important role, especially in the tropics. Recent increases in anthropogenic emissions, especially from rapidly expanding Asian economies cannot be ruled out. In addition, trends in the photochemical lifetime of methane must also be considered. In this paper we use both traditional data analysis of observations of methane and related species, and a state-of-the-art ensemble data assimilation system (CarbonTracker-CH4) to attribute methane variability and trends to anthropogenic and natural source processes. We pay particular attention to the Arctic, where some recent years have been the warmest on record, and to the tropics and the potential role of ENSO in driving variability of wetland emissions. Finally, we explore whether a signal in

  4. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL...

  5. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  6. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  7. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  8. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  9. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS...

  10. Convective boundary layer budgets of moisture and sensible heat over an unstressed prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of convective boundary layer budgets of sensible heat and moisture were examined for two days over the unstressed vegetation of the tallgrass Konza National Prairie. In addition to the budget evaluation the study had these goals: to estimate the area-average surface fluxes and compare them to independent, ground-based measurements, to estimate the near surface evaporative fraction, and to compare different evaluations of the ratio of surface to inversion fluxes, i.e., the entrainment parameter. The budget analyses indicate that vertical and horizontal advection were significant terms in the budget and cannot be ignored.

  11. An Integrated Performance-Based Budgeting Model for Thai Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenkul, Nantarat; Siribanpitak, Pruet

    2012-01-01

    This research mainly aims to develop an administrative model of performance-based budgeting for autonomous state universities. The sample population in this study covers 4 representatives of autonomous state universities from 4 regions of Thailand, where the performance-based budgeting system has been fully practiced. The research informants…

  12. 77 FR 43842 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Domini Bean, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350...

  13. 7 CFR 2.501 - Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Chief Financial... authority are made by the Chief Financial Officer to the Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis: (1... matters related to the Department's budgeting affairs including: (i) Resource administration,...

  14. The President's Budget: New Investments, a Vision for Vulnerable Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha

    2014-01-01

    President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget, released on March 4, reflects the Administration's commitment to helping low-income individuals and vulnerable families access pathways to economic mobility, healthy development, and high quality of life. The budget proposal adheres to spending levels established in the Bipartisan Budget…

  15. 75 FR 66104 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Draft Guidance, Emergency Use Authorization of Medical Products... of Medical Products'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850, 301-796-3794,...

  16. 76 FR 41504 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Adverse Experience Reporting for Licensed Biological Products; and General Records AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under...

  17. 75 FR 63489 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Product... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 78 FR 28856 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES:...

  19. 77 FR 20025 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Blood Establishment Registration and Product Listing, Form FDA... and Product Listing, Form FDA 2830'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850,...

  20. 75 FR 12758 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency... has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850,...

  1. 77 FR 74194 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance on Meetings With Industry and Investigators on the Research and Development of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  2. 77 FR 68787 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Labeling Changes; Implementation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  3. 77 FR 36279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Biosimilars User Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA 3792... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax..., Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B,...

  4. 77 FR 26284 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Review; Experimental Study on the Public Display of Lists... of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and... Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr.,...

  5. 22 CFR 518.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or program as approved during the... objective of the project or program (even if there is no associated budget revision requiring prior written... awarding agencies are authorized, at their option, to waive cost-related and administrative prior...

  6. 77 FR 31622 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Adverse Event Reporting and Recordkeeping for... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Domini Bean, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350...

  7. 77 FR 23730 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Clinical Trial Sponsors: Establishment and Operation of Clinical Trial Data Monitoring Committees AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  8. 76 FR 61710 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Requirements for Submission of Bioequivalence Data AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES:...

  9. 77 FR 33223 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Emergency Shortages Data Collection System... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  10. 77 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Data To Support Food and Nutrition Product Communications as... ``Data to Support Food and Nutrition Product Communications as Used by the Food and Drug Administration'' has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  11. 76 FR 6621 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry on Pharmacogenomic Data... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth Berbakos, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  12. 77 FR 37413 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Data to Support Communications Usability Testing, as Used by...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Data... approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995....

  13. 77 FR 43843 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Financial Disclosure by Clinical Investigators... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Fax... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Gittleson, Office of Information Management, Food and Drug Administration,...

  14. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  15. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  16. Research and Development Funding in the Proposed Fiscal Year 1985 Budget. Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorsch, Louis; Dailey, Theresa

    This report discusses in detail the research and development (R&D) elements of the Reagan Administration's budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1985. Following an introduction (chapter I), chapter II presents an overview of R&D funding in the President's FY 1985 budget. The chapter begins by describing overall R&D spending in terms of the major catagories…

  17. 75 FR 60463 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Petition to Request an Exemption From 100..., Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  18. 49 CFR 1.46 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration. The Administrator of the Research and... modal and OST research budgets. (b) Science and technology. (1) With respect to scientific and... Secretary of the Department of Transportation's Research, Development and Technology Planning Council....

  19. 49 CFR 1.46 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration. The Administrator of the Research and... modal and OST research budgets. (b) Science and technology. (1) With respect to scientific and... Secretary of the Department of Transportation's Research, Development and Technology Planning Council....

  20. 2 CFR 200.8 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 200.8 Section 200.8 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.8 Budget. Budget means the financial plan for the...

  1. U.S. Homeland Security R&D Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, C S

    2009-03-30

    The FY09 budgets for homeland security research and development programs in the U.S. are summarized. Homeland security policy developments that can influence future efforts are discussed. Initial indications of the new administration direction on homeland security R&D are summarized. An overview of the Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V conference is presented.

  2. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  3. Homelessness and the Fiscal Year 1993 Federal Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    This paper analyzes the Bush Administration's budget request for homelessness programs, and argues that it promised little to alleviate the suffering of homeless people. The paper asserts that the proposal is the weakest in years, with overall spending down by 7 percent when adjusted for inflation. Programs hardest hit are new funding to increase…

  4. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  5. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applied VST budgeting. 638.601 Section 638.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Applied Vocational Skills Training (VST) §...

  6. Proposed State Budget Doesn't Do Enough for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2015-16 state budget does not do enough for California's top priority--the children. The failure to fund new preschool slots breaks last year's commitment to provide access to quality preschool for every low-income 4-year-old. The proposal also misses opportunities to fully support and improve access…

  7. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applied VST budgeting. 638.601 Section 638.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Applied Vocational Skills Training (VST) §...

  8. Obama Pushes Pre-K, Competitive Grants in Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's latest budget proposal envisions a sweeping, multi-billion-dollar expansion of prekindergarten programs and doubles down on the administration's strategy of using competitive grants to drive big change in states and districts--all as school districts try to cope with the largest cuts to federal education spending in recent…

  9. Building Budgets and Trust through the Alchemy of Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendents have the burden and the opportunity to exert leadership through the budget-building process. This article details a dozen tenets which can be implemented by practicing superintendents. Doing so increases the chances of building trust among the stakeholders of administrators, staff, community, and school board members. The district…

  10. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  11. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... watermelons, such other expenses for the administration, maintenance, and functioning of the Board as may...

  16. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  17. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600.125 Section 600.125 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery...

  18. How Will Biosciences Fare Under the New Budget?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangley, Laura; Wenzel, Lauren

    1986-01-01

    Discusses potential impact of budget cuts on these agencies: Department of Defense; Department of Energy; National Institutes of Health; National Science Foundation; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Department of Agriculture; Department of the Interior; Environmental Protection Agency; and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric…

  19. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600.125 Section 600.125 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery...

  20. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600.125 Section 600.125 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery...