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  1. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  2. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  3. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  4. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  5. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  6. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  7. Adverse Drug Events caused by Serious Medication Administration Errors

    PubMed Central

    Sawarkar, Abhivyakti; Keohane, Carol A.; Maviglia, Saverio; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine how often serious or life-threatening medication administration errors with the potential to cause patient harm (or potential adverse drug events) result in actual patient harm (or adverse drug events (ADEs)) in the hospital setting. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of clinical events that transpired following observed medication administration errors. BACKGROUND Medication errors are common at the medication administration stage for hospitalized patients. While many of these errors are considered capable of causing patient harm, it is not clear how often patients are actually harmed by these errors. METHODS In a previous study where 14,041 medication administrations in an acute-care hospital were directly observed, investigators discovered 1271 medication administration errors, of which 133 had the potential to cause serious or life-threatening harm to patients and were considered serious or life-threatening potential ADEs. In the current study, clinical reviewers conducted detailed chart reviews of cases where a serious or life-threatening potential ADE occurred to determine if an actual ADE developed following the potential ADE. Reviewers further assessed the severity of the ADE and attribution to the administration error. RESULTS Ten (7.5% [95% C.I. 6.98, 8.01]) actual adverse drug events or ADEs resulted from the 133 serious and life-threatening potential ADEs, of which 6 resulted in significant, three in serious, and one life threatening injury. Therefore 4 (3% [95% C.I. 2.12, 3.6]) serious and life threatening potential ADEs led to serious or life threatening ADEs. Half of the ten actual ADEs were caused by dosage or monitoring errors for anti-hypertensives. The life threatening ADE was caused by an error that was both a transcription and a timing error. CONCLUSION Potential ADEs at the medication administration stage can cause serious patient harm. Given previous estimates of serious or life-threatening potential ADE of 1.33 per 100

  8. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by amitriptyline administration

    PubMed Central

    Milionis, H.; Skopelitou, A.; Elisaf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous manifestations are among the most common side effects associated with psychotropic drugs. Skin reactions due to amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant agent) include rashes and hypersensitivity reactions (for example, urticaria and photosensitivity) as well as hyperpigmentation. Hypersensitivity syndrome is a specific severe idiosyncratic reaction causing skin, liver, joint, and haematological abnormalities, which usually resolve after the discontinuation of the implicated drug. A case of a 24 year old woman who experienced hypersensitivity syndrome three weeks after the initiation of amitriptyline is reported.


Keywords: tricyclic antidepressant drugs; amitriptyline; adverse cutaneous reactions; hypersensitivity syndrome PMID:10824052

  9. Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, Stefan I.

    2015-01-01

    It becomes clearer and clearer that aging is a result of a significant number of causes and it would seem that counteracting one or several of them should not make a significant difference. Taken at face value, this suggests, for example, that free radicals and reactive oxygen species do not play a significant role in aging and that the lifespan of organisms cannot be significantly extended. In this review, I point to the fact that the causes of aging synergize with each other and discuss the implications involved. One implication is that when two or more synergizing causes increase over time, the result of their action increases dramatically; I discuss a simple model demonstrating this. It is reasonable to conclude that this might explain the acceleration of aging and mortality with age. In this regard, the analysis of results and mortality patterns described in studies involving yeasts and Drosophila provides support for this view. Since the causes of aging are synergizing, it is also concluded that none of them is the major one but many including free radicals, etc. play significant roles. It follows that health/lifespan might be significantly extended if we eliminate or even attenuate the increase of a few or even just one of the causes of aging. While the synergism between the causes of aging is the main topic of this review, several related matters are briefly discussed as well. PMID:26783959

  10. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD(+) can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD(+) can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD(+). We further found that the injection of NAD(+) can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD(+) administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD(+) administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD(+) can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD(+) may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  11. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  12. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury.

  13. Could selenium administration alleviate the disturbances of blood parameters caused by lithium administration in rats?

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Lewandowska, Anna; Żelazowska, Renata; Musik, Irena

    2014-06-01

    Lithium is widely used in medicine, but its administration can cause numerous side effects. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the possible application of selenium, an essential and antioxidant element, as a protective agent against lithium toxicity. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control)-treated with saline, II (Li)-treated with lithium (Li2CO3), III (Se)-treated with selenium (Na2SeO3) and IV (Li + Se)-treated with lithium and selenium (Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3) in the form of water solutions by stomach tube for 6 weeks. The following biochemical parameters were measured: concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, total protein and albumin and activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Morphological parameters such as red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, white blood cells, neutrophils as well as lymphocytes were determined. Lithium significantly increased serum calcium and glucose (2.65 ± 0.17 vs. 2.43 ± 0.11; 162 ± 31 vs. 121 ± 14, respectively), whereas magnesium and albumin were decreased (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 1.21 ± 0.15; 3.85. ± 0.12 vs. 4.02 ± 0.08, respectively). Selenium given with lithium restored these parameters to values similar to those observed in the control (Ca-2.49 ± 0.08, glucose-113 ± 26, Mg-1.28 ± 0.09, albumin-4.07 ± 0.11). Se alone or co-administered with Li significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase. The obtained outcomes let us suggest that the continuation of research on the application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy seems warranted.

  14. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  15. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  16. Significance chasing in research practice: Causes, consequences, and possible solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Jennifer J.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives, which in turn can misdirect research effort and waste money. Methods We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of ‘significant’ findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures, and the impact of these on research practices. Results The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g., unplanned post hoc tests), to the calculated and serious (e.g., fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasise the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimise significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Conclusions Significance chasing, questionable research practices, and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a “publish or perish” culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g., funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. PMID:25040652

  17. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file. 10.70 Section 10.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... appropriate employees, and show all persons to whom copies were sent; (4) Avoid defamatory...

  18. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Environmental-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The committee found significant developments under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There were no amendments to NEPA, but there were new rules affecting DOE defense-related nuclear facilities. Judicial developments continued a deference to agency discretion in environmental impact statement issues and conflicts with other laws. The administration's budget cuts effectively disabled the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The report also outlines significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Toxic Substances Act. 188 references. (DCK)

  19. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... deployment of advanced services. 51.233 Section 51.233 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... relevant state commission that a particular technology deployment is causing the significant degradation... carrier demonstrates that a deployed technology is significantly degrading the performance of...

  20. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Causes Persistent Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations and Mitigates the Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hadlock, Greg C.; Allen, Scott C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Andrenyak, David M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a “binge” treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of METH self-administration on dopaminergic neuronal function. Results revealed that self-administration of METH, given according to a regimen that produces brain METH levels comparable with those reported postmortem in human METH abusers (0.06 mg/infusion; 8-h sessions for 7 days), decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake and/or immunoreactivity as assessed 8 or 30 days after the last self-administration session. Increasing the METH dose per infusion did not exacerbate these deficits. These deficits were similar in magnitude to decreases in DAT densities reported in imaging studies of abstinent METH abusers. It is noteworthy that METH self-administration mitigated the persistent deficits in dopaminergic neuronal function, as well as the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, caused by a subsequent binge METH exposure. This protection was independent of alterations in METH pharmacokinetics, but may have been attributable (at least in part) to a pretreatment-induced attenuation of binge-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, these results may provide insight into the neurochemical deficits reported in human METH abusers. PMID:22034657

  1. Antibiotic Administration Routes Significantly Influence the Levels of Antibiotic Resistance in Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Yang; Buckley, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of oral exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic administration methods on antibiotic resistance (AR) gene pools and the profile of resistant bacteria in host gastrointestinal (GI) tracts using C57BL/6J mice with natural gut microbiota. Mice inoculated with a mixture of tet(M)-carrying Enterococcus spp. or blaCMY-2-carrying Escherichia coli were treated with different doses of tetracycline hydrochloride (Tet) or ampicillin sodium (Amp) and delivered via either feed or intravenous (i.v.) injection. Quantitative PCR assessment of mouse fecal samples revealed that (i) AR gene pools were below the detection limit in mice without prior inoculation of AR gene carriers regardless of subsequent exposure to corresponding antibiotics; (ii) oral exposure to high doses of Tet and Amp in mice inoculated with AR gene carriers led to rapid enrichment of corresponding AR gene pools in feces; (iii) significantly less or delayed development of AR in the GI tract of the AR carrier-inoculated mice was observed when the same doses of antibiotics were administered via i.v. injection rather than oral administration; and (iv) antibiotic dosage, and maybe the excretion route, affected AR in the GI tract. The shift of dominant AR bacterial populations in the gut microbiota was consistent with the dynamics of AR gene pools. The emergence of endogenous resistant bacteria in the gut microbiota corresponding to drug exposure was also observed. Together, these data suggest that oral administration of antibiotics has a prominent effect on AR amplification and development in gut microbiota, which may be minimized by alternative drug administration approaches, as illustrated by i.v. injection in this study and proper drug selection. PMID:23689712

  2. Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal Causes Persistent Changes in Mu Opioid Receptors in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Olczak, Mieszko; Duszczyk, Michalina; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Bobrowicz, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Thimerosal added to some pediatric vaccines is suspected in pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders. Our previous study showed that thimerosal administered to suckling rats causes persistent, endogenous opioid-mediated hypoalgesia. Here we examined, using immunohistochemical staining technique, the density of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the brains of rats, which in the second postnatal week received four i.m. injections of thimerosal at doses 12, 240, 1,440 or 3,000 μg Hg/kg. The periaqueductal gray, caudate putamen and hippocampus were examined. Thimerosal administration caused dose-dependent statistically significant increase in MOR densities in the periaqueductal gray and caudate putamen, but decrease in the dentate gyrus, where it was accompanied by the presence of degenerating neurons and loss of synaptic vesicle marker (synaptophysin). These data document that exposure to thimerosal during early postnatal life produces lasting alterations in the densities of brain opioid receptors along with other neuropathological changes, which may disturb brain development. PMID:20803069

  3. DRESS Syndrome Caused by Cross-reactivity Between Vancomycin and Subsequent Teicoplanin Administration: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Miyazu, Daisuke; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Daiki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Inoue, Sachiko; Imakyure, Osamu; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Shuto, Hideki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening syndrome comprising severe skin eruption, fever, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy, and involvement of internal organs. Here, we describe a case of DRESS syndrome caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. CASE REPORT A 79-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of injuries incurred in a traffic accident. Eosinophilia and lung dysfunction appeared after vancomycin administration. These symptoms were improved temporarily by withdrawal of vancomycin and administration of corticosteroid, but exacerbated by subsequent teicoplanin administration. These symptoms disappeared after discontinuation of teicoplanin. Based on comprehensive assessment of the overall clinical course, we judged that DRESS syndrome was induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. Using the European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (RegiSCAR) scoring system, we categorized DRESS syndrome related to vancomycin and teicoplanin as "probable." We describe, for the first time, DRESS syndrome (defined using the RegiSCAR scoring system) caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware that DRESS syndrome can be induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and teicoplanin. PMID:27572807

  4. DRESS Syndrome Caused by Cross-reactivity Between Vancomycin and Subsequent Teicoplanin Administration: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miyazu, Daisuke; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Daiki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Inoue, Sachiko; Imakyure, Osamu; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Shuto, Hideki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 79 Final Diagnosis: DRESS Symptoms: Eosinophilia • fever • interstitial pneumonitis • skin rash Medication: Teicoplanin • vancomycin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening syndrome comprising severe skin eruption, fever, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy, and involvement of internal organs. Here, we describe a case of DRESS syndrome caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. Case Report: A 79-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of injuries incurred in a traffic accident. Eosinophilia and lung dysfunction appeared after vancomycin administration. These symptoms were improved temporarily by withdrawal of vancomycin and administration of corticosteroid, but exacerbated by subsequent teicoplanin administration. These symptoms disappeared after discontinuation of teicoplanin. Based on comprehensive assessment of the overall clinical course, we judged that DRESS syndrome was induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. Using the European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (RegiSCAR) scoring system, we categorized DRESS syndrome related to vancomycin and teicoplanin as “probable.” We describe, for the first time, DRESS syndrome (defined using the RegiSCAR scoring system) caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that DRESS syndrome can be induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and teicoplanin. PMID:27572807

  5. Can administrative data be used to ascertain clinically significant postoperative complications?

    PubMed

    Romano, Patrick S; Schembri, Michael E; Rainwater, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether postoperative complications can be ascertained using administrative data. We randomly sampled 991 adults who underwent elective open diskectomies at 30 nonfederal acute care hospitals in California. Postoperative complications were specified by reviewing medical literature and by consulting clinical experts. We compared hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data and independently recoded ICD-9-CM data with complications abstracted by clinicians using detailed criteria. Recoded ICD-9-CM data were more likely than hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data to capture true complications, when they occurred, but they also mislabeled more patients who never experienced clinically significant complications. This finding was most evident for mild or ambiguous complications, such as atelectasis, posthemorrhagic anemia, and hypotension. Overall, recoded ICD-9-CM data captured 47% and 56% of all mild and severe complications, respectively, whereas hospital-reported ICD-9-CM data captured only 37% and 44%, respectively, of all mild and severe complications. These findings raise questions about the validity of using administrative data to ascertain postoperative complications, even if coders are carefully hired, trained, and supervised. ICD-9-CM complication codes are more promising as a tool to help providers identify their own adverse outcomes than as a tool for comparing performance.

  6. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. 51.233 Section 51.233 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange...

  7. Chronic subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin-54 causes testicular degeneration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily L; Murphy, Kevin G; Patterson, Michael; Bewick, Gavin A; Stamp, Gordon W H; Curtis, Annette E; Cooke, Jennifer H; Jethwa, Preeti H; Todd, Jeannie F; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2006-11-01

    The kisspeptins are KiSS-1 gene-derived peptides that signal through the G protein-coupled receptor-54 (GPR54) and have recently been shown to be critical regulators of reproduction. Acute intracerebroventricular or peripheral administration of kisspeptin stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This effect is thought to be mediated via the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system. Chronic administration of GnRH agonists paradoxically suppresses the HPG axis after an initial agonistic stimulation. We investigated the effects of continuous peripheral kisspeptin administration in male rats by use of Alzet minipumps. Initially we compared the effects of acute subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin-10, -14, and -54 on the HPG axis. Kisspeptin-54 produced the greatest increase in plasma LH and total testosterone at 60 min postinjection and was used in the subsequent continuous administration experiments. Chronic subcutaneous long-term administration of 50 nmol kisspeptin-54/day for 13 days decreased testicular weight. Histological examination showed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules associated with a significant decrease in the circulating levels of the testes-derived hormone, inhibin B. Plasma free and total testosterone were also lower, although these changes did not reach statistical significance. Further studies examined the effects of shorter periods of continuous kisspeptin administration. Subcutaneous administration of 50 nmol kisspeptin-54 for 1 day increased plasma LH and testosterone. This effect was lost after 2 days of administration, suggesting a downregulation of the HPG axis response to kisspeptin following continuous administration. These findings indicate that kisspeptin may provide a novel tool for the manipulation of the HPG axis and spermatogenesis.

  8. Urban Growth Causes Significant increase in Extreme Rainfall - A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    World's urban centers are growing rapidly causing the impact of extreme rainfall events felt much more severely due to relatively well unerstood phenomena like decreased infiltration and flow resistance. However, an increasing set of evidence (e.g. heavy rainfall event observed at Nerima, central part of Tokyo metropolitan area, on 21 July 1999) suggest that the extreme rainfall, the driving force itself increases as a result of the microclimatic changes due to urban growth. Urban heat islands(UHI) due to heat anomalies of urban sprawl act as virtual mountains resulting in a local atmosphere more conducive for heavy rainfall. In this study, we employ a popular mesoscale atmoshperic model to numerically simulate the UHI induced rainfall enhancement. Initial idealized experiments conducted under trophical atmospheric conditions indicated that the changes in landuse due to significant urban growth will indeed cause more intense rainfall events. This is largely due to increased convective breakup, causing a favourable situation for convective cloud systems. Five historical heavy rainfall events that caused floods in five urban centres (Dhaka, Mumbai, Colombo, Lyon and Taipei) were selected from historical records. Numerical simulations were setup to assertain what would be the amount of rainfall if the same large-scale atmospheric situations (forcings) occured under a hypothetical situation of doubled urbanization level these events. Significant increases (upto 50%) of extreme rainfall was indicated for many of the events. Under major assumptions, these simulations were used to estimate the anticipated changes in the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF). The magnitude of the 30min event with 25 year return period increased by about 20 percent. Without considering any changes in the external forcing the urban growth alone could cause very significant increase in local rainfall.

  9. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Water-Quality committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This review of 1981 developments is divided into four basic parts. The first covers legislative, judicial, and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA); the second covers judicial and administrative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); the third covers judicial developments respecting private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 109 references.

  10. Workarounds to barcode medication administration systems: their occurrences, causes, and threats to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ross; Wetterneck, Tosha; Telles, Joel Leon; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a typology of clinicians' workarounds when using barcoded medication administration (BCMA) systems. Authors then identify the causes and possible consequences of each workaround. The BCMAs usually consist of handheld devices for scanning machine-readable barcodes on patients and medications. They also interface with electronic medication administration records. Ideally, BCMAs help confirm the five "rights" of medication administration: right patient, drug, dose, route, and time. While BCMAs are reported to reduce medication administration errors--the least likely medication error to be intercepted--these claims have not been clearly demonstrated. The authors studied BCMA use at five hospitals by: (1) observing and shadowing nurses using BCMAs at two hospitals, (2) interviewing staff and hospital leaders at five hospitals, (3) participating in BCMA staff meetings, (4) participating in one hospital's failure-mode-and-effects analyses, (5) analyzing BCMA override log data. The authors identified 15 types of workarounds, including, for example, affixing patient identification barcodes to computer carts, scanners, doorjambs, or nurses' belt rings; carrying several patients' prescanned medications on carts. The authors identified 31 types of causes of workarounds, such as unreadable medication barcodes (crinkled, smudged, torn, missing, covered by another label); malfunctioning scanners; unreadable or missing patient identification wristbands (chewed, soaked, missing); nonbarcoded medications; failing batteries; uncertain wireless connectivity; emergencies. The authors found nurses overrode BCMA alerts for 4.2% of patients charted and for 10.3% of medications charted. Possible consequences of the workarounds include wrong administration of medications, wrong doses, wrong times, and wrong formulations. Shortcomings in BCMAs' design, implementation, and workflow integration encourage workarounds. Integrating BCMAs within real-world clinical workflows

  11. [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro; Yamauchi, Keishi

    2009-06-01

    A 29-year-old man had been treated for hypertension for 10 years. He suffered from speech disturbance caused by cerebral infarction, and further examinations were performed. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size. The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland. The serum noradrenalin levels were high. Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made. He noticed ejaculation disturbance 5 days after starting administration of doxazosin at the dose of 3 mg/day for pre-operative blood pressure control. Sperm was observed in the urine sampling obtained after masturbation, thus his ejaculation disturbance was considered to be retrograde ejaculation. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. After the operation, his blood pressure normalized and the administration of doxazosin has not been necessary. He could perform ejaculation without any trouble after stopping doxazosin intake. The bladder neck conditions measured by ultrasonography were the same before and after the administration of doxazosin. The present case is a very rare case of ejaculation disturbance caused by non-selective alpha 1 blocker doxazosin.

  12. Cardiovascular alterations caused by the administration of 2% mepivacaine HCl with 1:20,000 levonordefrin (Carbocain) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Simone, J L; Tortamano, N; Armonia, P L; Rocha, R G

    1997-01-01

    We studied possible cardiovascular effects (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures, and heart rate) caused by intraoral infiltrative administration of 2% mepivacaine HCl with 1:20,000 levonordefrin in dogs (Canis familiaris), using a Beckman electrophysiograph. Doses used were 0.514 and 1.542 mg/kg body weight corresponding to one and three 1.8-ml cartridges, respectively, in 70-kg average weight adult men. A statistically significant increase was observed in the systolic and the mean arterial blood pressures.

  13. Prior methamphetamine self-administration attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-06-01

    Others and we have reported that prior methamphetamine (METH) exposure attenuates the persistent striatal dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent high-dose "binge" METH exposure. The current study investigated intermediate neurochemical changes that may contribute to, or serve to predict, this resistance. Rats self-administered METH or saline for 7 d. On the following day (specifically, 16 h after the conclusion of the final METH self-administration session), rats received a binge exposure of METH or saline (so as to assess the impact of prior METH self-administration), or were sacrificed without a subsequent METH exposure (i.e., to assess the status of the rats at what would have been the initiation of the binge METH treatment). Results revealed that METH self-administration per se decreased striatal dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function and DA content, as assessed 16 h after the last self-administration session. Exposure to a binge METH treatment beginning at this 16-h time point decreased DAT function and DA content as assessed 1 h after the binge METH exposure: this effect on DA content (but not DAT function) was attenuated if rats previously self-administered METH. In contrast, 24 h after the binge METH treatment prior METH self-administration: 1) attenuated deficits in DA content, DAT function and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function; and 2) prevented increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein and DAT complex immunoreactivity. These data suggest that changes 24 h, but not 1 h, after binge METH exposure are predictive of tolerance against the persistence of neurotoxic changes following binge METH exposures.

  14. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1982: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Judicial developments during 1982 dominated activities involving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rotenticide Act, and Marine Sanctuaries, with some changes in administrative procedures and no legislative developments. The Endangered Species Act was amended to expedite changes to the lists and to alter exemption and international trade requirements. Several lawsuits challenged review standards and litigation claims. 231 references. (DCK)

  15. Cause and significance of cold bone defects on indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Although photon deficient defects on bone scan have received a great deal of interest, such defects in bones on Indium-111 (/sup 111/In) leukocyte imaging have not been as well recognized. We therefore undertook a retrospective review to determine the frequency and significance of such cold defects on /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging. Three hundred thirty-two scans on 290 patients were reviewed and 40 cases of decreased activity involving bone were found, for an incidence of 12%. The causes of the defects were: fracture (eight), nontraumatic avascular necrosis (eight), solid tumor (six), prostheses and other orthopedic hardware (four), advanced age (four), radiation (three), leukemia (two), osteomyelitis (two), myelofibrosis (one), postlaminectomy (one), and idiopathic (one). To determine the frequency of cold defects in osteomyelitis, all 15 cases of osteomyelitis in this series were reviewed and 12 showed increased activity, two were cold, and one was normoactive. Thus, 14% of cases of osteomyelitis presented as cold defects. We conclude that cold bone defects do occur on /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans and that the causes of such defects are similar to those reported for bone and bone marrow scanning.

  16. Systemic Administration of a Proteasome Inhibitor Does Not Cause Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Brian N.; Neely, M. Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2007-01-01

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic slice cultures, indicating that impairment of proteasome function in vitro is toxic. Moreover, systemic administration of PSI transiently decreased brain proteasome activity. Systemic treatment of rats with PSI did not, however, result in any biochemical or anatomical evidence of lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, nor were any changes in locomotor activity observed. These data suggest that systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors to normal adult rats does not reliably cause an animal model of parkinsonism. PMID:17706185

  17. Specific filaggrin mutations cause ichthyosis vulgaris and are significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Toshifumi; Akiyama, Masashi; Sandilands, Aileen; Nemoto-Hasebe, Ikue; Sakai, Kaori; Nagasaki, Akari; Ota, Mitsuhito; Hata, Hiroo; Evans, Alan T; Palmer, Colin N A; Shimizu, Hiroshi; McLean, W H Irwin

    2008-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and shown to be major predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis (AD). However, these studies have been mainly carried out in European populations. In early 2007, we identified two Oriental-specific FLG mutations in four Japanese families with IV and reported that filaggrin mutations were also significant predisposing factors for AD in Japan. However, the frequency of FLG mutations observed in our Japanese AD cohort (5.6%), was much lower than that seen in Europeans (up to 48%). Here, we studied a further seven Japanese families with IV and identified two additional nonsense mutations in FLG, S2889X, and S3296X. We found that more than 20% of patients in our Japanese AD case series carry FLG mutations, and there is significant statistical association between the four mutations and AD (chi(2) P=8.4 x 10(-6); heterozygote odds ratio 7.57, 95% CI 2.84-23.03). These data emphasize that skin-barrier impairment due to reduced filaggrin expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD and sheds further light on the genetic architecture of atopy in Japan.

  18. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  19. Non-administration of thrombolytic agents in acute myocardial infarction patients in Hajar hospital, Shahrekord, Iran: prevalence rate and causes

    PubMed Central

    Samieinasab, Mohammadreza; Shirani, Shahin; Hashemi, Sayyed Mohammad; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Hekmat, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of mortality worldwide and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality among cardiovascular diseases. Thrombolytic therapies, especially during the first few hours after the disease onset, can significantly reduce AMI-related mortality. METHODS The current study aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of non-administration of thrombolytic therapy for AMI patients admitted to Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran, from May until November 2000. Non-probability convenient sampling method was used to select 106 subjects with Q-wave AMI. Data was collected by completing a questionnaire, reviewing medical records, and interviewing with patients. SPSS7.5 was for data analysis. RESULTS A total number of 106 AMI patients were studied among whom 62 (59%) individuals received thrombolytic therapy. Delayed referral to the hospital was the major cause of failure to provide thrombolytic therapy. The cause of non-treatment could not be identified in 15 (19.5%) subjects eligible to receive therapy. CONCLUSION Training general practitioners and individuals involved in this regard along with accelerating the process of patient referral to hospitals can reduce AMI-related mortality. PMID:23696767

  20. Effect of the co-administration of glucose with morphine on glucoregulatory hormones and causing of diabetes mellitus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Masoud; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Morphine is related to dysregulation of serum hormone levels. In addition, addict subjects interest to sugar intake. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of co-administration of glucose with Mo on the glucoregulatory hormones and causing of diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups including, control, morphine, Morphine-Glucose and diabetes groups. Morphine was undergone through doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Then, dose of 60 mg/kg was used repeated for 20 extra days. The Morphine-Glucose group received the same doses of morphine plus 1 g/kg glucose per day. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. At the end of experiment, the serum insulin, glucagon, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes concluding the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β were evaluated. Results: Morphine insignificantly induced a hyperglycemia condition and insulin resistance. Whereas, the beta-cell functions significantly (P < 0.05) decreased only in morphine group. The co-administration of glucose slightly increased the GH, and increased insulin and cortisol levels significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01; respectively) in the Morphine-Glucose group. Furthermore, the co-administration of glucose with morphine could nearly modulate the morphine effects on body weight, glucose, and glucagon levels. Conclusion: It is probable that the co-administration of glucose with morphine modulate the serum glucose levels by stimulating the beta-cell functions and to increase insulin secretion. PMID:26962523

  1. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren K; Restaino, Robert M; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500 mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, and at 60 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized cross-over design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycaemia under the placebo condition (-32% at 60 min and -28% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (-4% at 60 min and +0.3% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  2. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Significant Cause of Deafness and Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichhorn, Sarah K.

    1982-01-01

    Research on cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes virus causing neurological damage (hearing problems and/or mental retardation) in 10 percent of infants born with the condition, is reviewed. Incidence of hearing and retardation in CMV cases is reported and current treatment described. (CL)

  3. Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study

    PubMed Central

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Setting Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Participants Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Primary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Results In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Conclusions Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. PMID:25770226

  4. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  5. An unusual cause of acute cor pulmonale – Significance of the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Sandeep; Sajeev, C.G.; Muneer, Kader; Rajesh, G.; Krishnan, M.N.; Pillai, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    A patient presented with chest pain and clinical features of acute right heart failure. Initial work up revealed the presence of severe PAH. Acute pulmonary embolism is the commonest and most life-threatening cause for acute cor pulmonale. Even though the clinical picture suggested pulmonary embolism, a subtle sign was missed from the first chest X-ray taken in the emergency department. However on reanalysis the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’ later guided us towards the diagnosis. Our case represents one of the first reports of a rare etiology for acute cor pulmonale – hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Right ventricular dysfunction was caused by an acute rise in pulmonary artery pressures as well as by the compressive effects of pneumomediastinum. We emphasize the role played by a good quality chest X-ray early in the management of acute chest pain syndromes. However pulmonary embolism should be ruled out conclusively before redirecting attention to less malignant conditions. PMID:25443610

  6. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy. PMID:26232995

  7. Long-term administration of magnesium after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Gal, M; Avan, P; Sendowski, I

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we observed that a 7-day post-trauma magnesium treatment significantly reduced auditory threshold shifts measured 7 days after gunshot noise exposure. However this improvement was only temporary, suggesting that it could be potentially beneficial to prolong this treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long-term (1 month) magnesium treatment after an impulse noise trauma, in comparison with either a 7-day magnesium treatment, an administration of methylprednisolone (conventional treatment), or a placebo (NaCl). Guinea pigs were exposed to impulse noise (three blank gunshots, 170 dB SPL peak). They received one of the four treatments, 1 h after the noise exposure. Auditory function was explored by recording the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and measuring the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) over a 3-month recovery period after the gunshot exposure. The functional hearing study was supplemented by a histological analysis. The results showed that a 1-month treatment with magnesium was the most effective treatment in terms of hair cell preservation. The DPOAE confirmed this effectiveness. Methylprednisolone accelerated recovery but its final efficacy remained moderate. It is probable that magnesium acts on the later metabolic processes that occur after noise exposure. Multiple mechanisms could be involved: calcium antagonism, anti-ischaemic effect or NMDA channel blockage. Regardless of the specific mechanism, a 1-month treatment with magnesium clearly attenuates NIHL, and presents the advantage of being safe for use in humans. PMID:19084059

  8. Motor neurone acetylcholinesterase release precedes neurotoxicity caused by systemic administration of excitatory amino acids and strychnine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ithurralde, D; Maruri, A; Rodríguez, X

    1998-10-01

    We have proposed that neuronal overactivation by either stimulation of excitatory receptors or hypofunction of inhibitory circuits is a cause of excessive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) release, which, in turn, can contribute to ALS/MND pathogenesis. We investigated histochemical and histopathological changes in cell populations of the mouse spinal ventral horn upon in vivo stimulation of glutamate receptors with L-aspartate (ASP, 10-50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal: i.p.), or blockade of glycine receptors with strychnine (STRY, 2 mg/kg, i.p.). ASP in P4-P13 (postnatal age in days) but not in older mice, and STRY irrespective of age, provoked rapid, striking depletions of motor neurone AChE, and appearance of AChE activity in astrocytes. This was followed by recovery of the enzyme in most motor neurones, astrocyte activation and statistically significant changes in: brain macrophage infiltration, loss of interneurones and motor neurones and neuronophagic images including rosettes of glial cells surrounding a central 'ghost-like' motor neurone. Although AChE release preceded the neuropathology found, it is not known if its uptake is a cause of glial activation. However, it has been shown that the enzyme potentiates non-N-metyl-D-aspartate receptors identical to those that mediate astrocyte activation. AChE activity produces protons and choline, possible microglial activators. These are putative routes towards long-lasting neuropathology.

  9. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  10. From 9/11 to Recession: Historically Significant Events in America and Their Impact on Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Federally sponsored research funding sources are not stagnant programs. Many things influence the nature of research, not all of them purely scientific. Historically significant events draw public attention to causes, and in the age of immediate information those events can have a powerful and lasting impact on research funding. September 11, 2001…

  11. Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at

  12. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes: An animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders.

    PubMed

    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Hernández-García, Adelaida; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate if neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus would cause behavioral changes related to schizophrenia. A neonatal ventral-hippocampal lesion (nVH lesion) was made with lidocaine in Wistar male pups. Two groups were formed, the first received lidocaine (4 mug/0.3 muL) and the second an equal volume of vehicle. At day 35 and 56, both groups were tested for social contact, immobility caused by clamping the neck and dorsal immobility, locomotor activity in an open field, and tail flick (TF) latency after a painful heat stimulus. All animals were then killed. Coronal cuts (7 mum) of the brain were obtained and each brain section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. The animals which received the nVH lesion with lidocaine had decreased social interaction at both ages. The rats with lesions, only at day 58 postnatal, increased their distance traveled and ambulatory time, with a decrease in their nonambulatory and reset time. The rats with lesions had a longer duration of immobility caused by clamping the neck and a longer dorsal immobility at both days 34 and 57 compared to control rats. The lidocaine-treated group spent less time to deflect the tail compared to the control group at postpubertal age. The neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus caused some alterations, such as chromatin condensation, nucleolus loss, and cell shrinkage, but glial proliferation was not seen. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes.

  13. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command. PMID:27558395

  14. Case of chest-wall rigidity in a preterm infant caused by prenatal fentanyl administration

    PubMed Central

    Eventov-Friedman, S; Rozin, I; Shinwell, E S

    2010-01-01

    The inability to appropriately ventilate neonates shortly after their birth could be related in rare cases to chest-wall rigidity caused by the placental transfer of fentanyl. Although this adverse effect is recognized when fentanyl is administered to neonates after their birth, the prenatal phenomenon is less known. Treatment with either naloxone or muscle relaxants reverses the fentanyl effect and may prevent unnecessary excessive ventilatory settings. PMID:20118943

  15. Cationic liposomes formulated with DMPC and a gemini surfactant traverse the cell membrane without causing a significant bio-damage.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, E; Papacci, F; Sennato, S; Bombelli, C; Viola, I; Bonincontro, A; Bordi, F; Mancini, G; Gigli, G; Risuleo, G

    2014-10-01

    Cationic liposomes have been intensively studied both in basic and applied research because of their promising potential as non-viral molecular vehicles. This work was aimed to gain more information on the interactions between the plasmamembrane and liposomes formed by a natural phospholipid and a cationic surfactant of the gemini family. The present work was conducted with the synergistic use of diverse experimental approaches: electro-rotation measurements, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, laser scanning confocal microscopy and biomolecular/cellular techniques. Electro-rotation measurements pointed out that the interaction of cationic liposomes with the cell membrane alters significantly its dielectric and geometric parameters. This alteration, being accompanied by significant changes of the membrane surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggests that the interaction with the liposomes causes locally substantial modifications to the structure and morphology of the cell membrane. However, the results of electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) experiments show that upon the interaction the electric charge exposed on the cell surface does not vary significantly, pointing out that the simple adhesion on the cell surface of the cationic liposomes or their fusion with the membrane is to be ruled out. As a matter of fact, confocal microscopy images directly demonstrated the penetration of the liposomes inside the cell and their diffusion within the cytoplasm. Electro-rotation experiments performed in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors suggest that the internalization is mediated by, at least, one specific pathway. Noteworthy, the liposome uptake by the cell does not cause a significant biological damage.

  16. Cationic liposomes formulated with DMPC and a gemini surfactant traverse the cell membrane without causing a significant bio-damage.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, E; Papacci, F; Sennato, S; Bombelli, C; Viola, I; Bonincontro, A; Bordi, F; Mancini, G; Gigli, G; Risuleo, G

    2014-10-01

    Cationic liposomes have been intensively studied both in basic and applied research because of their promising potential as non-viral molecular vehicles. This work was aimed to gain more information on the interactions between the plasmamembrane and liposomes formed by a natural phospholipid and a cationic surfactant of the gemini family. The present work was conducted with the synergistic use of diverse experimental approaches: electro-rotation measurements, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, laser scanning confocal microscopy and biomolecular/cellular techniques. Electro-rotation measurements pointed out that the interaction of cationic liposomes with the cell membrane alters significantly its dielectric and geometric parameters. This alteration, being accompanied by significant changes of the membrane surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggests that the interaction with the liposomes causes locally substantial modifications to the structure and morphology of the cell membrane. However, the results of electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) experiments show that upon the interaction the electric charge exposed on the cell surface does not vary significantly, pointing out that the simple adhesion on the cell surface of the cationic liposomes or their fusion with the membrane is to be ruled out. As a matter of fact, confocal microscopy images directly demonstrated the penetration of the liposomes inside the cell and their diffusion within the cytoplasm. Electro-rotation experiments performed in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors suggest that the internalization is mediated by, at least, one specific pathway. Noteworthy, the liposome uptake by the cell does not cause a significant biological damage. PMID:25017801

  17. Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Ponnada A; Herrera, Juan J; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Xia, Ying; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-03-30

    The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Differences in the DTI measures were observed in the splenium (scc) and genu (gcc) of the corpus callosum (cc), fimbria (fi), and the internal capsule (ic). A significant increase in the activity in the fine motor movements and a significant decrease in the number of rearing events were observed in the cocaine-treated animals. Reduced MBP and Nogo-A and increased GAP-43 expressions were most consistently observed in these structures. A decrease in the NF-H expression was observed in fi and ic. The reduced expression of Nogo-A and the increased expression of GAP-43 may suggest destabilization of axonal connectivity and increased neurite growth with aberrant connections. Increased GAP-43 suggests drug-induced plasticity or a possible repair mechanism response. The findings indicated that multiple white matter tracts are affected following chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:24507117

  18. Chronic Cocaine Administration Causes Extensive White Matter Damage in Brain: Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Immunohistochemistry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Ponnada A.; Herrera, Juan J.; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Xia, Ying; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100 mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein – 43 (GAP-43). Differences in the DTI measures were observed in the splenium (scc) and genu (gcc) of the corpus callosum (cc), fimbria (fi), and the internal capsule (ic). Significant increase in the activity in the fine motor movements and decrease in the number of rearing events were observed in the cocaine treated animals. Reduced MBP and Nogo-A, and increased GAP-43 expressions were most consistently observed in these structures. A decrease in the NF-H expression was observed in fi and ic. The reduced expression of Nogo-A and increased GAP-43 may suggest destabilization of axonal connectivity and increased neurite growth with aberrant connections. Increased GAP-43 suggests drug induced plasticity or a possible repair mechanism response. The findings indicated that multiple white matter tracts are affected following chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:24507117

  19. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  20. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific.

  1. The statistical significance test of regional climate change caused by land use and land cover variation in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.

    2006-05-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  2. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  3. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  4. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  5. Successful treatment of a colonic ulcer penetrating the urinary bladder caused by the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Shioya, Takeshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Ogata, Masao; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Akira; Matsumoto, Koshi; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    A 77-year-old woman was urgently admitted for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and a duodenal ulcer hemorrhage in March 1999. She had a history of diabetes and angina pectoris. After admission, she received oral calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol to treat hyperkalemia. Nine days later, severe abdominal pain developed. A colonoscopic examination revealed a sigmoid colonic ulcer and stenosis; the patient was treated conservatively. At a 1-year follow-up examination, the colonic stenosis was found have worsened; pneumaturia developed in January 2001. The patient was found to have a sigmoidovesical fistula and underwent sigmoidectomy and partial resection of the ileum and urinary bladder. The histological findings were a benign colonic ulcer with the infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes. Rhomboidal, dark violet Kayexalate crystals were observed on microscope examination in the submucosa in both the first and second colonic biopsy specimens. We concluded that the colonic ulcer and the sigmoidovesical fistula had been caused by the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol. Reports of colonic perforation as a result of the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol are rare. Here, we report the successful treatment of a colonic ulcer that had penetrated the urinary bladder.

  6. Ketoconazole ion-exchange fiber complex: a novel method to reduce the individual difference of bioavailability in oral administration caused by gastric anacidity.

    PubMed

    Xin, Che; Li-hong, Wang; Jing, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Yue, Yuan; Qi-fang, Wang; San-ming, Li

    2013-01-01

    Water insoluble faintly alkaline drugs often have potential absorption problem in gastrointestinal tract in oral administration for patients with gastric anacidity. The purpose of the present study is to develop a novel method to improve the absorption of the water insoluble faintly alkaline drug in peroral administration. This method is based on ion exchange of ion-exchange fibers. Water-insoluble faintly alkaline drug ketoconazole was used as a model drug. Ketoconazole and the active groups of the ion-exchange fibers combined into ion pairs based on the acid-base reaction. This drug carrier did not release drugs in deionized water, but in water solution containing other ions it would release the drugs into the solution by ion exchange. Confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the ketoconazole combined onto the ion-exchange fibers was in a highly molecular level dispersed state. The improved dissolution of ketoconazole ion-exchange fiber complexes is likely to originate from this ketoconazole's highly dispersed state. Furthermore, due to this ketoconazole's highly dispersed state, ketoconazole ion-exchange fiber complexes significantly decreased the individual difference of absorption in oral administration of ketoconazole caused by the fluctuation of the acid degree in the gastric fluid.

  7. Phytophthora ramorum does not cause physiologically significant systemic injury to California bay laurel, its primary reservoir host.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, M V; Bostock, R M; Rizzo, D M

    2009-11-01

    California bay laurel trees (Umbellularia californica) play a crucial role in the reproduction and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in coastal California forests by supporting sporulation during the rainy season and by providing a means for the pathogen to survive the dry, Mediterranean summer. While bay laurel is thus critical to the epidemiology of sudden oak death and other P. ramorum diseases in California, the relatively minor symptoms observed on this reservoir host suggest that it may not sustain ecologically significant injury itself. The long-term role that P. ramorum will play in California forests will depend in part on the extent to which this pathogen decreases the ecological fitness of bay laurel. Despite the importance of this question, no study has yet investigated in detail the physiological impact that ramorum blight imposes on bay laurel. This experimental study quantifies the impact that P. ramorum has on artificially inoculated bay laurel seedlings with measurements that integrate the full injury that infection with an oomycete may cause: photosynthetic efficiency, total photosynthetic area, and growth. Leaf area and leaf mass were not impacted significantly by infection of P. ramorum. Photosynthetic efficiency was mildly depressed in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic leaves, despite unnaturally high levels of necrosis that were imposed on the seedlings. These results demonstrate that bay laurel trees suffer only minor injury from ramorum blight beyond visible necrotic symptoms. Consequently, it is highly likely that bay laurel will continue to be widely available as a host for P. ramorum in California forests, which has long-term implications for the composition of these forests.

  8. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  9. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  10. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  11. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  12. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  13. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  14. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    PubMed

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota.

  15. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies. PMID:26910240

  16. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  17. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies.

  18. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  19. Administration of a non-NMDA antagonist, GYKI 52466, increases excitotoxic Purkinje cell degeneration caused by ibogaine.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, E; Molliver, M E

    2004-01-01

    Ibogaine is a tremorigenic hallucinogen that has been proposed for clinical use in treating addiction. We previously reported that ibogaine, administered systemically, produces degeneration of a subset of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, primarily within the vermis. Ablation of the inferior olive affords protection against ibogaine-induced neurotoxicity leading to the interpretation that ibogaine itself is not directly toxic to Purkinje cells. We postulated that ibogaine produces sustained excitation of inferior olivary neurons that leads to excessive glutamate release at climbing fiber terminals, causing subsequent excitotoxic injury to Purkinje cells. The neuronal degeneration induced by ibogaine provides an animal model for studying excitotoxic injury in order to analyze the contribution of glutamate receptors to this injury and to evaluate neuroprotective strategies. Since non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate Purkinje cell excitation by climbing fibers, we hypothesized that 1-4-aminophenyl-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI-52466), which antagonizes non-NMDA receptors, may have a neuroprotective effect by blocking glutamatergic excitation at climbing fiber synapses. To test this hypothesis, rats were administered systemic ibogaine plus GYKI-52466 and the degree of neuronal injury was analyzed in cerebellar sections. The results indicate that the AMPA antagonist GYKI-52466 (10 mg/kg i.p. x 3) does not protect against Purkinje cell injury at the doses used. Rather, co-administration of GYKI-52466 with ibogaine produces increased toxicity evidenced by more extensive Purkinje cell degeneration. Several hypotheses that may underlie this result are discussed. Although the reason for the increased toxicity found in this study is not fully explained, the present results show that a non-NMDA antagonist can produce increased excitotoxic injury under some conditions. Therefore, caution should be exercised before employing glutamate

  20. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  1. Improvement rate of acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae at 1 week is significantly associated with time to recovery.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hisakazu; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Qin, Liang; Okitsu, Naohiro; Yahara, Koji; Irimada, Mihoko; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common upper respiratory tract infection in childhood. Children with AOM were enrolled at Tohoku Rosai Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011 if their middle ear fluid cultures after tympanocentesis yielded only Haemophilus influenzae. The susceptibilities of the isolates to ampicillin were determined, and microtiter biofilm assays and invasion assays using BEAS-2B cells were performed. The association between these bacterial characteristics and clinical relapses of AOM and treatment failures was evaluated. Seventy-four children (39 boys and 35 girls) with a median age of 1 year (interquartile range [IQR], 0.25 to 2 years) were enrolled. Among 74 H. influenzae isolates, 37 showed intermediate resistance or resistance to ampicillin (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/ml). In the microtiter biofilm assay, the median optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was 0.68 (IQR, 0.24 to 1.02), and 70 isolates formed biofilms. The median invasion rate was 15% (IQR, 0 to 10%), and 46 isolates invaded BEAS-2B cells. Relapses and treatment failures occurred in 19 and 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference in the invasion rates between patients with and those without relapses or treatment failures. Also, there was no significant association between biofilm formation and relapse or treatment failure. The improvements in the severity scores after 1 week were significantly associated with the recovery time (P < 0.0001). We did not identify any significant association between relapse or treatment failure and bacterial factors. AOM has a multifactorial etiology, and this may explain why we could not find a significant association. An improvement in the severity score after 1 week of treatment may be a useful predictor of the outcome of AOM.

  2. Polymyxin Resistance Caused by mgrB Inactivation Is Not Associated with Significant Biological Cost in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Cannatelli, Antonio; Santos-Lopez, Alfonso; Giani, Tommaso; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The inactivation of the mgrB gene, which encodes a negative-feedback regulator of the PhoPQ signaling system, was recently shown to be a common mutational mechanism responsible for acquired polymyxin resistance among carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from clinical sources. In this work, we show that mgrB mutants can easily be selected in vitro from different K. pneumoniae lineages, and mgrB inactivation is not associated with a significant biological cost. PMID:25691629

  3. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  4. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  5. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  6. Delayed Flood Recession in Central Yangtze Floodplains Can Cause Significant Food Shortages for Wintering Geese: Results of Inundation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate ( P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates ( P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate ( P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  7. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake. PMID:25164981

  8. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  9. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  10. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts. PMID:26294358

  11. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  12. Significant mucosal sIgA production after a single oral or parenteral administration using in vivo CD40 targeting in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Ko; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Vuong, Christine N; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Berghman, Luc R

    2016-10-01

    Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0.4μg of oligopeptide complexed with an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 (chCD40) monoclonal antibody (Mab) effectively targets antigen-presenting cells of the bird's mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in vivo, and induces peptide-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in the trachea 7days post administration. Anti-chCD40 Mab-peptide complex was administered once to four-week old male Leghorns via various mucosal routes (orally, via cloacal drinking, or oculo-nasally) or via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization. Immunization through any of the three mucosal induction routes induced significant peptide-specific mucosal sIgA responses 7 and 14days after immunization. Interestingly, s.c. injection of the complex also induced mucosal sIgA. Our data suggest in vivo targeting of CD40 as a potential adjuvant platform, particularly for the purpose of enhancing and speeding up mucosal vaccine responses in chickens, and potentially other food animals. This is the first study able to elicit specific sIgA immune responses in remote mucosal sites with a single administration of only 0.4μg of antigen. PMID:27663378

  13. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  14. Safety data on 19 vehicles for use in 1 month oral rodent pre-clinical studies: administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin causes renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Healing, Guy; Sulemann, Tabassum; Cotton, Peter; Harris, Jayne; Hargreaves, Adam; Finney, Rowena; Kirk, Sarah; Schramm, Carolin; Garner, Clare; Pivette, Perrine; Burdett, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Potential new drugs are assessed in pre-clinical in vivo studies to determine their safety profiles. The drugs are formulated in vehicles suitable for the route of administration and the physicochemical properties of the drug, aiming to achieve optimal exposure in the test species. The availability of safety data on vehicles is often limited (incomplete data, access restricted/private databases). Nineteen potentially useful vehicles that contained new and/or increased concentrations of excipients and for which little safety data have been published were tested. Vehicles were dosed orally once daily to HanWistar rats for a minimum of 28 days and a wide range of toxicological parameters were assessed. Only 30% (w/v) hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin was found unsuitable owing to effects on liver enzymes (AST, ALT and GLDH), urinary volume and the kidneys (tubular vacuolation and tubular pigment). 20% (v/v) oleic acid caused increased salivation and hence this vehicle should be used with caution. As 40% (v/v) tetraethylene glycol affected urinary parameters, its use should be carefully considered, particularly for compounds suspected to impact the renal system and studies longer than 1 month. There were no toxicologically significant findings with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide, 20% (v/v) propylene glycol, 33% (v/v) Miglyol®812, 20% (w/v) Kolliphor®RH40, 10% (w/v) Poloxamer 407, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 or 10% (v/v) Labrafil®M1944. All other vehicles tested caused isolated or low magnitude effects which would not prevent their use. The aim of sharing these data, including adverse findings, is to provide meaningful information for vehicle selection, thereby avoiding repetition of animal experimentation.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence expression is directly activated by morphine and is capable of causing lethal gut derived sepsis in mice during chronic morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Babrowski, Trissa; Holbrook, Christopher; Moss, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Lawrence; Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborin, Alexander; Poroyko, Valeriy; Liu, Donald C.; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine the effect of morphine administration on the intestinal mucus barrier and determine its direct effect on the virulence and lethality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent pathogens to colonize the gut of critically ill patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Surgical injury is associated with significant exposure of host tissues to morphine from both endogenous release as well as its use as a potent analgesic agent. Morphine use in surgical patients exposed to extreme physiologic stress is well established to result in increased infection risk. Although morphine is a known immunosuppressant, whether it directly induces virulence expression and lethality in microbes that colonize the human gut remains unknown. METHODS Mice were implanted with a slow release morphine or placebo pellet with and without intestinal inoculation of P. aeruginosa created by direct cecal injection. Mucus production and epithelial integrity was assessed in cecal tissue via Alcian Blue staining and histological analysis. In vivo and in vitro P. aeruginosa virulence expression was examined using reporter strains tagged to the epithelial barrier disrupting protein PA-I lectin. P. aeruginosa chemotaxis toward morphine was also assayed in vitro. Finally the direct effect of morphine to induce PA-I lectin expression was determined in the absence and presence of methylnaltrexone, a mu opioid receptor antagonist. RESULTS Mice intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa and implanted with a morphine pellet demonstrated significant suppression of intestinal mucus, disrupted intestinal epithelium and enhanced mortality whereas exposure of mice to either systemic morphine or intestinal P. aeruginosa alone enhanced intestinal mucus without mortality suggesting a shift in P. aeruginosa during morphine exposure to a mucus suppressing, barrier disrupting, and lethal phenotype. Direct exposure of P. aeruginosa to morphine in vitro confirmed that morphine

  16. Bacteriophage administration significantly reduces Shigella colonization and shedding by Shigella-challenged mice without deleterious side effects and distortions in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Volker; Ukhanova, Maria; Reinhard, Mary K; Li, Manrong; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0.05). ShigActiveTM treatment was at least as effective as treatment with ampicillin but had a significantly less impact on the gut microbiota. Long-term safety studies did not identify any side effects or distortions in overall gut microbiota associated with bacteriophage administration. Shigella phages may be therapeutically effective in a “classical phage therapy” approach, at least during the early stages after Shigella ingestion. Oral prophylactic “phagebiotic” administration of lytic bacteriophages may help to maintain a healthy gut microbiota by killing specifically targeted bacterial pathogens in the GI tract, without deleterious side effects and without altering the normal gut microbiota. PMID:26909243

  17. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  18. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

  19. Fever of unknown origin caused by adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: the diagnostic significance of double quotidian fevers and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Treatable causes of FUO in the adult should be the primary focus of the diagnostic workup. Neoplasms have replaced infectious diseases as being the most common cause of FUO in adults, and collagen vascular diseases are now relatively rare. The most important collagen vascular diseases presenting as an FUO include Takayasu's arteritis, Kikuchi's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) (adult Still's disease). There are no specific diagnostic tests for these disorders, which commonly present as prolonged fevers that are not easily diagnosed (i.e., FUO). Adult JRA is a rare but important cause of FUO in adults. Typically, patients with adult Still's disease present with liver/spleen involvement, posi-articular arthritis, ocular involvement, and evanescent salmon-colored truncal rash. An important diagnostic finding in adult JRA is the presence of a double quotidian fever, which occurs in few other disorders. Only visceral leishmaniasis and adult JRA are causes of FUO in adults associated with double quotidian fevers. Highly elevated serum ferritin levels are the most important nonspecific diagnostic finding associated with adult JRA. We present a case of FUO caused by adult JRA presenting with diffuse polyarticular migrating arthritis, evanescent rash, and splenomegaly. The diagnosis of adult JRA was suggested by these findings in association with a double quotidian fever and a highly elevated serum ferritin level. Clinicians should appreciate the diagnostic significance of fever patterns and the diagnostic significance of elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO.

  20. Computed tomography (CT) observation of pulmonary emboli caused by long-term administration of ivermectin in dogs experimentally infected with heartworms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuto; Yamada, Kazutaka; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Maeda, Ryuichiro

    2008-08-17

    Some studies have reported the adulticidal effect of long-term ivermectin (IVM) administration on adult heartworms in canines; however, there are no detailed reports on the course of the pulmonary artery embolism caused by the bodies of dead heartworms during the administration period. In this study, the pulmonary embolism caused over time by the dead worms was observed using computed tomography (CT). We subcutaneously inoculated 2 beagles with 100 infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. The dogs were orally administered a formulation containing 272 microg of IVM and 652 mg of pyrantel pamoate (Panamectin Chewables P272; Meiji Seika, Tokyo, Japan) at monthly intervals, beginning from 10 months after the subcutaneous inoculation. Along with IVM administration, periodic CT examination of the chest was performed. At 15 months after the initiation of IVM administration, the dogs were euthanized, the living heartworms were collected, and histopathological examination was performed. Starting from 1 month after the IVM administration, peripheral dilation of the pulmonary artery (suspected to be pulmonary embolism) and pneumonia were observed in the CT images; however, these findings improved over time. The appearance and disappearance of these lesions were observed in all the lobes during the IVM administration period. During this period, the clinical symptoms of pulmonary embolism were not recognized. After 1 month of IVM administration, chest radiographic examination revealed radiopaque lesions in 1 dog. Only some of the lesions detected by CT could be detected by radiography. Using echocardiography, heartworms were observed in the pulmonary arteries of both dogs from 6 months after subcutaneous inoculation to the end of the study period. Microfilaria disappeared from the peripheral blood at 1 month after IVM administration in 1 dog, and at 7 months in the other dog. The adult heartworm antigen test yielded positive results starting from 6 months after

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of intra-cochlear administration of methylprednisolone after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sendowski, I; Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Cros, A; Clarençon, D

    2006-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of cochlear infusion of methylprednisolone (MP) after an impulse noise trauma (170dB SPL peak) was evaluated in guinea pigs. The compound action potential threshold shifts were measured over a 14 days recovery period after the gunshot exposure. For each animal, one of the cochlea was perfused directly into the scala tympani with MP during 7 days via a mini-osmotic pump, whereas the other cochlea was not pump-implanted. The functional study of hearing was supplemented by histological analysis. Forty eight hours after the trauma, significant differences between auditory threshold shifts in the implanted and non-implanted ears were observed for frequencies above 8kHz. At day 7, the difference was significant for only one frequency and no difference was observed after 14 days recovery. Cochleograms showed that the hair cell losses were significantly lower in the MP treated ears. This work indicates that direct infusion of MP into perilymphatic space accelerates hearing recovery, reduces hair cell losses after impulse noise trauma but does not limit permanent threshold shifts. PMID:17008037

  2. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  3. Impairment of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes caused by 5-FU catabolites can be compensated by administration of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lischke, Julia; Lang, Christine; Sawodny, Oliver; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Identification of patients with increased risk of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related toxicity is an important challenge for cancer treatment. Research often focus on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) deficiency in this context. However, patients with normal DPYD activity may also develop life-threatening 5-FU adverse effects. DPYD initiates the catabolic route of 5-FU generating metabolites such as fluoroacetate (FAC). The catabolite FAC is known to inhibit the TCA cycle enzyme aconitase, which is supposed to impair mitochondrial energy metabolism. Therefore, we aim for a systems understanding of the association of 5-FU-related cardiac side effects with aconitase inhibition caused by FAC. Using a mitochondrial model of cardiomyocytes we found strong depletion of ATP production and citrate accumulation as main effects of aconitase inhibition. Shadow price analysis revealed that the uptakes of valine, arginine, proline and glutamate are most effective in compensating the impairment of energy metabolism. Our findings suggest that 5-FU catabolism contributes to the occurrence of cardiac adverse effects and are the basis for further biomarker identifications and development of side effect treatment. PMID:26737503

  4. How Much Calcium Is in Your Drinking Water? A Survey of Calcium Concentrations in Bottled and Tap Water and Their Significance for Medical Treatment and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Cuartas, Esteban; Alwattar, Basil

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Different forms of water vary in calcium content. High divalent ion (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, etc.) concentration is deleterious to the absorption and efficacy of the bisphosphonate group of drugs in osteoporosis treatment. Water with high calcium concentration may also present an alternate pathway of calcium administration. In either case, knowing the actual concentration is critical. Hypothesis The current paper is a surveillance study. We hypothesize that there is considerable variation in the calcium concentrations in the various water sources: tap water from US and Canadian cities of different regions and purified, spring, and mineral bottled waters. In addition, we hypothesize that the water filter removes a significant amount of minerals including calcium from the water. Methodology Calcium concentrations in various city tap waters, as well as an assorted number of bottled waters, were determined through the direct inspection of scientific data. The effect of filtering was also determined by mineral analysis of mineral water directly before and after filtration. Result The calcium concentration of water varies from 1 to 135 mg/L across the USA and Canada. Most spring waters were found to have a relatively low calcium concentration, with an average of 21.8 mg/L. Purified waters contain a negligible calcium concentration. Mineral waters, on the other hand, were generally found to contain higher calcium concentrations, an average of 208 mg/L of calcium. Filtration was found to remove a considerable amount of calcium from the water, removing 89% on average. Conclusion Calcium concentration in water varied substantially from different sources in the USA and Canada. Bottled waters presented with concentrations of calcium covering a very large range. Certain tap and bottled waters present with concentrations of calcium sufficient to exhibit a deleterious effect on bisphosphonate treatment. Alternatively, certain waters may be used as a source of calcium

  5. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Houlden, Ashley; Hayes, Kelly S.; Bancroft, Allison J.; Worthington, John J.; Wang, Ping; Grencis, Richard K.; Roberts, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris species are a globally important and prevalent group of intestinal helminth parasites, in which Trichuris muris (mouse whipworm) is an ideal model for this disease. This paper describes the first ever highly controlled and comprehensive investigation into the effects of T. muris infection on the faecal microbiota of mice and the effects on the microbiota following successful clearance of the infection. Communities were profiled using DGGE, 454 pyrosequencing, and metabolomics. Changes in microbial composition occurred between 14 and 28 days post infection, resulting in significant changes in α and β- diversity. This impact was dominated by a reduction in the diversity and abundance of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella and Parabacteroides. Metabolomic analysis of stool samples of infected mice at day 41 showed significant differences to uninfected controls with a significant increase in the levels of a number of essential amino acids and a reduction in breakdown of dietary plant derived carbohydrates. The significant reduction in weight gain by infected mice probably reflects these metabolic changes and the incomplete digestion of dietary polysaccharides. Following clearance of infection the intestinal microbiota underwent additional changes gradually transitioning by day 91 towards a microbiota of an uninfected animal. These data indicate that the changes in microbiota as a consequence of infection were transitory requiring the presence of the pathogen for maintenance. Interestingly this was not observed for all of the key immune cell populations associated with chronic T. muris infection. This reflects the highly regulated chronic response and potential lasting immunological consequences of dysbiosis in the microbiota. Thus infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiota and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation. PMID:25938477

  6. Cellular Composition of the Spleen and Changes in Splenic Lysosomes in the Dynamics of Dyslipidemia in Mice Caused by Repeated Administration of Poloxamer 407.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, N V; Shurlygina, A V; Mel'nikova, E V; Karmatskikh, O L; Avrorov, P A; Loktev, K V; Korolenko, T A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg twice a week for 30 days) on cellular composition of the spleen and splenocyte lysosomes in mice. Changes in blood lipid profile included elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, aterogenic LDL, and triglycerides most pronounced in 24 h after the last poloxamer 407 injection; gradual normalization of lipid profile was observed in 4 days (except triglycerides) and 10 days. The most pronounced changes in the spleen (increase in organ weight and number of cells, inhibition in apoptosis, and reduced accumulation of vital dye acridine orange in lysosomes) were detected on day 4; on day 10, the indices returned to normal. Cathepsin D activity in the spleen also increased at these terms. The relationship between changes in the cellular composition of the spleen and dynamics of serum lipid profile in mice in dyslipidemia caused by repeated administrations of relatively low doses of poloxamer 407 is discussed.

  7. Cellular Composition of the Spleen and Changes in Splenic Lysosomes in the Dynamics of Dyslipidemia in Mice Caused by Repeated Administration of Poloxamer 407.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, N V; Shurlygina, A V; Mel'nikova, E V; Karmatskikh, O L; Avrorov, P A; Loktev, K V; Korolenko, T A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg twice a week for 30 days) on cellular composition of the spleen and splenocyte lysosomes in mice. Changes in blood lipid profile included elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, aterogenic LDL, and triglycerides most pronounced in 24 h after the last poloxamer 407 injection; gradual normalization of lipid profile was observed in 4 days (except triglycerides) and 10 days. The most pronounced changes in the spleen (increase in organ weight and number of cells, inhibition in apoptosis, and reduced accumulation of vital dye acridine orange in lysosomes) were detected on day 4; on day 10, the indices returned to normal. Cathepsin D activity in the spleen also increased at these terms. The relationship between changes in the cellular composition of the spleen and dynamics of serum lipid profile in mice in dyslipidemia caused by repeated administrations of relatively low doses of poloxamer 407 is discussed. PMID:26608379

  8. Dexamethasone Rescues Neurovascular Unit Integrity from Cell Damage Caused by Systemic Administration of Shiga Toxin 2 and Lipopolysaccharide in Mice Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Alipio; Jacobsen, Mariana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Cejudo, María Laura; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) that can lead to fatal encephalopathies. Neurological abnormalities may occur before or after the onset of systemic pathological symptoms and motor disorders are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models. As Stx2 succeeds in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invading the brain parenchyma, it is highly probable that the observed neurological alterations are based on the possibility that the toxin may trigger the impairment of the neurovascular unit and/or cell damage in the parenchyma. Also, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced and secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) may aggravate the deleterious effects of Stx2 in the brain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (i) whether Stx2 affects the neurovascular unit and parenchymal cells, (ii) whether the contribution of LPS aggravates these effects, and (iii) whether an inflammatory event underlies the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the observed injury. The administration of a sub-lethal dose of Stx2 was employed to study in detail the motor cortex obtained from a translational murine model of encephalopathy. In the present paper we report that Stx2 damaged microvasculature, caused astrocyte reaction and neuronal degeneration, and that this was aggravated by LPS. Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory, reversed the pathologic effects and proved to be an important drug in the treatment of acute encephalopathies. PMID:23894578

  9. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  10. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. PMID:25168960

  11. Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of cancer?

    PubMed

    Jackson, J D

    1992-04-15

    The putative causal relation between ambient low-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (necessarily present in living and working environments because of our ever increasing use of electrical devices) and cancer, especially leukemia, can be tested on the large scale by examining historical data on the growth of the generation and consumption of electric power since 1900 and corresponding data on cancer death and incidence rates. The United States per capita generation and residential consumption of electric power have grown roughly exponentially since 1900; total per capita generation has increased by a factor of 10 since 1940, and per capita residential consumption has increased by a factor of 20 in the same period. The ubiquitous stray fields from power distribution lines and internal and external wiring in buildings have grown in the same proportions. In contrast to the explosive increase in the generation and use of electricity, the age-adjusted cancer death rate for the population as a whole shows only a slight rise since 1900. When respiratory cancers (largely caused by tobacco use) are subtracted, the remaining death rate has actually fallen since 1940. That the death rate may have fallen because of better diagnosis and treatment, despite a rising incidence rate, is not substantiated, especially for leukemia, including childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate has been constant or declining slightly for the past 25 yr. The absence of any appreciable change in the national cancer incidence rates during a period in which residential use of electric power has increased dramatically shows that the associated stray 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields pose no significant hazard to the average individual. PMID:1565645

  12. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  13. Clinical significance of the administration of cytarabine or thiotepa in addition to total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Hagihara, Maki; Kawasaki, Rika; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Koharazawa, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Jun; Tomita, Naoto; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Sakai, Rika; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Shin; Maruta, Atsuo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2015-10-01

    A multicenter retrospective study was performed to determine the significance of adding cytarabine (CA) or thiotepa (TT) in the context of total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide (CY). A total of 322 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were distributed to the following three groups: TBI/CY (n = 75), TBI/CY/CA (n = 77), and TBI/CY/TT (n = 170). In the TBI/CY/TT group, 164 of patients (96 %) received HCT during the previous year (2000-2005). Multivariate analysis revealed that the TBI/CY/TT group demonstrated a trend of poorer survival rate than the TBI/CY group, [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.99-2.24, P = 0.055] with a higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.35-4.06, P = 0.002) rates, while TBI/CY/CA group demonstrated similar outcomes. Even in the subgroup analyses of disease type or disease risk, the outcomes with intensified conditioning regimens were not superior to those with TBI/CY. In conclusion, although the significant bias has to be carefully considered, the clinical benefit of adding CA or TT to the TBI/CY regimen was not demonstrated.

  14. ALS-Causing Mutations Significantly Perturb the Self-Assembly and Interaction with Nucleic Acid of the Intrinsically Disordered Prion-Like Domain of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liangzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) C-terminus encodes a prion-like domain widely presented in RNA-binding proteins, which functions to form dynamic oligomers and also, amazingly, hosts most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations. Here, as facilitated by our previous discovery, by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have successfully determined conformations, dynamics, and self-associations of the full-length prion-like domains of the wild type and three ALS-causing mutants (A315E, Q331K, and M337V) in both aqueous solutions and membrane environments. The study decodes the following: (1) The TDP-43 prion-like domain is intrinsically disordered only with some nascent secondary structures in aqueous solutions, but owns the capacity to assemble into dynamic oligomers rich in β-sheet structures. By contrast, despite having highly similar conformations, three mutants gained the ability to form amyloid oligomers. The wild type and three mutants all formed amyloid fibrils after incubation as imaged by electron microscopy. (2) The interaction with nucleic acid enhances the self-assembly for the wild type but triggers quick aggregation for three mutants. (3) A membrane-interacting subdomain has been identified over residues Met311-Gln343 indispensable for TDP-43 neurotoxicity, which transforms into a well-folded Ω-loop-helix structure in membrane environments. Furthermore, despite having very similar membrane-embedded conformations, three mutants will undergo further self-association in the membrane environment. Our study implies that the TDP-43 prion-like domain appears to have an energy landscape, which allows the assembly of the wild-type sequence into dynamic oligomers only under very limited condition sets, and ALS-causing point mutations are sufficient to remodel it to more favor the amyloid formation or irreversible aggregation, thus supporting the emerging view that the pathologic aggregation

  15. How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Using the Intravenous Administration of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to Identify Key Cognitive Mechanisms Leading to Paranoia

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M.; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M.; Harrison, Paul J.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis—∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. PMID:25031222

  16. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences.

  17. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. PMID:25031222

  18. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  19. Single Low Dose Primaquine (0.25mg/kg) Does Not Cause Clinically Significant Haemolysis in G6PD Deficient Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bancone, Germana; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Somsakchaicharoen, Raweewan; Poodpanya, Lalita; Moo, Paw Khu; Gornsawun, Gornpan; Kajeechiwa, Ladda; Thwin, May Myo; Rakthinthong, Santisuk; Nosten, Suphak; Thinraow, Suradet; Nyo, Slight Naw; Ling, Clare L.; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Kiricharoen, Naw Lily; Moore, Kerryn A.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background Primaquine is the only drug consistently effective against mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The transmission blocking dose of primaquine previously recommended was 0.75mg/kg (adult dose 45mg) but its deployment was limited because of concerns over haemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an inherited X-linked enzymatic defect that affects an estimated 400 million people around the world with high frequencies (15–20%) in populations living in malarious areas. To reduce transmission in low transmission settings and facilitate elimination of P. falciparum, the World Health Organization now recommends adding a single dose of 0.25mg/kg (adult dose 15mg) to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) without G6PD testing. Direct evidence of the safety of this low dose is lacking. Adverse events and haemoglobin variations after this treatment were assessed in both G6PD normal and deficient subjects in the context of targeted malaria elimination in a malaria endemic area on the North-Western Myanmar-Thailand border where prevalence of G6PD deficiency (Mahidol variant) approximates 15%. Methods and Findings The tolerability and safety of primaquine (single dose 0.25 mg base/kg) combined with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) given three times at monthly intervals was assessed in 819 subjects. Haemoglobin concentrations were estimated over the six months preceding the ACT + primaquine rounds of mass drug administration. G6PD deficiency was assessed with a phenotypic test and genotyping was performed in male subjects with deficient phenotypes and in all females. Fractional haemoglobin changes in relation to G6PD phenotype and genotype and primaquine round were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. No adverse events related to primaquine were reported during the trial. Mean fractional haemoglobin changes after each primaquine treatment in G6PD deficient subjects (-5

  20. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  1. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

  2. Exploring the structural and functional effect of pRB by significant nsSNP in the coding region of RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we identified the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene through structural and functional properties of its protein (pRB) and investigated its binding affinity with E2F-2. Out of 956 SNPs, we investigated 12 nsSNPs in coding region in which three of them (SNPids rs3092895, rs3092903 and rs3092905) are commonly found to be damaged by I-Mutant 2.0, SIFT and PolyPhen programs. With this effort, we modeled the mutant pRB proteins based on these deleterious nsSNPs. From a comparison of total energy, stabilizing residues and RMSD of these three mutant proteins with native pRB protein, we identified that the major mutation is from Glutamic acid to Glycine at the residue position of 746 of pRB. Further, we compared the binding efficiency of both native and mutant pRB (E746G) with E2F-2. We found that mutant pRB has less binding affinity with E2F-2 as compared to native type. This is due to sixteen hydrogen bonding and two salt bridges that exist between native type and E2F-2, whereas mutant type makes only thirteen hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge with E2F-2. Based on our investigation, we propose that the SNP with an id rs3092905 could be the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

  3. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning. PMID:9627509

  4. NF-κB inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-11-15

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-κB with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-κB in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-κB antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-κB inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  5. Will weight loss cause significant dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuanben; Fei, Zhaodong; Chen, Lisha; Bai, Penggang; Lin, Xiang; Pan, Jianji

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to quantify dosimetric effects of weight loss for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Overall, 25 patients with NPC treated with IMRT were enrolled. We simulated weight loss during IMRT on the computer. Weight loss model was based on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. The original external contour of head and neck was labeled plan 0, and its volume was regarded as pretreatment normal weight. We shrank the external contour with different margins (2, 3, and 5 mm) and generated new external contours of head and neck. The volumes of reconstructed external contours were regarded as weight during radiotherapy. After recontouring outlines, the initial treatment plan was mapped to the redefined CT scans with the same beam configurations, yielding new plans. The computer model represented a theoretical proportional weight loss of 3.4% to 13.7% during the course of IMRT. The dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) of primary gross tumor volume and clinical target volume significantly increased by 1.9% to 2.9% and 1.8% to 2.9% because of weight loss, respectively. The dose to the PTV of gross tumor volume of lymph nodes fluctuated from −2.0% to 1.0%. The dose to the brain stem and the spinal cord was increased (p < 0.001), whereas the dose to the parotid gland was decreased (p < 0.001). Weight loss may lead to significant dosimetric change during IMRT. Repeated scanning and replanning for patients with NPC with an obvious weight loss may be necessary.

  6. Rare allele of OsPPKL1 associated with grain length causes extra-large grain and a significant yield increase in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianfei; Huang, Ji; Lan, Hongxia; Wang, Cailin; Yin, Congfei; Wu, Yunyu; Tang, Haijuan; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Grain size and shape are important components determining rice grain yield, and they are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a major grain length QTL, qGL3, which encodes a putative protein phosphatase with Kelch-like repeat domain (OsPPKL1). We found a rare allele qgl3 that leads to a long grain phenotype by an aspartate-to-glutamate transition in a conserved AVLDT motif of the second Kelch domain in OsPPKL1. The rice genome has other two OsPPKL1 homologs, OsPPKL2 and OsPPKL3. Transgenic studies showed that OsPPKL1 and OsPPKL3 function as negative regulators of grain length, whereas OsPPKL2 as a positive regulator. The Kelch domains are essential for the OsPPKL1 biological function. Field trials showed that the application of the qgl3 allele could significantly increase grain yield in both inbred and hybrid rice varieties, due to its favorable effect on grain length, filling, and weight. PMID:23236132

  7. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures.

  8. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  9. Numerical study identifying the factors causing the significant underestimation of the specific discharge estimated using the modified integral pumping test method in a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kerang

    2015-09-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to simulate the experimental conditions presented in a paper published in this journal [Goltz et al., 2009. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 106 (2009) 51-61] where the modified integral pumping test (MIPT) method was found to significantly underestimate the specific discharge in an artificial aquifer. The numerical model closely replicates the experimental configuration with explicit representation of the pumping well column and skin, allowing for the model to simulate the wellbore flow in the pumping well as an integral part of the porous media flow in the aquifer using the equivalent hydraulic conductivity approach. The equivalent hydraulic conductivity is used to account for head losses due to friction within the wellbore of the pumping well. Applying the MIPT method on the model simulated piezometric heads resulted in a specific discharge that underestimates the true specific discharge in the experimental aquifer by 18.8%, compared with the 57% underestimation of mass flux by the experiment reported by Goltz et al. (2009). Alternative simulation shows that the numerical model is capable of approximately replicating the experiment results when the equivalent hydraulic conductivity is reduced by an order of magnitude, suggesting that the accuracy of the MIPT estimation could be improved by expanding the physical meaning of the equivalent hydraulic conductivity to account for other factors such as orifice losses in addition to frictional losses within the wellbore. Numerical experiments also show that when applying the MIPT method to estimate hydraulic parameters, use of depth-integrated piezometric head instead of the head near the pump intake can reduce the estimation error resulting from well losses, but not the error associated with the well not being fully screened.

  10. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making.

    PubMed

    Broos, Nienke; Loonstra, Rhianne; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the reduction of impulsive decision making. Therefore, this study explored whether subchronic atomoxetine treatment can reduce relapse vulnerability by reducing impulsive decision making. Rats were trained in the delayed reward task and were subjected to 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration. Following drug self-administration, animals were divided to different experimental groups and received the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine or vehicle subchronically for 20 days. On days 1 and 10 after treatment cessation, a context-induced reinstatement test was performed. Throughout the entire experiment, changes in impulsive decision making were continuously monitored. Subchronic treatment with atomoxetine reduced context-induced reinstatement both 1 and 10 days after treatment cessation, only in animals receiving no extinction training. Interestingly, neither subchronic nor acute atomoxetine treatments affected impulsive decision making. Our data indicate that the enduring reduction in relapse sensitivity by atomoxetine occurred independent of a reduction in impulsive decision making. Nonetheless, repeated atomoxetine administration seems a promising pharmacotherapeutical strategy to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking in abstinent drug-dependent subjects.

  11. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making.

    PubMed

    Broos, Nienke; Loonstra, Rhianne; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the reduction of impulsive decision making. Therefore, this study explored whether subchronic atomoxetine treatment can reduce relapse vulnerability by reducing impulsive decision making. Rats were trained in the delayed reward task and were subjected to 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration. Following drug self-administration, animals were divided to different experimental groups and received the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine or vehicle subchronically for 20 days. On days 1 and 10 after treatment cessation, a context-induced reinstatement test was performed. Throughout the entire experiment, changes in impulsive decision making were continuously monitored. Subchronic treatment with atomoxetine reduced context-induced reinstatement both 1 and 10 days after treatment cessation, only in animals receiving no extinction training. Interestingly, neither subchronic nor acute atomoxetine treatments affected impulsive decision making. Our data indicate that the enduring reduction in relapse sensitivity by atomoxetine occurred independent of a reduction in impulsive decision making. Nonetheless, repeated atomoxetine administration seems a promising pharmacotherapeutical strategy to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking in abstinent drug-dependent subjects. PMID:25056833

  12. A Single Amphetamine Infusion Reverses Deficits in Dopamine Nerve-Terminal Function Caused by a History of Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Rose, Jamie H; Siciliano, Cody A; Sun, Haiguo; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R

    2015-01-01

    There are ∼1.6 million people who meet the criteria for cocaine addiction in the United States, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine-based dopamine-releasing drugs have shown efficacy in reducing the motivation to self-administer cocaine and reducing intake in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that amphetamine acts as a replacement therapy for cocaine through elevation of extracellular dopamine levels. Using voltammetry in brain slices, we tested the ability of a single amphetamine infusion in vivo to modulate dopamine release, uptake kinetics, and cocaine potency in cocaine-naive animals and after a history of cocaine self-administration (1.5 mg/kg/infusion, fixed-ratio 1, 40 injections/day × 5 days). Dopamine kinetics were measured 1 and 24 h after amphetamine infusion (0.56 mg/kg, i.v.). Following cocaine self-administration, dopamine release, maximal rate of uptake (Vmax), and membrane-associated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were reduced, and the DAT was less sensitive to cocaine. A single amphetamine infusion reduced Vmax and membrane DAT levels in cocaine-naive animals, but fully restored all aspects of dopamine terminal function in cocaine self-administering animals. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate pharmacologically induced, immediate rescue of deficits in dopamine nerve-terminal function in animals with a history of high-dose cocaine self-administration. This observation supports the notion that the DAT expression and function can be modulated on a rapid timescale and also suggests that the pharmacotherapeutic actions of amphetamine for cocaine addiction go beyond that of replacement therapy. PMID:25689882

  13. A Single Amphetamine Infusion Reverses Deficits in Dopamine Nerve-Terminal Function Caused by a History of Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Rose, Jamie H; Siciliano, Cody A; Sun, Haiguo; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R

    2015-07-01

    There are ∼ 1.6 million people who meet the criteria for cocaine addiction in the United States, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine-based dopamine-releasing drugs have shown efficacy in reducing the motivation to self-administer cocaine and reducing intake in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that amphetamine acts as a replacement therapy for cocaine through elevation of extracellular dopamine levels. Using voltammetry in brain slices, we tested the ability of a single amphetamine infusion in vivo to modulate dopamine release, uptake kinetics, and cocaine potency in cocaine-naive animals and after a history of cocaine self-administration (1.5 mg/kg/infusion, fixed-ratio 1, 40 injections/day × 5 days). Dopamine kinetics were measured 1 and 24 h after amphetamine infusion (0.56 mg/kg, i.v.). Following cocaine self-administration, dopamine release, maximal rate of uptake (Vmax), and membrane-associated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were reduced, and the DAT was less sensitive to cocaine. A single amphetamine infusion reduced Vmax and membrane DAT levels in cocaine-naive animals, but fully restored all aspects of dopamine terminal function in cocaine self-administering animals. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate pharmacologically induced, immediate rescue of deficits in dopamine nerve-terminal function in animals with a history of high-dose cocaine self-administration. This observation supports the notion that the DAT expression and function can be modulated on a rapid timescale and also suggests that the pharmacotherapeutic actions of amphetamine for cocaine addiction go beyond that of replacement therapy. PMID:25689882

  14. [Effect of dexamethasone on vascular pain caused by the administration of fosaprepitant dimeglumine and epirubicin hydrochloride in patients with primary breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Keita; Kiba, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Kimoto, Shizue; Kajiume, Sayoko; Okada, Yuuko; Morii, Nao; Takahashi, Hirotoshi; Ichiba, Yasunori; Yamashiro, Hiroyasu

    2014-10-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride injection is indicated as a therapy for patients with primary breast cancer. This drug has been reclassified as a drug with high emetic potential according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines for Antiemetics in Oncology. Therefore, patients who receive this agent should also receive fosaprepitant dimeglumine, an anti-emetic agent. However, it has been reported that fosaprepitant induces vascular pain when used in anthracycline-based regimens administered via the peripheral veins. In order to relieve the fosaprepitant and epirubicin-induced vascular pain associated with vasculitis, dexamethasone was administered at the onset of vascular pain. There is a possibility that the fosaprepitant and epirubicin-induced pain may improve owing to the administration of dexamethasone; however, further trials are required to confirm the effect of this method. PMID:25335710

  15. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  16. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  17. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats.

  18. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  19. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

  20. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  1. [Underlying dysbiosis may be the cause of some forms of IBS. Patients were free of symptoms after the administration of microbiota].

    PubMed

    Benno, Peter; Befrits, Ragnar; Berstad, Arnold; Dahlgren, Atti-La; Norin, Elisabeth; Midtvedt, Tore

    2015-06-02

    Two cases of post-infectious IBS were successfully treated with transplantation of an anaerobic cultivated human intestinal microbiota. This suggests that a dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota could be the culprit at least in some cases of IBS. Resetting the gut microbiota might be a possible solution for these patients that otherwise may face a life-long reduction in quality of life. Studies have suggested that conditions as varied as chronic constipation, metabolic syndrome, autoimmunity, asthma, cardiovascular disease and Crohn's disease may be caused by intestinal dysbiosis. If this is the case we would like to suggest a new term: Dysbiotic Bowel Syndrome (DBS).

  2. Caustic burn caused by intradermal self administration of muriatic acid for suicidal attempt: optimal wound healing and functional recovery with a non surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    FINO, P.; SPAGNOLI, A.M.; RUGGIERI, M.; ONESTI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Caustic burns are burns of third and fourth degree caused by strong acids or strong bases. Muriatic acid is often used for suicidal attempt by ingestion. We describe a case of a caustic skin lesion caused by intravenous failed attempt of suicide by injection of Muriatic acid in a woman affected with bipolar-syndrome. Generally, caustic burns are treated by cleansing, escarectomy and coverage with skin grafts. Case report We treated the patient with a non invasive technique with collagenase and hyaluronic acid sodium salt cream (Bionect start®), hyaluronic acid-based matrix (Hyalomatrix®) and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy®. Results We obtained complete healing in 6 weeks. Conclusions Combined use of non invasive techniques seems to ensure only advantages for both the patients and the Health System. It reduces health care costs and risks for the patients such as nosocomial infections. Patient’s compliance is high, as its quality of life. Complete healing of the wound is fast and recovery of function is full. PMID:26712258

  3. Interventions delivered in clinical settings are effective in reducing risk of HIV transmission among people living with HIV: results from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)'s Special Projects of National Significance initiative.

    PubMed

    Myers, Janet J; Shade, Starley B; Rose, Carol Dawson; Koester, Kimberly; Maiorana, Andre; Malitz, Faye E; Bie, Jennifer; Kang-Dufour, Mi-Suk; Morin, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    To support expanded prevention services for people living with HIV, the US Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) sponsored a 5-year initiative to test whether interventions delivered in clinical settings were effective in reducing HIV transmission risk among HIV-infected patients. Across 13 demonstration sites, patients were randomized to one of four conditions. All interventions were associated with reduced unprotected vaginal and/or anal intercourse with persons of HIV-uninfected or unknown status among the 3,556 participating patients. Compared to the standard of care, patients assigned to receive interventions from medical care providers reported a significant decrease in risk after 12 months of participation. Patients receiving prevention services from health educators, social workers or paraprofessional HIV-infected peers reported significant reduction in risk at 6 months, but not at 12 months. While clinics have a choice of effective models for implementing prevention programs for their HIV-infected patients, medical provider-delivered methods are comparatively robust.

  4. Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas JH; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdulla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda LC; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R.; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B.William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that to date this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target the

  5. Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas J H; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda L C; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2011-12-01

    Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence, the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research, the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate that buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that, to date, this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target

  6. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  7. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  8. The Significance of National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation in Elevating Quality of Early Childhood Education: Administrators', Teachers', and Parents' Beliefs about Accreditation and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardanyan, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The following is a doctoral dissertation that studied administrators', teachers', and parents' perceptions and attitudes related to an early childhood center/preschool accreditation experience. A qualitative case study of one preschool center focused on the influence that the decision to pursue accreditation and implement the National Association…

  9. Neither moderate hypoxia nor mild hypoglycaemia alone causes any significant increase in cerebral [Ca2+]i: only a combination of the two insults has this effect. A 31P and 19F NMR study.

    PubMed

    Badar-Goffer, R S; Thatcher, N M; Morris, P G; Bachelard, H S

    1993-12-01

    (1) The energy state and free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of superfused cortical slices were measured in moderate hypoxia (approximately 65 microM O2), in mild hypoglycaemia (0.5 mM glucose), and in combinations of the two insults using 19F and 31P NMR spectroscopy. (2) Neither hypoxia nor hypoglycaemia alone caused any significant change in [Ca2+]i. Hypoxia caused a 40% fall in phosphocreatine (PCr) content but not in ATP level, and hypoglycaemia produced a slight fall in both (as expected from previous studies). These changes in the energy state recovered on return to control conditions. (3) A combined sequential insult (hypoxia, followed by hypoxia plus hypoglycaemia) produced a 100% increase in [Ca2+]i and a decrease in PCr level to approximately 25% of control. The reverse combined sequential insult (hypoglycaemia, followed by hypoglycaemia plus hypoxia) had the same effect. On return to control conditions there was some decrease in [Ca2+]i and a small increase in PCr content, but neither recovered to control levels. (4) Exposure of the tissue to the combined simultaneous insult (hypoxia plus hypoglycaemia) immediately after the control spectra had been recorded resulted in a fivefold increase in [Ca2+]i and a similar decrease in PCr level to 20-25% of control. There was little if any change of [Ca2+]i or PCr level on return to control conditions. (5) These results are discussed in terms of metabolic adaptation of some but not all of the cortical cells to the single type of insult, which renders the tissues less vulnerable to the combined insult.

  10. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs. PMID:27580103

  11. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

  12. Arterial hypoxemia caused by intravenous ketamine.

    PubMed

    Zsigmond, E K; Matsuki, A; Kothary, S P; Jallad, M

    1976-01-01

    Ketamine given IV in a dose of 2 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in Pao2 in 7 patients spontaneously breathing with an unassisted airway. Under the same conditions, in 7 patients, ketamine (2 mg/kg IV) preceded by diazepam (0.2 mg/kg IV) also caused a reduction in Pao2 not significantly different from that caused by ketamine. In some patients, alarmingly low levels of Pao2 ( less than or equal to 40 torr) were seen following ketamine administration. Based on these findings, the authors recommend that O2 and ventilatory assistance accompany ketamine given IV for anesthesia.

  13. How to Use SNP_TATA_Comparator to Find a Significant Change in Gene Expression Caused by the Regulatory SNP of This Gene's Promoter via a Change in Affinity of the TATA-Binding Protein for This Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Arkova, Olga; Ponomarenko, Petr; Suslov, Valentin; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomedical SNP markers of diseases can improve effectiveness of treatment. Genotyping of patients with subsequent searching for SNPs more frequent than in norm is the only commonly accepted method for identification of SNP markers within the framework of translational research. The bioinformatics applications aimed at millions of unannotated SNPs of the “1000 Genomes” can make this search for SNP markers more focused and less expensive. We used our Web service involving Fisher's Z-score for candidate SNP markers to find a significant change in a gene's expression. Here we analyzed the change caused by SNPs in the gene's promoter via a change in affinity of the TATA-binding protein for this promoter. We provide examples and discuss how to use this bioinformatics application in the course of practical analysis of unannotated SNPs from the “1000 Genomes” project. Using known biomedical SNP markers, we identified 17 novel candidate SNP markers nearby: rs549858786 (rheumatoid arthritis); rs72661131 (cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis); rs562962093 (stroke); rs563558831 (cyclophosphamide bioactivation); rs55878706 (malaria resistance, leukopenia), rs572527200 (asthma, systemic sclerosis, and psoriasis), rs371045754 (hemophilia B), rs587745372 (cardiovascular events); rs372329931, rs200209906, rs367732974, and rs549591993 (all four: cancer); rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis); rs63750953, rs281864525, and rs34166473 (all three: malaria resistance, thalassemia). PMID:26516624

  14. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  15. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  16. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  17. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  18. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  20. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  1. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T.; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  2. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation. PMID:19730868

  3. Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M.; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2013-12-01

    Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health.

  4. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  5. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  6. Reducing nurse medicine administration errors.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Rose; Jarrett, Patricia

    Errors in administering medicines are common and can compromise the safety of patients. This review discusses the causes of drug administration error in hospitals by student and registered nurses, and the practical measures educators and hospitals can take to improve nurses' knowledge and skills in medicines management, and reduce drug errors.

  7. Increasing Faculty and Administrative Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Jack F.

    A unified approach to identifying and solving the fundamental problems that prevent colleges and universities from responding effectively to new demands is presented. It demonstrates the underlying causes of institutional problems using case study examples of administrators and faculty members in their institutions. Chapter 1, "Current Approaches…

  8. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  9. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  10. Stress and Educational Administration: Variations in Stress Factors across Administrative Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Cynthia R.; Fraas, John W.

    Factors and perceptions of stress in educational administration are examined in this report. A survey of 86 administrators in Richland County, Ohio, in which the Administrative Stress Index was used to explore causes of stress and to rate the severity of each stressor, yielded a 97 percent response rate. Results were statistically analyzed for…

  11. The Administrator as Superhero: A Commentary on Balkin and Mello's "Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    As a way to achieve better alignment of the ongoing teaching-research activity gap in business schools, David Balkin and Jeff Mello suggest that schools need to hire academic administrators with significantly developed management skills. The author responds to this recommendation with two concerns. First, many of the causes of the…

  12. Impact of an electronic medication administration record on medication administration efficiency and errors.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jeffery; Riingen, Michelle; Chae Kim, Son

    2014-12-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the impact of electronic medication administration record implementation on medication administration efficiency and occurrence of medication errors as well as to identify the predictors of medication administration efficiency in an acute care setting. A prospective, observational study utilizing time-and-motion technique was conducted before and after electronic medication administration record implementation in November 2011. A total of 156 cases of medication administration activities (78 pre- and 78 post-electronic medication administration record) involving 38 nurses were observed at the point of care. A separate retrospective review of the hospital Midas+ medication error database was also performed to collect the rates and origin of medication errors for 6 months before and after electronic medication administration record implementation. The mean medication administration time actually increased from 11.3 to 14.4 minutes post-electronic medication administration record (P = .039). In a multivariate analysis, electronic medication administration record was not a predictor of medication administration time, but the distractions/interruptions during medication administration process were significant predictors. The mean hospital-wide medication errors significantly decreased from 11.0 to 5.3 events per month post-electronic medication administration record (P = .034). Although no improvement in medication administration efficiency was observed, electronic medication administration record improved the quality of care with a significant decrease in medication errors.

  13. A Conceptual Understanding of Administrative Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    Since 1980, over 70 studies have explored the causes, responses, and consequences of administrative stress. Few studies have used physiological measures to decipher administrative reactions and consequences of stress. This document briefly traces the historical development of stress and reviews various approaches, models, and definitions used in…

  14. Administrative Managers--A Critical Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Institutional responses to changes in the higher education environment have caused movements in the roles and identities of administrative managers in UK universities. These shifts have highlighted the problem for individuals of balancing traditional public service considerations of administration with institutional innovation and development.…

  15. 77 FR 11149 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... advises of the cause and description of administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board... in the Federal Register a description of and the cause for administrative action against a mortgagee... FHA approval of Action Mortgage Corporation (``AMC''). Cause: The Board took this action based on...

  16. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A...

  17. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  18. The Significance of Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2007-01-01

    The education of pragmatics is necessary and important in our globalized world. The reason is that English is currently used by people in the world for interaction and communication with each other in order to do international trade or participate in the academic conferences (McKay, 2002). For avoiding miscommunication caused by cultural…

  19. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  20. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Manfred W.; Cummins, Martin J.; Bennett, Alayne L.; Cummins, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNα therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  1. The Reagan Administration's EEO Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    The Reagan administration is committed to the principle of equal employment opportunity (EEO). No policy shift has occurred in the treatment of "class action" litigation, or in the "pattern or practice" suits in the Justice Department's Title VII enforcement activities. Significant money settlements have been obtained in "pattern and practice"…

  2. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  3. Amitifadine, a triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor, reduces nicotine self-administration in female rats.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D; Wells, Corinne; Johnson, Joshua E; Rezvani, Amir H; Bymaster, Frank P; Rose, Jed E

    2015-10-01

    A wider diversity of drug treatments to aid smoking cessation is needed to help tailor the most efficacious treatment for different types of smokers. This study was conducted to determine whether amitifadine, which inhibits re-uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, would decrease nicotine self-administration at doses that do not cause adverse side effects. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer nicotine intravenous (IV) and were given acute doses of amitifadine in a repeated measures counterbalanced design. Effects of amitifadine on locomotor activity and food motivated responding were also evaluated. Chronic amitifadine effects were also examined. The 30 mg/kg amitifadine dose significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. The 5 and 10 mg/kg doses reduced nicotine self-administration during the first 15 min of the session when the greatest amount of nicotine was self-administered. The 30 mg/kg amitifadine dose, but not the lower doses caused a significant reduction in locomotor activity averaged over the one-hour session and reduced food motivated responding. The 10 mg/kg dose caused hypoactivity at the beginning of the session, but 5 mg/kg did not cause any hypoactivity. The effects of chronic amitifadine treatment (10 mg/kg) over the course of 15 sessions was also determined. Amitifadine caused a significant reduction in nicotine self-administration, which was not seen to diminish over two consecutive weeks of treatment and a week after enforced abstinence. Amitifadine significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. This prompts further research to determine if amitifadine might be an effective treatment for smoking cessation.

  4. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  5. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  6. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  7. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  8. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  9. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  10. Methotrexate causes a change in intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuho; Machida, Takuji; Obara, Yusuke; Hirano, Megumi; Kudo, Sae; Takagi, Minako; Hamaue, Naoya; Iizuka, Kenji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-10-01

    The effects of methotrexate on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the intestinal tissue of rats were investigated during the delayed phase after a single administration. Rats were i.p. injected with methotrexate or with saline as a control, and kaolin and food intakes were measured by an automatic monitoring apparatus. At 96 h after administration, dissected-out ileal tissue was frozen rapidly in liquid nitrogen for further analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical staining. Methotrexate at a dose of 50 mg/kg caused a time-dependent increase in kaolin intake lasting up to 72 h after administration, which returned to the control level at 96 h after administration. This dose of methotrexate caused a gradual decrease in body weight, food intake, and water intake lasting up to 72 h, which approached the control level at 96 h. Methotrexate caused pathologic changes, including a moderate inflammatory response in the ileal tissue and an increase in the number of L-tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-expressing cells in the ileal mucosa. Methotrexate also caused a significant increase in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content and in TPH1 mRNA expression in the ileal tissues. It had no significant effects on mRNA expression of serotonin transporter, COX-1, or COX-2 or on myeloperoxidase activity. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that methotrexate caused a change in the ileal 5-HT metabolism associated with hyperplasia of mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  11. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  12. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  13. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  14. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  15. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Spina, Edoardo; Trifirò, Gianluca; Caraci, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer antidepressants with different mechanisms of action have been introduced in clinical practice. Because antidepressants are commonly prescribed in combination with other medications used to treat co-morbid psychiatric or somatic disorders, they are likely to be involved in clinically significant drug interactions. This review examines the drug interaction profiles of the following newer antidepressants: escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, reboxetine, bupropion, agomelatine and vilazodone. In general, by virtue of a more selective mechanism of action and receptor profile, newer antidepressants carry a relatively low risk for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, at least as compared with first-generation antidepressants, i.e. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). On the other hand, they are susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. All new antidepressants are extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, and therefore may be the target of metabolically based drug interactions. Concomitant administration of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isoenzymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may cause changes in their plasma concentrations. However, due to their relatively wide margin of safety, the consequences of such kinetic modifications are usually not clinically relevant. Conversely, some newer antidepressants may cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their ability to inhibit specific CYPs. With regard to this, duloxetine and bupropion are moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6. Therefore, potentially harmful drug interactions may occur when they are coadministered with substrates of these isoforms, especially compounds with a narrow therapeutic index. The other new antidepressants are only weak inhibitors or are not inhibitors of CYP isoforms at

  16. The art of improvisation: the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Littike, Denilda; Sodré, Francis

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital (HUF). It includes research with a qualitative approach conducted through interviews with twelve administrators. The work process, the work tools and the human activity per se are understood to be under scrutiny. Work is acknowledged as a category that analyzes the management methods used by professional health workers. The HUFs are responsible for two social policies, namely education and health. The aim of the administrators' work is an organizational issue, and the administration tools used are bureaucratic and out-of-date for the current political context of hospital management. The most significant feature of this hospital administration is improvisation, which reduces the potential of the administrators in such a way that, instead of introducing innovative changes into their work process, they prefer to leave their jobs. Improvisation is caused by the production of sequential obstacles in management decision-making at this teaching hospital. In short, the transfer of administration at the HUF, from direct government administration by the University to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), was analyzed on the grounds that this would establish a "new" management model.

  17. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  20. Innovation in Administrator Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Don

    An innovative administrator preparation program based on guidelines established by national boards and commissions is described in this paper. The California State University, Fresno, administrator education curriculum was reorganized by faculty and an advisory committee of 11 superintendents to meet the needs of local school districts. The…

  1. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  2. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  3. Issues in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    School administrators need to study and analyze the pros and cons of issues before making decisions. Ultimately, decisions need to be made by administrators as to which philosophies of education to implement in resolving conflicting points of view. More research studies would lead to an increased number of syntheses of the pros and cons of certain…

  4. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  5. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  6. The School Personnel Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rodney F.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…

  7. Tenure for Administrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The practice of granting tenure to academic administrators, especially presidents and academic deans, seems fairly prevalent. However, it is important to consider the possible advantages and disadvantages carefully before making such an offer. Boards interested in attracting talented administrators empowered to do what is in the best interest of…

  8. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  9. Tales of significance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  10. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... species or its habitat that has been determined to be critical under the Endangered Species Act of...

  11. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... species or its habitat that has been determined to be critical under the Endangered Species Act of...

  12. Chronic administration of isocarbophos induces vascular cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yin, Ya-Ling; Zhu, Mo-Li; Pan, Guo-Pin; Zhao, Fan-Rong; Lu, Jun-Xiu; Liu, Zhan; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Hu, Chang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia, being the most severe form of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is caused by cerebrovascular disease. Whether organophosphorus causes VCI remains unknown. Isocarbophos (0.5 mg/kg per 2 days) was intragastrically administrated to rats for 16 weeks. The structure and function of cerebral arteries were assayed. The learning and memory were evaluated by serial tests of step-down, step-through and morris water maze. Long-term administration of isocarbophos reduced the hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) content but did not alter the plasma AChE activity, and significantly damaged the functions of learning and memory. Moreover, isocarbophos remarkably induced endothelial dysfunction in the middle cerebral artery and the expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the posterior cerebral artery. Morphological analysis by light microscopy and electron microscopy indicated disruptions of the hippocampus and vascular wall in the cerebral arteries from isocarbophos-treated rats. Treatment of isocarbophos injured primary neuronal and astroglial cells isolated from rats. Correlation analysis demonstrated that there was a high correlation between vascular function of cerebral artery and hippocampal AChE activity or ACh content in rats. In conclusion, chronic administration of isocarbophos induces impairments of memory and learning, which is possibly related to cerebral vascular dysfunction. PMID:26818681

  13. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  14. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  15. Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia (Syzygium cumini) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health.

    PubMed

    El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p ≥ 0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200 ppm caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200 ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance. PMID:24425943

  16. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  17. What Causes Lupus Flares?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, David; Kirou, Kyriakos A

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, follows a chronic disease course, punctuated by flares. Disease flares often occur without apparent cause, perhaps from progressive inherent buildup of autoimmunity. However, there is evidence that certain environmental factors may trigger the disease. These include exposure to UV light, infections, certain hormones, and drugs which may activate the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in inflammation, cytotoxic effects, and clinical symptoms. Uncontrolled disease flares, as well as their treatment, especially with glucocorticoids, can cause significant organ damage. Tight surveillance and timely control of lupus flares with judicial use of effective treatments to adequately suppress the excessive immune system activation are required to bring about long term remission of the disease. We hope that new clinical trials will soon offer additional effective and target-specific biologic treatments for SLE.

  18. Thoughts for New Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert

    1977-01-01

    Discusses issues in program administration, with specific reference to preschool programs. Some of the issues discussed include coping with conflict, leadership, the sharing of power, and honesty. A short annotated bibliography is included. (BD)

  19. Evaluation of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Edmund G.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for the evaluation of college administrators: (1) purposes of the evaluation; (2) approaches to evaluation; (3) criteria for evaluation; (4) participants or evaluators in the process; and (5) evaluation results and use of results. (GDC)

  20. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  1. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  2. Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Fred V.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues and concerns discussed and the recommendations made by the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Administration Policy Committee during its meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention. (AJ)

  3. Route of nicotine administration influences in vivo dopamine neuron activity: habituation, needle injection, and cannula infusion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiang; Li, Wei; Doyon, William M; Doyon, William; Dani, John A

    2010-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether the nature of the administration alters DA neuron activity and DA concentrations in the NAc. Using unhabituated naïve freely moving rats, microdialysis measurements showed that nicotine administered via needle injection caused greater DA release in the NAc than the same dose administered via an implanted chronic cannula. After habituation to the needle injections, however, there was no significant difference in DA signaling between the needle and cannula routes of administration. Consistent with these microdialysis results after habituation, our in vivo tetrode unit recordings showed no significant difference in midbrain DA neuron activity in response to nicotine delivered by needle or cannula as long as predictive cues were avoided

  4. Long term effects of chronic chlordiazepoxide (CDP) administration.

    PubMed

    Shemer, A; Tykocinski, O; Feldon, J

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to test the long-term behavioral effects of 12 days administration of CDP (5 mg/kg/day) in rats. In the first two experiments, 4 weeks after the end of drug administration (CDP or placebo), and after 2 weeks of training to run a straight alley for food reward, animals were tested in extinction, i.e., following omission of reward (Expt. 1) or with punishment, i.e., 0.3 mA electric shock in addition to the food reward (Expt. 2). Drug-treated animals showed significantly increased resistance to extinction and to punishment compared with controls. In the third experiment, 10 weeks after drug administration, animals were exposed to 60 s of intense noise to induce audiogenic seizures. The convulsant metrazol was injected 5 min prior to successive sessions (10 min apart) with doses starting at 10 mg/kg an increased by 10 mg/kg each session up to 40 mg/kg. Drug-treated animals were significantly less susceptible to seizures than their placebo controls. These results suggest that chronic benzodiazepine treatment causes long-term neurochemical changes which are responsible for the observed behavioral effects. PMID:6433391

  5. 47 CFR 25.160 - Administrative sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative sanctions. 25.160 Section 25.160 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... terminated for the malicious transmissions of any signal that causes harmful interference with any...

  6. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  7. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  8. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  9. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  11. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can damage the organs, including the heart. Sarcoidosis : A disease that causes inflammation and can affect ... believe that an abnormal immune response may cause sarcoidosis. This abnormal response causes tiny lumps of cells ...

  12. [Applying the Strategies of Helping Relationship From Significant Others in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Yen, Miaofen; Lee, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Hui-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The absence of easily perceived symptoms in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes low levels of awareness and treatment of this disease. Therefore, adherence to measures that may prevent disease progression, i.e., lifestyle changes, regular clinic visits, and timely medication administration, is often low among early-stage CKD patients. However, continuous assistance from significant others through trusting, understanding, sharing, and coaching assistance may promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent progression of the disease. The necessary characteristics of significant others include dependability, credibility, and positivity. Significant others may use their understanding, caring, faith, and honesty to help patients face CKD and improve self-care efficacy. This article discusses the assistance that significant others may provide to CKD patients, including warning mechanisms, target setting, encouragement, and feedback. By developing the functions of supervision, companionship, and support, significant others may help patients live a healthier life and improve their medical compliance and thus postpone disease progression. PMID:27026553

  13. Lipemia: causes, interference mechanisms, detection and management

    PubMed Central

    Nikolac, Nora

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical laboratory setting, interferences can be a significant source of laboratory errors with potential to cause serious harm for the patient. After hemolysis, lipemia is the most frequent endogenous interference that can influence results of various laboratory methods by several mechanisms. The most common preanalytical cause of lipemic samples is inadequate time of blood sampling after the meal or parenteral administration of synthetic lipid emulsions. Although the best way of detecting the degree of lipemia is measuring lipemic index on analytical platforms, laboratory experts should be aware of its problems, like false positive results and lack of standardization between manufacturers. Unlike for other interferences, lipemia can be removed and measurement can be done in a clear sample. However, a protocol for removing lipids from the sample has to be chosen carefully, since it is dependent on the analytes that have to be determined. Investigation of lipemia interference is an obligation of manufacturers of laboratory reagents; however, several literature findings report lack of verification of the declared data. Moreover, the acceptance criteria currently used by the most manufacturers are not based on biological variation and need to be revised. Written procedures for detection of lipemia, removing lipemia interference and reporting results from lipemic samples should be available to laboratory staff in order to standardize the procedure, reduce errors and increase patient safety. PMID:24627715

  14. Urban School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.; Swanson, Austin D., Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers presented at an institute for urban school administrators designed to deal with the contemporary urban educational problems incident to school desegregation, social integration, and the equality of educational opportunity. The authors of the papers relate recent research findings to practical field experience, and…

  15. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  16. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  17. Administrative Salary Summary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report presents salary data on selected administrative positions from all public higher education institutions, governing boards, and other higher education state-level agencies in Colorado. Table 1 presents, by institutional type, the median and mean salaries for 1994-95, as well as the frequency and range of salaries, for the following…

  18. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  19. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  20. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  1. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  2. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  3. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  5. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  6. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  7. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  8. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  9. Professionalism in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Paula F.

    That the quest for a general theory of educational administration has been a misdirection of effort and that the advancement of professionalism within this field would represent a more sensible endeavor for the production of useful knowledge is the focus of this essay. The advancement of professionalism would entail a reorientation of research…

  10. Public Relations for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagin, Don; And Others

    This volume provides information and recommendations about public relations to assist school administrators in developing effective communication. The document contains 15 chapters. "The Scope of Public Relations," chapter 1, specifies characteristics of and individuals responsible for an effective program. Chapter 2, "Personal Public Relations,"…

  11. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  12. Indicators of Administrative Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Charles E.; Hofmann, Richard J.

    Ten personal characteristics and seven administrative skills that differentiated effective from ineffective university leaders were assessed by multiple discriminate analysis. The personal characteristics identified by previous research (Skipper, 1975, 1977) are: responsibility, integrity, self-control, intellectual efficiency, flexibility,…

  13. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  14. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  15. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  16. Quantifying nursing workflow in medication administration.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bane, Anne D; Featherstone, Erica; Hayes, Judy; Woolf, Seth; Hurley, Ann; Bates, David W; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    New medication administration systems are showing promise in improving patient safety at the point of care, but adoption of these systems requires significant changes in nursing workflow. To prepare for these changes, the authors report on a time-motion study that measured the proportion of time that nurses spend on various patient care activities, focusing on medication administration-related activities. Implications of their findings are discussed.

  17. Pontine Reticular Formation (PnO) Administration of Hypocretin-1 Increases PnO GABA Levels and Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christopher J.; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: GABAergic transmission in the oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) increases wakefulness. The hypothalamic peptide hypocretin-1 (orexin A) promotes wakefulness, and the PnO receives hypocretinergic input. The present study tested the hypothesis that PnO administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and increases wakefulness. This study also tested the hypothesis that wakefulness is either increased or decreased, respectively, by PnO administration of drugs known to selectively increase or decrease GABA levels. Design: A within-subjects design was used for microdialysis and microinjection experiments. Setting: University of Michigan. Patients or Participants: Experiments were performed using adult male Crl:CD® (SD)IGS BR (Sprague-Dawley) rats (n = 46). Interventions: PnO administration of hypocretin-1, nipecotic acid (a GABA uptake inhibitor that increases extracellular GABA levels), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (a GABA synthesis inhibitor that decreases extracellular GABA levels; 3-MPA), and Ringer solution (vehicle control). Measurements and Results: Dialysis administration of hypocretin-1 to the PnO caused a statistically significant, concentration-dependent increase in PnO GABA levels. PnO microinjection of hypocretin-1 or nipecotic acid caused a significant increase in wakefulness and a significant decrease in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. Microinjecting 3-MPA into the PnO caused a significant increase in NREM sleep and REM sleep and a significant decrease in wakefulness. Conclusions: An increase or a decrease in PnO GABA levels causes an increase or decrease, respectively, in wakefulness. Hypocretin-1 may promote wakefulness, at least in part, by increasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO. Citation: Watson CJ; Soto-Calderon H; Lydic R; Baghdoyan HA. Pontine reticular formation (PnO) administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and wakefulness. SLEEP 2008;31(4):453-464. PMID:18457232

  18. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  19. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  20. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research.

  1. The Dropout Problem as Perceived by School Psychologists and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Kay; And Others

    A survey of 1,300 school administrators and 441 school psychologists examined perceptions of the causes of dropping out (891 administrators returned usable surveys for a response rate of 71.8%; the school psychologists' sample was part of a larger study that had yielded a response rate of 57%). Using a 5-point Likert scale, respondents rated 42…

  2. Taking Stress in Stride: How Do College Administrators Cope?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, Frank A.

    1983-01-01

    The causes of stress for college senior-level administrators and their coping approaches were studied, based on discussions with 60 administrators from 44 institutions in the United States and England. Four sources of stress were identified: stress from the general environment, stress from job-related but external sources, stress from internal…

  3. Administration of haloperidol with biperiden reduces mRNAs related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Shin-Ichi; Morioka, Hirofumi; Iwabuchi, Mika; Shinohara, Kazuya; Maeda, Maki; Shimizu, Takao; Miyata, Atsuro

    2005-06-15

    In order to find molecules affected by administration of an antipsychotic drug with an antimuscarinic drug, which is a common prescription used to prevent extrapyramidal adverse effects caused by the antipsychotic drugs, gene expression profiling in the frontal cortex was studied in mice. After 14 days of administration with 2 mg/kg haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, and 2 mg/kg biperiden, a high-affinity antagonist for muscarinic receptors in the brain, approximately 500 mRNAs related to synaptic function were investigated. The levels of the mRNAs related to the ubiquitin-related systems were significantly reduced after the combined administration. However, the separate administration of either haloperidol or biperiden had little effect on the levels of the mRNAs. This result suggests that coadministration of haloperidol and biperiden specifically affects the ubiquitin-related system.

  4. Women: A Significant National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Administrative Women in Education, Washington, DC.

    Believing that society, including children, suffers from the underutilization of more than half the talents available to educational administration, an annual meeting was devoted to a workshop designed to present and provide study of the pertinent facts. Keynote addresses by Congresswoman Edith Green, Wayne O. Reed, Earl C. Funderburk, Dorothy…

  5. What Causes Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  6. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  7. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  8. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis (CF). This gene makes ... and very salty sweat. Research suggests that the CFTR protein also affects the body in other ways. ...

  9. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  10. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual flow Smoking Depression Never having given birth Endometriosis Chronic uterine infection Additional causes of menstrual irregularity include 1 : Endometriosis Endocrine gland-related causes Poorly controlled diabetes Polycystic ...

  11. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  12. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  13. [Clinical significance of gastrointestinal decontamination under protected environment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Yonekura, S; Komatsuda, M; Nozaki, H; Arimori, S; Sawamura, S; Ozawa, A; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Many infections are caused by the patient's own oro-intestinal microbial flora under a protected environment. Thirty-eight patients with acute leukemia and two patients with blast crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia were treated under a protected environment with or without prophylactic antibiotics. Antibiotics used for decontamination were vancomycin (V), polymyxin B (P) and nystatin (N). The number of patients in the VPN, PN and the no antibiotic group were 13, 13 and 14, respectively. While the intestinal microbial flora was almost completely eliminated in VPN group, the number of bacteria decreased slightly in PN group. The mean number of pharyngeal and anorectal bacterial species decreased most markedly in the VPN group, but there were no significant differences among the three groups. The number of febrile days was significantly lower in the VPN and PN group than the no antibiotics group with neutrophil counts of less than 100 microliters. The average number of episodes of infection per patient was lowest in VPN group and highest in the no antibiotic group. These data indicate that VPN administration is effective for eliminating intestinal bacterial flora and resultantly protecting endogenous infections.

  14. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  15. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law... failure of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  16. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  17. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  18. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  19. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  20. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  1. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  2. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  3. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  4. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law... failure of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  5. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law judge... of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  7. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  9. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  10. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  11. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  12. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law... failure of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  13. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  14. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  15. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  16. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  17. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  18. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law... failure of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  19. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  20. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  1. Pharmacodynamics and toxicity of vasoactive intestinal peptide for intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Cao, De-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the nasal route for the delivery of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the brain and to evaluate the toxicity of VIP nasal spray. Mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with the aggregated Abeta25-35 to mimic Alzheimer's disease. Following administration, different groups of mice were treated over one week, and their spatial learning and memory capacities were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The toxicity of VIP nasal spray was evaluated by examining the morphology of individual rat nasal mucosa cilia and the pathology of rat nasal mucosa. Rats receiving intranasal VIP (40 microg/ml) showed good spatial memory relative to the Abeta25-35 model group, but the escape latency did not show any statistically significant difference. Intranasal administration of VIP nasal spray (200 microg/ml) improved deficits in spatial memory to the point that test animals receiving intranasal VIP showed no statistically significant differences from the normal control group in escape latency. This indicated that the nasal spray method could increase the quantity of VIP entering the brain and protect the central nervous systems of mice. Toxicity evaluation showed that the preparation could cause minor irritation, which resolved spontaneously within a week at the end of treatment. In conclusion, VIP can be delivered successfully to the brain using the intranasal route. PMID:23444784

  2. Administration of nitrite after chlorine gas exposure prevents lung injury: effect of administration modality.

    PubMed

    Samal, Andrey A; Honavar, Jaideep; Brandon, Angela; Bradley, Kelley M; Doran, Stephen; Liu, Yanping; Dunaway, Chad; Steele, Chad; Postlethwait, Edward M; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2012-10-01

    Cl(2) gas toxicity is complex and occurs during and after exposure, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and reactive airway syndrome (RAS). Moreover, Cl(2) exposure can occur in diverse situations encompassing mass casualty scenarios, highlighting the need for postexposure therapies that are efficacious and amenable to rapid and easy administration. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a single dose of nitrite (1 mg/kg) to decrease ALI when administered to rats via intraperitoneal (ip) or intramuscular (im) injection 30 min after Cl(2) exposure. Exposure of rats to Cl(2) gas (400 ppm, 30 min) significantly increased ALI and caused RAS 6-24h postexposure as indexed by BAL sampling of lung surface protein and polymorphonucleocytes (PMNs) and increased airway resistance and elastance before and after methacholine challenge. Intraperitoneal nitrite decreased Cl(2)-dependent increases in BAL protein but not PMNs. In contrast im nitrite decreased BAL PMN levels without decreasing BAL protein in a xanthine oxidoreductase-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of airways 6h postexposure showed significant bronchial epithelium exfoliation and inflammatory injury in Cl(2)-exposed rats. Both ip and im nitrite improved airway histology compared to Cl(2) gas alone, but more coverage of the airway by cuboidal or columnar epithelium was observed with im compared to ip nitrite. Airways were rendered more sensitive to methacholine-induced resistance and elastance after Cl(2) gas exposure. Interestingly, im nitrite, but not ip nitrite, significantly decreased airway sensitivity to methacholine challenge. Further evaluation and comparison of im and ip therapy showed a twofold increase in circulating nitrite levels with the former, which was associated with reversal of post-Cl(2) exposure-dependent increases in circulating leukocytes. Halving the im nitrite dose resulted in no effect in PMN accumulation but significant reduction of BAL protein levels, indicating a distinct

  3. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  4. Plasma dopamine: regulation and significance.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, G R

    1983-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) normally circulates in plasma. The plasma concentration of the free form of DA is approximately equivalent to that of epinephrine (E) and 20% that of norepinephrine (NE). The free form constitutes less than 2% of total plasma DA, and the remainder exists predominantly as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. DA is found in adrenal medulla and cortex, peripheral nerves, sympathetic ganglia, carotid body, and kidney, but quantitatively the origin of circulating DA remains poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of free DA increase in association with events that increase sympathetic tone, although to a much lesser degree than seen for NE or E. Thus, upright posture, bicycle exercise, a variety of emotional and physical stresses, and hypoglycemia may be associated with increases in plasma free DA. Plasma DA decreases during the course of dietary sodium depletion in humans, in contrast to the plasma NE response, and consistent with a physiological role for DA in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. Plasma DA increases after administration of its precursor L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, together with the decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa. Plasma NE and (in some studies) plasma DA decrease after administration of the DA receptor agonist bromocriptine. In contrast, plasma DA and one of its major metabolites, homovanillic acid, increase after administration of the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol. Administration of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin into the brain increases central sympathetic outflow, thus increasing plasma DA concentration, although to a lesser extent than for NE or E. Disordered basal concentrations of DA in plasma or disordered responses of plasma DA have been reported in a number of disease states. Clear understanding of physiological roles of DA in plasma and of its pathophysiology awaits definition. PMID:6413258

  5. Administration of Educational Services: A Glossary of Basic Administration Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, J. J.

    From "achievement motivation" and "administration" to "Theory Z" and "viscidity and hedonic tone," this glossary defines 87 terms as they are used in educational administration. The terms include philosophical, psychological, organizational, and social concepts, but they all are employed in the theory and practice of administration. A short…

  6. The Efficacy of Administrator Preparation Programs: Private School Administrators' Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, H. Woodrow; Johnson, Ruth N.; Madjidi, Farzin

    This report examines divergent views that may exist among administrators based on administrators' demographic characteristics and how these differences affect curriculum design for this group. It looks at factors, such as the person's age, gender, and ethnicity, that might have influenced whether or not an administrator completed a…

  7. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  8. Dextromethorphan interactions with histaminergic and serotonergic treatments to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Scott A; Hall, Brandon J; Wells, Corinne; Slade, Susan; Jaskowski, Paul; Morrison, Margaret; Rezvani, Amir H; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2016-03-01

    Combining effective treatments with diverse mechanisms of action for smoking cessation may provide better therapy by targeting multiple points of control in the neural circuits underlying addiction. Previous research in a rat model has shown that dextromethorphan, which has α3β4 nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic antagonist actions, significantly decreases nicotine self-administration. We have found in the rat model that the H1 histamine antagonist pyrilamine and the serotonin 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin also significantly reduce nicotine self-administration. The current studies were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dextromethorphan with pyrilamine and lorcaserin on nicotine self-administration in rats. Young adult female rats were fitted with jugular IV catheters and trained to self-administer a nicotine infusion dose of 0.03-mg/kg/infusion. In an initial dose-effect function study of dextromethorphan, we found a monotonic decrease in nicotine self-administration over a dose range of 1 to 30-mg/kg with the lowest effective dose of 3-mg/kg. Then, with two separate cohorts of rats, dextromethorphan (0, 3.3, and 10-mg/kg) interactions with pyrilamine (0, 4.43, and 13.3-mg/kg) were investigated as well as interactions with lorcaserin (0, 0.3125 and 0.625-mg/kg). In the pyrilamine-dextromethorphan interaction study, an acute dose of pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration. There were mutually augmenting effects of these two drugs. The combination of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) and pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) significantly lowered nicotine self-administration relative to either 10-mg/kg of dextromethorphan alone (p<0.05) or 13.3-mg/kg of pyrilamine alone (p<0.0005). In the lorcaserin-dextromethorphan study, an acute dose of lorcaserin (0.312-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration

  9. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  10. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  11. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  12. Lessons from the Top: Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Ron

    1999-01-01

    A superintendent with 20-plus years' teaching experience in the district discusses with a "both sides of the fence" perspective issues of standards, teacher pay, training and compensation for board members, teacher/administrator relationship, and the administrator role. (MLF)

  13. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  14. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  15. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  16. Morphine Self-Administration following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Jamal S.; Aceves, Miriam; Hook, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuropathic pain develops in up to two-thirds of people following spinal cord injury (SCI). Opioids are among the most effective treatments for this pain and are commonly prescribed. There is concern surrounding the use of these analgesics, however, because use is often associated with the development of addiction. Previous data suggests that this concern may not be relevant in the presence of neuropathic pain. Yet, despite the common prescription of opioids for the treatment of SCI-related pain, there has been only one previous study examining the addictive potential of morphine following spinal injury. To address this, the present study used a self-administration paradigm to examine the addictive potential of morphine in a rodent model of SCI. Animals were placed into self-administration chambers 24 h, 14 d, or 35 d following a moderate spinal contusion injury. They were placed into the chambers for seven 12-hour sessions with access to 1.5 mg morphine/lever depression (up to 30 mg/d). In the acute phase of SCI, contused animals self-administered significantly less morphine than their sham counterparts, as previously shown. However, contused animals showing signs of neuropathic pain did not self-administer less morphine than their sham counterparts when administration began 14 or 35 d after injury. Instead, these animals administered nearly the full amount of morphine available each session. This amount of morphine did not affect recovery of locomotor function but did cause significant weight loss. We suggest caution is warranted when prescribing opioids for the treatment of neuropathic pain resulting from SCI, as the addictive potential is not reduced in this model. PMID:24827476

  17. Infant botulism and indications for administration of botulism immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Pifko, Elysha; Price, Amanda; Sterner, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat this deadly disease and functions by neutralizing all systemically circulating botulism toxins. It is indicated in children with clinically diagnosed infant botulism, before diagnostic confirmation, and has been shown to lead to a significant reduction in intensive care unit and hospital stay for these patients. This review article discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, history of BIG, and indications for administration of BIG.

  18. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  19. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  20. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  1. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  2. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  3. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT.

    PubMed

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P

    2015-06-01

    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (P<0.05), in clearing microfilaria in 13 weeks. Secondary outcome analysis showed that, all the trial regimens were comparable to control regimen in clearing antigen (F(3, 109)=0.405; P=0.750). Therefore, DEC + Albendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical trials.gov identifier - NCT02005653). PMID:26691247

  4. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23602810

  5. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II.

  6. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  7. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  8. Measles: Still a Significant Health Threat.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Claire; Lanzi, Maria; Lindberg, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Measles (Rubeola), although considered eradicated in the United States, still causes periodic outbreaks. Vaccine refusal leads to vulnerable pockets of individuals who may become infected once the virus is imported from countries where it is endemic. In turn, these individuals may spread the virus to young infants and to other vulnerable individuals. Many healthcare providers are not familiar with this disease or with the factors that contribute to the risk of spread. Measles causes a serious febrile illness that may lead to pneumonia, blindness, deafness, neurological disorders, and even death. Patients with measles need supportive care and administration of oral vitamin A. The measles vaccine is highly effective and considered extremely safe, but misinformation about the safety of this and other vaccines has decreased immunization coverage in some areas of the country. Mandatory immunization laws exist in every state and have been upheld by courts including the United States Supreme Court, but laws and exemptions vary among states. Nurses can play a strong role in care of patients with measles, case identification, and prevention of transmission. Most importantly, because nurses hold positions of trust in their communities, they should be tireless frontline advocates for immunization. The purpose of this article is to provide information on measles, its transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention, and relevant laws and regulations. PMID:26110575

  9. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.18 Drugs; significance of...

  10. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the author; (3) Be directed to the file, to appropriate supervisory personnel, and to other... records the views, analyses, recommendations, or decisions of an agency employee in addition to the...

  11. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the author; (3) Be directed to the file, to appropriate supervisory personnel, and to other... records the views, analyses, recommendations, or decisions of an agency employee in addition to the...

  12. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the author; (3) Be directed to the file, to appropriate supervisory personnel, and to other... records the views, analyses, recommendations, or decisions of an agency employee in addition to the...

  13. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the author; (3) Be directed to the file, to appropriate supervisory personnel, and to other... records the views, analyses, recommendations, or decisions of an agency employee in addition to the...

  14. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    PubMed

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  15. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie C.

    2007-05-02

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

  16. Technologies that make administration of vaccines safer.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John; Larsen, Gordon; Jodar, Luis

    2004-05-01

    There is an ever-expanding technology that is aimed at making the administration of vaccines safer. Conventional ways of administering vaccines are being upgraded, modified or replaced by a wide variety of innovations. The paradigm of liquid vaccines, needles and syringes is slow to change, but already developments are occurring that will change for ever the way vaccines are administered and will improve the safety record of immunization. The oral route of vaccine administration has generally been thought of as safe, but until now only the polio vaccine has been widely used in this way. The conventional method of vaccine administration is by injection. Many ingenious devices have become available that now make injecting safer. Inventors are now looking imaginatively to alternative routes and technologies for delivering vaccines. Vaccines are generally manufactured to extremely high standards and rarely are shown to be the cause of safety issues. People remain the weakest safety link is vaccine administration. Technologies that bypasses the ability of man to make bad decisions or to behave incorrectly are of tremendous value. The vaccine world is in the middle of a radical re-think about how vaccines might best be administered. The presentation of the vaccine can be altered to fit new technologies such as powder jet guns, or skin patches. Even the conventional needle and syringe have evolved to much safer versions, and are set to continue this evolution. All this means even safer vaccines and their delivery.

  17. A practical method of chronic ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Ruth A; Young, Betty M; Turner, Lucas E; Cook, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    Mice provide a useful model for the study of immune deficiency caused by chronic alcohol abuse. Their suitability is related to several factors, including in particular the extensive knowledge base in the immunology of mice already existing in the literature. Specific modeling of the immunodeficiency of the chronic human alcoholic requires that ethanol must be administered to the model for a significant portion of its life span. In mice, it has proven to be necessary to administer ethanol daily for up to 32 wk or longer to observe all the immune abnormalities that occur in middle-aged alcoholic humans. Such time spans are problematic with many of the common protocols for ethanol administration. It has been shown by others and confirmed by our group that the most practical way of accomplishing such long protocols is by administering ethanol in water as the only choice of water. Details of management of the chronic ethanol mouse colony are described here that are necessary for the success of such studies, including methods for initiating ethanol administration, maintenance of barrier protection, monitoring weight gain, strain differences and fetal alcohol exposure.

  18. Neurokinin B administration induces hot flushes in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Channa N; Comninos, Alexander N; Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Buckley, Adam; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Mogford, Julianne; Ng, Noel; Sarang, Zubair; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Hunter, Myra S; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide binding preferentially to the neurokinin 3 receptor. Expression of the gene encoding NKB is elevated in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest that NKB signalling may mediate menopausal hot flushes. However, the effects of NKB administration on hot flushes have not been investigated in humans. To address this, we performed a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way cross-over study. Ten healthy women were admitted to a temperature and humidity-controlled research unit. Participants received 30 minute intravenous infusions of NKB and vehicle in random order. Symptoms, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and skin temperature were compared between NKB and vehicle in a double-blinded manner. Eight of ten participants experienced flushing during NKB infusion with none experiencing flushing during vehicle infusion (P = 0.0007). Significant elevations in heart rate (P = 0.0106 vs. pre-symptoms), and skin temperature measured using skin probe (P = 0.0258 vs. pre-symptoms) and thermal imaging (P = 0.0491 vs. pre-symptoms) characteristic of menopausal flushing were observed during hot flush episodes. Our findings provide evidence that NKB administration can cause hot flushes in women. Further studies are required to determine if pharmacological blockade of NKB signalling could inhibit hot flushes during the menopause and during treatment for sex-steroid dependent cancers. PMID:25683060

  19. Neurokinin B administration induces hot flushes in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Channa N; Comninos, Alexander N; Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Buckley, Adam; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Mogford, Julianne; Ng, Noel; Sarang, Zubair; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Hunter, Myra S; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide binding preferentially to the neurokinin 3 receptor. Expression of the gene encoding NKB is elevated in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest that NKB signalling may mediate menopausal hot flushes. However, the effects of NKB administration on hot flushes have not been investigated in humans. To address this, we performed a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way cross-over study. Ten healthy women were admitted to a temperature and humidity-controlled research unit. Participants received 30 minute intravenous infusions of NKB and vehicle in random order. Symptoms, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and skin temperature were compared between NKB and vehicle in a double-blinded manner. Eight of ten participants experienced flushing during NKB infusion with none experiencing flushing during vehicle infusion (P = 0.0007). Significant elevations in heart rate (P = 0.0106 vs. pre-symptoms), and skin temperature measured using skin probe (P = 0.0258 vs. pre-symptoms) and thermal imaging (P = 0.0491 vs. pre-symptoms) characteristic of menopausal flushing were observed during hot flush episodes. Our findings provide evidence that NKB administration can cause hot flushes in women. Further studies are required to determine if pharmacological blockade of NKB signalling could inhibit hot flushes during the menopause and during treatment for sex-steroid dependent cancers.

  20. Neurokinin B Administration Induces Hot Flushes in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Channa N.; Comninos, Alexander N.; Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Buckley, Adam; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Mogford, Julianne; Ng, Noel; Sarang, Zubair; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Hunter, Myra S.; Dhillo, Waljit S.

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide binding preferentially to the neurokinin 3 receptor. Expression of the gene encoding NKB is elevated in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest that NKB signalling may mediate menopausal hot flushes. However, the effects of NKB administration on hot flushes have not been investigated in humans. To address this, we performed a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way cross-over study. Ten healthy women were admitted to a temperature and humidity-controlled research unit. Participants received 30 minute intravenous infusions of NKB and vehicle in random order. Symptoms, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and skin temperature were compared between NKB and vehicle in a double-blinded manner. Eight of ten participants experienced flushing during NKB infusion with none experiencing flushing during vehicle infusion (P = 0.0007). Significant elevations in heart rate (P = 0.0106 vs. pre-symptoms), and skin temperature measured using skin probe (P = 0.0258 vs. pre-symptoms) and thermal imaging (P = 0.0491 vs. pre-symptoms) characteristic of menopausal flushing were observed during hot flush episodes. Our findings provide evidence that NKB administration can cause hot flushes in women. Further studies are required to determine if pharmacological blockade of NKB signalling could inhibit hot flushes during the menopause and during treatment for sex-steroid dependent cancers. PMID:25683060

  1. Pathophysiological Significance of Hepatic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kewei; Lin, Bingliang

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a classical pathological feature in liver diseases caused by various etiological factors such as drugs, viruses, alcohol, and cholestasis. Hepatic apoptosis and its deleterious effects exacerbate liver function as well as involvement in fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis. An imbalance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities is a prominent characteristic of liver injury. The regulation of apoptosis and antiapoptosis can be a pivotal step in the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:27335822

  2. What Causes Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapors, or air pollution raises your risk for the condition. These lung ... the major cause of the condition. Breathing in air pollution and dust or fumes from the environment or ...

  3. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  4. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... each parent), you're at risk for iron overload and signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis. If you ... of another disease or condition that causes iron overload. Examples of such diseases and conditions include: Certain ...

  5. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  6. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  7. Causes of Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact critical functions like thought, comprehension, and speech. > Cerebral palsy CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain. > Friedreich’s ataxia An inherited disease that leads to ...

  8. Causes of Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  9. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  10. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  11. Nursing academic administration: who will take on the challenge?

    PubMed

    Adams, Lavonne

    2007-01-01

    To address the shortage of qualified candidates interested in nursing academic administration, this study explored factors that influence nursing faculty to pursue administrative positions. Nursing academic administrators and full-time faculty from randomly selected accredited nursing programs in private colleges and universities in the United States participated in this study. Administrators completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and a recruitment questionnaire, whereas faculty completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Observer and a career aspiration questionnaire. Most faculty respondents (63%) indicated that they would not consider a position with greater administrative responsibility. Respondents identified workload and conflict-related issues as factors likely to discourage their pursuit of administration. Respondents identified additional challenge/variety of work, opportunity to influence organizational climate for change, opportunity to facilitate faculty growth and development, and mix of administration with teaching as likely to encourage their pursuit of administration. Faculty interest in a position with greater administrative responsibility was significantly increased for those who had completed additional course work beyond their highest degree. Practice recommendations included making leadership development opportunities available for faculty interested in administration, exploring methods to manage workload and conflict, and exploring methods to maximize factors identified as likely to encourage the pursuit of academic administration.

  12. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  13. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II.

  14. Pediatric medical devices: a look at significant US legislation to address unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Samuels-Reid, Joy H; Blake, Erica D

    2014-03-01

    There are many barriers to the availability of medical devices intended for the pediatric population causing healthcare providers to use creative measures to address pediatric unmet device needs. The USA has taken significant legislative measures to spur medical device development and address the unmet needs in all pediatric subpopulations. For example, the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002 amended the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act by adding new provisions intended to promote the development of safe and effective pediatric devices, and to protect the pediatric population during clinical trials. In 2004, the Medical Devices Technical Corrections Act was added to address potential difficulties in bringing pediatric devices to the market. Further, the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007 and the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 provided the FDA significant new responsibilities and authorities regarding pediatric use.

  15. 8 CFR 280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.1 Notice of intention to fine; administrative... administrative fine under the Immigration and Nationality Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine,...

  16. The Black-White Achievement Gap through the Lens of Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Roger S., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of Black and White central office administrators regarding the Black-White achievement gap. Four research questions (RQ) were explored: RQ1: How do central office administrators understand the causes of the Black-White achievement gap? RQ2: How do central office administrators perceive their role in…

  17. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  18. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  19. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  20. [Neurotoxicity of intrathecally administrated agents].

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, J M; Pinaud, M

    1996-01-01

    Spinal anaesthetics can induce histopathologic lesions and regional haemodynamic alterations in the spinal cord. There are numerous causes of neurologic lesions, including direct trauma of the spinal cord and nerve roots during puncture or catheter insertion, compromised spinal cord perfusion and direct neurotoxic effect. Histopathologic lesions are localized either in meninges (meningitis or arachnoiditis) or in neuraxis (myelitis or axonal degeneration). Neurotoxicity can result from decrease in neuronal blood supply, elicited by high concentrations of the solutions, long duration exposure to local anaesthetics, and the use of adjuvants. They have been implicated in the occurrence of cauda equina syndrome after continuous spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric solution of lidocaine and tetracaine given through small diameter catheters. Selective spinal analgesia is induced by spinal opioids without motor blockade except for meperidine. Complications occurred in patients after high doses of morphine, which were related to one of its metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide. Preservative-free opioid solutions are to be preferred for spinal anaesthesia. There is no report of neurotoxicity neither in animal studies, nor in humans, using spinal clonidine. In order to reduce the incidence of neurotoxicity, some safety rules should be followed. The lowest efficient dose of local anaesthetics must be given. Incomplete blockade should not necessarily lead to a reinjection. Large volume of hyperbaric lidocaine or repeated injections of such solutions must be avoided as well as preservative-containing solutions. The administration of new compounds by the spinal route must be supported by data of spinal neuropharmacology and the lack of neurotoxicity must have been previously checked with animal studies.

  1. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  2. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  3. Significance determination: A rational reconstruction of decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellerup, U.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with some screening environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that have been reviewed and decided by an administrative board, the Appeal Board for Nature Protection. The practices developed by the Appeal Board show that the handling of significance in screening lacks focus, which leads to a mix of problems; namely, inconsistent argumentation and the development of practices not compliant with the usual understanding of EIA. The problems are found in project-related screening cases as well as in general screening cases. The article argues that structural barriers in Danish EIA regulations hinder the function of the EIA system in general. The article also touches upon the problems of implementing EIA into existing legal frameworks and present the view that a Board composed mainly of politicians cannot be the right body to enforce the procedural rules of the EIA-system.

  4. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  5. Bupropion-varenicline interactions and nicotine self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Slade, Susan; Wells, Corinne; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2015-03-01

    Varenicline and bupropion each have been shown to significantly improve cessation of tobacco addiction in humans. They act through different mechanisms and the question about the potential added efficacy with their combined used has arisen. Preclinical animal models of nicotine addiction can help with the evaluation of this combined approach and what dose combinations of varenicline and bupropion may be useful for enhancing tobacco cessation. In this study, we investigated the interacting dose-effect functions of varenicline and bupropion in a rat model of nicotine self-administration. Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer nicotine in 1-h sessions under an FR1 reinforcement schedule. Varenicline (0.3, 1. 3 mg/kg) and bupropion (8.33, 25, 75 mg/kg) were administered alone or together 15 min before each session. The vehicle saline was the control. Higher doses of each drug alone reduced nicotine self-administration compared to control with reductions of 62% and 75% with 3 mg/kg varenicline and 75 mg/kg bupropion respectively. Lower dose varenicline which does not by itself reduce nicotine self-administration, significantly augmented bupropion effects. The 0.3 mg/kg varenicline dose combined with the 25 and 75 mg/kg bupropion doses caused greater reductions of nicotine self-administration than either dose of bupropion given alone. However, higher dose varenicline did not have this effect. Lower dose bupropion did not augment varenicline effects. Only the high bupropion dose significantly enhanced the varenicline effect. Likewise, combining 1 mg/kg varenicline with 75 mg/kg bupropion reduced self-administration to a greater extent than either dose alone. These results demonstrate that combination therapy with varenicline and bupropion may be more beneficial than monotherapy with either drug alone.

  6. Novel submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity: significant effects on oral mucositis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takako; Sako, Nobutomo; Matsuda, Takakuni; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a novel rebamipide liquid for an effective treatment of oral mucositis. The healing effects of a variety of liquids comprising submicronized rebamipide crystals were investigated using a rat cauterization-induced oral ulcer model. Whereas 2% rebamipide liquid comprising micro-crystals did not exhibit significant curative effect, 2% rebamipide liquids comprising submicronized crystals with moderate viscosities exhibited healing effects following intra-oral administration. The 2% and 4% optimized rebamipide liquids showed significant healing effects in the rat oral ulcer model (p<0.01). In addition, in the rat radiation-induced glossitis model, whereby the injury was caused to the tongue by exposing only around the rat's snout to a 15 Gy of X-irradiation, the 2% optimized rebamipide liquid significantly reduced the percent area of ulcerated injury (p<0.05). In conclusion, the submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity following intra-oral administration showed better both healing effect in the rat oral ulcer model and preventive effect in the rat irradiation-induced glossitis model.

  7. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  8. Male and Female Administrative Potential--Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Elizabeth Levin

    1980-01-01

    A diagnostic administrative style test administered to 98 candidates for administrative positions revealed no significant differences between men and women; the most frequent style for both was the "separated" style characterized by low task orientation, low relationship orientation, attention to rules, conscientiousness, and desire for close…

  9. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems. 203.34 Section 203.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; (c) Identifying any significant loss of drug samples and notifying FDA of the loss; and...

  10. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems. 203.34 Section 203.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; (c) Identifying any significant loss of drug samples and notifying FDA of the loss; and...

  11. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  16. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  17. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Is Associated with Persistent Biochemical Alterations in Striatal and Cortical Dopaminergic Terminals in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ladenheim, Bruce; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T.; Barnes, Chanel; Warner, John E.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is an illicit psychostimulant that is abused throughout the world. Repeated passive injections of the drug given in a single day or over a few days cause significant and long-term depletion of dopamine and serotonin in the mammalian brain. Because meth self-administration may better mimic some aspects of human drug-taking behaviors, we examined to what extent this pattern of drug treatment might also result in damage to monoaminergic systems in the brain. Rats were allowed to intravenously self-administer meth (yoked control rats received vehicle) 15 hours per day for 8 days before being euthanized at either 24 hours or at 7 and 14 days after cessation of drug taking. Meth self-administration by the rats was associated with a progressive escalation of daily drug intake to 14 mg/kg per day. Animals that self-administered meth exhibited dose-dependent decreases in striatal dopamine levels during the period of observation. In addition, there were significant reductions in the levels of striatal dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase proteins. There were also significant decreases in the levels of dopamine, dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase in the cortex. In contrast, meth self-administration caused only transient decreases in norepinephrine and serotonin levels in the two brain regions, with these values returning to normal at seven days after cessation of drug taking. Importantly, meth self-administration was associated with significant dose-dependent increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein in both striatum and cortex, with these changes being of greater magnitude in the striatum. These results suggest that meth self-administration by rats is associated with long-term biochemical changes that are reminiscent of those observed in post-mortem brain tissues of chronic meth abusers. PMID:20098750

  18. Helicobacter pylori: A significant and treatable cause of chronic urticaria and angioedema.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Marjohn M; Moye, Nancy A; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S

    2015-10-16

    Two outpatient medical offices evaluated 204 patients with chronic urticaria during 2012. This article presents a retrospective study showing that 10% of patients with chronic urticaria may be infected with H. pylori. Furthermore, eradication of infection can be followed by remission of urticaria, reduced morbidity from gastric ulcers, and cancer.

  19. Nicotine exposure caused significant transgenerational heritable behavioral changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Taki, Faten A; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Passive and active exposure to tobacco smoking among youth is directly associated with immediate as well as long-term health deterioration. Despite all public health policies and efforts, the percentage of teenage smokers is still relatively high, especially in developing countries. Very few, if any, studies have been done on the transgenerational effect of nicotine exposed during the more sensitive, early developmental stages. We employed C. elegans as a biological model to study the multigenerational impact of chronic nicotine exposure. Nicotine treatment was limited to N2 hermaphrodites of the F0 generation. Exposure was limited to the larval period L1-L4 (~31 hours) after which worms were transferred to a fresh NGM plate. N2 hermaphrodites at L4 developmental stage were used for behavioral analysis across three generations: F0, F1, and F2. Our results show that nicotine was associated with changes in sinusoidal locomotion, speed, and body bends in L4 larvae in all three tested generations. These behavioral alterations were not restricted to F0, but were observed in F1 and F2 generations which were never exposed to nicotine. Our study is the first to reveal that nicotine addiction is heritable using C. elegans as a model organism. These results underscored the sensitivity of early development stages, with hope to spread more awareness to encourage the avoidance of nicotine exposure, especially at a young age.

  20. Attitudes, Administrative Styles, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, J. Stanley

    1984-01-01

    The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…

  1. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  2. Coaches Guide to Sport Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    This guide for athletic coaches offers a practical approach to the administrative functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling. Included are chapters on coaching administration, fund raising, organizing competitions, and designing effective budgets and controls. The guide addresses the following topics: (1) the categories of…

  3. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  4. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  5. How to Control Administrative Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in college administration has increased costs and bureaucracy. Rather than wait for fiscal crisis or consumer revolt, academic leaders, including faculty and administrators, should initiate change by simplifying activities and procedures and rewarding consolidation. The challenge is to use resources more effectively and efficiently in a…

  6. Administrative Approaches to Educational Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, William S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an institutional framework for raising higher education productivity through administrative and organizational devices: first, by examining two theories for explaining rising higher education costs and their different policy consequences, and then by presenting an administrative process for improving productivity that focuses on…

  7. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  8. International Developments in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Franklin D.

    Review of the history and characteristics of international organizations in educational administration suggests that the time may be right for a worldwide organization. Five international organizations have formed since 1959, when the University Council for Educational Administration linked U.S. and Canadian educators. A chronological chart…

  9. Legal Administrative Systems. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in legal administrative systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains six sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to legal administrative systems; (2) word processing;…

  10. Medical Administrative Systems. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in medical administrative systems. Following an introductory section that lists the common essential elements of the course, the guide contains seven sections that cover the following course topics: (1) introduction to medical administrative systems; (2) word…

  11. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  12. Canadian and Comparative Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H., Ed.; Housego, Ian E., Ed.

    Most of the articles in this book evolved from papers presented during the Fourth Quadrennial International Intervisitation Program in Educational Administration held in Canada in 1978. Its purposes were to inform educational leaders from around the world about educational administration, organization, and policy in Canada and to provide a forum…

  13. In Praise of Fewer Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald D.; Stuart, William H.

    In response to increasing financial pressures, Oakland Community College instituted a policy in the 1970s to reduce the number of college administrators as a means of saving staff costs. While student enrollments increased from 11,700 in 1970 to 24,000 in 1980, the number of administrators fell from 84 to 32. This reduction was realized through…

  14. Writing Program Administration as Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchio, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Considers relations between the official pedagogy of the writing program that the author administers and his administrative practices, to come to terms with the hidden curriculum of his situation. Argues for a shift from thinking about administration as masterful organization and implementation to conceiving of it as relational and receptive, a…

  15. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  16. Communication Skills for Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowicki, Mark A.

    This paper reviews and discusses the literature related to improving effective communication in educational settings. It compiles possible solutions to ineffective communications. To promote effective communication, administrators need to solicit opinions and be willing to listen to them. Most administrators tend to give direction instead of…

  17. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  18. The Magic of Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.

    We are better prepared today to deal with the problems in library administration, because we not only have the basic work of management theorists, but also staffs who are better educated and more interested in participation. During the last 25 years, there have been two strands in library administration. The older, human relations approach allowed…

  19. Managing Time: An Administrator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    Following a brief discussion of the concept of time as a resource and a clarification of that resource's importance, the author analyzes 20 ways administrators waste time and 40 ways administrators can save time. None of the techniques suggested require special forms or training. The time wasters considered fall into the areas of personal…

  20. Effectiveness of Administrative Working Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdy, Leonard L.

    1977-01-01

    Basically, the effectiveness of a local school district is determined by the quantity and quality of staff. To be effective, school administrators must maintain good working relationships. Examines the factors that contribute to both good and poor working relationships between teachers and administrators. (Author/RK)

  1. Hyponatremia at autopsy: an analysis of etiologic mechanisms and their possible significance.

    PubMed

    Byramji, Angela; Cains, Glenda; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-01-01

    While electrolyte measurements after death may be confounded by a number of variables, vitreous humor sodium tends to remain stable for some time, enabling correlation between ante- and postmortem levels. Review of natural and unnatural causes of reduced vitreous humor sodium levels at autopsy was undertaken to demonstrate the range of diseases that may result in this finding. Natural diseases affecting the vasopressin-renin-angiotensin axis may cause reduction in sodium levels with associated hypovolemia, euvolemia, and hypervolemia. Low sodium measurements may also occur with redistribution of water, and artefactually when there are underlying lipid and protein disorders. Unnatural causes of hyponatremia at autopsy include water intoxication from psychogenic polydipsia, environmental polydipsia, ingestion of dilute infant formulas, beer potomania, endurance exercise, fresh water immersion (including water births) and iatrogenic causes including drug and parenteral fluid administration, and surgical irrigation. A knowledge of the range of conditions that may result in lowered postmortem sodium levels will help to exclude or confirm certain diseases at autopsy. In addition, significant vitreous hyponatremia may be a useful finding to help clarify mechanisms of unnatural deaths. PMID:19291452

  2. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-07-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained body weight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra body weight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity.

  3. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  4. General administrative activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-07-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics.

  5. 7 CFR 62.100 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions Administration § 62.100 Administrator. The LS Program Deputy Administrator is charged with the administration of official assessments conducted according to the regulations in this part and approved...

  6. 47 CFR 64.623 - Administrator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... administrator of the TRS User Registration Database, the administrator of the VRS Access Technology Reference...) None of the administrator of the TRS User Registration Database, the administrator of the VRS...

  7. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction to... Administrator is “first assistant” for purposes of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 (5 U.S.C. 3345-3349d)....

  8. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  9. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  10. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  11. [Botryomycosis caused by fusobacteria].

    PubMed

    Gudat, W; Böckers, M; Bräuninger, W

    1992-07-01

    In the Anglo-American literature botrymycosis is described as a chronic cutaneous granulomatous reaction to bacterial infection, containing granules resembling the sulphur granules seen in actinomycosis. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects are discussed with reference to a recently observed patient. Fusobacterium nucleatum was isolated as the bacterial cause of the pathologic disorder.

  12. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  13. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2 . Nature Genetics , Oct;23(2), 185–188. [top] Schollen, ... 1581. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n12/full/ejhg200995a.html [ ...

  14. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  15. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  16. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  17. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  18. Assessment of low-dose cisplatin as a model of nausea and emesis in beagle dogs, potential for repeated administration.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Hannah; Pelligand, Ludovic; Elliott, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Cisplatin is a highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy agent, which is often used to induce nausea and emesis in animal models. The cytotoxic properties of cisplatin also cause adverse events that negatively impact on animal welfare preventing repeated administration of cisplatin. In this study, we assessed whether a low (subclinical) dose of cisplatin could be utilized as a model of nausea and emesis in the dog while decreasing the severity of adverse events to allow repeated administration. The emetic, nausea-like behavior and potential biomarker response to both the clinical dose (70 mg/m2) and low dose (15 mg/m2) of cisplatin was assessed. Plasma creatinine concentrations and granulocyte counts were used to assess adverse effects on the kidneys and bone marrow, respectively. Nausea-like behavior and emesis was induced by both doses of cisplatin, but the latency to onset was greater in the low-dose group. No significant change in plasma creatinine was detected for either dose groups. Granulocytes were significantly reduced compared with baseline (P = 0.000) following the clinical, but not the low-dose cisplatin group. Tolerability of repeated administration was assessed with 4 administrations of an 18 mg/m2 dose cisplatin. Plasma creatinine did not change significantly. Cumulative effects on the granulocytes occurred, they were significantly decreased (P = 0.03) from baseline at 3 weeks following cisplatin for the 4th administration only. Our results suggest that subclinical doses (15 and 18 mg/m2) of cisplatin induce nausea-like behavior and emesis but have reduced adverse effects compared with the clinical dose allowing for repeated administration in crossover studies.

  19. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  20. Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Cheng, Xiaobo; Su, Yuqing; Pei, Ying; Song, Yanzhi; Jiao, Jiao; Huang, Zhenjun; Ma, Yanfei; Dong, Yinming; Yao, Ying; Fan, Jingjing; Ta, Han; Liu, Xinrong; Xu, Hui; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    The cross-administration of nanocarriers modified by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), named PEGylated nanocarriers, a type of combination therapy, is becoming an increasingly important method of long-term drug delivery, to decrease side effects, avoid multidrug resistance, and increase therapeutic efficacy. However, repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers induces the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon, prevents long circulation, and can cause adverse effects owing to alterations in the biodistribution of the drug. Although the nature of the ABC phenomenon that is induced by repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers has already been studied in detail, there are few reports on the immune response elicited by the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers. In this study, we investigated the ABC phenomenon induced by the intravenous cross-administration of various PEGylated nanocarriers, including PEGylated liposomes (PL), PEG micelles (PM), PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (PSLN), and PEGylated emulsions (PE), in beagle dogs. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response elicited by the cross-administration was in the following order (from the strongest to the weakest): PL, PE, PSLN, PM. It is specifically PEG in the brush structure that elicits a significant immune response, in both the induction phase and the effectuation phase. Furthermore, the present study suggests that there is a considerable difference between the effect of repeated injections and cross-administration, depending on the colloidal structure. This work is a preliminary investigation into the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers, and our observations can have serious implications for the design of combination therapies that use PEGylated vectors. PMID:25999716

  1. Repeated ketamine administration redeems the time lag for citalopram's antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-F; Liu, W-X; Qiu, L-L; Guo, J; Wang, X-M; Sun, H-L; Yang, J-J; Zhou, Z-Q

    2015-06-01

    Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag for treatment response of classic antidepressants. The behavioral responses were assessed by the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. In the first stage of experiments, all the four treatment regimens of ketamine (10mg/kg ip, once daily for 3 or 7 consecutive days, or once every 7 or 3 days, in a total 21 days) showed robust antidepressant-like effects, with no significant influence on locomotor activity and stereotype behavior in the CUMS rats. The intermittent administration regimens produced longer antidepressant-like effects than the consecutive administration regimens and the administration every 7 days presented similar antidepressant-like effects with less administration times compared with the administration every 3 days. In the second stage of experiments, the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once every 7 days) and citalopram (20 mg/kg po, once daily) for 21 days caused more rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects than citalopram administered alone. In summary, repeated sub-anesthestic doses of ketamine can redeem the time lag for the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram, suggesting the combination of ketamine and classic antidepressants is a promising regimen for depression with quick onset time and stable and lasting effects. PMID:25795441

  2. Selank Administration Affects the Expression of Some Genes Involved in GABAergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anastasiya; Shadrina, Maria; Kolomin, Timur; Andreeva, Lyudmila; Limborska, Svetlana; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Slominsky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the similarity of the spectrum of physiological effects of Selank and classical benzodiazepines, such as diazepam and phenazepam. These data suggest that there is a similar basis of their mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis we studied the effect of Selank and GABA on the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. We analyzed the expression of 84 genes involved in neurotransmission (e.g., major subunit of the GABA receptor, transporters, ion channels, dopamine, and serotonin receptors) in the frontal cortex of rats 1 and 3 h after the administration of Selank or GABA (300 μg/kg) using real-time PCR method. We found significant changes in the expression of 45 genes 1 h after the administration of the compounds. Three hours after Selank or GABA administration, 22 genes changed their expression. We found positive correlation between the changes in genes expression within 1 h after administration of Selank or GABA. Our results showed that Selank caused a number of alterations in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. The data obtained indicate that Selank is characterized by its complex effects on nerve cells, and one of its possible molecular mechanisms is associated with allosteric modulation of the GABAergic system. PMID:26924987

  3. IV nicotine self-administration in rats using a consummatory operant licking response: sensitivity to serotonergic, glutaminergic and histaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Vanessa; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0.03mg/kg/infusion of nicotine), we tested the effect of antagonists of H1 histamine receptors pyrilamine, serotonin (5HT) type 2 receptors ketanserin and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors with d-cycloserine as well as an agonist of 5HT2c receptors lorcaserin, in dose ranges that we have found in previous studies to significantly reduce IV nicotine self-administration with the operant lever press operand. The H1 antagonist pyrilamine significantly reduced operant licking for nicotine self-administration. Pyrilamine caused significant reductions in the operant licking paradigm at lower doses (10 and 20mg/kg) than those we previously observed to affect responding in the operant lever press paradigm. In contrast, the 5HT2A and C antagonist ketanserin did not show an effect of reducing nicotine self-administration in the same dose range we had found in a previous study to significantly reduce operant lever press nicotine self-administration. The 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin significantly decreased nicotine self-administration in the licking paradigm at the same dose threshold as with lever press responding. The NMDA glutamate partial agonist d-cycloserine did not produce any change in nicotine self-administration with the licking operand, in contrast to its effect on the classic lever-pressing task. The rat model incorporating consummatory aspects of

  4. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  5. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  6. Status Epilepticus Caused by Nefopam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-baeg; Kim, Jeong-min

    2014-01-01

    Nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic, has been used to control postoperative pain. Reported adverse effects are anticholinergic, cardiovascular or neuropsychiatric. Neurologic adverse reactions to nefopam are confusion, hallucinations, delirium and convulsions. There are several reports about fatal convulsive seizures, presumably related to nefopam. A 71-year-old man was admitted for surgery for a lumbar spinal stenosis. He was administered intravenous analgesics : ketorolac, tramadol, orphenadrine citrate and nefopam HCl. His back pain was so severe that he hardly slept for several days; he even needed morphine and pethidine. At 4 days of administration of intravenous analgesics, the patient suddenly started generalized tonic-clonic seizures for 15 seconds, and subsequently, status epilepticus; these were not responsive to phenytoin and midazolam. After 3 days of barbiturate coma therapy the seizures were controlled. Convulsive seizures related to nefopam appear as focal, generalized, myoclonic types, or status epilepticus, and are not dose-related manifestations. In our case, the possibility of convulsions caused by other drugs or the misuse of drugs was considered. However, we first identified the introduced drugs and excluded the possibility of an accidental misuse of other drugs. Physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of unpredictable and serious convulsions when using nefopam. PMID:25535527

  7. Transcultural perspectives in nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M M

    1998-11-01

    Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined. PMID:9824983

  8. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL... document shall include the environmental assessment or a summary of it, and shall briefly present the... not be prepared. (b) Petitions for review of a finding of no significant impact must be received...

  9. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  10. [Causes of camptocormia].

    PubMed

    Glocker, F X; Berninger, U G

    2013-08-01

    In this society with an ever increasing number of the elderly there is an increasing number of causes of a bent spine syndrome (camptocormia/dropped head syndrome). The causes include neurological, neuro-orthopedic, rheumatological and psychiatric disorders. Parkinson's disease, dystonia and neuromuscular diseases (motor neuron disease, myositis and muscular dystrophy) with weakness of the axial muscles may result in bent spine syndrome and is often combined with a dropped head. Disc herniation, hypertrophic spondylosis or pseudospondylolisthesis with spinal narrowing may lead to an abnormal flexion of the trunk. Ankylosing spondylitis can produce a disabling bent spine syndrome. Camptocormia may also be mimicked by osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bones with wedge-shaped vertebrae. In some cases camptocormia is related to a psychogenic disorder.

  11. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg−1 per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg−1 galantamine and 3.0 mg kg−1 donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  12. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-19

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg(-1) per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects.

  13. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg(-1) per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  14. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. Administrative Computing: Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes administrative computer use in the Concord (NH) School District. Applications discussed include procurement, cash flow and investment, accounting and control, and teacher contracts, all performed with in-house programs. (MCG)

  16. An Administrator Goes to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1989-01-01

    A school administrator, who became minority staff director for the United States Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities, forecasts that early childhood programs will achieve funding at the expense of the block grants of Chapter 2. (MLF)

  17. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  18. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  19. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  20. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7432-1 Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien. (a)...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7432-1 Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien. (a)...

  2. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... decision will be subject to the procedures for a petition for review by the Board under subpart C of...

  3. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... decision will be subject to the procedures for a petition for review by the Board under subpart C of...

  4. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... decision will be subject to the procedures for a petition for review by the Board under subpart C of...

  5. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... decision will be subject to the procedures for a petition for review by the Board under subpart C of...

  6. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... decision will be subject to the procedures for a petition for review by the Board under subpart C of...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7432-1 Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien. (a)...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7432-1 Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien. (a)...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7432-1 Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien. (a)...

  10. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  11. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  12. Yawning and its physiological significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  13. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model.

    PubMed

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I; Cebada, Jorge; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO. PMID:27635404

  14. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I.; Cebada, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO.

  15. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I.; Cebada, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO. PMID:27635404

  16. The effect of R-(-)-deprenyl administration on antioxidant enzymes in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Františka; Danielisová, Viera; Domoráková, Iveta; Solár, Peter; Rybárová, Silvia; Hodorová, Ingrid; Mihalik, Jozef

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of R-(-)-deprenyl administration on the activity and localization of superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalase (CAT) in rat testis. After 30 days of intraperitoneal administration of either saline (control) or R-(-)-deprenyl dissolved in saline at concentrations of 0.0025mg/kg (low dose of deprenyl, LDD) or 0.25mg/kg (high dose of deprenyl, HDD), males were killed by thiopental, and their testes were collected. We found that deprenyl administration significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and this effect varied by dosage. LDD caused significant elevation of all monitored enzymes, but HDD did not increase the activity of SOD2. Employing immunohistochemistry, we detected enzymes predominantly in Leydig cells (SOD1, SOD2, CAT), in late spermatids and residual bodies (SOD1, SOD2), and in primary spermatocytes (SOD2). Histopathological examination did not reveal testicular damage in experimental groups compared to control. Deprenyl proved to be a potent stimulator of antioxidant enzymes in rat testes; therefore, it could be used in the therapy of male infertility. On the other hand, it is crucial to choose a proper dose, since lower dose was more competent compared to a dosage that was one hundred times higher. PMID:27292162

  17. Intraperitoneal administration of activated protein C prevents postsurgical adhesion band formation.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Weiler, Hartmut; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2015-02-19

    Postsurgical peritoneal adhesion bands are the most important causes of intestinal obstruction, pelvic pain, and female infertility. In this study, we used a mouse model of adhesion and compared the protective effect of activated protein C (APC) to that of the Food and Drug Administration-approved antiadhesion agent, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) by intraperitoneal administration of either APC or Seprafilm to experimental animals. Pathological adhesion bands were graded on day 7, and peritoneal fluid concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1) were evaluated. Inflammation scores were also measured based on histologic data obtained from peritoneal tissues. Relative to Seprafilm, intraperitoneal administration of human APC led to significantly higher reduction of postsurgical adhesion bands. Moreover, a markedly lower inflammation score was obtained in the adhesive tissues of the APC-treated group, which correlated with significantly reduced peritoneal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and an elevated tPA level. Further studies using variants of human APC with or without protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling function and mutant mice deficient for either endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or PAR1 revealed that the EPCR-dependent signaling activity of APC is primarily responsible for its protective activity in this model. These results suggest APC has therapeutic potential for preventing postsurgical adhesion bands. PMID:25575539

  18. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  19. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  20. Cause of occupational disease.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D C

    1995-01-01

    The concept of causality is reviewed with special emphasis on occupational diseases. Separate approaches from the philosophical, scientific, and legal points of view are identified. There is controversy over the methodology of logical causality; inductive and deductive methods are described and reference is made to the verification or refutation approach. Application of the methods to epidemiology are reviewed. It is likely that many diseases have multiple causes and that only a component of occupational causality can be identified in each patient. Methods of assigning such a component are discussed. The difficulties of developing an equitable compensation policy in such circumstances are reviewed. The possible benefits of proportional compensation are noted. PMID:7795749

  1. Landslides caused by earthquakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 40 historical world-wide earthquakes were studied to determine the characteristics, geologic environments, and hazards of landslides caused by seismic events. This sample was supplemented with intensity data from several hundred US earthquakes to study relations between landslide distribution and seismic parameters. Correlations between magnitude (M) and landslide distribution show that the maximum area likely to be affected by landslides in a seismic event increases from approximately 0 at M = 4.0 to 500 000 km2 at M = 9.2. Each type of earthquake-induced landslide occurs in a particular suite of geologic environments. -from Author

  2. Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. J.; Watkins, C. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of dark-adapted albino rats to light (350 lux) significantly elevated retinal levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid during the next hour; their return to a dark environment caused dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels to fall. Retinal dopamine levels were increased slightly by light exposure, suggesting that the increase in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid reflected accelerated dopamine synthesis. Administration of tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) further elevated retinal dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid among light-exposed animals, but failed to affect dopamine release among animals in the dark. These observations show that a physiological stimulus - light exposure - can cause catecholaminergic neurons to become tyrosine-dependent; they also suggest that food consumption may affect neurotransmitter release within the retina.

  3. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases.

  4. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  5. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  6. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  7. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  8. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. Generating New Knowledge Bases in Educational Administration Professional Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, P. J.

    This paper examines college and university educational administration (EDAD) professional-preparation programs and their current inertia caused by an intellectually based "war over standards" of knowledge and information. It describes how much of EDAD professional-preparation programs' approach to knowledge is largely premised in conventional…

  10. 22 CFR 139.4 - Responsibilities of the Program Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Program Administrator, if mediation is not successful and the participant is terminated for cause in the judgment of the employer, will promptly (normally within two business days after termination of employment... business days) giving a written report to the Department of State and the Immigration and...

  11. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations.

  12. Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

  13. Anaphylactoid reactions in two patients after omalizumab administration after successful long-term therapy.

    PubMed

    Price, Kursteen S; Hamilton, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, has anti-inflammatory effects in allergic asthma and rhinitis. Although omalizumab has been exceptionally safe, reactions after its administration have been reported. The goal of this study was to assess two patients who experienced apparent anaphylaxis after omalizumab administration. Two cases of apparent anaphylaxis after omalizumab administration are reported with diagnostic evaluation using skin testing and unique IgE and IgG anti-omalizumab serological assays. At the time of evaluation, both atopic asthmatic patients had total (free and bound) serum IgE levels of 199 kIU/L (100% free) and 200 kIU/L (80% free and 20% bound), respectively. Epicutaneous skin tests to omalizumab were negative at 150 mg/mL of omalizumab in both subjects and the nonexposed negative control subject. Intradermal skin tests were positive at 0.15 mg/mL in subject 1 and negative at 1.5 mg/mL of omalizumab in subject 2 and the control subject. Intradermal testing to polysorbate produced significant wheal/flare reaction in subject 2 but not in the negative control subject. Serological assays for IgE or IgG antibodies reactive with omalizumab were negative. The in vitro and in vivo immunologic data support the conclusion that the adverse reactions experienced by two patients after omalizumab administration after more than a year of successful omalizumab therapy for asthma were likely anaphylactoid in nature. Polysorbate, an excipient in omalizumab, is known to cause similar reactivity to other medicines and is the most likely cause of these reactions.

  14. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  15. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  17. 45 CFR 74.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract administration. 74.47 Section 74.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to ensure contractor conformance...

  18. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  19. 45 CFR 1336.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative costs. 1336.71 Section 1336.71... Administrative costs. Reasonable administrative costs of the RLF may be paid out of the loan fund. The grant award agreement between the Loan Administrator and ANA will set forth the allowable administrative...

  20. Administration of Occupational Education: A Suggested Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Ivan E.

    Designed to provide administrators of occupation programs at the secondary and post-secondary level with a systems approach to administration, this administrators' guide brings together administrative and leadership tasks and responsibilities that must be considered by administrators when developing programs. The system presented in the guide is…

  1. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  2. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  3. Causes of Death Among Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Context Stillbirth affects 1 in 160 pregnancies in the United States, equal to the number of infant deaths each year. Rates are higher than those of other developed countries and have stagnated over the past decade. There is significant racial disparity in the rate of stillbirth that is unexplained. Objective To ascertain the causes of stillbirth in a population that is diverse by race/ethnicity and geography. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based study from March 2006 to September 2008 with surveillance for all stillbirths at 20 weeks or later in 59 tertiary care and community hospitals in 5 catchment areas defined by state and county boundaries to ensure access to at least 90% of all deliveries. Termination of a live fetus was excluded. Standardized evaluations were performed at delivery. Main Outcome Measures Medical history, fetal postmortem and placental pathology, karyotype, other laboratory tests, systematic assignment of causes of death. Results Of 663 women with stillbirth enrolled, 500 women consented to complete postmortem examinations of 512 neonates. A probable cause of death was found in 312 stillbirths (60.9%; 95% CI, 56.5%–65.2%) and possible or probable cause in 390 (76.2%; 95% CI, 72.2%–79.8%). The most common causes were obstetric conditions (150 [29.3%; 95% CI, 25.4%–33.5%]), placental abnormalities (121 [23.6%; 95% CI, 20.1%–27.6%]), fetal genetic/structural abnormalities (70 [13.7%; 95% CI, 10.9%–17.0%]), infection (66 [12.9%; 95% CI, 10.2%–16.2%]), umbilical cord abnormalities (53 [10.4%; 95% CI, 7.9%–13.4%]), hypertensive disorders (47 [9.2%; 95% CI, 6.9%–12.1%]), and other maternal medical conditions (40 [7.8%; 95% CI, 5.7%–10.6%]). A higher proportion of stillbirths in non-Hispanic black women compared with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic ones was associated with obstetric complications (43.5% [50] vs 23.7% [85]; difference, 19.8%; 95% CI, 9.7%–29.9%; P<.001) and infections (25.2% [29] vs 7.8% [28

  4. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, J.C.; Akin, E.W.

    1986-11-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes.

  5. [Malassezia yeasts and their significance in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hort, W; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2006-07-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia belong to the normal microflora of the human skin. In addition they are known to cause a variety of skin diseases; the most frequent of which is pityriasis versicolor. Malassezia yeasts are also thought to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and Malassezia folliculitis. Recently the significance of Malassezia yeasts as a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis of the head and neck region has been pointed out. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in these different diseases has been controversial in the past and remains an issue because of difficulties in isolation, culture and differentiation of the organism. Thanks to molecular techniques, 10 species can actually be differentiated. The article presents the different Malassezia-associated diseases, their clinical picture, diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In addition the speciation of Malassezia is reviewed. PMID:16758222

  6. Administratively Necessary Days: More than an Administrative Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Elizabeth W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed discharge planners at 49 acute care hospitals to ascertain problems they perceived in placing elderly patients. Selected hospital characteristics and placement practices and the ways in which they are associated with hospital back-up (sometimes called administratively necessary days) and delays in placement were analyzed. (Author/JAC)

  7. Policy and Public Administration, Educational Policy and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos-Monzon, Ivan Luis

    This paper attempts to clean up some of the muddled thinking that obscures the distinction between theory and practice in educational administration. The author also applies his argument to the issue of possible gaps between policy formulation and policy implementation. The author begins by noting that there is a common misapprehension that in…

  8. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  10. The influence of the mode of administration in the dissemination of three coliphages in chickens.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Sereno, R; Nicolau, A; Azeredo, J

    2009-04-01

    Escherichia coli can cause severe respiratory and systemic infections in chickens, and it is often associated with significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Bacteriophages (phages) have been shown to be potential alternatives to the antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. To accomplish that, phage particles must be able to reach and remain active in the infected organs. The present work aims at evaluating the effect of the route of administration and the dosage in the dissemination of 3 coliphages in the chicken's organs. In vivo trials were conducted by infecting chickens orally, spray, and i.m. with 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) plaque-forming units/mL suspensions of 3 lytic phages: phi F78E (Myoviridae), phi F258E (Siphoviridae), and phi F61E (Myoviridae). Birds were killed 3, 10, and 24 h after challenge and the phage titer was measured in lungs and air sacs membranes, liver, duodenum, and spleen. When administered by spray, the 3 phages reached the respiratory tract within 3 h. Oral administration also allowed all phages to be recovered in lungs, but only phi F78E was recovered from the duodenum, the liver, and the spleen. These differences can be explained by the possible replication of phi F78E in commensal E. coli strains present in the chicken gut, thus leading to a higher concentration of this phage in the intestines that resulted in systemic circulation of phage with consequent phage in organs. When phages were administered i.m., they were found in all of the collected organs. Despite this better response, i.m. administration is a nonpracticable way of protecting a large number of birds in a poultry unit. In general, the results suggest that oral administration and spray allowed phages to reach and to remain active in the respiratory tract and can, therefore, be considered promising administration routes to treat respiratory E. coli infections in the poultry industry. PMID:19276415

  11. Oral self-administration of buprenorphine in the diet for analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cimadevila, M J; Segura, S; Merino, C; Ruiz-Reig, N; Andrés, B; de Madaria, E

    2014-04-23

    Postsurgical oral self-administration of analgesics in rodents is an interesting technique of providing analgesia, avoiding the negative effects of manipulation. Several strategies, using gelatin or nutella, have already been described. However, rodents require some habituation period to reach a good intake because of their neophobic behavior. The current study aimed to explore whether buprenorphine when mixed with an extruded diet offers a potential treatment option in the pain management of mice using a triple approach: by measuring the spontaneous intake in healthy animals; by using the hot-plate test; and finally by assessing the drug's ability to provide postoperative analgesia in a surgical intervention of moderate severity (intra-utero electroporation). Mice consumed during 20 hours, similar amounts of extruded diet alone, mixed with glucosaline, and mixed with buprenorphine (0.03 mg per pellet) or meloxicam (0.25 mg per pellet) both of which were diluted in glucosaline, showing that no neophobia was associated with these administrations. Relative increase from baseline latency (% maximal possible effect) in the hot-plate test at 20 h of administration was significantly higher for oral buprenorphine in diet 0.03 mg/pellet, and diet 0.15 mg/pellet, compared with placebo and no differences were found between those oral administrations and subcutaneous buprenorphine 0.1 mg/kg measured 3 h later. The treatment was also effective in attenuating the reductions in food consumption and body weight that occur after surgery. These data suggest that providing buprenorphine with the diet is a feasible and effective way of self-administration of analgesia in mice and does not cause neophobia and may easily contribute to the refinement of surgical procedures. PMID:24759572

  12. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  13. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  14. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  15. 7 CFR 201.3 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Administration § 201.3 Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  16. A Basic Manual for Physical Plant Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, George O., Ed.; Fincham, Michael W., Ed.

    This book provides practical advice on problems of institutional plant management to physical plant administrators. Areas covered include the role, organization, and facilities of the physical plant department; personnel administration; financial administration; buildings maintenance and operation; custodial services; utilities distribution…

  17. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  18. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  19. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  20. [Psychological wellbeing in the hospital administrative personnel].

    PubMed

    Tabolli, S; di Pietro, C; Luigi Aparo, U; Renzi, C

    2010-01-01

    Job satisfaction and psychological well being of health care workers significantly influence the quality of care. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction and psychological well-being in the administrative personnel of a large hospital in Rome-Italy. The personnel self-completed two anonymous questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for minor psychiatric non psychotic diseases and a validated job satisfaction questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Response rate was 65%. 74 were the questionnaires analyzed. 37.8% of respondents showed a high likelihood to develop symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.17-10.85). Major determinants of job dissatisfaction were the lower autonomy and poor communication in the working Unit. Factors associated with overall dissatisfaction were: insufficient training opportunities (p = 0.033), low autonomy (p = 0.023), poor communication between hospital Units (p = 0.009), unclear aims of their working Unit (p = 0.029), low agreement between personal expectations and required competence (p < 0.001). Among administrative staff job dissatisfaction was associated with high likelihood of depression/anxiety, low autonomy and poor communication, independently of sex, age, years of employment. Possible targets to improve satisfaction of administrative personnel were identified. PMID:20476655