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  1. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  2. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section..., PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge or magistrate is satisfied that “administrative probable cause,” as defined in section 510(d)(1)...

  3. Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, Stefan I.

    2015-01-01

    It becomes clearer and clearer that aging is a result of a significant number of causes and it would seem that counteracting one or several of them should not make a significant difference. Taken at face value, this suggests, for example, that free radicals and reactive oxygen species do not play a significant role in aging and that the lifespan of organisms cannot be significantly extended. In this review, I point to the fact that the causes of aging synergize with each other and discuss the implications involved. One implication is that when two or more synergizing causes increase over time, the result of their action increases dramatically; I discuss a simple model demonstrating this. It is reasonable to conclude that this might explain the acceleration of aging and mortality with age. In this regard, the analysis of results and mortality patterns described in studies involving yeasts and Drosophila provides support for this view. Since the causes of aging are synergizing, it is also concluded that none of them is the major one but many including free radicals, etc. play significant roles. It follows that health/lifespan might be significantly extended if we eliminate or even attenuate the increase of a few or even just one of the causes of aging. While the synergism between the causes of aging is the main topic of this review, several related matters are briefly discussed as well. PMID:26783959

  4. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  5. Just a sore throat? Uncommon causes of significant respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177

  6. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  7. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  8. Significance chasing in research practice: Causes, consequences, and possible solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Jennifer J.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives, which in turn can misdirect research effort and waste money. Methods We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of ‘significant’ findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures, and the impact of these on research practices. Results The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g., unplanned post hoc tests), to the calculated and serious (e.g., fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasise the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimise significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Conclusions Significance chasing, questionable research practices, and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a “publish or perish” culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g., funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. PMID:25040652

  9. Could selenium administration alleviate the disturbances of blood parameters caused by lithium administration in rats?

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Lewandowska, Anna; Żelazowska, Renata; Musik, Irena

    2014-06-01

    Lithium is widely used in medicine, but its administration can cause numerous side effects. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the possible application of selenium, an essential and antioxidant element, as a protective agent against lithium toxicity. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control)-treated with saline, II (Li)-treated with lithium (Li2CO3), III (Se)-treated with selenium (Na2SeO3) and IV (Li + Se)-treated with lithium and selenium (Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3) in the form of water solutions by stomach tube for 6 weeks. The following biochemical parameters were measured: concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, total protein and albumin and activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Morphological parameters such as red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, white blood cells, neutrophils as well as lymphocytes were determined. Lithium significantly increased serum calcium and glucose (2.65 ± 0.17 vs. 2.43 ± 0.11; 162 ± 31 vs. 121 ± 14, respectively), whereas magnesium and albumin were decreased (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 1.21 ± 0.15; 3.85. ± 0.12 vs. 4.02 ± 0.08, respectively). Selenium given with lithium restored these parameters to values similar to those observed in the control (Ca-2.49 ± 0.08, glucose-113 ± 26, Mg-1.28 ± 0.09, albumin-4.07 ± 0.11). Se alone or co-administered with Li significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase. The obtained outcomes let us suggest that the continuation of research on the application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy seems warranted. PMID:24676629

  10. Causes and Consequences of Role Stress among Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christine A.; And Others

    The presence of conflict-producing situations for higher education administrators is examined. Basic theory and constructs from organizational behavior research are integrated into a causal model to offer a more comprehensive understanding of role stress and commitment to the university. Research shows direct relationships between degree of role…

  11. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file. 10.70 Section 10.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... appropriate employees, and show all persons to whom copies were sent; (4) Avoid defamatory...

  12. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Significant degradation of services caused by... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where a... services are being degraded does not know the precise cause of the degradation, it must notify each...

  13. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Significant degradation of services caused by... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where a... services are being degraded does not know the precise cause of the degradation, it must notify each...

  14. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant degradation of services caused by... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where a... services are being degraded does not know the precise cause of the degradation, it must notify each...

  15. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Significant degradation of services caused by... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where a... services are being degraded does not know the precise cause of the degradation, it must notify each...

  16. Method of Administration of PROMIS Scales Did Not Significantly Impact Score Level, Reliability or Validity

    PubMed Central

    Bjorner, Jakob B.; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Study Design and Setting Two non-overlapping parallel forms each containing 8 items from each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with COPD, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICC), and convergent/discriminant validity. Results In difference score analyses, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the pre-specified MID of 0.2 SD. Parallel forms reliabilities were very high (ICC=0.85-0.93). Only one across mode ICC was significantly lower than the same mode ICC. Tests of validity showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. Conclusion We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ or PDA administration as compared to PC. PMID:24262772

  17. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    PubMed Central

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P; Kanui, Titus I

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. Methodology In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration of the α2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. Results Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal administration of yohimbine (53 μg/kg) followed immediately by intrathecal injection of the serotonergic methysergide maleate (20 μg/kg) resulted in a significant reversal of the antinociceptive effect of yohimbine. Conclusion The present study documented the intrathecal administration of drugs in the marsh terrapin, a technique that can be applied in future studies on these animals. The data also suggest the involvement of both α2-adrenoreceptors and 5HT receptors in the modulation of nociception in testudines. PMID:25365809

  18. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Causes Persistent Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations and Mitigates the Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hadlock, Greg C.; Allen, Scott C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Andrenyak, David M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a “binge” treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of METH self-administration on dopaminergic neuronal function. Results revealed that self-administration of METH, given according to a regimen that produces brain METH levels comparable with those reported postmortem in human METH abusers (0.06 mg/infusion; 8-h sessions for 7 days), decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake and/or immunoreactivity as assessed 8 or 30 days after the last self-administration session. Increasing the METH dose per infusion did not exacerbate these deficits. These deficits were similar in magnitude to decreases in DAT densities reported in imaging studies of abstinent METH abusers. It is noteworthy that METH self-administration mitigated the persistent deficits in dopaminergic neuronal function, as well as the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, caused by a subsequent binge METH exposure. This protection was independent of alterations in METH pharmacokinetics, but may have been attributable (at least in part) to a pretreatment-induced attenuation of binge-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, these results may provide insight into the neurochemical deficits reported in human METH abusers. PMID:22034657

  19. Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal Causes Persistent Changes in Mu Opioid Receptors in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Olczak, Mieszko; Duszczyk, Michalina; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Bobrowicz, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Thimerosal added to some pediatric vaccines is suspected in pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders. Our previous study showed that thimerosal administered to suckling rats causes persistent, endogenous opioid-mediated hypoalgesia. Here we examined, using immunohistochemical staining technique, the density of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the brains of rats, which in the second postnatal week received four i.m. injections of thimerosal at doses 12, 240, 1,440 or 3,000 μg Hg/kg. The periaqueductal gray, caudate putamen and hippocampus were examined. Thimerosal administration caused dose-dependent statistically significant increase in MOR densities in the periaqueductal gray and caudate putamen, but decrease in the dentate gyrus, where it was accompanied by the presence of degenerating neurons and loss of synaptic vesicle marker (synaptophysin). These data document that exposure to thimerosal during early postnatal life produces lasting alterations in the densities of brain opioid receptors along with other neuropathological changes, which may disturb brain development. PMID:20803069

  20. 47 CFR 51.233 - Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... presumption that it is acceptable for deployment under § 51.230, the degraded service shall not prevail... deployment of advanced services. 51.233 Section 51.233 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 51.233 Significant degradation of services caused by deployment of advanced services. (a) Where...

  1. Administrative Information Systems: The 1985 Profile and Five-Year Trends. CAUSE Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.; van Hoesen, Dana S.

    Information is presented about the administrative computing activities of colleges and universities belonging to CAUSE (the professional association for computing and information technology in higher education). Profiles and trends are provided based on 1985 Member Institution Profile Surveys conducted in 1980, 1983, and 1985. A total of 350…

  2. Significant elevations of serum lipase not caused by pancreatitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Lam, Vincent W T; Pleass, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many authors advocate lipase as the preferred serological test for the diagnosis of pancreatitis and a cut-off level of three or more times the upper limit of normal (ULN) is often quoted. The literature contains no systematic review that explores alternative causes of a lipase level over three times as high as the ULN. Such a review was therefore the objective of this study. Methods The EMBASE and MEDLINE databases (1985 to August 2013) were searched for all eligible articles. Predetermined data were extracted and independently analysed by two reviewers. Results In total, data from 58 studies were included in the final analysis. The following causes other than pancreatitis of lipase levels exceeding three times the ULN were found: reduced clearance of lipase caused by renal impairment or macrolipase formation; other hepatobiliary, gastroduodenal, intestinal and neoplastic causes; critical illness, including neurosurgical pathology; alternative pancreatic diagnoses, such as non-pathological pancreatic hyperenzymaemia, and miscellaneous causes such as diabetes, drugs and infections. Conclusions A series of differential diagnoses for significant serum lipase elevations (i.e. exceeding three times the ULN) has been provided by this study. Clinicians should utilize this knowledge in the interpretation and management of patients who have lipase levels over three times as high as the ULN, remaining vigilant for an alternative diagnosis to pancreatitis. The medical officer should be aware of the possibility of incorrect diagnosis in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:24888393

  3. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance

  4. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Water-Quality committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This review of 1981 developments is divided into four basic parts. The first covers legislative, judicial, and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA); the second covers judicial and administrative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); the third covers judicial developments respecting private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 109 references.

  5. Annual committee report on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Water Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This review of 1980 developments is divided into three parts. The first covers judicial and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA) such as industrial guidelines and standards; the second covers judicial administrative and legislative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the third covers judicial developments in the areas of private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 320 references.

  6. INTRAVENOUS MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION ERRORS AND THEIR CAUSES IN CARDIAC CRITICAL CARE UNITS IN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Esmaeili, Ravanbakhsh; Tajari, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The dangerous events caused by medication errors are one of the main challenges faced in critical care units. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of intravenous medication administration errors and their causes in cardiac critical care units in Iran. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted in the critical care units (CCUs and cardiac surgery intensive care units) of 12 teaching hospitals. Of the total of 240 nurses working in these departments, 190 participated in the present study. The data collection tools used in this study included the “nurses’ demographic data questionnaire”, the “patients’ medical and demographic data questionnaire” and the “nurses’ self-reporting questionnaire about the frequency of intravenous medication administration errors and their causes”. The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS-20 using descriptive statistics such as the absolute and relative frequency. Findings: During the 2 months in which this study was being conducted, 2542 patients were admitted to these departments and 20240 doses of intravenous medications were administered to these patients. The nurses reported 262 intravenous medication administration errors. The most common intravenous medication error pertained to administering the wrong medication (n=71 and 27.1%). As for the causes of intravenous medication administration errors, 51.5% of the errors were associated with work conditions, 24% with packaging, 13.4% with communication, 9.9% with transcription and 1.2% with pharmacies. Discussion and Conclusion: According to the results, strategies are recommended to be adopted for reducing or limiting medication errors, such as building a stronger pharmacology knowledge base in nurses and nursing students, improving work conditions and improving communication between the nurses and physicians. PMID:26889108

  7. Cause and significance of cold bone defects on indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Although photon deficient defects on bone scan have received a great deal of interest, such defects in bones on Indium-111 (/sup 111/In) leukocyte imaging have not been as well recognized. We therefore undertook a retrospective review to determine the frequency and significance of such cold defects on /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging. Three hundred thirty-two scans on 290 patients were reviewed and 40 cases of decreased activity involving bone were found, for an incidence of 12%. The causes of the defects were: fracture (eight), nontraumatic avascular necrosis (eight), solid tumor (six), prostheses and other orthopedic hardware (four), advanced age (four), radiation (three), leukemia (two), osteomyelitis (two), myelofibrosis (one), postlaminectomy (one), and idiopathic (one). To determine the frequency of cold defects in osteomyelitis, all 15 cases of osteomyelitis in this series were reviewed and 12 showed increased activity, two were cold, and one was normoactive. Thus, 14% of cases of osteomyelitis presented as cold defects. We conclude that cold bone defects do occur on /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans and that the causes of such defects are similar to those reported for bone and bone marrow scanning.

  8. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1982: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Judicial developments during 1982 dominated activities involving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rotenticide Act, and Marine Sanctuaries, with some changes in administrative procedures and no legislative developments. The Endangered Species Act was amended to expedite changes to the lists and to alter exemption and international trade requirements. Several lawsuits challenged review standards and litigation claims. 231 references. (DCK)

  9. Oral administration of Trapa taiwanensis Nakai fruit skin extracts conferring hepatoprotection from CCl4-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, She-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yi; Chang, Ju-Chun; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2011-04-27

    As a folk medicine, the hot-water infusion of water caltrop fruits has been used to protect the liver. In this study, the outer skins of mature water caltrop fruits ( Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) were removed, forced-air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to extraction with hot water, and the infusion was lyophilized and pulverized to prepare a hot water extract of T. taiwanensis (HWETT). HWETT was subjected to assays of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, reducing power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and antioxidative potency, and all determinations showed HWETT to be a potent antioxidant. As further analyzed with LC-MS, two major HPLC-detected components were elucidated as gallic acid and ellagic acid. Hepatoprotective activity of HWETT was assessed with Sprague-Dawley male rats by oral administration. Six groups of rats (n = 8 for each) were respectively treated, namely, control, CCl(4) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil by 2.0 mL/kg bw), CCl(4) and Silymarin (200 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and low HWETT dose (12.5 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and medium HWETT dose (25 mg/kg bw), and CCl(4) and high HWETT dose (125 mg/kg bw). After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted for an additional day and sacrificed to collect blood, liver, and kidney for analyses. Histopathological examinations showed that oral administrations with Silymarin and HWETT were effective in protecting the liver from CCl(4)-caused fatty change. Oral administration of HWETT at 125 mg/kg bw was more effective than was Silymarin at 200 mg/kg bw. On biochemical analyses, oral administrations with HWETT at medium and high doses were effective (p < 0.05) in lowering CCl(4)-caused increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It is of merit to demonstrate HWETT as a potent source of antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents. PMID:21381650

  10. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  11. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2013-01-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent (i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40) rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a “challenge” high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this “resistance” were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. PMID:21190217

  12. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  13. Acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles cause DNA damage in the cerebral cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eria; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Zanoni, Elton Torres; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Daumann, Francine; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Ortiz; Benavides, Roberto; da Silva, Luciano; Andrade, Vanessa M; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques

    2014-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles is increasing in medicine; however, their toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Studies show that gold nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as accumulate in the brain. Therefore, this study was undertaken to better understand the effects of gold nanoparticles on rat brains. DNA damage parameters were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of adult rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of two different diameters: 10 and 30nm. During acute administration, adult rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either gold nanoparticles or saline solution. During chronic administration, adult rats received a daily single injection for 28 days of the same gold nanoparticles or saline solution. Twenty-four hours after either single (acute) or last injection (chronic), the rats were euthanized by decapitation, their brains removed, and the cerebral cortices isolated for evaluation of DNA damage parameters. Our study showed that acute administration of gold nanoparticles in adult rats presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in their DNA compared to the control group. It was also observed that gold nanoparticles of 30nm presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in the DNA compared to the 10nm ones. When comparing the effects of chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of 10 and 30nm, we observed that occurred significant different index and frequency damage, comparing with control group. However, there is no difference between the 10 and 30nm groups in the levels of DNA damage for both parameters of the Comet assay. Results suggest that gold nanoparticles for both sizes cause DNA damage for chronic as well as acute treatments, although a higher damage was observed for the chronic one. PMID:25847268

  14. Effect of the co-administration of glucose with morphine on glucoregulatory hormones and causing of diabetes mellitus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Masoud; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Morphine is related to dysregulation of serum hormone levels. In addition, addict subjects interest to sugar intake. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of co-administration of glucose with Mo on the glucoregulatory hormones and causing of diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups including, control, morphine, Morphine-Glucose and diabetes groups. Morphine was undergone through doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Then, dose of 60 mg/kg was used repeated for 20 extra days. The Morphine-Glucose group received the same doses of morphine plus 1 g/kg glucose per day. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. At the end of experiment, the serum insulin, glucagon, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes concluding the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β were evaluated. Results: Morphine insignificantly induced a hyperglycemia condition and insulin resistance. Whereas, the beta-cell functions significantly (P < 0.05) decreased only in morphine group. The co-administration of glucose slightly increased the GH, and increased insulin and cortisol levels significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01; respectively) in the Morphine-Glucose group. Furthermore, the co-administration of glucose with morphine could nearly modulate the morphine effects on body weight, glucose, and glucagon levels. Conclusion: It is probable that the co-administration of glucose with morphine modulate the serum glucose levels by stimulating the beta-cell functions and to increase insulin secretion. PMID:26962523

  15. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Significant Cause of Deafness and Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichhorn, Sarah K.

    1982-01-01

    Research on cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes virus causing neurological damage (hearing problems and/or mental retardation) in 10 percent of infants born with the condition, is reviewed. Incidence of hearing and retardation in CMV cases is reported and current treatment described. (CL)

  16. Acute and chronic fentanyl administration causes hyperalgesia independently of opioid receptor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Amanda R; Arout, Caroline; Caldwell, Megan; Dahan, Albert; Kest, Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Although mu-receptor opioids are clinically important analgesics, they can also paradoxically cause hyperalgesia independently of opioid receptor activity, presumably via the action of neuroexcitatory glucoronide metabolites. However, it is unknown whether the commonly used mu-receptor opioid analgesic fentanyl, which is not subject to glucuronidation, can also induce hyperalgesia independently of opioid receptor activity. Thus, here we examined whether fentanyl increases nociception on the tail-withdrawal test in CD-1 mice concurrently treated with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone or in opioid receptor triple knock-out mice lacking mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. For both groups, an acute fentanyl bolus dose (0.25mg/kg, s.c.) and continuous fentanyl infusion (cumulative daily dose: 10mg/kg) did not cause analgesia at any time. Instead, fentanyl significantly decreased withdrawal latencies relative to pre-drug values for the next 15-60 min and for six days, respectively. MK-801 blocked and reversed hyperalgesia caused by the acute injection and continuous infusion of fentanyl, respectively, in naltrexone-treated CD-1 mice, indicating the contribution of NMDA receptors to fentanyl hyperalgesia. These data show that the synthetic opioid fentanyl causes hyperalgesia independently of prior or concurrent opioid receptor activity or analgesia. Since the biotransformation of fentanyl does not yield any known pronociceptive metabolites, these data challenge assumptions regarding the role of neuroexcitatory metabolites in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:19559072

  17. A Case with Significant Proteinuria Caused by Secreted Protein from Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakakima, Masanori; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Yasuda, Hideo; Togawa, Akashi; Fujikura, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Hishida, Akira

    2011-01-01

    58-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining isolated proteinuria of 1.7 g/day. Abdominal echography showed right-sided unilateral hydronephrosis, and computed tomography pointed out a tumor of the right renal pelvis, suggesting cancer of renal pelvis. The right nephroureterectomy was carried out. Pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma. Renal tissue revealed no apparent glomerulopathy with tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and mildly-to-moderately interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration. Immunofluorescence study showed no deposition of immunoreactanct, and electron microscopy showed almost normal glomerulus without electron dense deposit. Proteinuria disappeared within 6 days after the operation. Moderate amount of proteinuria in our patient was probably caused by secreted protein from urothelial carcinoma. This condition is rare but should be taken into account in patients with even moderate amount of proteinuria. PMID:24533189

  18. Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study

    PubMed Central

    Keers, Richard N; Williams, Steven D; Cooke, Jonathan; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the underlying causes of intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Setting Two NHS teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Participants Twenty nurses working in a range of inpatient clinical environments were identified and recruited using purposive sampling at each study site. Primary outcome measures Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse participants using the critical incident technique, where they were asked to discuss perceived causes of intravenous MAEs that they had been directly involved with. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the Framework approach and emerging themes were categorised according to Reason's model of accident causation. Results In total, 21 intravenous MAEs were discussed containing 23 individual active failures which included slips and lapses (n=11), mistakes (n=8) and deliberate violations of policy (n=4). Each active failure was associated with a range of error and violation provoking conditions. The working environment was implicated when nurses lacked healthcare team support and/or were exposed to a perceived increased workload during ward rounds, shift changes or emergencies. Nurses frequently reported that the quality of intravenous dose-checking activities was compromised due to high perceived workload and working relationships. Nurses described using approaches such as subconscious functioning and prioritising to manage their duties, which at times contributed to errors. Conclusions Complex interactions between active and latent failures can lead to intravenous MAEs in hospitals. Future interventions may need to be multimodal in design in order to mitigate these risks and reduce the burden of intravenous MAEs. PMID:25770226

  19. Significance of Heme-Based Respiration in Meat Spoilage Caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel every second or third day for 29 days. We observed that functional respiration increased the growth (rate and yield) of L. gasicomitatum in laboratory media with added heme and in situ meat with endogenous heme. Respiration increased enormously (up to 2,600-fold) the accumulation of acetoin and diacetyl, which are buttery off-odor compounds in meat. Our transcriptome analyses showed that the gene expression patterns were quite similar, irrespective of whether respiration was turned off by excluding heme from the medium or mutating the cydB gene, which is essential in the respiratory chain. The respiration-based growth of L. gasicomitatum in meat was obtained in terms of population development and subsequent development of sensory characteristics. Respiration is thus a key factor explaining why L. gasicomitatum is so well adapted in high-oxygen packed meat. PMID:23204416

  20. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  1. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  2. Intranasal administration of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rapidly and significantly increases whole-brain GDNF level in rats.

    PubMed

    Bender, T S; Migliore, M M; Campbell, R B; John Gatley, S; Waszczak, B L

    2015-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts significant neuroprotective effects on substantia nigra (SN) neurons in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine GDNF brain levels and distribution to target regions (i.e. striatum and SN) following intranasal administration of GDNF at different time points after administration. Brain levels increased significantly within 1h following a single 50-μg dose of GDNF in a liposomal formulation, returning to baseline by 24h. In a second study, different doses of GDNF (10-150 μg) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were studied at the 1-h time point. Dose-dependent increases in brain GDNF levels were observed with apparent saturation of uptake at doses above 100 μg. Liposomes delivered 10-fold more GDNF to brain than PBS despite yielding similar neuroprotective efficacy in the 6-OHDA model, suggesting incomplete release of GDNF from liposomes in tissue. In a third study, autoradiography was performed on brain sections taken 1h after intranasal (125)I-labeled GDNF. Radioactivity was detected throughout the brain along the rostral-to-caudal axis, indicating that nasally administered GDNF can reach target areas. Collectively, these results demonstrate that intranasal administration of GDNF in liposomes or PBS achieves significant increases in GDNF in target brain areas, supporting use of intranasal administration as a non-invasive means of delivering GDNF to the brain to protect dopamine neurons and arrest disease progression in PD. PMID:26166725

  3. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy. PMID:26232995

  4. Juvenile colour polymorphism in the red rock crab, Cancer productus: patterns, causes, and possible adaptive significance.

    PubMed

    Krause-Nehring, Jacqueline; Matthias Starck, J; Palmer, A Richard

    2010-05-01

    Juveniles of the common red rock crab of the Northeastern Pacific, Cancer productus, display a stunning diversity of colours and patterns, while adults all have the same drab colouration. Although this is widely known, key questions remain: (1) Does the frequency of different juvenile colours or patterns vary among collection sites or seasonally? (2) Does juvenile colour polymorphism reflect genetic heterogeneity or phenotypic plasticity in response to variable environmental conditions? (3) Do juveniles of different colours or patterns prefer substrata of different heterogeneity or brightness? We therefore: (i) described the variation in colour and pattern of juvenile C. productus; (ii) tested for associations between colour/pattern morphs and crab size, collection site, and season, in the field; (iii) conducted preliminary tests for habitat preferences (background colour, substratum type, light level) of different colour/pattern morphs in laboratory experiments, and (iv) tested the effect of diet (mussels versus shrimp) and feeding rate (high versus low) on juvenile colour/pattern. We describe 30 phenotypes that embrace a wide range of colour and pattern variants. The proportions of these phenotypes did not vary significantly among four collection sites, but they did vary significantly with season: over the summer and fall, juvenile colour and pattern variation was gradually replaced by the uniform adult colouration. The number of crabs displaying adult colouration also increased with crab size. Laboratory experiments suggest no significant preferences of different juvenile morphs for different backgrounds, substrata, or light levels. Diet (mussels versus shrimp) and feeding frequency had no effect on colour/pattern. Collectively, these results, although limited in scope, are not consistent with two likely hypotheses that could explain the extensive colour and pattern variation in juvenile C. productus: (i) selection for background matching by different cryptic

  5. Neonatal Diarrhea of Pigs in Quebec: Infectious Causes of Significant Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Morin, M.; Turgeon, D.; Jolette, J.; Robinson, Y.; Phaneuf, J.B.; Sauvageau, R.; Beauregard, M.; Teuscher, E.; Higgins, R.; Larivìere, S.

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of the various enteropathogens causing neonatal diarrhea in Quebec farrowing operations, observations were made on 749 diarrheic pigs from 325 outbreaks of diarrhea. They were one to 15 days of age, and were obtained alive for necropsy generally within 48 hours of the onset of diarrhea. Some pigs were from severe, explosive outbreaks of diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality rates, while others were from herds with chronic neonatal diarrhea with lower morbidity and mortality rates. A combination of bacteriological, virological and histological methods were used to study the pigs. Viruses were incriminated in 60%, bacteria in 23% and coccidia in 15.3% of the 325 diarrhea outbreaks. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was by far the most common enteropathogen with a prevalence of 52%; rotavirus was implicated in 9.2% of the outbreaks while adenovirus was incriminated in 0.30% of the outbreaks. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were involved in 22.4% of the cases while Clostridium perfringens type C was an occasional finding. Coccidia involved in our herds were identified as Isospora suis. The disease was attributed to infection with a single etiologic agent in 590 diarrheic pigs (78%) while combinations of agents were present in only 90 (12%). The age-specific occurrence of the various enteropathogens was evaluated. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was the most common enteropathogen in all age groups. Colibacillosis was common in pigs which became diarrheic under five days of age; in this age group, the enterotoxigenic E. coli were frequently found alone, but were usually combined with other agents in older pigs. The prevalence of coccidia was high in pigs which became diarrheic between five and 15 days of age. Rotavirus infection was common in diarrheic pigs older than ten days of age. Although individual baby pigs were commonly infected with a single enteropathogen, it was very common to see more than one agent involved in

  6. Perspective: causes and functional significance of temporal variations in attention control

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Attention control describes the human ability to selectively modulate the plethora of sensory signals and internal thoughts. The neural systems of attention control have been studied extensively, warranted by the importance of this ability to daily functioning. Here, we consider an emerging theme in the study of attention control—slow temporal fluctuations. We posit that these fluctuations are functionally significant, and may reflect underlying interactions between the neural systems related to attention control. We explore thought experiments to generate different perspectives on landscapes created by the interactions between attention control networks and the sources of input to these control systems. We examine interactions of the fronto-parietal and the default mode networks in the context of internal cognition, and the noradrenergic modulatory projections in the context of arousal, and we consider the implications of these inter-network dynamics on attention states and attention disorders. Through these thought experiments we highlight the breadth of potential knowledge to be gained from the study of slow fluctuations in attention control. PMID:23888135

  7. Transdermal nicotine patches do not cause clinically significant gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Goldsmith, L J; Ameen, V; D'Angelo, A; Kirby, S L; Prakash, S

    1999-12-01

    Transdermal nicotine delivery systems are widely used in smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether common symptoms of pyrosis and dyspepsia associated with these patches are related to gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal dysmotility. Twenty-seven paid volunteer cigarette smokers (> 15 cigarettes/day) without symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease participated in this single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty subjects completed the study. Subjects underwent three sequential 24-h intraesophageal pH/motor studies (Synectics model T32342084, Shore View, MN). The pH/motility probe was positioned 5 cm above the manometrically determined LES. A placebo patch was applied for the first 24-h study and a 15-mg nicotine patch (Nicotrol) was applied for the initial 16 h (removed for remaining 8 h) of the second 24-h period. A 21-mg nicotine patch (Nicoderm) was applied for another 24-h study period. All subjects consumed an identical, defined diet documented by meal receipts, and refrained from smoking and tobacco use throughout the study periods (CO breath test confirmation). The Wilcoxon, paired t-test, exact McNemar statistical methods were used. The results showed that there were no significant differences in reflux symptoms (pyrosis, chest pain, nausea, dysphagia), supine gastroesophageal reflux (number of episodes, duration, or cumulative acid exposure), or the total number of reflux episodes between placebo and nicotine patch treatment periods. The number of post-prandial upright acid reflux episodes (p = 004) and number of upright acid reflux episodes lasting more than 5 min (p = 0.007) were statistically higher with the placebo patch compared to the active nicotine patches. No differences in intraesophageal pH or motility indices were noted between the two transdermal nicotine patches (Nicotrol, Nicoderm). It was concluded that dyspeptic symptoms in subjects utilizing transdermal nicotine patches are not related to

  8. From 9/11 to Recession: Historically Significant Events in America and Their Impact on Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Federally sponsored research funding sources are not stagnant programs. Many things influence the nature of research, not all of them purely scientific. Historically significant events draw public attention to causes, and in the age of immediate information those events can have a powerful and lasting impact on research funding. September 11, 2001…

  9. Long-term administration of magnesium after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Gal, M; Avan, P; Sendowski, I

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we observed that a 7-day post-trauma magnesium treatment significantly reduced auditory threshold shifts measured 7 days after gunshot noise exposure. However this improvement was only temporary, suggesting that it could be potentially beneficial to prolong this treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long-term (1 month) magnesium treatment after an impulse noise trauma, in comparison with either a 7-day magnesium treatment, an administration of methylprednisolone (conventional treatment), or a placebo (NaCl). Guinea pigs were exposed to impulse noise (three blank gunshots, 170 dB SPL peak). They received one of the four treatments, 1 h after the noise exposure. Auditory function was explored by recording the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and measuring the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) over a 3-month recovery period after the gunshot exposure. The functional hearing study was supplemented by a histological analysis. The results showed that a 1-month treatment with magnesium was the most effective treatment in terms of hair cell preservation. The DPOAE confirmed this effectiveness. Methylprednisolone accelerated recovery but its final efficacy remained moderate. It is probable that magnesium acts on the later metabolic processes that occur after noise exposure. Multiple mechanisms could be involved: calcium antagonism, anti-ischaemic effect or NMDA channel blockage. Regardless of the specific mechanism, a 1-month treatment with magnesium clearly attenuates NIHL, and presents the advantage of being safe for use in humans. PMID:19084059

  10. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  11. Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England School Development Council, Sudbury, MA.

    The shortage of administrators within New England and recommendations aimed at alleviating that shortage are documented. In late 1987, the New England School Development Council (NESDEC) Board of Directors conducted the first regional survey of the New England administrative shortage issue. Sixty individuals (current and retired superintendents,…

  12. Accelerated tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction caused by chronic oral administration of aluminum in a mouse model of tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yokota, Osamu; Nakashima-Yasuda, Hanae; Nagao, Shigeto; Ikeda, Chikako; Naohara, Jun; Terada, Seishi; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2013-11-01

    To clarify whether long-term oral ingestion of aluminum (Al) can increase tau aggregation in mammals, we examined the effects of oral Al administration on tau accumulation, apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) and motor function using tau transgenic (Tg) mice that show very slowly progressive tau accumulation. Al-treated tau Tg mice had almost twice as many tau-positive inclusions in the spinal cord as tau Tg mice without Al treatment at 12 months of age, a difference that reached statistical significance, and the development of pretangle-like tau aggregates in the brain was also significantly advanced from 9 months. Al exposure did not induce any tau pathology in wild-type (WT) mice. Apoptosis was observed in the hippocampus in Al-treated tau Tg mice, but was virtually absent in the other experimental groups. Motor function as assessed by the tail suspension test was most severely impaired in Al-treated tau Tg mice. Given our results, chronic oral ingestion of Al may more strongly promote tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction if individuals already had a pathological process causing tau aggregation. These findings may also implicate chronic Al neurotoxicity in humans, who frequently have had mild tau pathology from a young age. PMID:23574527

  13. Case of Wenckebach-type atrioventricular block caused by administration of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Kazuhide; Sakamoto, Reinii; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of first-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block progressing to second-degree (Wenckebach-type) A-V block after administration of indigo carmine in a patient undergoing hysterectomy under general anesthesia. We believe that the onset of Wenckebach-type A-V block may have been induced by one or more of three factors: 1) preoperative first-degree A-V block, 2) the anesthetics used (propofol and remifentanil), and 3) administration of indigo carmine. PMID:24733592

  14. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review? (a) In determining whether you have shown that you have good cause...

  15. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review? (a) In determining whether you have shown that you have good cause...

  16. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits... Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review? (a) In determining whether you have shown that you have good cause...

  17. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command. PMID:27558395

  18. Does Intravenous Administration of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Ischemic Stroke can Cause Inferior Myocardial Infarction?

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mostafa; Razmeh, Saeed; Habibi, Amir Hassan; Rezaee, Amir Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) is one of the main portions of acute ischemic stroke management, but unfortunately has some complications. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a hazardous complication of administration of intravenous rTPA that has been reported recently. A 78-year-old lady was admitted for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. On the second day of admission, she developed acute left hemiparesis and intravenous rTPA was administered within 120 minutes. Three hours later, she has had chest pain. Rescue percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on right coronary artery due to diagnosis of inferior MI, and the symptoms were resolved. PMID:27441068

  19. The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Barragán Mejía, Gerardo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Hernández Martínez, Nancy; García Cruz, Edna; Morales Ramírez, Aline; Labra Ruiz, Norma; Esquivel Jiménez, Gabriela; Osnaya Brizuela, Norma; García Álvarez, Raquel; Ontiveros Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected to a protocol that resembles malnutrition (MN) by feeding them with 60% of the daily food consumption of the control group (WN) and later to nutritional recovery with regular rodent feed (RFR) or added with cocoa (10 g of cocoa powder/kg of regular rodent feed) (CCR). Animals fed with regular rodent food showed significant reduction in brain glutathione: RFR (84.18 ± 6.38 ng/mg protein) vs. CCR (210.61 ± 50.10 ng/mg protein) and WN (186.55 ± 33.18 ng/mg protein), but with similar level to that of MN (92.12 ± 15.60 ng/mg protein). On the contrary, lipid peroxidation in RFR-fed animals increased RFR (1.32 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), CCR (0.86 ± 0.07 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), WN (0.89 ± 0.09 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), but their thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration is similar to that of MN group (1.50 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue). Consumption of cocoa powder as a source of antioxidants favors the restoration of the concentration of glutathione and reduces the damage caused by oxidative stress during nutritional recovery in rat brain. PMID:21826449

  20. Cationic liposomes formulated with DMPC and a gemini surfactant traverse the cell membrane without causing a significant bio-damage.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, E; Papacci, F; Sennato, S; Bombelli, C; Viola, I; Bonincontro, A; Bordi, F; Mancini, G; Gigli, G; Risuleo, G

    2014-10-01

    Cationic liposomes have been intensively studied both in basic and applied research because of their promising potential as non-viral molecular vehicles. This work was aimed to gain more information on the interactions between the plasmamembrane and liposomes formed by a natural phospholipid and a cationic surfactant of the gemini family. The present work was conducted with the synergistic use of diverse experimental approaches: electro-rotation measurements, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, laser scanning confocal microscopy and biomolecular/cellular techniques. Electro-rotation measurements pointed out that the interaction of cationic liposomes with the cell membrane alters significantly its dielectric and geometric parameters. This alteration, being accompanied by significant changes of the membrane surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggests that the interaction with the liposomes causes locally substantial modifications to the structure and morphology of the cell membrane. However, the results of electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) experiments show that upon the interaction the electric charge exposed on the cell surface does not vary significantly, pointing out that the simple adhesion on the cell surface of the cationic liposomes or their fusion with the membrane is to be ruled out. As a matter of fact, confocal microscopy images directly demonstrated the penetration of the liposomes inside the cell and their diffusion within the cytoplasm. Electro-rotation experiments performed in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors suggest that the internalization is mediated by, at least, one specific pathway. Noteworthy, the liposome uptake by the cell does not cause a significant biological damage. PMID:25017801

  1. Case of chest-wall rigidity in a preterm infant caused by prenatal fentanyl administration

    PubMed Central

    Eventov-Friedman, S; Rozin, I; Shinwell, E S

    2010-01-01

    The inability to appropriately ventilate neonates shortly after their birth could be related in rare cases to chest-wall rigidity caused by the placental transfer of fentanyl. Although this adverse effect is recognized when fentanyl is administered to neonates after their birth, the prenatal phenomenon is less known. Treatment with either naloxone or muscle relaxants reverses the fentanyl effect and may prevent unnecessary excessive ventilatory settings. PMID:20118943

  2. α-Synuclein strains cause distinct synucleinopathies after local and systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Peelaerts, W; Bousset, L; Van der Perren, A; Moskalyuk, A; Pulizzi, R; Giugliano, M; Van den Haute, C; Melki, R; Baekelandt, V

    2015-06-18

    Misfolded protein aggregates represent a continuum with overlapping features in neurodegenerative diseases, but differences in protein components and affected brain regions. The molecular hallmark of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy are megadalton α-synuclein-rich deposits suggestive of one molecular event causing distinct disease phenotypes. Glial α-synuclein (α-SYN) filamentous deposits are prominent in multiple system atrophy and neuronal α-SYN inclusions are found in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The discovery of α-SYN assemblies with different structural characteristics or 'strains' has led to the hypothesis that strains could account for the different clinico-pathological traits within synucleinopathies. In this study we show that α-SYN strain conformation and seeding propensity lead to distinct histopathological and behavioural phenotypes. We assess the properties of structurally well-defined α-SYN assemblies (oligomers, ribbons and fibrils) after injection in rat brain. We prove that α-SYN strains amplify in vivo. Fibrils seem to be the major toxic strain, resulting in progressive motor impairment and cell death, whereas ribbons cause a distinct histopathological phenotype displaying Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy traits. Additionally, we show that α-SYN assemblies cross the blood-brain barrier and distribute to the central nervous system after intravenous injection. Our results demonstrate that distinct α-SYN strains display differential seeding capacities, inducing strain-specific pathology and neurotoxic phenotypes. PMID:26061766

  3. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  4. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  5. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review? 418.3640 Section 418.3640 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How...

  6. When Directors Leave: The Causes and Consequences of Center Administrative Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Sakai, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers and researchers have focused attention on the significant role that directors play in building and sustaining high-quality child care programs. However, there has been limited focus on director turnover and its implications for programs. This article summarizes findings from the longitudinal study, "Then and Now: Changes in Child Care…

  7. [Proteinase-proteinase inhibitor complex in rats under oxidative stress caused by administration of cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of proteinase-inhibitor proteinase system response was estimated following of cobalt chloride injection. The increase proteinase activity, which led to significant decrease of alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha-2-MG) level was established that indicated to the removal of the proteinase in complex with alpha-2-MG from the organism. Increase of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) trypsin-inhibitory activity in the kidneys testify about removal of oxidative alpha-1-PI. PMID:10979565

  8. The statistical significance test of regional climate change caused by land use and land cover variation in West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.

    2006-05-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  9. Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Ponnada A; Herrera, Juan J; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Xia, Ying; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-03-30

    The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Differences in the DTI measures were observed in the splenium (scc) and genu (gcc) of the corpus callosum (cc), fimbria (fi), and the internal capsule (ic). A significant increase in the activity in the fine motor movements and a significant decrease in the number of rearing events were observed in the cocaine-treated animals. Reduced MBP and Nogo-A and increased GAP-43 expressions were most consistently observed in these structures. A decrease in the NF-H expression was observed in fi and ic. The reduced expression of Nogo-A and the increased expression of GAP-43 may suggest destabilization of axonal connectivity and increased neurite growth with aberrant connections. Increased GAP-43 suggests drug-induced plasticity or a possible repair mechanism response. The findings indicated that multiple white matter tracts are affected following chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:24507117

  10. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  11. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  12. Periostin Deficiency Causes Severe and Lethal Lung Injury in Mice With Bleomycin Administration.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Fukayama, Masashi; Saito, Mitsuru; Kii, Isao; Kudo, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary capillary leakage followed by influx of blood fluid into the air space of lung alveoli is a crucial step in the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). This influx is due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. The extracellular matrix (ECM) between the capillary and the epithelium would be expected to be involved in prevention of the influx; however, the role of the ECM remains to be addressed. Here, we show that the ECM architecture organized by periostin, a matricellular protein, plays a pivotal role in the survival of bleomycin-exposed mice. Periostin was localized in the alveolar walls. Although periostin-null mice displayed no significant difference in lung histology and air-blood permeability, they exhibited early lethality in a model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, compared with their wild-type counterparts. This early lethality may have been due to increased pulmonary leakage of blood fluid into the air space in the bleomycin-exposed periostin-null mice. These results suggest that periostin in the ECM architecture prevents pulmonary leakage of blood fluid, thus increasing the survival rate in mice with ALI. Thus, this study provides an evidence for the protective role of the ECM architecture in the lung alveoli. PMID:27270966

  13. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  14. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Public Lands and Land-Use Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court made three major land-use decisions during 1983, two dealing with federalism and the third with federal jiduciary obligation. The US Forest Service Small Tracts Act added flexibility to the disposal of small tracts. Court cases relating to national forests dealt with title disputes, oil and gas leasing, Indian religious practices, dual permitting under the Wilderness Act, and licensing hydro projects on Indian lands. The committee reports uneven administrative progress by the Forests Service in managing the forests. Legislation relating to Department of Interior Management Lands focuses on Outer Continental Shelf and federal coal leases and wilderness areas. The Supreme Court made several decisions involving the classification of sand and gravel as minerals, trespass, nonimpairment standards, herbicides, and other issues. 132 references.

  15. The intra-nasal administration of insulin induces significant hypoglycaemia and classical counterregulatory hormonal responses in normal man.

    PubMed

    Paquot, N; Scheen, A J; Franchimont, P; Lefebvre, P J

    1988-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon) diluted with a non ionic detergent (Laureth-9 0,25%) was administered intra-nasally in 8 overnight fasted healthy volunteers using a calibrated aerosol delivery device (90 microliters = 9 U of insulin/spray) up to a total insulin dose close to 1 U/kg body weight. After intra-nasal insulin administration, plasma insulin levels rose from 5 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 10 mU/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 15, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 45, plasma C-peptide levels diminished from 327 +/- 31 to 174 +/- 28 mumol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 60 and plasma free fatty acids concentrations fell from 336 +/- 109 to 130 +/- 31 mumol/l (2p less than 0.05) at min 30. The fall in blood glucose resulted in a prompt increase in plasma glucagon levels (from 78 +/- 28 to 150 +/- 24 ng/l at min 45; 2p less than 0.05) and in later rises in plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. There was a close relationship between the individual maximal decreases in blood glucose levels and the individual maximal increases in plasma insulin (r = 0.81), glucagon (r = 0.88), cortisol (r = 0.87) and growth hormone (r = 0.76) concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292305

  16. 20 CFR 418.3640 - How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to request administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3640 How do we determine if you had good cause for missing the deadline to... missing a deadline to request review we consider: (1) What circumstances kept you from making the...

  17. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  18. A significant number of reported Absidia corymbifera (Lichtheimia corymbifera) infections are caused by Lichtheimia ramosa (syn. Lichtheimia hongkongensis): an emerging cause of mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick CY; Leung, Shui-Yee; Ngan, Antonio HY; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we and others reported the discovery of Lichtheimia ramosa (syn. Lichtheimia hongkongensis). We also hypothesized that a proportion of ‘Absidia corymbifera (Lichtheimia corymbifera)' reported in the literature could be L. ramosa. In this study, we characterized 13 strains that had been reported as ‘A. corymbifera (L. corymbifera)' in the literature over an 11-year period. Microscopic examination of agar block smear preparations of all 13 strains showed abundant circinate side branches and pleomorphic giant cells with finger-like projections of L. ramosa. ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 rRNA gene cluster (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and partial elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) gene sequencing showed that all 13 strains were clustered with L. ramosa; partial β-actin gene sequencing showed that most of the 13 strains were clustered with L. ramosa; and partial 28S rRNA gene sequencing showed that all 13 strains were clustered with L. ramosa, but one strain of L. corymbifera (HKU25) was also clustered with other strains of L. ramosa. A significant number of reported A. corymbifera (L. corymbifera) infections are L. ramosa infections which are of global distribution. In clinical microbiology laboratories, L. ramosa should be suspected if an Absidia-like mold that possesses abundant circinate side branches on the sporangiophores and pleomorphic giant cells with finger-like projections is observed. ITS and partial EF1α gene sequencing are more reliable than partial β-actin and 28S rRNA gene sequencing for identification of the Lichtheimia species. PMID:26038425

  19. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  20. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies. PMID:26910240

  1. [Production of information on mortality from external causes: meanings and significances in the filling out of death certificates].

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiane Magalhães; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa

    2013-05-01

    The study sought to understand the meanings and significances that physicians attribute to the Death Certificate (DO) and the implications of subjectivity in the production of information on mortality. Guided by qualitative research, semi-structured interviews and content analysis, techniques were chosen for understanding representations and experiences involved in the filling out of the DO. The results revealed that different meanings and significances are attributed to the DO depending on how death occurred, in accordance with the different attributes the document acquires from a practical standpoint, in terms of 'epidemiological' and 'legal' functions. The results suggest that the DO used as a technical and objective instrument for data collection and production of health statistics does not lack subjectivity, which turns it into an instrument that in the medical practice and social reality reflects cultural issues, the social position of the subjects who fill it out and their representations of death. PMID:23670450

  2. Administration of L-arginine reduces the delay of the healing process caused by ibuprofen. Implication of COX and growth factors expression.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Martín-Lacave, I; Illanes, M; Bruseghini, L; Esteras, A; Motilva, V

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present study has been to advance knowledge of the gastric role played by the amino acid L-Arginine (L-Arg) in the evolution of a chronic gastric ulcer. In order to clarify it, L-Arg alone or together with Ibuprofen have been administrated in an experimental acetic acid chronic ulcer, analysing characteristic parameters of an active curative process, such as PGE2 production, COX expression, and also angiogenesis, proliferation/apoptosis and growth factors expression. Our results reveal that L-Arg is favourable in the healing process improving the curative course. Ibuprofen caused a delay in ulcer healing, more evident 14 days after ulcer induction; COX-2 expression was increased at the 7th day although no signal of protein could be detected after 14 days; PGE2 production was inhibited in intact and ulcerated areas at both times assayed. In contrast, treatment with L-Arg reduced the delay of the lesion, the increment in COX-2 expression induced by Ibuprofen, and was able to maintain PGE2 levels similar to the control group after 14 days. Additionally, the histological study showed that the healing effects of L-Arg might be associated with an increased angiogenesis and FGF-2 expression. These actions could be considered key factors in the healing response associated with L-Arg administration. However, the proliferation study assayed with the PCNA-immunostaining method did not reveal significant differences, as the same as the apoptosis analysis. In conclusion, the coupling of L-Arg to Ibuprofen is an attractive alternative to Ibuprofen administration alone because it not only attenuates but also improves the evolution of chronic lesions through mechanisms that implicate endogenous PG and FGF-2-associated pathways, which allow an increase of angiogenesis process. PMID:15736048

  3. Polymyxin Resistance Caused by mgrB Inactivation Is Not Associated with Significant Biological Cost in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Cannatelli, Antonio; Santos-Lopez, Alfonso; Giani, Tommaso; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The inactivation of the mgrB gene, which encodes a negative-feedback regulator of the PhoPQ signaling system, was recently shown to be a common mutational mechanism responsible for acquired polymyxin resistance among carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from clinical sources. In this work, we show that mgrB mutants can easily be selected in vitro from different K. pneumoniae lineages, and mgrB inactivation is not associated with a significant biological cost. PMID:25691629

  4. Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation Causes Significant Gastrointestinal Side-Effects in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P.; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Objective Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (IV) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Results Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of IV iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74–3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus IV iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus IV iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%). Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028) showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Conclusions Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose. PMID:25700159

  5. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  6. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake. PMID:25164981

  7. Delayed Flood Recession in Central Yangtze Floodplains Can Cause Significant Food Shortages for Wintering Geese: Results of Inundation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate ( P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates ( P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate ( P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  8. Administration of a non-NMDA antagonist, GYKI 52466, increases excitotoxic Purkinje cell degeneration caused by ibogaine.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, E; Molliver, M E

    2004-01-01

    Ibogaine is a tremorigenic hallucinogen that has been proposed for clinical use in treating addiction. We previously reported that ibogaine, administered systemically, produces degeneration of a subset of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, primarily within the vermis. Ablation of the inferior olive affords protection against ibogaine-induced neurotoxicity leading to the interpretation that ibogaine itself is not directly toxic to Purkinje cells. We postulated that ibogaine produces sustained excitation of inferior olivary neurons that leads to excessive glutamate release at climbing fiber terminals, causing subsequent excitotoxic injury to Purkinje cells. The neuronal degeneration induced by ibogaine provides an animal model for studying excitotoxic injury in order to analyze the contribution of glutamate receptors to this injury and to evaluate neuroprotective strategies. Since non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate Purkinje cell excitation by climbing fibers, we hypothesized that 1-4-aminophenyl-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI-52466), which antagonizes non-NMDA receptors, may have a neuroprotective effect by blocking glutamatergic excitation at climbing fiber synapses. To test this hypothesis, rats were administered systemic ibogaine plus GYKI-52466 and the degree of neuronal injury was analyzed in cerebellar sections. The results indicate that the AMPA antagonist GYKI-52466 (10 mg/kg i.p. x 3) does not protect against Purkinje cell injury at the doses used. Rather, co-administration of GYKI-52466 with ibogaine produces increased toxicity evidenced by more extensive Purkinje cell degeneration. Several hypotheses that may underlie this result are discussed. Although the reason for the increased toxicity found in this study is not fully explained, the present results show that a non-NMDA antagonist can produce increased excitotoxic injury under some conditions. Therefore, caution should be exercised before employing glutamate

  9. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  10. Elevated amounts of myocilin in the aqueous humor of transgenic mice cause significant changes in ocular gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Paper, Walter; Kroeber, Markus; Heersink, Sebastian; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Russell, Paul; Tamm, Ernst R.

    2008-01-01

    Myocilin is a 55–57 kDa secreted glycoprotein and member of the olfactomedin family, which is mutated in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma. To assess the effects of elevated amounts of myocilin on aqueous humor outflow dynamics in an in vivo system, transgenic βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice have been developed that strongly overexpress myocilin in their eyes. The transgenic overexpression of myocilin results in an almost five-fold increase of secreted normal myocilin in the aqueous humor of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice. In the present study, we wanted to use βB1-crystallin-MYOC as a tool to identify the response of ocular tissues to the presence of higher than normal amounts of myocilin, and to identify changes in gene expression that could help to shed light on the functional in vivo properties of myocilin. RNA was isolated from ocular tissues of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice and wild-type littermates. Changes in gene expression were determined by hybridization of gene microarrays and confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The expression of genes that had been found to be differentially regulated in βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice was further analyzed in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Although βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice do not have an obvious phenotype, a statistically significant up- and downregulation of several distinct genes was found when compared to gene expression in wild-type littermates. Among the genes that were found to be differentially regulated were Wasl, Ceacam1, and Spon2, which are involved in cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. Differences in expression were also found for Six1 which encodes for a transcription factor, and for Pftk1 whose gene product is a cdc2-related protein kinase. The expression of these genes was also found to be regulated in vitro in HTM cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Substantially higher amounts in ocular tissues of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice were

  11. Lithium Administration to Preadolescent Rats Causes Long-Lasting Increases in Anxiety-Like Behavior and Has Molecular Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Youngs, Rachael M.; Chu, Melissa S.; Meloni, Edward G.; Naydenov, Alipi; Carlezon, William A.; Konradi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Lithium (Li) is frequently used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD), a debilitating condition that is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Because the symptoms of BPD in children are different from the typical symptoms in adulthood and have significant overlap with other childhood psychiatric disorders, this disorder is notoriously difficult to diagnose. This raises the possibility that some children not affected by BPD are treated with Li during key periods of brain development. The objective of this investigation was to examine the long-term effects of Li on the developing brain via a series of behavioral and molecular studies in rats. Rat pups were reared on Li chow for 3 weeks. Parallel groups were tested while on Li chow or 2 and 6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. We found increased measures of anxiety-like behavior at all times tested. Gene microarray studies of the amygdala revealed that Li affected the expression of gene transcripts of the synapse and the cytoskeleton, suggesting that the treatment induced synaptic adjustments. Our study indicates that Li can alter the trajectory of brain development. Although the effects of Li on the normal brain seems unfavorable, effects on the abnormal brain cannot be determined from these studies alone and may well be therapeutic. Our results indicate that Li administration to the normal brain has the potential for lasting adverse effects. PMID:16738246

  12. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts. PMID:26294358

  13. Significant elevation of tumour-associated isoforms of soluble CD44 in serum of normal individuals caused by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Ruckser, R; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-02-01

    While performing a prospective study on sCD44 variant isoforms as tumour markers in certain malignancies, we detected relevant differences in the control group between non-smokers and smokers. For a detailed evaluation of these findings, serum levels of sCD44 variant proteins, including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6, respectively, were adjusted to sex, age and smoking habit. We were able to demonstrate a significant elevation of serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in normal individuals due to cigarette smoking (non-smokers to smokers: sCD44v5: 33 +/- 11 microg/l to 62 +/- 30 microg/l; sCD44v6: 142 +/- 34 microg/l to 232 +/- 86 microg/l). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the concentrations of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 on the possible influence factors sex, age and smoking habit revealed cigarette smoking as the only factor influencing these isoforms (both p < 0.001). Further investigations have to elucidate a possible clinical importance of these findings in smokers. However, in patients with suspected or proven malignancy the diagnostic specifity of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 is diminished due to this observation. PMID:9056747

  14. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  15. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  16. [Activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase in rat liver during degradation of cytochrome P-450 caused by administration of cadmium chloride].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Inshina, N N

    2003-01-01

    The 5-aminolevulinate synthase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activities and cytochrome P-450 content in the rat liver was studied in different terms after CdCl2 administration and after administration of metal salt against a background of 2-hours action of alpha-tocopherol. The lowering of activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase in 2 h with the consequent increase of the enzyme activity in 6 h and 24 h was detected. The holoenzyme activity and heme saturation of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase increased 6 h after CdCl2 administration. The holoenzyme activity and the total activity of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase rised in 24 h. The level of cytochrome P-450 lowered. Preliminary administration of alpha-tocopherol prevented changes of studied parameters 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The relationship between decrease of cytochrome P-450 level and 5-aminolevulinate synthase activation are discussed. PMID:14577179

  17. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  18. CONTINUOUS KYNURENINE ADMINISTRATION DURING THE PRENATAL PERIOD, BUT NOT DURING ADOLESCENCE, CAUSES LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Elmer, Greg I.; Bruno, John P.; Schwarcz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cognitive dysfunctions, including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory, are core features of the psychopathology of schizophrenia (SZ). Increased levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived tryptophan metabolite and antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, have been implicated in these cognitive impairments. Objectives Following recent suggestive evidence, the present study was designed to narrow the critical time period for KYNA elevation to induce subsequent cognitive deficits. Methods KYNA levels were experimentally increased in rats (1) prenatally (embryonic day [ED] 15 to ED 22) or (2) during adolescence (postnatal day [PD] 42 to PD 49). The KYNA precursor kynurenine was added daily to wet mash fed to (1) dams (100 mg/day; control: ECon; kynurenine-treated: EKyn) or (2) adolescent rats (300 mg/kg/day; control: AdCon; kynurenine-treated: AdKyn). Upon termination of the treatment, all animals were fed normal chow until biochemical analysis and behavioral testing in adulthood. Results On the last day of continuous kynurenine treatment, forebrain KYNA levels were significantly elevated (EKyn: +472%; AdKyn: +470%). KYNA levels remained increased in the hippocampus of adult EKyn animals (+54%), but were unchanged in adult AdKyn rats. Prenatal, but not adolescent, kynurenine treatment caused significant impairments in two hippocampus-mediated behavioral tasks, passive avoidance and Morris water maze. Conclusions Collectively, these studies provide evidence that a continuous increase in brain KYNA levels during the late prenatal period, but not during adolescence, induces hippocampus-related cognitive dysfunctions later in life. Such increases may play a significant role in illnesses with known hippocampal pathophysiology, including SZ. PMID:24590052

  19. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18–89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. Results Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA. Conclusions We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis. PMID:23877585

  20. Safety data on 19 vehicles for use in 1 month oral rodent pre-clinical studies: administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin causes renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Healing, Guy; Sulemann, Tabassum; Cotton, Peter; Harris, Jayne; Hargreaves, Adam; Finney, Rowena; Kirk, Sarah; Schramm, Carolin; Garner, Clare; Pivette, Perrine; Burdett, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Potential new drugs are assessed in pre-clinical in vivo studies to determine their safety profiles. The drugs are formulated in vehicles suitable for the route of administration and the physicochemical properties of the drug, aiming to achieve optimal exposure in the test species. The availability of safety data on vehicles is often limited (incomplete data, access restricted/private databases). Nineteen potentially useful vehicles that contained new and/or increased concentrations of excipients and for which little safety data have been published were tested. Vehicles were dosed orally once daily to HanWistar rats for a minimum of 28 days and a wide range of toxicological parameters were assessed. Only 30% (w/v) hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin was found unsuitable owing to effects on liver enzymes (AST, ALT and GLDH), urinary volume and the kidneys (tubular vacuolation and tubular pigment). 20% (v/v) oleic acid caused increased salivation and hence this vehicle should be used with caution. As 40% (v/v) tetraethylene glycol affected urinary parameters, its use should be carefully considered, particularly for compounds suspected to impact the renal system and studies longer than 1 month. There were no toxicologically significant findings with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide, 20% (v/v) propylene glycol, 33% (v/v) Miglyol®812, 20% (w/v) Kolliphor®RH40, 10% (w/v) Poloxamer 407, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 or 10% (v/v) Labrafil®M1944. All other vehicles tested caused isolated or low magnitude effects which would not prevent their use. The aim of sharing these data, including adverse findings, is to provide meaningful information for vehicle selection, thereby avoiding repetition of animal experimentation. PMID:25959454

  1. Preoperative administration of etoricoxib in patients undergoing hip replacement causes inhibition of inflammatory mediators and pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Renner, B; Walter, G; Strauss, J; Fromm, MF; Zacher, J; Brune, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective Administering cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors preoperatively appears attractive since these drugs reduce post-operative pain, but do not increase the risk of post-operative bleeds, asthmatic attacks and stress-related gastrointestinal ulcers. In a former investigation, we could show that post-operative administration of etoricoxib reduces prostaglandin production in wound fluid, but the onset of action is variable due to delayed post-operative absorption. Methods In this study, we investigated the preoperative administration of etoricoxib in patients undergoing hip replacement. They received 120 mg etoricoxib or placebo 2 h before surgery and 1 day after in a double-blinded, randomized, parallel group design. Results A total of 11 patients were randomized (placebo n = 5; verum n = 6). We found high and constant levels of the drug in blood, central nervous system and wound fluid already at the end of surgery (tmax < 2 h). This was accompanied by inhibition of prostaglandin production in the wound tissue (treatment p < 0.05), suppression of interleukin 6 increase in plasma (treatment p < 0.01), and – despite existing standard pain relief procedures – higher satisfaction with analgesics (time vs. treatment p < 0.05) and less demand for opioids (treatment p < 0.01) and intrathecal bupivacaine (treatment p = 0.05) administration. Conclusion Administration of etoricoxib 2 h before surgery allows for an effective drug concentration in critical tissues, a reduction of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and for better pain relief. PMID:22337568

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence expression is directly activated by morphine and is capable of causing lethal gut derived sepsis in mice during chronic morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Babrowski, Trissa; Holbrook, Christopher; Moss, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Lawrence; Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborin, Alexander; Poroyko, Valeriy; Liu, Donald C.; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine the effect of morphine administration on the intestinal mucus barrier and determine its direct effect on the virulence and lethality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent pathogens to colonize the gut of critically ill patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Surgical injury is associated with significant exposure of host tissues to morphine from both endogenous release as well as its use as a potent analgesic agent. Morphine use in surgical patients exposed to extreme physiologic stress is well established to result in increased infection risk. Although morphine is a known immunosuppressant, whether it directly induces virulence expression and lethality in microbes that colonize the human gut remains unknown. METHODS Mice were implanted with a slow release morphine or placebo pellet with and without intestinal inoculation of P. aeruginosa created by direct cecal injection. Mucus production and epithelial integrity was assessed in cecal tissue via Alcian Blue staining and histological analysis. In vivo and in vitro P. aeruginosa virulence expression was examined using reporter strains tagged to the epithelial barrier disrupting protein PA-I lectin. P. aeruginosa chemotaxis toward morphine was also assayed in vitro. Finally the direct effect of morphine to induce PA-I lectin expression was determined in the absence and presence of methylnaltrexone, a mu opioid receptor antagonist. RESULTS Mice intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa and implanted with a morphine pellet demonstrated significant suppression of intestinal mucus, disrupted intestinal epithelium and enhanced mortality whereas exposure of mice to either systemic morphine or intestinal P. aeruginosa alone enhanced intestinal mucus without mortality suggesting a shift in P. aeruginosa during morphine exposure to a mucus suppressing, barrier disrupting, and lethal phenotype. Direct exposure of P. aeruginosa to morphine in vitro confirmed that morphine

  3. Bacteriophage administration significantly reduces Shigella colonization and shedding by Shigella-challenged mice without deleterious side effects and distortions in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Volker; Ukhanova, Maria; Reinhard, Mary K; Li, Manrong; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0.05). ShigActiveTM treatment was at least as effective as treatment with ampicillin but had a significantly less impact on the gut microbiota. Long-term safety studies did not identify any side effects or distortions in overall gut microbiota associated with bacteriophage administration. Shigella phages may be therapeutically effective in a “classical phage therapy” approach, at least during the early stages after Shigella ingestion. Oral prophylactic “phagebiotic” administration of lytic bacteriophages may help to maintain a healthy gut microbiota by killing specifically targeted bacterial pathogens in the GI tract, without deleterious side effects and without altering the normal gut microbiota. PMID:26909243

  4. The changes of antioxidant defense system caused by quercetin administration do not lead to DNA damage and apoptosis in the spleen and bone marrow cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Papiez, M A; Cierniak, A; Krzysciak, W; Bzowska, M; Taha, H M; Jozkowicz, A; Piskula, M

    2008-09-01

    Quercetin may have the opposite effect, namely anti- as well as pro-oxidant. The aim of this study was to assess the results of quercetin anti- and/or pro-oxidant activity in the bone marrow and spleen cells of rats. The experimental rats were treated daily, with quercetin in a dose of 8 or 80mg/kg b.w. by gavage for 40 days. The intracellular redox state in cells were assessed by measuring the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) level and malonodialdehyde concentration. HO-1 mRNA expression was examined with real-time PCR. The extent of DNA damage was determined by the alkaline-labile comet assay. A potential pro-apoptotic quercetin action was determined using the FITC-Annexin V kit. The quercetin and isorhamnetin concentrations in serum were analyzed by HPLC-ECD. MDA concentration and FRAP values, were significantly decreased in the spleen and bone marrow cells of rats treated with quercetin, in a dose of 80mg/kg b.w. in comparison with the control rats; no significant changes were observed after quercetin was administered in a dose ten times as low. Treatment with quercetin dose-dependently upregulated the expression of HO-1 mRNA in the bone marrow cells. Quercetin administration to the rats did not induce either DNA damage or apoptosis in the examined cells. The results of our study prove that changes in the antioxidant state, caused by quercetin, do not lead to DNA damage or exert any pro-apoptotic activity in vivo. PMID:18602965

  5. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  6. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome. PMID:26525505

  7. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of intra-cochlear administration of methylprednisolone after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sendowski, I; Abaamrane, L; Raffin, F; Cros, A; Clarençon, D

    2006-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of cochlear infusion of methylprednisolone (MP) after an impulse noise trauma (170dB SPL peak) was evaluated in guinea pigs. The compound action potential threshold shifts were measured over a 14 days recovery period after the gunshot exposure. For each animal, one of the cochlea was perfused directly into the scala tympani with MP during 7 days via a mini-osmotic pump, whereas the other cochlea was not pump-implanted. The functional study of hearing was supplemented by histological analysis. Forty eight hours after the trauma, significant differences between auditory threshold shifts in the implanted and non-implanted ears were observed for frequencies above 8kHz. At day 7, the difference was significant for only one frequency and no difference was observed after 14 days recovery. Cochleograms showed that the hair cell losses were significantly lower in the MP treated ears. This work indicates that direct infusion of MP into perilymphatic space accelerates hearing recovery, reduces hair cell losses after impulse noise trauma but does not limit permanent threshold shifts. PMID:17008037

  9. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Houlden, Ashley; Hayes, Kelly S.; Bancroft, Allison J.; Worthington, John J.; Wang, Ping; Grencis, Richard K.; Roberts, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris species are a globally important and prevalent group of intestinal helminth parasites, in which Trichuris muris (mouse whipworm) is an ideal model for this disease. This paper describes the first ever highly controlled and comprehensive investigation into the effects of T. muris infection on the faecal microbiota of mice and the effects on the microbiota following successful clearance of the infection. Communities were profiled using DGGE, 454 pyrosequencing, and metabolomics. Changes in microbial composition occurred between 14 and 28 days post infection, resulting in significant changes in α and β- diversity. This impact was dominated by a reduction in the diversity and abundance of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella and Parabacteroides. Metabolomic analysis of stool samples of infected mice at day 41 showed significant differences to uninfected controls with a significant increase in the levels of a number of essential amino acids and a reduction in breakdown of dietary plant derived carbohydrates. The significant reduction in weight gain by infected mice probably reflects these metabolic changes and the incomplete digestion of dietary polysaccharides. Following clearance of infection the intestinal microbiota underwent additional changes gradually transitioning by day 91 towards a microbiota of an uninfected animal. These data indicate that the changes in microbiota as a consequence of infection were transitory requiring the presence of the pathogen for maintenance. Interestingly this was not observed for all of the key immune cell populations associated with chronic T. muris infection. This reflects the highly regulated chronic response and potential lasting immunological consequences of dysbiosis in the microbiota. Thus infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiota and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation. PMID:25938477

  10. Clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis in Denmark 1948-1985: epidemiology, factors of significance for long-term survival, and causes of death in 179 patients.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Pedersen, P; á Steig, T; Byg, K E; Graudal, N; Fenger, K

    2001-12-01

    The object was to analyze, in a nationwide survey, the incidence and course of hereditary hemochromatosis in relation to the degree of iron overload and the presence of organ damage. The study included 179 Danish Caucasian patients with clinically overt hemochromatosis diagnosed between 1948 and 1985. A cohort of 158 patients was followed for a median of 8.5 years (range: 0.2-29.5). From 1951 to 1975, the yearly relative incidence rate was constant: 0.58/100,000 persons >20 years of age. From 1981 to 1985, the yearly relative incidence rate rose to 1.40/100,000 persons >20 years of age. Survival was reduced in the entire series when compared with a matched control population ( p<0.0001). There was a steady increase in survival from 1948 to 1985 ( p<0.002). Survival was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis and/or diabetes mellitus ( p<0.01). In contrast, survival in patients without cirrhosis or diabetes was similar to rates expected. Survival in patients with arthropathy was higher than in patients without joint affection ( p<0.004). Patients adequately treated with phlebotomy ( n=66) had a higher survival than inadequately treated patients ( n=62; p<0.0001). Adequately treated patients with cirrhosis and/or diabetes had better survival than inadequately treated patients with similar organ damage ( p<0.001). The main causes of death were hepatic failure due to cirrhosis (32.0%) and cirrhosis with liver cancer (23.1%). Sharpened diagnostic awareness has improved early diagnosis and increased the diagnostic frequency of clinical hemochromatosis. Adequate phlebotomy treatment was the major determinant of survival and markedly improved prognosis. Early detection and treatment of this common iron overload disorder is crucial and can completely prevent any excess mortality caused by hemochromatosis. PMID:11797115

  11. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc = 0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen + black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for > 60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that > 80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration < 1000 μg L- 1. These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  12. Cellular Composition of the Spleen and Changes in Splenic Lysosomes in the Dynamics of Dyslipidemia in Mice Caused by Repeated Administration of Poloxamer 407.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, N V; Shurlygina, A V; Mel'nikova, E V; Karmatskikh, O L; Avrorov, P A; Loktev, K V; Korolenko, T A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg twice a week for 30 days) on cellular composition of the spleen and splenocyte lysosomes in mice. Changes in blood lipid profile included elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, aterogenic LDL, and triglycerides most pronounced in 24 h after the last poloxamer 407 injection; gradual normalization of lipid profile was observed in 4 days (except triglycerides) and 10 days. The most pronounced changes in the spleen (increase in organ weight and number of cells, inhibition in apoptosis, and reduced accumulation of vital dye acridine orange in lysosomes) were detected on day 4; on day 10, the indices returned to normal. Cathepsin D activity in the spleen also increased at these terms. The relationship between changes in the cellular composition of the spleen and dynamics of serum lipid profile in mice in dyslipidemia caused by repeated administrations of relatively low doses of poloxamer 407 is discussed. PMID:26608379

  13. Changes in environment, climate, land-use and population growth cause significant change in recharge on the western coast of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prein, Angela; Weiß, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    calibration. Thus, from the groundwater rise with known storage coefficients the leakage was estimated and checked for plausibility. Model evaluation and sensitivity analysis include the identification of key model parameters, the parameter ranges for the prediction of groundwater levels and the characterization of associated uncertainties. The modelling results show that indeed the anthropogenic recharge caused by leakage from water infrastructure is the most important source of groundwater level rise. Thus, to improve model accuracy, a methodology is needed to cope with limited data availability regarding the leakage from pipelines. For the design of future management strategies, modelling scenarios are used to quantify the factors with possible impacts on groundwater levels, including Red Sea water level rise due to climate change, as well as potentially significant changes in land use, water distribution systems, waste water management, storm water and flood control, and irrigation. The model results are used for the design of a field-based groundwater and surface water monitoring system. Based on these measurements, a decision support system for future groundwater control is planned to be integrated into the upgrade of the water and waste water master plan.

  14. Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of cancer?

    PubMed

    Jackson, J D

    1992-04-15

    The putative causal relation between ambient low-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (necessarily present in living and working environments because of our ever increasing use of electrical devices) and cancer, especially leukemia, can be tested on the large scale by examining historical data on the growth of the generation and consumption of electric power since 1900 and corresponding data on cancer death and incidence rates. The United States per capita generation and residential consumption of electric power have grown roughly exponentially since 1900; total per capita generation has increased by a factor of 10 since 1940, and per capita residential consumption has increased by a factor of 20 in the same period. The ubiquitous stray fields from power distribution lines and internal and external wiring in buildings have grown in the same proportions. In contrast to the explosive increase in the generation and use of electricity, the age-adjusted cancer death rate for the population as a whole shows only a slight rise since 1900. When respiratory cancers (largely caused by tobacco use) are subtracted, the remaining death rate has actually fallen since 1940. That the death rate may have fallen because of better diagnosis and treatment, despite a rising incidence rate, is not substantiated, especially for leukemia, including childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate has been constant or declining slightly for the past 25 yr. The absence of any appreciable change in the national cancer incidence rates during a period in which residential use of electric power has increased dramatically shows that the associated stray 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields pose no significant hazard to the average individual. PMID:1565645

  15. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. PMID:25168960

  16. Dexamethasone Rescues Neurovascular Unit Integrity from Cell Damage Caused by Systemic Administration of Shiga Toxin 2 and Lipopolysaccharide in Mice Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Alipio; Jacobsen, Mariana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Cejudo, María Laura; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) that can lead to fatal encephalopathies. Neurological abnormalities may occur before or after the onset of systemic pathological symptoms and motor disorders are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models. As Stx2 succeeds in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invading the brain parenchyma, it is highly probable that the observed neurological alterations are based on the possibility that the toxin may trigger the impairment of the neurovascular unit and/or cell damage in the parenchyma. Also, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced and secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) may aggravate the deleterious effects of Stx2 in the brain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine (i) whether Stx2 affects the neurovascular unit and parenchymal cells, (ii) whether the contribution of LPS aggravates these effects, and (iii) whether an inflammatory event underlies the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the observed injury. The administration of a sub-lethal dose of Stx2 was employed to study in detail the motor cortex obtained from a translational murine model of encephalopathy. In the present paper we report that Stx2 damaged microvasculature, caused astrocyte reaction and neuronal degeneration, and that this was aggravated by LPS. Dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory, reversed the pathologic effects and proved to be an important drug in the treatment of acute encephalopathies. PMID:23894578

  17. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  18. Significant School Law Cases Pending Before the U.S. Supreme Court. What Do They Portend for the Governance and Administration of the Public Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    Civil rights is the central theme of the cases affecting public school governance that the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear this term. This paper discusses those cases in detail. It also notes that the cases the court refuses to hear have as significant an impact on school district governance as those cases it actually hears. School law cases…

  19. ALS-Causing Mutations Significantly Perturb the Self-Assembly and Interaction with Nucleic Acid of the Intrinsically Disordered Prion-Like Domain of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liangzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) C-terminus encodes a prion-like domain widely presented in RNA-binding proteins, which functions to form dynamic oligomers and also, amazingly, hosts most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations. Here, as facilitated by our previous discovery, by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have successfully determined conformations, dynamics, and self-associations of the full-length prion-like domains of the wild type and three ALS-causing mutants (A315E, Q331K, and M337V) in both aqueous solutions and membrane environments. The study decodes the following: (1) The TDP-43 prion-like domain is intrinsically disordered only with some nascent secondary structures in aqueous solutions, but owns the capacity to assemble into dynamic oligomers rich in β-sheet structures. By contrast, despite having highly similar conformations, three mutants gained the ability to form amyloid oligomers. The wild type and three mutants all formed amyloid fibrils after incubation as imaged by electron microscopy. (2) The interaction with nucleic acid enhances the self-assembly for the wild type but triggers quick aggregation for three mutants. (3) A membrane-interacting subdomain has been identified over residues Met311-Gln343 indispensable for TDP-43 neurotoxicity, which transforms into a well-folded Ω-loop-helix structure in membrane environments. Furthermore, despite having very similar membrane-embedded conformations, three mutants will undergo further self-association in the membrane environment. Our study implies that the TDP-43 prion-like domain appears to have an energy landscape, which allows the assembly of the wild-type sequence into dynamic oligomers only under very limited condition sets, and ALS-causing point mutations are sufficient to remodel it to more favor the amyloid formation or irreversible aggregation, thus supporting the emerging view that the pathologic aggregation

  20. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H; Haslam, Stuart M; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed "limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates". CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  1. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  2. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  3. Single Low Dose Primaquine (0.25mg/kg) Does Not Cause Clinically Significant Haemolysis in G6PD Deficient Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bancone, Germana; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Somsakchaicharoen, Raweewan; Poodpanya, Lalita; Moo, Paw Khu; Gornsawun, Gornpan; Kajeechiwa, Ladda; Thwin, May Myo; Rakthinthong, Santisuk; Nosten, Suphak; Thinraow, Suradet; Nyo, Slight Naw; Ling, Clare L.; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Kiricharoen, Naw Lily; Moore, Kerryn A.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background Primaquine is the only drug consistently effective against mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The transmission blocking dose of primaquine previously recommended was 0.75mg/kg (adult dose 45mg) but its deployment was limited because of concerns over haemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an inherited X-linked enzymatic defect that affects an estimated 400 million people around the world with high frequencies (15–20%) in populations living in malarious areas. To reduce transmission in low transmission settings and facilitate elimination of P. falciparum, the World Health Organization now recommends adding a single dose of 0.25mg/kg (adult dose 15mg) to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) without G6PD testing. Direct evidence of the safety of this low dose is lacking. Adverse events and haemoglobin variations after this treatment were assessed in both G6PD normal and deficient subjects in the context of targeted malaria elimination in a malaria endemic area on the North-Western Myanmar-Thailand border where prevalence of G6PD deficiency (Mahidol variant) approximates 15%. Methods and Findings The tolerability and safety of primaquine (single dose 0.25 mg base/kg) combined with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) given three times at monthly intervals was assessed in 819 subjects. Haemoglobin concentrations were estimated over the six months preceding the ACT + primaquine rounds of mass drug administration. G6PD deficiency was assessed with a phenotypic test and genotyping was performed in male subjects with deficient phenotypes and in all females. Fractional haemoglobin changes in relation to G6PD phenotype and genotype and primaquine round were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. No adverse events related to primaquine were reported during the trial. Mean fractional haemoglobin changes after each primaquine treatment in G6PD deficient subjects (-5

  4. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning. PMID:9627509

  5. NF-κB inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-11-15

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-κB with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-κB in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-κB antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-κB inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  6. Will weight loss cause significant dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuanben; Fei, Zhaodong; Chen, Lisha; Bai, Penggang; Lin, Xiang; Pan, Jianji

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to quantify dosimetric effects of weight loss for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Overall, 25 patients with NPC treated with IMRT were enrolled. We simulated weight loss during IMRT on the computer. Weight loss model was based on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. The original external contour of head and neck was labeled plan 0, and its volume was regarded as pretreatment normal weight. We shrank the external contour with different margins (2, 3, and 5 mm) and generated new external contours of head and neck. The volumes of reconstructed external contours were regarded as weight during radiotherapy. After recontouring outlines, the initial treatment plan was mapped to the redefined CT scans with the same beam configurations, yielding new plans. The computer model represented a theoretical proportional weight loss of 3.4% to 13.7% during the course of IMRT. The dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) of primary gross tumor volume and clinical target volume significantly increased by 1.9% to 2.9% and 1.8% to 2.9% because of weight loss, respectively. The dose to the PTV of gross tumor volume of lymph nodes fluctuated from −2.0% to 1.0%. The dose to the brain stem and the spinal cord was increased (p < 0.001), whereas the dose to the parotid gland was decreased (p < 0.001). Weight loss may lead to significant dosimetric change during IMRT. Repeated scanning and replanning for patients with NPC with an obvious weight loss may be necessary.

  7. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. PMID:25031222

  8. Numerical study identifying the factors causing the significant underestimation of the specific discharge estimated using the modified integral pumping test method in a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kerang

    2015-09-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to simulate the experimental conditions presented in a paper published in this journal [Goltz et al., 2009. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 106 (2009) 51-61] where the modified integral pumping test (MIPT) method was found to significantly underestimate the specific discharge in an artificial aquifer. The numerical model closely replicates the experimental configuration with explicit representation of the pumping well column and skin, allowing for the model to simulate the wellbore flow in the pumping well as an integral part of the porous media flow in the aquifer using the equivalent hydraulic conductivity approach. The equivalent hydraulic conductivity is used to account for head losses due to friction within the wellbore of the pumping well. Applying the MIPT method on the model simulated piezometric heads resulted in a specific discharge that underestimates the true specific discharge in the experimental aquifer by 18.8%, compared with the 57% underestimation of mass flux by the experiment reported by Goltz et al. (2009). Alternative simulation shows that the numerical model is capable of approximately replicating the experiment results when the equivalent hydraulic conductivity is reduced by an order of magnitude, suggesting that the accuracy of the MIPT estimation could be improved by expanding the physical meaning of the equivalent hydraulic conductivity to account for other factors such as orifice losses in addition to frictional losses within the wellbore. Numerical experiments also show that when applying the MIPT method to estimate hydraulic parameters, use of depth-integrated piezometric head instead of the head near the pump intake can reduce the estimation error resulting from well losses, but not the error associated with the well not being fully screened.

  9. Numerical study identifying the factors causing the significant underestimation of the specific discharge estimated using the modified integral pumping test method in a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kerang

    2015-09-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to simulate the experimental conditions presented in a paper published in this journal [Goltz et al., 2009. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 106 (2009) 51-61] where the modified integral pumping test (MIPT) method was found to significantly underestimate the specific discharge in an artificial aquifer. The numerical model closely replicates the experimental configuration with explicit representation of the pumping well column and skin, allowing for the model to simulate the wellbore flow in the pumping well as an integral part of the porous media flow in the aquifer using the equivalent hydraulic conductivity approach. The equivalent hydraulic conductivity is used to account for head losses due to friction within the wellbore of the pumping well. Applying the MIPT method on the model simulated piezometric heads resulted in a specific discharge that underestimates the true specific discharge in the experimental aquifer by 18.8%, compared with the 57% underestimation of mass flux by the experiment reported by Goltz et al. (2009). Alternative simulation shows that the numerical model is capable of approximately replicating the experiment results when the equivalent hydraulic conductivity is reduced by an order of magnitude, suggesting that the accuracy of the MIPT estimation could be improved by expanding the physical meaning of the equivalent hydraulic conductivity to account for other factors such as orifice losses in addition to frictional losses within the wellbore. Numerical experiments also show that when applying the MIPT method to estimate hydraulic parameters, use of depth-integrated piezometric head instead of the head near the pump intake can reduce the estimation error resulting from well losses, but not the error associated with the well not being fully screened. PMID:26210034

  10. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  11. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making.

    PubMed

    Broos, Nienke; Loonstra, Rhianne; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the reduction of impulsive decision making. Therefore, this study explored whether subchronic atomoxetine treatment can reduce relapse vulnerability by reducing impulsive decision making. Rats were trained in the delayed reward task and were subjected to 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration. Following drug self-administration, animals were divided to different experimental groups and received the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine or vehicle subchronically for 20 days. On days 1 and 10 after treatment cessation, a context-induced reinstatement test was performed. Throughout the entire experiment, changes in impulsive decision making were continuously monitored. Subchronic treatment with atomoxetine reduced context-induced reinstatement both 1 and 10 days after treatment cessation, only in animals receiving no extinction training. Interestingly, neither subchronic nor acute atomoxetine treatments affected impulsive decision making. Our data indicate that the enduring reduction in relapse sensitivity by atomoxetine occurred independent of a reduction in impulsive decision making. Nonetheless, repeated atomoxetine administration seems a promising pharmacotherapeutical strategy to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking in abstinent drug-dependent subjects. PMID:25056833

  12. A Single Amphetamine Infusion Reverses Deficits in Dopamine Nerve-Terminal Function Caused by a History of Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Rose, Jamie H; Siciliano, Cody A; Sun, Haiguo; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R

    2015-07-01

    There are ∼ 1.6 million people who meet the criteria for cocaine addiction in the United States, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine-based dopamine-releasing drugs have shown efficacy in reducing the motivation to self-administer cocaine and reducing intake in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that amphetamine acts as a replacement therapy for cocaine through elevation of extracellular dopamine levels. Using voltammetry in brain slices, we tested the ability of a single amphetamine infusion in vivo to modulate dopamine release, uptake kinetics, and cocaine potency in cocaine-naive animals and after a history of cocaine self-administration (1.5 mg/kg/infusion, fixed-ratio 1, 40 injections/day × 5 days). Dopamine kinetics were measured 1 and 24 h after amphetamine infusion (0.56 mg/kg, i.v.). Following cocaine self-administration, dopamine release, maximal rate of uptake (Vmax), and membrane-associated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were reduced, and the DAT was less sensitive to cocaine. A single amphetamine infusion reduced Vmax and membrane DAT levels in cocaine-naive animals, but fully restored all aspects of dopamine terminal function in cocaine self-administering animals. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate pharmacologically induced, immediate rescue of deficits in dopamine nerve-terminal function in animals with a history of high-dose cocaine self-administration. This observation supports the notion that the DAT expression and function can be modulated on a rapid timescale and also suggests that the pharmacotherapeutic actions of amphetamine for cocaine addiction go beyond that of replacement therapy. PMID:25689882

  13. Lack of protective effect of local administration of triamcinolone or systemic treatment with methylprednisolone against damages caused by optic nerve crush in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu Lun; Chang, Chung Hsing; Lin, Kung Hung; Sheu, Min Muh; Tsai, Rong Kung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of administrations of triamcinolone acetonide and systemic methylprednisolone sodium succinate on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of optic nerve crush. The treated groups either received triamcinolone immediately in the form of two pieces of soaked-gelform surrounding retrobulbar optic nerves (0.5 mg/per gelform) or methylprednisolone via peritoneal injection, and control group received intra-peritoneal injection with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after crush experiments. RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with Fluorogold, and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays, Western blot analysis of serine/threonine kinase (p-Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and immunohistochemistry of ED1, marker of macrophage/microglia in the optic nerve were conducted. Two and four weeks after optic nerve crush experiments, neither triamcinolone nor methylprednisolone treatment rescued the RGC from death in the central and mid-peripheral retinas compared with those of the corresponding optic nerve-crushed and PBS-treated rats. Visual-evoked potentials measurements showed a prolonged latency of the P(1) wave in all treated groups (triamcinolone-treated: 123 ± 23 ms, methylprednisolone-treated: 133 ± 25 ms and PBS-treated: 151 ± 55 ms) after two weeks. TUNEL assays showed that there was no decrease in apoptotic cells in the RGC layers of both triamcinolone treated and methylprednisolone-treated retinas. Western blot analysis showed that p-AKT, p-ERK and p-Stat3 were not up-regulated in either retina of the triamcinolone or methylprednisolone treated rats. In addition, the number of ED1-positive cells was not attenuated at the lesion sites of the ON in either treatment group. Based upon these results

  14. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  15. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  16. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  17. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  18. Intraperitoneal administration of high doses of polyethylene glycol (PEG) causes hepatic subcapsular necrosis and low-grade peritonitis with a rise in hepatic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Starkey Lewis, Phil J; Palmer, Luke; Hetzel, Udo; Goldring, Christopher E; Park, B Kevin; Kipar, Anja; Williams, Dominic P

    2013-12-15

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly employed as excipients in preclinical studies and in vitro experiments to dissolve poorly hydrosoluble drugs. Their use is generally considered safe in both animals and humans; however, limited data is available concerning the safety of PEGs when administered parenterally. The results of our investigation demonstrate that PEG-400 can have an irritant effect on serosal surfaces and causes subcapsular hepatocellular necrosis in mice when administered intraperitoneally at a high dose (4 mL/kg). Accordingly, levels of serum biomarkers of liver injury need to be carefully interpreted in studies where PEG is administered intraperitoneally and always in association with the results of the histological assessment. PMID:23831209

  19. Repeated alcohol administration during adolescence causes changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems and promotes alcohol intake in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Maria; Boix, Jordi; Felipo, Vicente; Guerri, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period which the risk of drug and alcohol abuse increases. Since mesolimbic dopaminergic system undergoes developmental changes during adolescence, and this system is involved in rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, we addressed the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during juvenile/adolescent period over-activates mesolimbic dopaminergic system inducing adaptations which can trigger long-term enduring behavioural effects of alcohol abuse. We treated juvenile/adolescent or adult rats with ethanol (3 g/kg) for two-consecutive days at 48-h intervals over 14-day period. Here we show that intermittent ethanol treatment during the juvenile/adolescence period alters subsequent ethanol intake. In vivo microdialysis demonstrates that ethanol elicits a similar prolonged dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens of both adolescent and adult animals pre-treated with multiple doses of ethanol, although the basal dopamine levels were higher in ethanol-treated adolescents than in adult-treated animals. Repeated ethanol administration also down-regulates the expression of DRD2 and NMDAR2B phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex of adolescent animals, but not of adult rats. Finally, ethanol treatment during adolescence changes the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum, suggesting chromatin remodelling changes. In summary, our findings demonstrate the sensitivity of adolescent brain to ethanol effects on dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and suggest that abnormal plasticity in reward-related processes and epigenetic mechanisms could contribute to the vulnerability of adolescents to alcohol addiction. PMID:19077056

  20. Caustic burn caused by intradermal self administration of muriatic acid for suicidal attempt: optimal wound healing and functional recovery with a non surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    FINO, P.; SPAGNOLI, A.M.; RUGGIERI, M.; ONESTI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Caustic burns are burns of third and fourth degree caused by strong acids or strong bases. Muriatic acid is often used for suicidal attempt by ingestion. We describe a case of a caustic skin lesion caused by intravenous failed attempt of suicide by injection of Muriatic acid in a woman affected with bipolar-syndrome. Generally, caustic burns are treated by cleansing, escarectomy and coverage with skin grafts. Case report We treated the patient with a non invasive technique with collagenase and hyaluronic acid sodium salt cream (Bionect start®), hyaluronic acid-based matrix (Hyalomatrix®) and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy®. Results We obtained complete healing in 6 weeks. Conclusions Combined use of non invasive techniques seems to ensure only advantages for both the patients and the Health System. It reduces health care costs and risks for the patients such as nosocomial infections. Patient’s compliance is high, as its quality of life. Complete healing of the wound is fast and recovery of function is full. PMID:26712258

  1. Intra-arterial administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) causes more intracranial bleeding than does intravenous rt-PA in a transient rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-arterial (IA) administration of rt-PA for ischemic stroke has the potential for greater thrombolytic efficacy, especially for a large thrombus in the M1 or M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a concern with IA or intravenous (IV) administration especially as the therapeutic window is extended. However, because IA administration delivers a higher local concentration of agent, the incidence and severity of ICH may be greater than with similar doses IV. We investigated the safety of rt-PA administration by IA compared to IV infusion following 6 hours of MCA occlusion (MCAo) with reflow in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Methods Male SHRs were subjected to 6 hours MCAo with 18 hours reflow using a snare ligature model. They were treated with IA saline, IA rt-PA (1, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg), or IV rt-PA (10 and 30 mg/kg) by a 10 to 60 minute infusion beginning approximately 1 minute before reflow. The rats were recovered for 24 hours after MCAo onset at which time Bleeding Score, infarct volume, and Modified Bederson Score were measured. Results Greater hemorrhagic transformation occurred with 10 and 30 mg/kg rt-PA administered IA than IV. The IV 10 mg/kg rt-PA dosage induced significantly less bleeding than did the 1 or 5 mg/kg IA groups. No significant increase in infarct volume was observed after IA or IV treatment. Rats treated with 30 mg/kg rt-PA by either the IA or IV route had greater neurological dysfunction compared to all other groups. Conclusions Administration of rt-PA by the IA route following 6 hours of MCAo results in greater ICH and worse functional recovery than comparable dosages IV. Significantly greater bleeding was observed when the IA dose was a tenth of the IV dose. The increased bleeding did not translate in larger infarct volumes. PMID:21933438

  2. Co-administration of betulinic acid and methamphetamine causes toxicity to dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve terminals in the striatum of late adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Killinger, Bryan; Shah, Mrudang; Moszczynska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is toxic to dopaminergic and serotonergic striatal nerve terminals in adult, but not in adolescent, brain. Betulinic acid (BA) and its derivatives are promising anti-HIV agents with some toxic properties. Many METH users, particularly young men, are HIV-positive; therefore, they might be treated with BA or its derivative for HIV infection. It is not known whether BA, or any of its derivatives, is neurotoxic in combination with METH in adolescent brain. The present study investigated the effects of BA and binge METH in the striatum in late adolescent rats. BA or METH alone did not decrease the levels of dopaminergic or serotonergic markers in the striatum whereas BA and METH together decreased these markers in a BA dose-dependent manner. BA and METH combination also caused decreases in the levels of mitochondrial complex I in the same manner; BA alone only slightly decreased the levels of the enzyme in striatal synaptosomes. BA or METH alone increased cytochrome c. METH alone decreased parkin, increased complex II and striatal BA levels. These results suggest that METH in combination with BA can be neurotoxic to dopaminergic and serotonergic striatal nerve terminals in late adolescent brain via mitochondrial dysfunction and parkin deficit. PMID:24151877

  3. Uterine Healing after Therapeutic Intrauterine Administration of TachoSil (Hemostatic Fleece) in Cesarean Section with Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Placenta Previa

    PubMed Central

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Dueholm, Margit; Stæhr-Hansen, Estrid; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Background. Application of hemostatic fleece (TachoSil) directly onto the bleeding surfaces of the lower uterine segment has been used to obtain hemostasis during cesarean section caused by placenta previa. Methods. Eleven of 15 patients treated with TachoSil for excessive postpartum haemorrhage due to placenta previa were enrolled. An evaluation of the cesarean section scar by transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity and endometrium by hysteroscopy, and the endometrium by biopsy were made. The main outcome measures were intrauterine adhesions, recovery of endometrium at the site of TachoSil application, visible remnants of TachoSil, and scar healing. Results. Eight patients had small remnants of TachoSil in the uterine cavity together with signs of resorption. All had a normal endometrial mucosa, and none had adhesions in the uterine cavity. All cesarean section scars were healed without defects. Conclusion. TachoSil did not seem to impair healing of the endometrium or scar formation in the uterus after intrauterine application. Resorption of TachoSil seems to progress individually. Intrauterine treatment with TachoSil is a valuable supplement to the traditional treatment of post partum haemorrhage and may help retain reproductive capability. This is a small study, and it will require more studies to confirm the reproducibility. PMID:22619722

  4. Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas J H; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda L C; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2011-12-01

    Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence, the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research, the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate that buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that, to date, this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target

  5. Can the chronic administration of the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential?

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas JH; Bailey, John; Bowirrat, Abdulla; Femino, John; Chen, Amanda LC; Simpatico, Thomas; Morse, Siobhan; Giordano, John; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Eric R.; Fornari, Frank; Downs, B.William; Rector, Cynthia; Barh, Debmayla; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, there remains a need to find a substance that not only blocks opiate-type receptors (mu, delta, etc.) but also provides agonistic activity; hence the impetus arose for the development of a combination of narcotic antagonism and mu receptor agonist therapy. After three decades of extensive research the federal Drug Abuse Treatment Act 2000 (DATA) opened a window of opportunity for patients with addiction disorders by providing increased access to options for treatment. DATA allows physicians who complete a brief specialty-training course to become certified to prescribe buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex, Suboxone) for treatment of patients with opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate buprenorphine maintenance is as effective as methadone maintenance in retaining patients in substance abuse treatment and in reducing illicit opioid use. With that stated, we must consider the long-term benefits or potential toxicity attributed to Subutex or Suboxone. We describe a mechanism whereby chronic blockade of opiate receptors, in spite of only partial opiate agonist action, may ultimately block dopaminergic activity causing anti-reward and relapse potential. While the direct comparison is not as yet available, toxicity to buprenorphine can be found in the scientific literature. In considering our cautionary note in this commentary, we are cognizant that to date this is what we have available, and until such a time when the real magic bullet is discovered, we will have to endure. However, more than anything else this commentary should at least encourage the development of thoughtful new strategies to target the

  6. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  7. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  8. The Significance of National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation in Elevating Quality of Early Childhood Education: Administrators', Teachers', and Parents' Beliefs about Accreditation and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardanyan, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The following is a doctoral dissertation that studied administrators', teachers', and parents' perceptions and attitudes related to an early childhood center/preschool accreditation experience. A qualitative case study of one preschool center focused on the influence that the decision to pursue accreditation and implement the National Association…

  9. Solitary Inhibition of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Efflux Transporter Results in a Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction with Rosuvastatin by Causing up to a 2-Fold Increase in Statin Exposure.

    PubMed

    Elsby, Robert; Martin, Paul; Surry, Dominic; Sharma, Pradeep; Fenner, Katherine

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) restricts the absorption of rosuvastatin. Of the transporters important to rosuvastatin disposition, fostamatinib inhibited BCRP (IC50 = 50 nM) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1; IC50 > 10 μM), but not organic anion transporter 3, in vitro, predicting a drug-drug interaction (DDI) in vivo through inhibition of BCRP only. Consequently, a clinical interaction study between fostamatinib and rosuvastatin was performed (and reported elsewhere). This confirmed the critical role BCRP plays in statin absorption, as inhibition by fostamatinib resulted in a significant 1.96-fold and 1.88-fold increase in rosuvastatin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and Cmax, respectively. An in vitro BCRP inhibition assay, using polarized Caco-2 cells and rosuvastatin as probe substrate, was subsequently validated with literature inhibitors and used to determine BCRP inhibitory potencies (IC50) of the perpetrator drugs eltrombopag, darunavir, lopinavir, clopidogrel, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, and fluconazole. OATP1B1 inhibition was also determined using human embryonic kidney 293-OATP1B1 cells versus estradiol 17β-glucuronide. Calculated parameters of maximum enterocyte concentration [Igut max], maximum unbound hepatic inlet concentration, transporter fraction excreted value, and determined IC50 value were incorporated into mechanistic static equations to compute theoretical increases in rosuvastatin AUC due to inhibition of BCRP and/or OATP1B1. Calculated theoretical increases in exposure correctly predicted the clinically observed changes in rosuvastatin exposure and suggested intestinal BCRP inhibition (not OATP1B1) to be the mechanism underlying the DDIs with these drugs. In conclusion, solitary inhibition of the intestinal BCRP transporter can result in clinically significant DDIs with rosuvastatin, causing up to a maximum 2-fold increase in exposure, which may warrant

  10. How to Use SNP_TATA_Comparator to Find a Significant Change in Gene Expression Caused by the Regulatory SNP of This Gene's Promoter via a Change in Affinity of the TATA-Binding Protein for This Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Arkova, Olga; Ponomarenko, Petr; Suslov, Valentin; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomedical SNP markers of diseases can improve effectiveness of treatment. Genotyping of patients with subsequent searching for SNPs more frequent than in norm is the only commonly accepted method for identification of SNP markers within the framework of translational research. The bioinformatics applications aimed at millions of unannotated SNPs of the “1000 Genomes” can make this search for SNP markers more focused and less expensive. We used our Web service involving Fisher's Z-score for candidate SNP markers to find a significant change in a gene's expression. Here we analyzed the change caused by SNPs in the gene's promoter via a change in affinity of the TATA-binding protein for this promoter. We provide examples and discuss how to use this bioinformatics application in the course of practical analysis of unannotated SNPs from the “1000 Genomes” project. Using known biomedical SNP markers, we identified 17 novel candidate SNP markers nearby: rs549858786 (rheumatoid arthritis); rs72661131 (cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis); rs562962093 (stroke); rs563558831 (cyclophosphamide bioactivation); rs55878706 (malaria resistance, leukopenia), rs572527200 (asthma, systemic sclerosis, and psoriasis), rs371045754 (hemophilia B), rs587745372 (cardiovascular events); rs372329931, rs200209906, rs367732974, and rs549591993 (all four: cancer); rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis); rs63750953, rs281864525, and rs34166473 (all three: malaria resistance, thalassemia). PMID:26516624

  11. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  12. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... history of the package. An incorrect lot number may be regarded as causing the article to be misbranded....

  13. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs. PMID:27580103

  14. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  15. Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels

    PubMed Central

    AL-Dughaym, A.M.; Homeida, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin at a dose of 0.05 μg/kg bodyweight to pregnant camels resulted in abortion. The injection of endotoxin caused significant increases in the plasma concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-prostaglandin F2α, the metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG F2α) and cortisol and a significant decrease in the concentration of progesterone. It is suggested that endotoxin caused abortion in camels was a consequence of endotoxin induced PG F2α secretion resulting in luteal regression and decreased progesterone concentration. PMID:23961064

  16. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  17. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  18. Valproate causes metabolic disturbance in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, D M; Dick, D J; Wilson, L; Sherratt, H S; Alberti, K G

    1986-01-01

    Valproate is an important anticonvulsant which is rarely associated with fatal hepatotoxicity. Previous experiments have shown that valproate inhibits several metabolic processes in isolated rat hepatocytes and when administered to starved rats causes a fall in the blood concentrations of glucose and ketone bodies. Since these changes may be related to the hepatotoxicity, the effect of valproate administration on intermediary metabolism in man was studied. One gram of valproate given orally to fasted normal humans caused a 78% fall in the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate and a 60% fall in total ketones. Also the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, alanine and glycerol increased after valproate administration. Similar changes were observed after intravenous administration of 400 mg of valproate. Valproate clearly has a significant effect on intermediary metabolism in the liver and this is probably related to the mechanism of the hepatotoxicity. PMID:3084712

  19. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  20. 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate cause significant effects on development, mRNA expression, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Egloff, Caroline; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T.; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-06-15

    1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH; formerly abbreviated as TBECH) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP; formerly abbreviated as TCP) are additive flame retardants that are detected in the environment and biota. A recent avian in vitro screening study of 16 flame retardants identified DBE-DBCH and TMPP as important chemicals for follow-up in ovo evaluation based on their effects on cytotoxicity and mRNA expression in avian hepatocytes. In this study, technical mixtures of DBE-DBCH and TMPP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 54,900 ng/g and from 0 to 261,400 ng/g, respectively, to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Both compounds were detectable in embryos at pipping and the β-DBE-DBCH isomer was depleted more rapidly than the α-isomer in tissue samples. DBE-DBCH had limited effects on the endpoints measured, with the exception of the up-regulation of two phase I metabolizing enzymes, CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. TMPP exposure caused embryonic deformities, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acid concentrations, and altered mRNA expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Overall, TMPP elicited more adverse molecular and phenotypic effects than DBE-DBCH albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those detected in the environment. The increase in plasma bile acid concentrations was a useful phenotypic anchor as it was associated with a concomitant increase in LSI, discoloration of the liver tissue, and modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • DBE-DBCH and TMPP are not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TMPP caused deformities, morphometric alterations, and increased plasma bile acids. • DBE-DBCH and TMPP altered mRNA levels

  1. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  2. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  4. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  5. miR-155, identified as anti-metastatic by global miRNA profiling of a metastasis model, inhibits cancer cell extravasation and colonization in vivo and causes significant signaling alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Rikke R.; Søkilde, Rolf; Elias, Daniel; Bak, Martin; Litman, Thomas; Beck, Hans C.; Lyng, Maria B.; Ditzel, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into miRNA regulation in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using global miRNA profiling, 28 miRNAs were found to exhibit significantly altered expression between isogenic metastasizing and non-metastasizing cancer cells, with miR-155 being the most differentially expressed. Highly metastatic mesenchymal-like CL16 cancer cells showed very low miR-155 expression, and miR-155 overexpression in these cells lead to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. Our experiments addressing the underlying mechanism of the altered tumor burden revealed that miR-155-overexpressing CL16 cells were less invasive than CL16 control cells in vitro, while miR-155 overexpression had no effect on cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis in established lung tumors. To identify proteins regulated by miR-155 and thus delineate its function in our cell model, we compared the proteome of xenograft tumors derived from miR-155-overexpressing CL16 cells and CL16 control cells using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. >4,000 proteins were identified, of which 92 were consistently differentially expressed. Network analysis revealed that the altered proteins were associated with cellular functions such as movement, growth and survival as well as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. Downregulation of the three metastasis-associated proteins ALDH1A1, PIR and PDCD4 in miR-155-overexpressing tumors was validated by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that miR-155 inhibits the ability of cancer cells to extravasate and/or colonize at distant organs and brings additional insight into the complexity of miR-155 regulation in metastatic seeding. PMID:26317550

  6. A Change of Administration: A Significant Organizational Life Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Deborah E.

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how the succession process for principals is similar to that described by Gabarro in his study of corporate succession. Leader succession involves five major stages: (1) taking hold; (2) immersion; (3) reshaping; (4) consolidation; and (5) refinement. Success most frequently occurs in conjunction…

  7. Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M.; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2013-12-01

    Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health.

  8. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation. PMID:19730868

  9. Jaundice causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver is unable to properly move into the digestive tract. Conditions that can cause jaundice include: Infections of the liver from a virus ( hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , ...

  10. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  11. The Library Administrator's Automation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    One of the most significant decisions in a library administrator's career is the decision to automate one or more of a library's operations. This book describes the present state of local library automation; the planning, selection, and implementation process; and the library administrator's role in the process. The bulk of the text provides a…

  12. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  13. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  14. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  15. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  16. The Administrator as Superhero: A Commentary on Balkin and Mello's "Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    As a way to achieve better alignment of the ongoing teaching-research activity gap in business schools, David Balkin and Jeff Mello suggest that schools need to hire academic administrators with significantly developed management skills. The author responds to this recommendation with two concerns. First, many of the causes of the…

  17. The Significance of Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2007-01-01

    The education of pragmatics is necessary and important in our globalized world. The reason is that English is currently used by people in the world for interaction and communication with each other in order to do international trade or participate in the academic conferences (McKay, 2002). For avoiding miscommunication caused by cultural…

  18. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  19. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  20. A Conceptual Understanding of Administrative Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    Since 1980, over 70 studies have explored the causes, responses, and consequences of administrative stress. Few studies have used physiological measures to decipher administrative reactions and consequences of stress. This document briefly traces the historical development of stress and reviews various approaches, models, and definitions used in…

  1. Administrative Managers--A Critical Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Institutional responses to changes in the higher education environment have caused movements in the roles and identities of administrative managers in UK universities. These shifts have highlighted the problem for individuals of balancing traditional public service considerations of administration with institutional innovation and development.…

  2. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  3. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  4. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  5. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Manfred W.; Cummins, Martin J.; Bennett, Alayne L.; Cummins, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNα therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  6. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  7. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  8. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  9. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  10. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  11. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significantly. 1508.27 Section 1508.27 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.27 Significantly... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural,...

  12. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  13. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  14. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Spina, Edoardo; Trifirò, Gianluca; Caraci, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer antidepressants with different mechanisms of action have been introduced in clinical practice. Because antidepressants are commonly prescribed in combination with other medications used to treat co-morbid psychiatric or somatic disorders, they are likely to be involved in clinically significant drug interactions. This review examines the drug interaction profiles of the following newer antidepressants: escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, reboxetine, bupropion, agomelatine and vilazodone. In general, by virtue of a more selective mechanism of action and receptor profile, newer antidepressants carry a relatively low risk for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, at least as compared with first-generation antidepressants, i.e. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). On the other hand, they are susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. All new antidepressants are extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, and therefore may be the target of metabolically based drug interactions. Concomitant administration of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isoenzymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may cause changes in their plasma concentrations. However, due to their relatively wide margin of safety, the consequences of such kinetic modifications are usually not clinically relevant. Conversely, some newer antidepressants may cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their ability to inhibit specific CYPs. With regard to this, duloxetine and bupropion are moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6. Therefore, potentially harmful drug interactions may occur when they are coadministered with substrates of these isoforms, especially compounds with a narrow therapeutic index. The other new antidepressants are only weak inhibitors or are not inhibitors of CYP isoforms at

  15. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  16. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  17. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  18. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  19. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT... for States To File Claims § 95.22 Meaning of good cause. (a) Good cause for the late filing of a...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant terms. 1351.1 Section 1351.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS...

  4. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  5. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  6. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  7. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  8. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  9. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  10. The art of improvisation: the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Littike, Denilda; Sodré, Francis

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital (HUF). It includes research with a qualitative approach conducted through interviews with twelve administrators. The work process, the work tools and the human activity per se are understood to be under scrutiny. Work is acknowledged as a category that analyzes the management methods used by professional health workers. The HUFs are responsible for two social policies, namely education and health. The aim of the administrators' work is an organizational issue, and the administration tools used are bureaucratic and out-of-date for the current political context of hospital management. The most significant feature of this hospital administration is improvisation, which reduces the potential of the administrators in such a way that, instead of introducing innovative changes into their work process, they prefer to leave their jobs. Improvisation is caused by the production of sequential obstacles in management decision-making at this teaching hospital. In short, the transfer of administration at the HUF, from direct government administration by the University to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), was analyzed on the grounds that this would establish a "new" management model. PMID:26465848

  11. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  12. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  13. Vocational Education Administration Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Karen, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This handbook for vocational administrators presents an overview of vocational education programs, services, and administrative structures in Alaska. The manual contains three parts. The first, brief section introduces secondary vocational education and lists its enabling legislation. The second part presents a detailed overview of vocational…

  14. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  15. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  16. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  17. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  18. Networked Administration Streamlines Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An Iowa school district has retooled its computer systems for more standardized administration. In addition to administration, the district is doing inhouse databasing of financial accounting, and doing inhouse scheduling and grade reporting. A partnership with the Chamber of Commerce contributed $500,000 for the network system. (MLF)

  19. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  20. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  1. Administration for Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  2. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  3. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  4. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Webb, L. Dean

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the societal and organizational changes affecting school business administration, describes major activities encompassed in the practice of school business administration, and reviews current literature specifically related to such activities as electronic data processing, fiscal planning and budgeting, purchasing and property management,…

  5. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  6. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  7. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  8. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  9. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development. PMID:27139354

  10. Chronic administration of isocarbophos induces vascular cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yin, Ya-Ling; Zhu, Mo-Li; Pan, Guo-Pin; Zhao, Fan-Rong; Lu, Jun-Xiu; Liu, Zhan; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Hu, Chang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia, being the most severe form of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is caused by cerebrovascular disease. Whether organophosphorus causes VCI remains unknown. Isocarbophos (0.5 mg/kg per 2 days) was intragastrically administrated to rats for 16 weeks. The structure and function of cerebral arteries were assayed. The learning and memory were evaluated by serial tests of step-down, step-through and morris water maze. Long-term administration of isocarbophos reduced the hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) content but did not alter the plasma AChE activity, and significantly damaged the functions of learning and memory. Moreover, isocarbophos remarkably induced endothelial dysfunction in the middle cerebral artery and the expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the posterior cerebral artery. Morphological analysis by light microscopy and electron microscopy indicated disruptions of the hippocampus and vascular wall in the cerebral arteries from isocarbophos-treated rats. Treatment of isocarbophos injured primary neuronal and astroglial cells isolated from rats. Correlation analysis demonstrated that there was a high correlation between vascular function of cerebral artery and hippocampal AChE activity or ACh content in rats. In conclusion, chronic administration of isocarbophos induces impairments of memory and learning, which is possibly related to cerebral vascular dysfunction. PMID:26818681

  11. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  12. Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

  13. Mass drug administration for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Eugenie; Skarbinski, Jacek; Sinclair, David; Kachur, S Patrick; Slutsker, Laurence; Hwang, Jimee

    2013-01-01

    address any long-term outcomes, any potential barriers for community uptake, and contribution to the development of drug resistance. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Administration of antimalarial drugs to whole populations Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite, accounting for an estimated 660,000 deaths annually. Fortunately, malaria is both preventable and treatable. Several malaria control tools currently exist, and new and innovative approaches are continually under development. The administration of drugs against malaria to whole populations, termed mass drug administration (MDA), was a component of many malaria elimination programmes in the 1950s, and is once again attracting interest as a malaria elimination tool. As a consequence, it is important to review the currently available literature in order to assess the potential for this strategy to reduce malaria burden and transmission, and to identify gaps in our understanding. This review assessed the impact of MDA on several malaria-specific outcome measures. Thirty-two studies were included in this review, from sites in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. The review found that although MDA can reduce the initial risk of malaria-specific outcomes, these reductions are often not sustained. However, a few studies conducted on small islands or in highland areas did show sustained impact more than six months after MDA. Adverse events were inadequately addressed in most studies. Notable severe drug reactions, including haemolysis, haemoglobinuria, severe anaemia and death, were reported with 8-aminoquinoline plus schizonticide drug co-administration, while severe skin reactions were reported with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate plus primaquine. Assessing the true impact of MDA programmes can be a challenge due to the heterogeneity of the study methods employed. Nonetheless, this review can help guide future antimalarial MDA interventions and their evaluation. PMID:24318836

  14. Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia (Syzygium cumini) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health.

    PubMed

    El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p ≥ 0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200 ppm caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200 ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance. PMID:24425943

  15. [Applying the Strategies of Helping Relationship From Significant Others in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Yen, Miaofen; Lee, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Hui-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The absence of easily perceived symptoms in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes low levels of awareness and treatment of this disease. Therefore, adherence to measures that may prevent disease progression, i.e., lifestyle changes, regular clinic visits, and timely medication administration, is often low among early-stage CKD patients. However, continuous assistance from significant others through trusting, understanding, sharing, and coaching assistance may promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent progression of the disease. The necessary characteristics of significant others include dependability, credibility, and positivity. Significant others may use their understanding, caring, faith, and honesty to help patients face CKD and improve self-care efficacy. This article discusses the assistance that significant others may provide to CKD patients, including warning mechanisms, target setting, encouragement, and feedback. By developing the functions of supervision, companionship, and support, significant others may help patients live a healthier life and improve their medical compliance and thus postpone disease progression. PMID:27026553

  16. [Bisalbuminemia and pseudobisalbuminemia: clinical significance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gómez Agudo, G; Cuesta Muñóz, J; Hortells Aznar, J L; Orden Gonzalo, I; Giner Soria, A; Franco Alcalde, L

    1980-05-25

    Two cases of bisalbuminaemia are hereby studied: a congenital case and an acquired or transitory case. In the first one, this hereditary disturbance is studied on four affected members of one Spanish family, being associated in two of them with multiple lipomatosis. This kind of association is considered as casual. As in most of the informed cases, ours belongs to the slow kind. The second case deals with a bisalbuminaemia of transitory character or pseudobisalbuminaemia which, appeared in a woman in the course of an acute pancreatitis of biliolithiasic origin, with a pancreatic pseudocyst and pleural effusion, the evolution in the inflamatory pancreatic process being advantageous in spite of the prsence of bisalbuminaemia. Briefly revised, are exposed the causes of this interesting and rare alteration in the electrophoretic fractioning of plasmatic proteins: congenital, and adquired causes due to administration of betalactamines and during the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:7412433

  17. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  18. Copyright Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol Mann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses copyright compliance policies for school administrators and the librarian's role in policy implementation. Topics addressed include fines; court litigation; monitoring compliance; training sessions for teachers and staff; computer software audits; and sources for more information. (LRW)

  19. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  20. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  1. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  2. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  3. Introducing Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of documents and the analysis of definitions are recommended as a means for adding zest to an introduction to public administration course to obtain student interest and motivation. (Author/ND)

  4. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can damage the organs, including the heart. Sarcoidosis : A disease that causes inflammation and can affect ... believe that an abnormal immune response may cause sarcoidosis. This abnormal response causes tiny lumps of cells ...

  5. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  6. What Causes Pericarditis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pericarditis? In many cases, the cause of pericarditis (both acute and chronic) is unknown. Viral infections are likely a common cause of pericarditis, although the virus may never be ...

  7. Acute pancreatitis caused by bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Solakoglu, Tevfik; Akyol, Pinar; Guney, Tekin; Dilek, Imdat; Atalay, Roni; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Akin, Ebru; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis has been reported rarely. Bortezomib is a selective and reversible proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, one case report about acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by bortezomib was published in the international literature. Herein we report a case of AP in a 67-year-old male on bortezomib therapy. On the fourth day after the first administration of bortezomib, the patient admitted to the hospital with symptoms of AP. The common etiological factors for AP were all excluded. Than the patient was diagnosed as bortezomib-induced pancreatitis. PMID:23561979

  8. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G; Hargens, A R; Lehman, S; Rempel, D M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue. PMID:11398857

  9. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  10. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  11. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  12. Behavioral stereotypies induced by "binge' cocaine administration are independent of drug-induced increases in corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Spangler, R; Zhou, Y; Schlussman, S D; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1997-07-01

    Cocaine administration causes dramatic stereotypic behavior and elevation of circulating corticosterone levels in rodents. The present study tested the possible role of increased corticosterone in mediating stereotypic behavior caused by "binge' pattern cocaine administration. Animals were administered saline or cocaine intraperitoneally for 3 days, with or without pretreatment with a D1 (SCH 23390, 2 mg/kg) or D2 (sulpiride, 50 mg/kg) dopamine receptor antagonist. Three days of cocaine "binges' significantly increased corticosterone levels in vehicle pretreated rats (P < 0.01). Both SCH 23390 and sulpiride pretreatment daily significantly attenuated this increase (P < 0.01). Cocaine administration caused stereotypic behaviors in vehicle pretreatment rats (P < 0.01). These behavioral responses were blocked by the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390, but not by the D2 antagonist sulpiride. These findings reaffirm the dominant role of the D1 receptor in mediating behavioral stereotypy caused by elevations of extracellular dopamine in the synaptic cleft. The fact that the dose of sulpiride used in these studies prevented the elevation of plasma corticosterone caused by cocaine, without blocking the stereotypy caused by cocaine, indicates that this stereotypic behavior does not require drug-induced elevation in circulating levels of corticosterone. PMID:9134155

  13. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  14. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  15. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  16. Disinfection practices in intravenous drug administration.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Ista, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a feedback intervention on adherence to disinfection procedures during intravenous medication preparation and administration. We found that full adherence to the protocols significantly improved from 7.3% to 21.5% (P < .001) regarding medication preparation and from 7.9% to 15.5% (P = .012) regarding medication administration. However, disinfection practices still need improvement. PMID:26899528

  17. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  19. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  20. Redis database administration tool

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  1. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  2. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  3. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  4. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  5. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  6. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  7. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  8. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  9. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  10. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  11. "Complicating" Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.

    Administrators desiring to lead organizations that will adapt and survive in a complex environment like today's public schools need to develop what Karl Weick calls "complicated" understanding of "requisite variety." The law of requisite variety states that a diverse and complicated environment demands similar diversity from its inhabitants if…

  12. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  13. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  14. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  15. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  16. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  18. Using Administrative Data. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLeonardi, Joan W.; Yuan, Ying-Ying T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of administrative data to child welfare researchers. Considers issues in using client records--confidentiality, selection of data, historical data, sampling reliability, replication of findings, and access to data--that can be resolved in standardized ways. Notes other problematic issues, such as greater distance from subject,…

  19. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  20. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  1. Leadership Behaviors of Vocational Education Administrators in the Midwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shirley L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Leadership behaviors of vocational education administrators in 15 midwestern states were studied. The administrators, representing four institutional types, responded to Part LB of the Boss' Management Styles Survey and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The MANOVA procedure revealed statistically significant differences among administrative roles with…

  2. [Clinical significance of gastrointestinal decontamination under protected environment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Yonekura, S; Komatsuda, M; Nozaki, H; Arimori, S; Sawamura, S; Ozawa, A; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Many infections are caused by the patient's own oro-intestinal microbial flora under a protected environment. Thirty-eight patients with acute leukemia and two patients with blast crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia were treated under a protected environment with or without prophylactic antibiotics. Antibiotics used for decontamination were vancomycin (V), polymyxin B (P) and nystatin (N). The number of patients in the VPN, PN and the no antibiotic group were 13, 13 and 14, respectively. While the intestinal microbial flora was almost completely eliminated in VPN group, the number of bacteria decreased slightly in PN group. The mean number of pharyngeal and anorectal bacterial species decreased most markedly in the VPN group, but there were no significant differences among the three groups. The number of febrile days was significantly lower in the VPN and PN group than the no antibiotics group with neutrophil counts of less than 100 microliters. The average number of episodes of infection per patient was lowest in VPN group and highest in the no antibiotic group. These data indicate that VPN administration is effective for eliminating intestinal bacterial flora and resultantly protecting endogenous infections. PMID:2066589

  3. Antimalarial mass drug administration: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Phaik Yeong; White, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Falciparum malaria is a major cause of death and illness in tropical countries, particularly in childhood. In endemic countries, a significant proportion of the community is infected with malaria asymptomatically. One promising way to eliminate malaria is to give the entire population malaria treatment. This is called mass drug administration (MDA) and it raises a number of ethical issues, as possible long-term benefits are uncertain. The effectiveness of MDA is critically dependent on level of participation, so the promised benefits to the community can be annulled by non-participation of a small number of individuals. These potential benefits range a wide spectrum, from the permanent elimination of malaria (success) to a transient reduction in the prevalence of infection and the incidence of illness (failure). The drawbacks of MDA are: inconvenience, potential toxicity, loss of confidence in the elimination campaign, possible drug resistance (though highly unlikely), and the potential for a rebound of malaria illness (if immunity is lost and malaria is reintroduced later). Other ethical issues are related to balancing individual and public health interests, and potentially limiting individual autonomy by making MDA compulsory. PMID:27481834

  4. What Causes Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  5. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  6. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  7. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  8. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis (CF). This gene makes ... and very salty sweat. Research suggests that the CFTR protein also affects the body in other ways. ...

  9. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  10. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Polycythemia Vera? Primary Polycythemia Polycythemia vera (PV) also ... in the body's JAK2 gene is the main cause of PV. The JAK2 gene makes a protein ...

  11. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual flow Smoking Depression Never having given birth Endometriosis Chronic uterine infection Additional causes of menstrual irregularity include 1 : Endometriosis Endocrine gland-related causes Poorly controlled diabetes Polycystic ...

  12. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  13. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  14. 77 FR 55492 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...In compliance with section 202(c)(5) of the National Housing Act, this notice advises of the cause and description of administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board against HUD-approved...

  15. 75 FR 43537 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...In compliance with Section 202(c) of the National Housing Act, this notice advises of the cause and description of administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board against HUD-approved...

  16. 76 FR 45594 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...In compliance with Section 202(c)(5) of the National Housing Act, this notice advises of the cause and describes the administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board against HUD-approved...

  17. 78 FR 21618 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...In compliance with Section 202(c) (5) of the National Housing Act, this notice advises of the cause and description of administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board against HUD-approved...

  18. 75 FR 81287 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...In compliance with Section 202(c) of the National Housing Act, this notice advises of the cause and description of administrative actions taken by HUD's Mortgagee Review Board against HUD-approved...

  19. 28 CFR 2.214 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... § 2.214 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A supervised releasee who is retaken... been convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the...

  20. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Probable cause hearing and determination... Parolees § 2.101 Probable cause hearing and determination. (a) Hearing. A parolee who is retaken and held... convicted of a new crime, shall be given a probable cause hearing by an examiner of the Commission no...

  1. 49 CFR 219.301 - Testing for reasonable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing for reasonable cause. 219.301 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.301 Testing for reasonable cause. (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in...

  2. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  3. 20 CFR 725.465 - Dismissals for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissals for cause. 725.465 Section 725.465... AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Hearings § 725.465 Dismissals for cause. (a) The administrative law judge... of the claimant or his or her representative to attend a hearing without good cause; (2) Upon...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered...

  5. The Dropout Problem as Perceived by School Psychologists and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Kay; And Others

    A survey of 1,300 school administrators and 441 school psychologists examined perceptions of the causes of dropping out (891 administrators returned usable surveys for a response rate of 71.8%; the school psychologists' sample was part of a larger study that had yielded a response rate of 57%). Using a 5-point Likert scale, respondents rated 42…

  6. 40 CFR 86.091-29 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... idle speed parameter is one which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment, the Administrator shall not adjust it to a setting which causes a higher engine idle speed than would have...

  7. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  8. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  9. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  10. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  11. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  12. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  13. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  14. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  15. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  16. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  17. Measles: Still a Significant Health Threat.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Claire; Lanzi, Maria; Lindberg, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Measles (Rubeola), although considered eradicated in the United States, still causes periodic outbreaks. Vaccine refusal leads to vulnerable pockets of individuals who may become infected once the virus is imported from countries where it is endemic. In turn, these individuals may spread the virus to young infants and to other vulnerable individuals. Many healthcare providers are not familiar with this disease or with the factors that contribute to the risk of spread. Measles causes a serious febrile illness that may lead to pneumonia, blindness, deafness, neurological disorders, and even death. Patients with measles need supportive care and administration of oral vitamin A. The measles vaccine is highly effective and considered extremely safe, but misinformation about the safety of this and other vaccines has decreased immunization coverage in some areas of the country. Mandatory immunization laws exist in every state and have been upheld by courts including the United States Supreme Court, but laws and exemptions vary among states. Nurses can play a strong role in care of patients with measles, case identification, and prevention of transmission. Most importantly, because nurses hold positions of trust in their communities, they should be tireless frontline advocates for immunization. The purpose of this article is to provide information on measles, its transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention, and relevant laws and regulations. PMID:26110575

  18. Pharmacodynamics and toxicity of vasoactive intestinal peptide for intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Cao, De-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the nasal route for the delivery of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the brain and to evaluate the toxicity of VIP nasal spray. Mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with the aggregated Abeta25-35 to mimic Alzheimer's disease. Following administration, different groups of mice were treated over one week, and their spatial learning and memory capacities were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The toxicity of VIP nasal spray was evaluated by examining the morphology of individual rat nasal mucosa cilia and the pathology of rat nasal mucosa. Rats receiving intranasal VIP (40 microg/ml) showed good spatial memory relative to the Abeta25-35 model group, but the escape latency did not show any statistically significant difference. Intranasal administration of VIP nasal spray (200 microg/ml) improved deficits in spatial memory to the point that test animals receiving intranasal VIP showed no statistically significant differences from the normal control group in escape latency. This indicated that the nasal spray method could increase the quantity of VIP entering the brain and protect the central nervous systems of mice. Toxicity evaluation showed that the preparation could cause minor irritation, which resolved spontaneously within a week at the end of treatment. In conclusion, VIP can be delivered successfully to the brain using the intranasal route. PMID:23444784

  19. Nitrofurantoin: cause of DRESS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Barreto, Paulo; Leão, Ricardo R; Ribeiro, José Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common pathological entity among elderly patients. The widespread use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs has gained many opponents mainly due to the increasing drug resistance observed. Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used antibacterial drug because it has low side effects and a good antiurinary bacterial profile. However, in this paper, we present a case of a nitrofurantoin-induced DRESS (drug reaction/rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome in a 77-year-old woman. During UTI treatment, the patient developed an acute skin rash which spread all over the body and a considerable decrease in urine volume. At the emergency department, we found her developing eosinophilic pneumonia, anaemia and renal impairment that we relate to nitrofurantoin administration. To our knowledge, this is the second published case report which evokes nitrofurantoin as a possible cause of DRESS syndrome. PMID:23661654

  20. Domino System Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, R.

    Need a concise, practical explanation about the new features of Domino, and how to make some of the advanced stuff really work? You need answers and solutions from someone who's been in the trenches. You want information from someone like you, who has worked with the product for years, and understands what it is you need to know. Domino System Administration from New Riders is the answer-the first book on Domino that attacks the technology at the professional level, with practical, hands-on assistance to get Domino 5 running in your organization.

  1. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.18 Drugs; significance of control numbers. The lot number on the label of a...

  2. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  3. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  4. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  5. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  6. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  8. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  9. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  10. Dextromethorphan interactions with histaminergic and serotonergic treatments to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Scott A; Hall, Brandon J; Wells, Corinne; Slade, Susan; Jaskowski, Paul; Morrison, Margaret; Rezvani, Amir H; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2016-03-01

    Combining effective treatments with diverse mechanisms of action for smoking cessation may provide better therapy by targeting multiple points of control in the neural circuits underlying addiction. Previous research in a rat model has shown that dextromethorphan, which has α3β4 nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic antagonist actions, significantly decreases nicotine self-administration. We have found in the rat model that the H1 histamine antagonist pyrilamine and the serotonin 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin also significantly reduce nicotine self-administration. The current studies were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dextromethorphan with pyrilamine and lorcaserin on nicotine self-administration in rats. Young adult female rats were fitted with jugular IV catheters and trained to self-administer a nicotine infusion dose of 0.03-mg/kg/infusion. In an initial dose-effect function study of dextromethorphan, we found a monotonic decrease in nicotine self-administration over a dose range of 1 to 30-mg/kg with the lowest effective dose of 3-mg/kg. Then, with two separate cohorts of rats, dextromethorphan (0, 3.3, and 10-mg/kg) interactions with pyrilamine (0, 4.43, and 13.3-mg/kg) were investigated as well as interactions with lorcaserin (0, 0.3125 and 0.625-mg/kg). In the pyrilamine-dextromethorphan interaction study, an acute dose of pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration. There were mutually augmenting effects of these two drugs. The combination of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) and pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) significantly lowered nicotine self-administration relative to either 10-mg/kg of dextromethorphan alone (p<0.05) or 13.3-mg/kg of pyrilamine alone (p<0.0005). In the lorcaserin-dextromethorphan study, an acute dose of lorcaserin (0.312-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration

  11. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    PubMed

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased. PMID:25196955

  12. What Causes Angina?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle. Some plaque is hard and stable and causes the arteries ... This can greatly reduce blood flow to the heart and cause angina. Other plaque is soft and more likely to rupture (break ...

  13. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en ... Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  14. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  15. [Use of administrative and economic methods in managing veterinary affairs].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, I

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities are stated of using the administrative and economic methods in the administration of the veterinary service. It is stressed that the two types of methods are applied in combination. Administrative methods are to be employed in the control of epizootics, including zoonoses, and in the veterinary and sanitary control, resp. surveillance and inspection. Both types of methods are equally referred to in the control of parasitic diseases with epizootic course of development as well as in the control of diseases caused by occasionally pathogenic organisms. The use of economic methods is prevailing in the control of noninfectious diseases, and in the administration of bioproduct and drug production. PMID:7344292

  16. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... the import or export of natural gas, or for any other alleged wrong involving importation...

  17. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... contravention or violation of any authorization, statute, rule, order, or law administered by FE applicable...

  18. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... contravention or violation of any authorization, statute, rule, order, or law administered by FE applicable...

  19. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... contravention or violation of any authorization, statute, rule, order, or law administered by FE applicable...

  20. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... contravention or violation of any authorization, statute, rule, order, or law administered by FE applicable...

  1. Pathophysiological Significance of Hepatic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kewei; Lin, Bingliang

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a classical pathological feature in liver diseases caused by various etiological factors such as drugs, viruses, alcohol, and cholestasis. Hepatic apoptosis and its deleterious effects exacerbate liver function as well as involvement in fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis. An imbalance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities is a prominent characteristic of liver injury. The regulation of apoptosis and antiapoptosis can be a pivotal step in the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:27335822

  2. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  3. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  4. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  5. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  6. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie C.

    2007-05-02

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

  7. Operations Research and Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, T. C . E.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the uses of operations research (OR) in higher education administration by reviewing the higher education system's most significant operational problems: resource allocation, financial planning, budgeting, formation of student project groups, scheduling and classroom allocation, student registration, tuition and fee structure…

  8. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  9. 76 FR 72328 - Miscellaneous Administrative Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... amends the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to make miscellaneous non-substantive administrative changes to be... NASA. DATES: This direct final rule is effective January 23, 2012 unless Agency receives significant..., NASA will publish a timely withdrawal of the rule in the Federal Register. If no adverse comments...

  10. The Challenge of Creating Ethical Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of administrator ethics in the quality of students' education. Points out that research shows a significant shortcoming in ethical awareness among educational leadership students. Argues that the study of ethics should be an essential component of any educational leadership preparation program. (Contains 13 references.)…

  11. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  12. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  13. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  14. Selecting the Administrative Computing Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielec, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Important steps in the computing administrator selection process are outlined, including: reviewing the administrative computing organization, determining a search methodology, selecting a search or screening committee, narrowing the candidate pool, scheduling interviews and evaluating candidates, and conducting negotiations. (MSE)

  15. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  16. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... part. (b) Requirement for finding of good cause. A decision on a proposed agency action under...

  17. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT.

    PubMed

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P

    2015-06-01

    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (P<0.05), in clearing microfilaria in 13 weeks. Secondary outcome analysis showed that, all the trial regimens were comparable to control regimen in clearing antigen (F(3, 109)=0.405; P=0.750). Therefore, DEC + Albendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical trials.gov identifier - NCT02005653). PMID:26691247

  18. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  19. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  20. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  1. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  2. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23602810

  3. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  4. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  5. The Future of Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    Past approaches to public administration, the diminishing distinctions between foreign and domestic policy, the role of the public administrator, and leadership qualities are discussed. As a relatively young discipline, public administration first focused on scientific management (1920's). It then shifted to the art and science of getting things…

  6. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  7. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  8. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  9. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  10. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  11. Albumin administration prevents neurological damage and death in a mouse model of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Vodret, Simone; Bortolussi, Giulia; Schreuder, Andrea B.; Jašprová, Jana; Vitek, Libor; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Muro, Andrés F.

    2015-01-01

    Therapies to prevent severe neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus are phototherapy and, in unresponsive cases, exchange transfusion, which has significant morbidity and mortality risks. Neurotoxicity is caused by the fraction of unconjugated bilirubin not bound to albumin (free bilirubin, Bf). Human serum albumin (HSA) administration was suggested to increase plasma bilirubin-binding capacity. However, its clinical use is infrequent due to difficulties to address its potential preventive and curative benefits, and to the absence of reliable markers to monitor bilirubin neurotoxicity risk. We used a genetic mouse model of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia showing severe neurological impairment and neonatal lethality. We treated mutant pups with repeated HSA administration since birth, without phototherapy application. Daily intraperitoneal HSA administration completely rescued neurological damage and lethality, depending on dosage and administration frequency. Albumin infusion increased plasma bilirubin-binding capacity, mobilizing bilirubin from tissues to plasma. This resulted in reduced plasma Bf, forebrain and cerebellum bilirubin levels. We showed that, in our experimental model, Bf is the best marker to determine the risk of developing neurological damage. These results support the potential use of albumin administration in severe acute hyperbilirubinemia conditions to prevent or treat bilirubin neurotoxicity in situations in which exchange transfusion may be required. PMID:26541892

  12. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  13. Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

  14. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  15. What Causes Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapors, or air pollution raises your risk for the condition. These lung ... the major cause of the condition. Breathing in air pollution and dust or fumes from the environment or ...

  16. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... each parent), you're at risk for iron overload and signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis. If you ... of another disease or condition that causes iron overload. Examples of such diseases and conditions include: Certain ...

  17. Frontotemporal Disorders: Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s Alzheimer's Basics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caregiving Other Dementias Publications FAQs Images and Video ...

  18. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

  19. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  20. Causes of Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  1. Causes of Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact critical functions like thought, comprehension, and speech. > Cerebral palsy CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain. > Friedreich’s ataxia An inherited disease that leads to ...

  2. What causes bone loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause osteoporosis. Some of these are: Hormone-blocking treatments for prostate cancer or breast cancer Some medicines that are used to treat seizures or epilepsy Steroid medicines, if they are taken by mouth every ...

  3. What Causes Cough?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause a cough. Other irritants include air pollution, paint fumes, or scented products like perfumes or air fresheners. An allergen is something you're allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, mold, or pollens from trees, grasses, and ...

  4. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  5. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  6. Significance determination: A rational reconstruction of decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellerup, U.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with some screening environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that have been reviewed and decided by an administrative board, the Appeal Board for Nature Protection. The practices developed by the Appeal Board show that the handling of significance in screening lacks focus, which leads to a mix of problems; namely, inconsistent argumentation and the development of practices not compliant with the usual understanding of EIA. The problems are found in project-related screening cases as well as in general screening cases. The article argues that structural barriers in Danish EIA regulations hinder the function of the EIA system in general. The article also touches upon the problems of implementing EIA into existing legal frameworks and present the view that a Board composed mainly of politicians cannot be the right body to enforce the procedural rules of the EIA-system.

  7. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  8. Pediatric medical devices: a look at significant US legislation to address unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Samuels-Reid, Joy H; Blake, Erica D

    2014-03-01

    There are many barriers to the availability of medical devices intended for the pediatric population causing healthcare providers to use creative measures to address pediatric unmet device needs. The USA has taken significant legislative measures to spur medical device development and address the unmet needs in all pediatric subpopulations. For example, the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002 amended the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act by adding new provisions intended to promote the development of safe and effective pediatric devices, and to protect the pediatric population during clinical trials. In 2004, the Medical Devices Technical Corrections Act was added to address potential difficulties in bringing pediatric devices to the market. Further, the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007 and the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 provided the FDA significant new responsibilities and authorities regarding pediatric use. PMID:24387679

  9. Plasma atropine concentrations via intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Prete, M R; Hannan, C J; Burkle, F M

    1987-03-01

    To date, there have been limited studies on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous atropine and no pharmacokinetic studies on the endotracheal or intraosseous administration of atropine. This study examines the time to peak plasma concentration of atropine following intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration in anesthetized monkeys using a triple crossover design. Plasma atropine was assayed by a radioreceptor method. The time to peak plasma concentration of atropine was shortest with intravenous administration; and longest with endotracheal administration. The mean plasma concentration of atropine was significantly higher in intravenous administrations than in endotracheal administrations at 0.75 and 2 minutes; compared to that noted in intraosseous administrations, the concentration was significantly higher only at 0.75 minutes. The mean plasma concentration of atropine administered intraosseously was significantly higher than that of endotracheal administrations at 5 minutes and was greater than that of intravenous and endotracheal administrations for the samples collected from 5 to 30 minutes. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternatives to the intravenous administration of atropine when intravenous access is limited or not available. PMID:3828010

  10. Secondary causes of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Deepthi; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-15

    The causes of the lipid disorders in patients referred to specialty clinics for difficult-to-treat dyslipidemias are likely multifactorial. However, the importance of evaluating for secondary causes is unclear. The investigators performed a chart review of new patients referred to the University of Michigan Lipid Clinic from January 2004 to June 2011 (n = 824) to evaluate for the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. In addition to lipoproteins, new patients were assessed for secondary dyslipidemias by a standardized protocol consisting of laboratory testing, a nutritional evaluation, and medical history. These data were evaluated to determine the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. A total of 363 separate factors were identified in the 824 patients that were thought to be potential secondary causes of dyslipidemia. Because some patients (n = 83 [10%]) had multiple conditions, there were 230 (28% of the cohort) with ≥1 potential secondary dyslipidemias. The most common conditions were excessive alcohol intake (n = 82 [10%]), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (n = 68 [8%]), and overt albuminuria. Although other causes occurred less frequently (each individually found in <5% of patients), altogether they were present in a substantial portion of patients (n = 102 [12%]). In conclusion, nearly 1/3 of patients referred to a specialty clinic had identifiable secondary conditions plausibly contributing to their dyslipidemia. Numerous disorders were identified, with diabetes mellitus and excessive alcohol being the most common. PMID:22658245

  11. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  12. A rare but significant cause of priapism in the elderly: multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Akin, Sibel; Atay, Kadri; Saka, Bulent; Kutlu, Omer; Tascioglu, Cemil

    2011-01-01

    Priapism is a rare symptom with diverse etiological factors. Although most cases in adults are secondary to drug use and intracavernosal injections, blood dyscrasias and hypercoagulable states, vasculitis, penile metastases, neurological conditions, spider bites, carbon monoxide poisoning, and total parenteral nutrition may also result in priapism. We report a case of recurrent and refractory priapism in a 61-year-old man which was diagnosed as multiple myeloma after emergence of hypercalcemia and renal failure due to progression of the underlying pathology. The value of the initial diagnostic approach is emphasized. PMID:22526083

  13. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  14. The Most Significant Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    1972-01-01

    A reexamination of the significant research done in the decade from 1956-1966 and a revision of this list to include work up to 1971. Human characteristics, equality of educational opportunity, development of the individual, nature of intelligence, methodology of educational research, and principles of learning are some of the areas covered. (RB)

  15. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  16. Do antidepressants cause folic acid depletion? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, K.A.; Jamjoom, S.; Donaldson, D.; Dickerson, J.W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of tricyclic antidepressants is common; folic acid depletion is a potential consequence adversely affecting the mental state. In a pilot study prior to research in the community, serum and red cell folate and serum vitamin B 12 levels were measured in the following elderly psychiatric inpatients: 14 controls (patients not receiving any drugs with known antifolate activity), 11 receiving tricyclic antidepressants, 13 receiving antipsychotics (phenothiazines) and four receiving an anticonvulsant (carbamazepine). Patients on prolonged treatment with carbamazepine or phenothiazine drugs had lower concentrations of folate in serum and erythrocytes compared with controls; the decrease was statistically significant for the effect of phenothiazines on serum folate levels. Tricyclic antidepressants, which are in widespread use in the community, did not cause folate depletion during the first two years of treatment. PMID:3204543

  17. Cardiorespiratory effects of induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine-midazolam combination, with and without prior administration of butorphanol or oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J D; McGrath, C J; Smith, E P

    1994-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory effects of an IV administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by IV infusion of ketamine (200 micrograms/kg/min) and midazolam (10 micrograms/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of IV administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate. Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017701

  18. Neurokinin B Administration Induces Hot Flushes in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Channa N.; Comninos, Alexander N.; Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Buckley, Adam; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Mogford, Julianne; Ng, Noel; Sarang, Zubair; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Hunter, Myra S.; Dhillo, Waljit S.

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide binding preferentially to the neurokinin 3 receptor. Expression of the gene encoding NKB is elevated in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest that NKB signalling may mediate menopausal hot flushes. However, the effects of NKB administration on hot flushes have not been investigated in humans. To address this, we performed a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way cross-over study. Ten healthy women were admitted to a temperature and humidity-controlled research unit. Participants received 30 minute intravenous infusions of NKB and vehicle in random order. Symptoms, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and skin temperature were compared between NKB and vehicle in a double-blinded manner. Eight of ten participants experienced flushing during NKB infusion with none experiencing flushing during vehicle infusion (P = 0.0007). Significant elevations in heart rate (P = 0.0106 vs. pre-symptoms), and skin temperature measured using skin probe (P = 0.0258 vs. pre-symptoms) and thermal imaging (P = 0.0491 vs. pre-symptoms) characteristic of menopausal flushing were observed during hot flush episodes. Our findings provide evidence that NKB administration can cause hot flushes in women. Further studies are required to determine if pharmacological blockade of NKB signalling could inhibit hot flushes during the menopause and during treatment for sex-steroid dependent cancers. PMID:25683060

  19. Nursing home administrators' level of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Job satisfaction has been shown to have a direct relationship to the quality of work. Are nursing home administrators satisfied with their work? How do they compare with their counterparts in other industries? The results of this survey, using the Job Description Index (JDI) and the Job in General (JIG) scale as published by Bowling Green State University, indicate that nursing home administrators have a more compressed rate of job satisfaction than their counterparts in other industries. They focus their dissatisfaction on their coworkers and pay. They demonstrate dissatisfaction by rotating their positions at a rate of every 31 months. This suggests some significant problems in the development and maintenance of quality care and some areas that could be addressed to raise the level of satisfaction among nursing home administrators. PMID:15499807

  20. Champions of a cause

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, S.

    1995-03-01

    As customer choice becomes more and more of an issue, utilities are looking at ways to differentiate their company and service. This article describes one tactic - cause-related marketing - for building customer loyalty to the utility brand. As utilities focus on marketing and are less able to justify short-term philanthropy, cause-related marketing may help them at once meet a social need and create competitive advantage. It may even help break down the organizational boundaries that inhibit the communication, flexibility, and creativity needed to succeed in a competitive market. Successful utilities likely will have service packages that are customized for different groups of customers. One or several of those groups, for example, may respond particularly to the utility`s attitude to the community or a particular cause.

  1. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  2. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  3. 14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Suspension and Termination of Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 410.650 - Dismissal for cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dismissal for cause. 410.650 Section 410.650 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.650 Dismissal for cause. The presiding...

  5. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  6. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial institution... (b)(3) of that section. For example, a transaction or financial service in which a foreign financial... significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign financial institution conducts for or...

  7. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part of a pattern of conduct or the result of a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity... service in which a foreign financial institution provides brokerage or clearing services to, or maintains... generally would be of greater significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign...

  8. Clinical significance of complement deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-09-01

    The complement system is composed of more than 30 serum and membrane-bound proteins, all of which are needed for normal function of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Historically, deficiencies within the complement system have been suspected when young children have had recurrent and difficult-to-control infections. As our understanding of the complement system has increased, many other diseases have been attributed to deficiencies within the complement system. Generally, complement deficiencies within the classical pathway lead to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections as well as a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement deficiencies within the mannose-binding lectin pathway generally lead to increased bacterial infections, and deficiencies within the alternative pathway usually lead to an increased frequency of Neisseria infections. However, factor H deficiency can lead to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, deficiencies within the terminal complement pathway lead to an increased incidence of Neisseria infections. Two other notable complement-associated deficiencies are complement receptor 3 and 4 deficiency, which result from a deficiency of CD18, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, and CD59 deficiency, which causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Most inherited deficiencies of the complement system are autosomal recessive, but properidin deficiency is X-linked recessive, deficiency of C1 inhibitor is autosomal dominant, and mannose-binding lectin and factor I deficiencies are autosomal co-dominant. The diversity of clinical manifestations of complement deficiencies reflects the complexity of the complement system. PMID:19758139

  9. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  10. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2 . Nature Genetics , Oct;23(2), 185–188. [top] Schollen, ... 1581. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n12/full/ejhg200995a.html [ ...

  11. [Myopathy caused by hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Paiva, C; Mouro, A M; Luís, M L; Fonseca, F; Quina, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary hypothyroidism where the main symptoms were caused by muscular lesions and disappeared after treatment with L-thyroxine. Based on this case study the authors then review both the clinical aspects and the diagnostical methods of hypothyroidism myopathy, noting its frequency, be it in terms of isolated laboratory changes or in terms of functional changes. PMID:1807095

  12. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  13. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  14. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  15. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  16. Rostral-caudal differences in the effects of intra-VTA muscimol on cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y.; Guttilla, Matthew; Fung, Kinsun D.; McFeron, Stacey; Yan, Jerry; Ranaldi, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We have found that dopamine (DA) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in cocaine self-administration. DA in the VTA acts at D1-type receptors on the terminals of GABA afferents causing release of this neurotransmitter. Thus, the neurochemical pathways whereby VTA DA might be involved in cocaine self-administration may include GABA neurotransmission. In the present study, we investigated this possibility. Rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and bilateral guide cannulae positioned to allow microinjections directly into the VTA or a site 1 mm dorsal to it. The rats were then trained to self-administer cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/injection) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement and tested with microinjections of muscimol (0, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/0.25 μl) or picrotoxin (0, 0.025 and 0.05 μg/0.25 μl) or trained under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule and tested with vehicle and 0.05 μg/0.25 μl muscimol. Muscimol in the VTA, but not immediately dorsal to it, significantly reduced cocaine intake under the FR1 schedule. Furthermore, when analyzed by rostral/caudal site of injection, it was found that rostral injections of muscimol significantly reduced cocaine self-administration whereas caudal injections produced non-significant decreases in self-administration. Inspection of individual records revealed no signs of non-specific behavioral effects of the muscimol treatments. Muscimol in the rostral VTA also significantly increased break points in responding under the PR schedule. Intra-VTA picrotoxin did not significantly affect cocaine self-administration. These data suggest that stimulation of GABA-A receptors in the VTA is involved in cocaine self-administration and reward and that this involvement is more pronounced in the rostral than in the caudal VTA. PMID:17291573

  17. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  19. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  20. Nursing academic administration: who will take on the challenge?

    PubMed

    Adams, Lavonne

    2007-01-01

    To address the shortage of qualified candidates interested in nursing academic administration, this study explored factors that influence nursing faculty to pursue administrative positions. Nursing academic administrators and full-time faculty from randomly selected accredited nursing programs in private colleges and universities in the United States participated in this study. Administrators completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and a recruitment questionnaire, whereas faculty completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Observer and a career aspiration questionnaire. Most faculty respondents (63%) indicated that they would not consider a position with greater administrative responsibility. Respondents identified workload and conflict-related issues as factors likely to discourage their pursuit of administration. Respondents identified additional challenge/variety of work, opportunity to influence organizational climate for change, opportunity to facilitate faculty growth and development, and mix of administration with teaching as likely to encourage their pursuit of administration. Faculty interest in a position with greater administrative responsibility was significantly increased for those who had completed additional course work beyond their highest degree. Practice recommendations included making leadership development opportunities available for faculty interested in administration, exploring methods to manage workload and conflict, and exploring methods to maximize factors identified as likely to encourage the pursuit of academic administration. PMID:17903790

  1. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  2. The Black-White Achievement Gap through the Lens of Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Roger S., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of Black and White central office administrators regarding the Black-White achievement gap. Four research questions (RQ) were explored: RQ1: How do central office administrators understand the causes of the Black-White achievement gap? RQ2: How do central office administrators perceive their role in…

  3. 8 CFR 280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.1 Notice of intention to fine; administrative... administrative fine under the Immigration and Nationality Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine,...

  4. 8 CFR 280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.1 Notice of intention to fine; administrative... administrative fine under the Immigration and Nationality Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine,...

  5. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  6. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  7. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  8. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  9. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  10. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  11. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  13. Discovery of medically significant lantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Piper, Clare; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2009-03-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens such as staphylococci and enterococci in the hospital setting has long being recognized as a serious clinical problem. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of many nosocomial infections from minor skin abscesses to serious, potentially life threatening diseases such as bone and soft tissue intra-surgical infections, sepsis and invasive endocarditis, while enterococci are responsible for nosocomial bacteraemia, surgical wound infections and endocarditis. The most infamous drug-resistant forms of these include MRSA (methicillin resistant S. aureus), VISA (vancomycin insensitive S. aureus), hVISA (heterogenous vancomycin insensitive S. aureus) and VRE (vancomycin resistant S. aureus). While enhanced hygiene awareness is essential to any solution, the identification of effective novel antimicrobial compounds remains a major goal in eradicating these and other infections caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. In recent years a class of antimicrobial peptides, the Lantibiotics, have been the focus of an ever increasing level of attention. This interest has been prompted by an enhanced appreciation of the mode of action of these peptides (including, in many cases, the ability to bind lipid II) and their frequently high levels of antimicrobial activity. Here we review lantibiotic-related issues in drug discovery, outline the strategies that have been employed to identify these peptides and summarize the use of bioengineering to generate enhanced forms of these peptides as well as the application of the associated biological machinery to generate novel forms of existing pharmaceutical compounds. In so doing we highlight how some, or all, of these approaches have the potential to result in the development of clinically important drugs. PMID:19275538

  14. School Business Administration: A Planning Approach. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candoli, I. Carl; And Others

    The school business administration function in the operation of American schools has undergone dramatic changes during the past several years. Changing demographics, high technology, the movement to professionalize school administration, and changes by the legislative and judicial systems have all had significant impact on the character of school…

  15. Tyrosine Administration Decreases Vulnerability to Ventricular Fibrillation in the Normal Canine Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Neal A.; Desilva, Regis A.; Lown, Bernard; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1981-02-01

    Intravenous infusion of tyrosine (1, 2, or 4 milligrams per kilogram) for 20 to 30 minutes caused dose-dependent increases in the ventricular fibrillation threshold in normal dogs. Administration of valine, a neutral amino acid that competes with tyrosine for uptake at the blood-brain barrier, in a dose equimolar to the most effective dose of tyrosine, slightly decreased the ventricular fibrillation threshold when given alone and significantly blocked elevation of the ventricular fibrillation threshold after tyrosine infusion. Hence, tyrosine, presumably acting in the central nervous system, can protect against certain ventricular arrhythmias.

  16. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  17. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  18. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  19. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  20. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  1. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  2. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  3. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  4. The functional significance of stereopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Anderson, Susan; Draper, Hayley

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Development or restoration of binocular vision is one of the key goals of strabismus management; however, the functional impact of stereoacuity has largely been neglected. Methods. Subjects aged 10 to 30 years with normal, reduced, or nil stereoacuity performed three tasks: Purdue pegboard (measured how many pegs placed in 30 seconds), bead threading (with two sizes of bead, to increase the difficulty; measured time taken to thread a number of beads), and water pouring (measured both accuracy and time). All tests were undertaken both with and without occlusion of one eye. Results. One hundred forty-three subjects were recruited, 32.9% (n = 47) with a manifest deviation. Performances on the pegboard and bead tasks were significantly worse in the nil stereoacuity group when compared with that of the normal stereoacuity group. On the large and small bead tasks, those with reduced stereoacuity were better than those with nil stereoacuity (when the Preschool Randot Stereoacuity Test [Stereo Optical Co, Inc., Chicago, IL] results were used to determine stereoacuity levels). Comparison of the short-term monocular conditions (those with normal stereoacuity but occluded) with nil stereoacuity showed that, on all measures, the performance was best in the nil stereoacuity group and was statistically significant for the large and small beads task, irrespective of which test result was used to define the stereoacuity levels. Conclusions. Performance on motor skills tasks was related to stereoacuity, with subjects with normal stereoacuity performing best on all tests. This quantifiable degradation in performance on some motor skill tasks supports the need to implement management strategies to maximize development of high-grade stereoacuity. PMID:19933184

  5. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  6. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-07-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained body weight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra body weight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity. PMID:15219821

  7. Status Epilepticus Caused by Nefopam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-baeg; Kim, Jeong-min

    2014-01-01

    Nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic, has been used to control postoperative pain. Reported adverse effects are anticholinergic, cardiovascular or neuropsychiatric. Neurologic adverse reactions to nefopam are confusion, hallucinations, delirium and convulsions. There are several reports about fatal convulsive seizures, presumably related to nefopam. A 71-year-old man was admitted for surgery for a lumbar spinal stenosis. He was administered intravenous analgesics : ketorolac, tramadol, orphenadrine citrate and nefopam HCl. His back pain was so severe that he hardly slept for several days; he even needed morphine and pethidine. At 4 days of administration of intravenous analgesics, the patient suddenly started generalized tonic-clonic seizures for 15 seconds, and subsequently, status epilepticus; these were not responsive to phenytoin and midazolam. After 3 days of barbiturate coma therapy the seizures were controlled. Convulsive seizures related to nefopam appear as focal, generalized, myoclonic types, or status epilepticus, and are not dose-related manifestations. In our case, the possibility of convulsions caused by other drugs or the misuse of drugs was considered. However, we first identified the introduced drugs and excluded the possibility of an accidental misuse of other drugs. Physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of unpredictable and serious convulsions when using nefopam. PMID:25535527

  8. Genetic causes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Julia; Yu, Lan; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a moderately prevalent birth defect that, despite advances in neonatal care, is still a significant cause of infant death, and surviving patients have significant morbidity. The goal of ongoing research to elucidate the genetic causes of CDH is to develop better treatment and ultimately prevention. CDH is a complex developmental defect that is etiologically heterogeneous. This review summarizes the recurrent genetic causes of CDH including aneuploidies, chromosome copy number variants, and single gene mutations. It also discusses strategies for genetic evaluation and genetic counseling in an era of rapidly evolving technologies in clinical genetic diagnostics. PMID:25447988

  9. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  10. Blasé about drug administration.

    PubMed

    Castledine, Sir George

    The trouble with some tasks and procedures in nursing is that you get too used to them, and errors inevitably set in. No other area is as vulnerable to this as drug administration. A recent report from the National Patient Safety Agency highlighted that dozens of patients are killed every year by drug errors. In 2007, the watchdog received reports from NHS staff of 86 000 mistakes in prescribing or administering medicines, compared with 36 335 errors in 2005. In England and Wales, in 96% of cases the incidents caused low or no harm, but 37 patients died during 2007, and another 63 suffered severe harm. PMID:19966750

  11. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  12. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  13. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  14. Administrative Style and Leadership Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vernadine; Ogletree, Earl J.

    Trends over the past 25 years in research on evaluation of school administrative leadership are analyzed in this summary report. Administrator evaluation became a concern as the principal's influence on the performance and attitudes of faculty and staff was realized. Research on organizational psychology demonstrated the relationship between…

  15. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  16. Coaches Guide to Sport Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    This guide for athletic coaches offers a practical approach to the administrative functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling. Included are chapters on coaching administration, fund raising, organizing competitions, and designing effective budgets and controls. The guide addresses the following topics: (1) the categories of…

  17. In Praise of Fewer Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald D.; Stuart, William H.

    In response to increasing financial pressures, Oakland Community College instituted a policy in the 1970s to reduce the number of college administrators as a means of saving staff costs. While student enrollments increased from 11,700 in 1970 to 24,000 in 1980, the number of administrators fell from 84 to 32. This reduction was realized through…

  18. Canadian and Comparative Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H., Ed.; Housego, Ian E., Ed.

    Most of the articles in this book evolved from papers presented during the Fourth Quadrennial International Intervisitation Program in Educational Administration held in Canada in 1978. Its purposes were to inform educational leaders from around the world about educational administration, organization, and policy in Canada and to provide a forum…

  19. The Dissimilarity of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John

    1970-01-01

    The responsibilities of educational administrators do not extend to the products of the educational institutions. Rather, they end at the point where they maintain satisfactory conditions for leisure activities. In this respect, educational administration may serve as a model for the governance of an increasing number of organizations, both public…

  20. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  1. Status of Practice Administration Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manski, Richard J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 51 dental schools gathered information about curricula in dental practice administration, focusing on curriculum format, course content, course hours, and faculty in seven major content areas. Results are summarized, and it is concluded that practice administration curricula are mature and secure, but in some cases inadequate.…

  2. Administrative Support for Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the need of administrative support for board members. An effective board services office can help a lot in attracting and retaining community leaders. Board members need administrative support to help them manage events, records, communications, scheduling, correspondence and constituent service. In small to…

  3. Preparing Administrators for Connected Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tweed W.

    New technology, in the form of electronic connectivity, has opened up vast new arenas for educational development. Many administrators, however, have not been prepared for the sudden change brought about by such technology. The problem for school administrators is how to lead effectively without being overcome by the new information technologies.…

  4. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  5. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  6. Cardinal Virtues of Academic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to articulate the basic elements of a comprehensive ethic of academic administration, organized around a set of three cardinal virtues: "commitment" to the good of the institution; good administrative "judgment"; and "conscientiousness" in discharging the duties of the office. In addition to explaining this framework and…

  7. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  8. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  9. Reforming Educational Administration: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that serious ethical questions regarding the preparation of prospective school administrators have arisen out of the American reform movement. Discusses university-sponsored educational administration programs in the context of the social contract between the university and its various shareholders. Argues that such programs have a major…

  10. The Evaluation of Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, G. Lester

    Certain principles, assumptions, and caveats are considered in this conference paper that are relevant to the formal evaluation of academic administrators. Academic administration is defined as "leadership and managerial activity associated with teaching, research, educational services such as counseling or placement, and extension activities…

  11. College Administration: Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltner, Bill D., Ed.

    Ten colleges participated in a project to: (1) help organize and strengthen administrative teams in developing two-year and four-year colleges throughout the Southeast; (2) to assist administrative teams in identifying specific roles for each team member and in developing an understanding of team responsibilities; and (3) to assist administrative…

  12. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration.

    PubMed

    Jansman, Frank Ga; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W

    2007-12-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic procedures should be aware of the potential life-threatening effects. Especially patients with risk factors for side-effects should be monitored carefully. PMID:17557212

  13. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  14. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049

  15. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  17. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  18. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  19. [The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies].

    PubMed

    Fojtík, Z

    2004-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) present very heterogeneous groups of antibodies which can significantly influence processes on different levels of coagulation cascade depending on effects of phospholipid surfaces on blood coagulation. This usually leads to a particular level of thrombophylia. Clinical syndrome accompanying positive APLA, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, was defined by clinical and laboratory symptoms. This clinical syndrome can be a primary syndrome, if other disorders with ability to induce generation of antibodies can be excluded, or a secondary syndrome. The most often in cases of systemic tissue disease. APLA can be divided according to the presence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. According to a definition lupus anticoagulants are antibodies able to inhibit and prolong in vitro one or more blood clotting processes dependent on phospholipid surfaces. Anticardiolipin antibodies are antibodies measured by ELISA method with cardiolipin used as an antibody. Findings show that some APLA are directed against proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces. Main cofactor proteins include beta 2-GPI and prothrombin. Because of their heterogeneous specificity, APLA are directed against negative phospholipids or proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces and have important pathophysiology role in development of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:15214303

  20. General administrative activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-07-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics.

  1. Fluid administration and morbidity in transhiatal esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Oliver S.; Arlow, Renee L.; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Langenfeld, John E.; August, David A.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity. Optimizing perioperative fluid administration is one potential strategy to mitigate morbidity. We sought to investigate the relationship of intraoperative fluid (IOF) administration to outcomes in patients undergoing transhiatal esophagectomy with particular attention to malnourished patients, who may be more susceptible to the effects of fluid overload. Material and methods Patients who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy from 2000–2013 were identified from a retrospective database. IOF rates (mL/kg/hr) were determined and their relationship to outcomes compared. To examine the impact of malnutrition, we stratified patients based on median preoperative serum albumin and compared outcomes. Results and discussion 211 patients comprised the cohort. 74% of patients underwent esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Linear regression analyses were performed comparing independent perioperative variables to four outcomes variables: length of stay, complications per patient, major complications, and Clavien-Dindo classification. IOF rate was significantly associated with three of four outcomes on univariate analysis. Significantly more patients with a preoperative albumin level ≤3.7 g/dL who received more than the median IOF rate experienced more severe complications. Conclusions Increased intraoperative fluid administration is associated with perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing transhiatal esophagectomy. Patients with lower preoperative albumin levels may be particularly sensitive to the effects of volume overload. PMID:26319974

  2. 48 CFR 242.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... report identifying significant accounting system or related internal control deficiencies. (9) For...) Contractor estimating systems (see FAR 15.407-5); and (B) Contractor material management and accounting... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES...

  3. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  4. IV Nicotine Self-Administration in Rats Using a Consummatory Operant Licking Response: Sensitivity to Serotonergic, Glutaminergic and Histaminergic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Vanessa; Rose, Jed E.; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0.03 mg/kg/infusion of nicotine), we tested the effect of antagonists of H1 histamine receptors pyrilamine, serotonin (5HT) type 2 receptors ketanserin and lorcaserin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors with D-cycloserine in dose ranges that we have found in previous studies to significantly reduce IV nicotine self-administration with the operant lever press operand. The H1 antagonist pyrilamine significantly reduced operant licking for nicotine self-administration. Pyrilamine caused significant reductions in the operant licking paradigm at lower doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) than those we previously observed to affect responding in the operant lever press paradigm. In contrast, the 5HT2A and C antagonist ketanserin did not show an effect of reducing nicotine self-administration in the same dose range we had found in a previous study to significantly reduce operant lever press nicotine self-administration. The 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin significantly decreased nicotine self-administration in the licking paradigm at the same dose threshold as with lever press responding. The NMDA glutamate partial agonist D-cycloserine did not produce any change in nicotine self-administration with the licking operand, in contrast to its effect on the classic lever-pressing task. The rat model incorporating consummatory aspects of tobacco addiction can provide distinct

  5. IV nicotine self-administration in rats using a consummatory operant licking response: sensitivity to serotonergic, glutaminergic and histaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Vanessa; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0.03mg/kg/infusion of nicotine), we tested the effect of antagonists of H1 histamine receptors pyrilamine, serotonin (5HT) type 2 receptors ketanserin and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors with d-cycloserine as well as an agonist of 5HT2c receptors lorcaserin, in dose ranges that we have found in previous studies to significantly reduce IV nicotine self-administration with the operant lever press operand. The H1 antagonist pyrilamine significantly reduced operant licking for nicotine self-administration. Pyrilamine caused significant reductions in the operant licking paradigm at lower doses (10 and 20mg/kg) than those we previously observed to affect responding in the operant lever press paradigm. In contrast, the 5HT2A and C antagonist ketanserin did not show an effect of reducing nicotine self-administration in the same dose range we had found in a previous study to significantly reduce operant lever press nicotine self-administration. The 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin significantly decreased nicotine self-administration in the licking paradigm at the same dose threshold as with lever press responding. The NMDA glutamate partial agonist d-cycloserine did not produce any change in nicotine self-administration with the licking operand, in contrast to its effect on the classic lever-pressing task. The rat model incorporating consummatory aspects of

  6. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  7. Selank Administration Affects the Expression of Some Genes Involved in GABAergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anastasiya; Shadrina, Maria; Kolomin, Timur; Andreeva, Lyudmila; Limborska, Svetlana; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Slominsky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the similarity of the spectrum of physiological effects of Selank and classical benzodiazepines, such as diazepam and phenazepam. These data suggest that there is a similar basis of their mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis we studied the effect of Selank and GABA on the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. We analyzed the expression of 84 genes involved in neurotransmission (e.g., major subunit of the GABA receptor, transporters, ion channels, dopamine, and serotonin receptors) in the frontal cortex of rats 1 and 3 h after the administration of Selank or GABA (300 μg/kg) using real-time PCR method. We found significant changes in the expression of 45 genes 1 h after the administration of the compounds. Three hours after Selank or GABA administration, 22 genes changed their expression. We found positive correlation between the changes in genes expression within 1 h after administration of Selank or GABA. Our results showed that Selank caused a number of alterations in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. The data obtained indicate that Selank is characterized by its complex effects on nerve cells, and one of its possible molecular mechanisms is associated with allosteric modulation of the GABAergic system. PMID:26924987

  8. Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Cheng, Xiaobo; Su, Yuqing; Pei, Ying; Song, Yanzhi; Jiao, Jiao; Huang, Zhenjun; Ma, Yanfei; Dong, Yinming; Yao, Ying; Fan, Jingjing; Ta, Han; Liu, Xinrong; Xu, Hui; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    The cross-administration of nanocarriers modified by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), named PEGylated nanocarriers, a type of combination therapy, is becoming an increasingly important method of long-term drug delivery, to decrease side effects, avoid multidrug resistance, and increase therapeutic efficacy. However, repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers induces the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon, prevents long circulation, and can cause adverse effects owing to alterations in the biodistribution of the drug. Although the nature of the ABC phenomenon that is induced by repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers has already been studied in detail, there are few reports on the immune response elicited by the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers. In this study, we investigated the ABC phenomenon induced by the intravenous cross-administration of various PEGylated nanocarriers, including PEGylated liposomes (PL), PEG micelles (PM), PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (PSLN), and PEGylated emulsions (PE), in beagle dogs. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response elicited by the cross-administration was in the following order (from the strongest to the weakest): PL, PE, PSLN, PM. It is specifically PEG in the brush structure that elicits a significant immune response, in both the induction phase and the effectuation phase. Furthermore, the present study suggests that there is a considerable difference between the effect of repeated injections and cross-administration, depending on the colloidal structure. This work is a preliminary investigation into the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers, and our observations can have serious implications for the design of combination therapies that use PEGylated vectors. PMID:25999716

  9. Repeated ketamine administration redeems the time lag for citalopram's antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-F; Liu, W-X; Qiu, L-L; Guo, J; Wang, X-M; Sun, H-L; Yang, J-J; Zhou, Z-Q

    2015-06-01

    Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag for treatment response of classic antidepressants. The behavioral responses were assessed by the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. In the first stage of experiments, all the four treatment regimens of ketamine (10mg/kg ip, once daily for 3 or 7 consecutive days, or once every 7 or 3 days, in a total 21 days) showed robust antidepressant-like effects, with no significant influence on locomotor activity and stereotype behavior in the CUMS rats. The intermittent administration regimens produced longer antidepressant-like effects than the consecutive administration regimens and the administration every 7 days presented similar antidepressant-like effects with less administration times compared with the administration every 3 days. In the second stage of experiments, the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once every 7 days) and citalopram (20 mg/kg po, once daily) for 21 days caused more rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects than citalopram administered alone. In summary, repeated sub-anesthestic doses of ketamine can redeem the time lag for the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram, suggesting the combination of ketamine and classic antidepressants is a promising regimen for depression with quick onset time and stable and lasting effects. PMID:25795441

  10. Devices for insulin administration.

    PubMed

    Selam, J L; Charles, M A

    1990-09-01

    There is a significant need for revised, safe, and more effective insulin-delivery methods than subcutaneous injections in the treatment of both type I (insulin-dependent) and type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. The aim of this review is to describe the rationale and methods for better use of injection and infusion devices for intensive insulin therapy and to describe results of animal and human research that will lead to an implantable artificial pancreas. Injection devices, e.g., jet injectors, insulin pens, and access ports, cannot be considered as a major breakthrough in the quest for improved control, although they may improve the patient's comfort. External pumps have benefits over multiple injections and conventional insulin therapy only in specific subgroups of patients, e.g., those with recurrent severe hypoglycemia, but only when used by experienced personnel. The external artificial pancreas (Biostator) is also to be used by experienced personnel for limited clinical and research applications, e.g., surgery of the diabetic patient. The development of an implantable version of the artificial pancreas is linked to progress in the field of reliable long-duration glucose sensors. Finally, programmable implantable insulin pumps, used as an open-loop delivery system, are the most promising alternative to intensive subcutaneous insulin strategies in the short term, although clear evidence of improved safety and efficacy remains to be documented. PMID:2226111

  11. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases.

  12. Pulmonary administration of Am80 regenerates collapsed alveoli.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hitomi; Horiguchi, Michiko; Ozawa, Chihiro; Akita, Tomomi; Hirota, Keiji; Shudo, Koichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Makino, Kimiko; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2014-12-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, which causes widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. Nevertheless, there is no effective drug therapy that regenerates lung tissue or prevents the progression of COPD and clinical management of patients remains mostly supportive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Am80 is useful as a novel pulmonary emphysema therapeutic drug. In this study, we treated the human alveolar epithelial stem cells with Am80 to clarify the differentiation-inducing mechanism and administrated Am80 transpulmonarily into elastase-induced COPD model mice to evaluate the effect of Am80 on pulmonary emphysema. First, we accordingly investigated whether Am80 had a differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells, Am80 induced differentiation of human alveolar epithelial stem cells to alveolar type I and II cells dose dependently, and the proportion of differentiated into type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells as a result of treatment with 10 μM of Am80 for 7 days was approximately 20%. Second, we attempted to identify the major factor involved in the differentiation-inducing effect of human alveolar epithelial stem cells induced by Am80 using microarray analysis. In a microarray analysis, WNT1, lectin, SLIT, chordin, ck12, ck11, and neurexin3 showed the largest variation in the Am80-treated group compared with the controls. In quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay, Am80 resulted in significant reduction in the WNT1 expression ratio whereas increase in the neurexin3 expression ratio. We evaluated the repairs effect for collapsed alveoli by Am80 of pulmonary administration. In untreated and Am80-treated mice the average CT value at 2 days was, respectively, -506 and -439 and there was a significant difference. Likewise, the assessment of the distance between alveolar walls, Lm, confirmed that there was a significant difference between control (68.0±3.8 μm) and

  13. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, J.C.; Akin, E.W.

    1986-11-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes.

  14. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, J C; Akin, E W

    1986-01-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes. Images FIGURE 6. PMID:3816738

  15. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  16. Effects of restriction of sodium or administration of fludrocortisone on parotid salivary kallikrein in man.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, D; Proud, D; Lawton, W J; Yates, K N; Highet, P; Pisano, J J; Keiser, H R

    1982-07-01

    Urinary kallikrein is increased by restriction of dietary sodium and by administration of fludrocortisone, a sodium-retaining steroid. In order to determine whether salivary kallikrein responds similarly, we studied 16 normal volunteers after 1-week periods of daily intake of 9, 109, and 259 mEQ of sodium; 10 subjects were studied after addition of 0.6 mg/day fludrocortisone for a week to a regimen of 109 mEq/day sodium. During sodium restriction, parotid saliva had a significantly higher mean concentration of kallikrein ad potassium and a significantly lower concentration of sodium than during periods of intake of 109 or 259 mEq/day sodium. Sodium restriction also caused significantly higher urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone. Salivary amylase remained unchanged during the three sodium periods. Administration of fludrocortisone significantly increased the mean concentration of parotid kallikrein and excretion of urinary kallikrein in comparison with control levels, however the concentrations of parotid sodium and potassium did not change significantly. Four patients studied before and after removal of aldosterone-producing adenomas each showed decreased concentrations of parotid kallikrein and potassium and increased concentrations of parotid sodium after surgery. It is concluded that both salivary and urinary kallikrein increased in response to restriction of sodium and that these increases were mediated by levels of sodium-retaining steroid. Increased output of kallikrein in response to increased levels of sodium-retaining steroid may be a generalized response of organs that contain glandular kallikrein and can conserve sodium. PMID:6919568

  17. [Effect of phenibut on the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin].

    PubMed

    Tarakanov, I A; Tarasova, N N; Belova, E A; Safonov, V A

    2006-01-01

    The role of the GABAergic system in mechanisms of the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin administration was studied in anaesthetized rats. Under normal conditions, the systemic administration of serotonin (20-60 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in drastic changes of the respiratory pattern, whereby the initial phase of increased respiratory rate was followed by the respiratory arrest. The preliminary injection of phenibut (400 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished or sharply reduced the duration of the respiratory arrest phase induced by serotonin. Bilateral vagotomy following the phenibut injection potentiated the anti-apnoesic effect of phenibut, which was evidence of the additive action of vagotomy and phenibut administration. The mechanism of apnea caused by serotonin administration is suggested to include a central GABAergic element, which is activated by phenibut so as to counteract the respiratory arrest. PMID:16579056

  18. Intrathecal Veratridine Administration Increases MAC in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Sharma, Manohar; Eger, Edmond I; Laster, Michael J.; Hemmings, Hugh C.; Harris, R. Adron

    2008-01-01

    Background Results from several studies point to sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. We hypothesized that the intrathecal administration of veratridine, a drug that enhances the activity or effect of sodium channels, should increase MAC. Methods We measured the change in isoflurane MAC caused by intrathecal infusion of various concentrations of veratridine into the lumbothoracic subarachnoid space of rats. We compared these result to those obtained from intracerebroventricular infusion. Results As predicted, intrathecal infusion of veratridine increased MAC. The greatest infused concentration (25 μM) also produced neuronal injury in the hind limbs of two rats and decreased the peak effect on MAC. A concentration of 1.6 μM produced the greatest (21%) increase in MAC. Intraventricular infusion of 1.6 and 6.4 μM veratridine did not alter MAC. Rats given 25 μM died. Conclusion Intrathecal administration of veratradine increases MAC of isoflurane, a finding consistent with a role for sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. Implications Intrathecal administration of veratridine can increase MAC, presumably by an effect on sodium channels. PMID:18713899

  19. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  20. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Judge; requirement for finding of good... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... part. (b) Requirement for finding of good cause. A decision on a proposed agency action under...