Science.gov

Sample records for administration central heating

  1. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  2. 8. PHOTOCOPY, HEATING DRAWING FOR ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, HEATING DRAWING FOR ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. Distributed vs. centralized heating

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, P.; Sood, P.

    1983-04-01

    Decentralization of the steam system in an industrial plant can dramatically reduce energy waste and operating costs. The approach (1) utilizes high-pressure gas piping to properly selected and located heat sources such as fluid heaters, boilers, and ovens, (2) replaces stream with a high-temperature fluid heat-transfer medium and/or hot water, and (3) provides a high- or low-pressure steam source near those users that must use stream. In a case study of a 50-year-old Chicago building housing a felt and rubber products plant, a steam profile revealed that 48% of the energy supplied to the boiler was wasted through flue gases, steam leakage, condensate drain, and transmission heat losses; 42% was used to provide ventilation preheat and transmission heat losses in winter; and 10% was actually for process heat. The Chicago plant installed instantaneous water heaters, a gas-fired fluid heater, six air-to-air heat exchangers, infrared heaters for the plant perimeter, and a low-pressure steam boiler for office heating, cutting gas consumption over 30%. Decisions about decentralization should consider the age of the plant, diversity of use, load factor, operation variations of production sections, and uncertainity of production planning.

  4. Voices from the Field: Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems' central office administrators sometimes take paths that seem easiest, even when it is clear the paths will not lead to sustained positive results that are needed--particularly in terms of twice-exceptional (2e) students. To appropriately address the needs of 2e learners, we must ensure that central office administrative services…

  5. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central office code administration. 52.15... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.15 Central office code administration. (a) Central Office...

  6. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. 7 CFR 3.43 - Non-centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-centralized administrative offset. 3.43 Section 3.43 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.43 Non-centralized administrative offset. (a) Scope. In cooperation with the Federal agency certifying...

  8. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. Developing a Performance Measurement System for University Central Administrative Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, Marika; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni; Carlucci, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Central administrative services have recently received increasing attention from practitioners and academics due to the challenging need to both manage scarce resources and provide high-quality services. In this context, performance measurement systems (PMSs) may assume a central role, although an unresolved debate remains on the claimed benefits…

  10. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  11. OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, BOILER BUILDING ON RIGHT, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. Central heat engine cost and availability study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the performance and cost of commercially available heat engines for use at solar power plants. The scope of inquiry spans power ratings of 500 kW to 50 MW and peak cycle temperatures of 750 /sup 0/F to 1200 /sup 0/F. Data were collected by surveying manufacturers of steam turbines, organic Rankine (ORC) systems, and ancillary equipment (steam condensers, cooling towers, pumps, etc.). Methods were developed for estimating design-point and off-design efficiencies of steam Rankine cycle (SRC) and ORC systems. In the size-temperature range of interest, SRC systems were found to be the only heat engines requiring no additional development effort, and SRC capital and operating cost estimates were developed. Commercially available steam turbines limit peak cycle temperatures to about 1000 /sup 0/F in this size range, which in turn limits efficiency. Other systems were identified that could be prototyped using existing turbomachines. These systems include ORC, advanced SRC, and various configurations employing Brayton cycle equipment, i.e., gas turbines. The latter are limited to peak cycle temperatures of 1500 /sup 0/F in solar applications, based on existing heat-exchanger technology. The advanced systems were found to offer performance advantages over SRC in specific cases. 7 refs., 30 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. The Black-White Achievement Gap through the Lens of Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Roger S., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of Black and White central office administrators regarding the Black-White achievement gap. Four research questions (RQ) were explored: RQ1: How do central office administrators understand the causes of the Black-White achievement gap? RQ2: How do central office administrators perceive their role in…

  14. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. J.; Pitts, T. E.; Mortensen, A.; Corrie, L. W.; Davenport, P. W.; Bolser, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (−)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (−)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (−)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (−)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (−)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  15. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M J; Pitts, T E; Mortensen, A; Corrie, L W; Davenport, P W; Bolser, D C

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (-)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (-)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (-)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (-)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (-)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  16. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit (APO/Dockets Unit) is located in Room 1870,...

  17. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... (see § 351.104). (b) Import Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  18. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... (see § 351.104). (b) Import Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  19. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit (APO/Dockets Unit) is located in Room 1870,...

  20. Evaluation of solar-air-heating central-receiver concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.; Brown, D.R.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Hauser, S.G.; McLean, M.A.; Paluszek, A.M.; Young, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The potential of seven proposed air-heating central receiver concepts are evaluated based on an independent, uniform of each one's performance and cost. The concepts include: metal tubes, ceramic tubes, sodium heat pipes, ceramic matrix, ceramic domes, small particles, and volumetric heat exchange. The selection of design points considered in the analysis, the method and ground rules used in formulating the conceptual designs are discussed, and each concept design is briefly described. The method, ground rules, and models used in the performance evaluation and cost analysis and the results are presented. (LEW)

  1. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of building offers a great technical potential for the substitution of fossil energy sources. Central solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) supply 100 and more buildings and reach a solar fraction of 50% or more of the total load with far less specific heat costs [$/kWh{sub solar}] compared to small domestic hot water systems (DHW) for single-family houses. However, the construction of seasonal storage is too expensive. At the Ruhu University Bochum the use of mines for a seasonal storage of low temperature heat is examined in cooperation with industrial partners. The use of available storage volumes may lead to a decrease of investment costs. Additional geothermal heat gains can be obtained from the warm surrounding rock; therefore a high efficiency can be achieved.

  2. Deska: Tool for Central Administration of a Grid Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Jan; Krejčová, Martina; Hubík, Tomáš; Kerpl, Lukáš

    2011-12-01

    Running a typical Tier-2 site requires mastering quite a few tools for fabric management. Keeping an inventory of installed HW machines, their roles and detailed information, from IP addresses to rack locations, is typically done using various in-house applications ranging from simple spreadsheets to web applications. Such solutions, whose documentation usually leaves much to be desired, typically do not prevent a significant duplication of information, and therefore the data therein quickly become obsolete. After having deployed Cfengine as one of a few sites in the WLCG environment, the Prague Tier-2 site set forth to further automate the fabric management, developing the Deska project. The aim of the system is to provide a central place to perform changes, from adding new machines or moving them between racks to changing their assigned service roles and additional metadata. The database provides an authoritative source of information from which all other systems and services (like DHCP servers, Ethernet switches or the Cfengine system) pull their data, using newly developed configuration adaptors. An easy-to-use command line interface modelled after the Cisco IOS-based switches was developed, enabling the data center administrators to easily change any information in an intuitive way. We provide an overview of the current status of the implementation and describe our design choices aimed at further reducing the system engineers' workload.

  3. State University of New York. Central Administration Costs. Report 92-S-104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An evaluation was done of State University of New York (SUNY) Central Administration costs by comparing them to peer systems and by evaluating how economically its duties were carried out. Central Administration provides oversight and executive leadership to the system and manages budgeting, accounting, capital facilities, student affairs and…

  4. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... reasonable quality of service standards. (ii) Aging numbers are disconnected numbers that are not available... interconnection and are not classified as assigned, intermediate, administrative, aging, or reserved....

  5. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... reasonable quality of service standards. (ii) Aging numbers are disconnected numbers that are not available... interconnection and are not classified as assigned, intermediate, administrative, aging, or reserved....

  6. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... reasonable quality of service standards. (ii) Aging numbers are disconnected numbers that are not available... interconnection and are not classified as assigned, intermediate, administrative, aging, or reserved....

  7. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... reasonable quality of service standards. (ii) Aging numbers are disconnected numbers that are not available... interconnection and are not classified as assigned, intermediate, administrative, aging, or reserved....

  8. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodell, John Michael; Chapman, David S.

    1982-04-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m-2 but fall into the following distinct subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m-2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) and 88 mW m-2 (4 sites; s.d. 19) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow `thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m-2 compared to 80-90 mW m-2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of Tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15-20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago.

  9. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Enforcement and Compliance's Central... (see § 351.104). (b) Enforcement and Compliance's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  10. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners, heat... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.12 Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps,...

  11. Central City School Administrative Policy: Systematically Passing Undeserving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Many view central-city schools as bloated, inefficient institutions that pass students through the system regardless of performance. A least-squares analysis of 602 Ohio schools upholds this view. Although inner-city schools depress standardized test scores, more students graduate than expected. Social promotion may be responsible. (27 references)…

  12. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  13. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  14. Terrestrial heat flow in the tertiary basin of central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Carvalho, Humberto; Purwoko; Siswoyo; Thamrin, M.; Vacquier, Victor

    1980-10-01

    Heat flow at 170 locations in the Central Tertiary basin of Sumatra was determined from thermal gradients obtained from the extrapolated oil well bottom hole formation temperature and the assumed temperature of 80°F at the surface. The effective thermal conductivity of the whole rock column, by which the gradient is multiplied to get the heat flow was calculated from measurements on 273 specimens of the geologic section and inspection of 92 well logs. For the whole basin the gradient averaged 3.71 ± 1.04°F/ 100 ft (67.6°C/km) the conductivity 4.83 ± 0.31 mcal °C -1 cm -1 sec -1, giving an average heat flow of 3.27 ± 0.93 10-6 cal cm -2 sec -1 which is about twice the world average. The gradient and the heat flow vary inversely with the depth of the wells most of which bottom in the pre-Tertiary basement. This may result from the basement rocks being several times more conductive than the sediments. Mocel calculations on a narrow heat-flow anomaly which rises from a base level of 3.2 HFU to 8.8 HFU suggest that it can be caused by the intrusion less than 55,000 years ago of an igneous plug or laccolith no deeper than 3 km and 2.2 to 4.6 km wide. Using the gradients from the SEAPEX Geothermal Gradient Map and assuming a conductivity of 5 mcal cm -1 °C -1 sec -1, the heat flow in the North Sumatra basin, the South Sumatra Basin, Sunda Strait and West Java is 2.5 HFU, while in Java east of 110°E longitude it drops to 1.9 HFU. Since subduction off Sumatra dates back at least to the Cretaceous, compression of the Asian plate against the Benioff zone is preventing the opening of a back-arc basin. This does not preclude the possibility of occasional periods of crustal tension corresponding perhaps to episodes of transgression which allow magma to rise into the rocks underlying the basin.

  15. District Central Office Leadership as Teaching: How Central Office Administrators Support Principals' Development as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on educational leadership underscores the importance of principals operating as instructional leaders and intensive job-embedded supports for such work; this research also identifies central office staff as key support providers. However, it teaches little about what central office staff do when they provide such support and how…

  16. The Steering Function of Central Government Agencies in a Decentralised School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladh, Agneta; Wallin, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    A survey of decentralization efforts of the central administrative boards in Sweden shows that over the past half-century, very little happened until the 1980s. As a result, administrative boards acquired fewer regulatory and more informative, activating, and investigative duties. This paper describes the relationships of three national…

  17. Central plant cools and heats world's largest airport

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmer, J.H. )

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the state-of-the-art technology in the central cooling and heating plant that provides the thermal energy for year-round environmental control and comfort at the new Denver International Airport. An unusual feature of this plant is that the refrigeration for air conditioning is provided by three 4,000-ton, gas engine-driven centrifugal water chillers. Design leaving chilled water temperature is 40 F, and return water is 56 F. Presently, the main airport facilities consist of a 1.1. million sq ft terminal building, three concourses (A, B, and C) totaling 2.9 million sq ft, a federal inspection service area and office building, and the automated guideway transit system (AGTS) maintenance building. Planned future construction includes major expansion of the existing concourses and construction of a fourth concourse (D).

  18. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  19. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  20. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  2. Heat flow structure in the Paleozoides of the Central Asian Fold Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutorskoy, M. D.; Lyapunov, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat generation produced by radioactive decay of long-lived isotopes in the Earth's crust (radiogenic heat flow) within the Paleozoic provinces of the Central Asian Fold Belt is considered. Heat flow from the mantle is calculated as the difference between the observed heat flow and the radiogenic flow. The major cause of this heat flow is the transition of potential energy of gravity differentiation into heat; in this respect, mantle heat flow is called gravigenic. Calculation shows that the fractions of radiogenic and gravigenic heat flows in the Paleozoides studied are nearly equal.

  3. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  4. Trust and the Working Relationships of Principals and Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Candace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain an understanding of interpersonal trust between principals and central office administrators whose responsibility it is to supervise principals in a school district in Western Tennessee. Also, this study sought to identify participants' views relative to the existence of trust in their working…

  5. Effects of central administration of morphine on renal function in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Danesh, S; Walker, L A

    1988-02-01

    Systemic administration of morphine in rats produces an anti-natriuretic effect that is at least partially dependent on renal nerves. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the renal response to central administration of morphine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically prepared with arterial, venous and bladder cannulas. In addition, a guide cannula was placed into the lateral ventrical and secured to the surface of the skull. Experiments were carried out at least 3 days after surgery. Renal clearance measurements were 30 min each. After a basal period, morphine sulfate (4 micrograms/4 microliters) or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Two clearance measurements were obtained, followed by central administration of naloxone HCl (4 micrograms/4 microliters) or vehicle and two more clearance periods. Morphine administration had no effect on blood pressure or heart rate but caused a sharp reduction in sodium excretion (3200 +/- 958 vs 970 +/- 158 nEq/100 g/min in period 5; P less than .05). This response was reversed by the addition of naloxone (3280 +/- 583 nEq/100 g/min in period 5; P less than .05). Furthermore, morphine had no effect on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. Naloxone increased the renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in morphine-treated rats, whereas it had no effect in controls. It is concluded that central administration of morphine in conscious rats enhances renal tubular sodium reabsorption by an opiate receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:3346840

  6. Climate change, workplace heat exposure, and occupational health and productivity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Crowe, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is increasing heat exposure in places such as Central America, a tropical region with generally hot/humid conditions. Working people are at particular risk of heat stress because of the intrabody heat production caused by physical labor. This article aims to describe the risks of occupational heat exposure on health and productivity in Central America, and to make tentative estimates of the impact of ongoing climate change on these risks. A review of relevant literature and estimation of the heat exposure variable wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in different locations within the region were used to estimate the effects. We found that heat stress at work is a real threat. Literature from Central America and heat exposure estimates show that some workers are already at risk under current conditions. These conditions will likely worsen with climate change, demonstrating the need to create solutions that will protect worker health and productivity. PMID:21905396

  7. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  8. Dimensionally similar discharges with central rf heating on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1993-04-01

    The scaling of L-mode heat transport with normalized gyroradius is investigated on the DIII-D tokamak using central rf heating. A toroidal field scan of dimensionally similar discharges with central ECH and/or fast wave heating show gyro-Bohm-like scaling both globally and locally. The main difference between these restats and those using NBI heating on DIII-D is that with rf heating the deposition profile is not very sensitive to the plasma density. Therefore central heating can be utilized for both the low-B and high-B discharges, whereas for NBI the power deposition is decidedly off-axis for the high-B discharge (i.e., high density).

  9. Symptoms of Central Anticholinergic Syndrome After Glycopyrrolate Administration in a 5-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2016-01-15

    Anesthesia-related central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) is most commonly associated with administration of atropine or scopolamine, whereas glycopyrrolate is an extremely rare cause of CAS. Here, we report a case of CAS in a 5-year-old boy admitted to the intensive care unit. Immediately after the administration of glycopyrrolate, he became agitated and developed apnea, hypertension, tachycardia, and anuria. Although the present case describes a rare cause of CAS, it is an important reminder of an iatrogenic condition that is presumably underdiagnosed in the operating theater as well as the intensive care unit. PMID:26513676

  10. 38 CFR 1.995 - Requesting recovery through centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 3716 and 38 CFR 1.912 and 1.912a including, but not limited to, those provisions requiring...) VA has complied with the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 5514 (salary offset) and 38 CFR 1.980 through 1.994... of collection by centralized administrative offset are contained in the 31 CFR 285.7. VA and...

  11. Distribution of heating in an LVRF bundle due to dysprosium in the central element

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, K.; Buijs, A.

    2006-07-01

    The computer code MCNP was used to establish the effect of adding dysprosium to the central pin of the proposed BRUCE-B CANFLEX{sup R} Low-Void-Reactivity Fuel (LVRF) on the heat load of the central pin and the heat balance inside the fuel bundle. The Dy generates heat through radiative capture of thermal neutrons, as well as through beta decay of {sup 165}Dy to {sup 165}Ho. We conclude that for fresh fuel, the presence of Dy contributes 26% of the overall heat to the central pin, and 0.5% to the whole fuel bundle. These percentages decrease to 11% and 0.5% at the end-of-life burnup condition. A second, operational quantity is the HPFP ratio (heating-power to fission-power ratio). This ratio is 1.63 for fresh fuel and decreases to 1.19 for fuel at the end-of-life burnup condition. (authors)

  12. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Philip; Le Fort, Patrick; Molnar, Peter; Pecher, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This approach makes it possible to identify the important parameters for each process, to draw preliminary conclusions about the heat sources required for each of these phases, and to determine which parameters need to be measured more precisely in order to constrain these heat sources.

  13. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  14. Fast wave heating and current drive in tokamak plasmas with negative central shear

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.B.; Petty, C.C.; Baity, F.W.

    1996-07-01

    Fast waves provide an excellent tool for heating electrons and driving current in the central region of tokamak plasmas. In this paper, we report the use of centrally peaked electron heating and current drive to study transport in plasmas with negative central shear (NCS). Tokamak plasmas with NCS offer the potential of reduced energy transport and improved MHD stability properties, but will require non-inductive current drive to maintain the required current profiles. Fast waves, combined with neutral beam injection, provide the capability to change the central current density evolution and independently vary {ital T{sub e}}, and {ital T{sub i}} for transport studies in these plasmas. Electron heating also reduces the collisional heat exchange between electrons and ions and reduces the power deposition from neutral beams into electrons, thus improving the certainty in the estimate of the electron heating. The first part of this paper analyzes electron and ion heat transport in the L-mode phase of NCS plasmas as the current profile resistively evolves. The second part of the paper discusses the changes that occur in electron as well as ion energy transport in this phase of improved core confinement associated with NCS.

  15. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  16. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  17. Individual Differences in Amphetamine Self-Administration: The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Mary E.; Denehy, Emily R.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Rats categorized as high responder (HR) based on their activity in an inescapable novel environment self-administer more amphetamine than low responder (LR) rats. The current study examined if the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) contributes to the elevated response for amphetamine in HR rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified as HR and LR rats based on their activity in inescapable novelty and novelty place preference, and then were trained to self-administer amphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Once stable responding was achieved, rats received microinfusions of the GABAA agonist muscimol (0.5 μg/0.5 μl) or phosphate buffered saline into the ACe immediately prior to self-administration of amphetamine (0.1, 0.03, 0.01, or 0.001 mg/kg/infusion) or saline. An additional group of rats was trained to lever press for sucrose rather than amphetamine. Based on the inescapable novelty test, HR rats self-administered more amphetamine than LR rats at the 0.03 and 0.01 mg/kg/infusion unit doses; there were no significant individual differences in amphetamine self-administration based on the novelty place preference test. Inactivation of the ACe with muscimol decreased self-administration at the 0.03 and 0.01 mg/kg/infusion unit doses in HR rats, but had no effect on LR rats. ACe inactivation had no reliable effect on inactive lever responding and appeared to be region-specific based on anatomical controls. In addition, while inactivation of the ACe decreased responding for sucrose, inactivation did not differentially affect HR and LR rats. These results suggest that the ACe contributes to the elevated rate of amphetamine self-administration in HR rats. PMID:17568395

  18. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F.; Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William M.; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H.; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M.; Carter, C. Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood–brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose–response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity. PMID:26441574

  19. Dynamic instabilities in radiation-heated boiler tubes for solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Chan, K. C.; Chen, K.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1982-11-01

    Density-wave instabilities have been investigated in circumferentially nonuniform radiation-heated boiler tubes, simulating solar heating. Analysis and experimental data are presented. The analysis provides the basis for a computer code, STEAMFREQ-I, for the prediction of density-wave instabilities in boiler tubes with imposed heat flux. The key model features include a drift-flux flow model in the boiling region, spatial variation of heat flux, wall dynamics, and variable steam properties in the superheat region. The experimental data include results from two radiation heated boiler panel tests. The data are applicable to central receivers for solar electric power plants. Data for stable and unstable conditions are compared with predictions from STEAMFREQ-I.

  20. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  1. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  2. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  3. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  4. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) usin...

  5. Central nervous insulin administration does not potentiate the acute glucoregulatory impact of concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik; Staub, Josefine; Wönne, Kathrin; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Experiments in rodents suggest that hypothalamic insulin signaling essentially contributes to the acute control of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Against this background, we investigated in healthy humans whether intranasal (IN) insulin, which is known to effectively reach the brain compartment, impacts systemic glucose metabolism. Twenty overnight-fasted healthy, normal-weight men were IN administered 210 and 420 international units [IU] (10 and 20 IU every 15 min) of the insulin analog aspart (ins-asp) and placebo, respectively, during experimental sessions lasting 6 h. The use of ins-asp rather than human insulin enabled us to disentangle exogenous and endogenous insulin kinetics. IN insulin dose-dependently decreased plasma glucose concentrations while reducing C-peptide and attenuating endogenous insulin levels. However, we also observed a slight dose-dependent permeation of ins-asp into the circulation. In control experiments mimicking the systemic but not the central nervous uptake of the IN 210 IU dose via intravenous infusion of ins-asp at a dose of 0.12 IU/kg/24 h (n = 10), we obtained essentially identical effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations. This pattern indicates that sustained IN insulin administration to the human brain to enhance central nervous insulin signaling does not acutely alter systemic glucose homeostasis beyond effects accounted for by concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia. PMID:25277390

  6. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  7. Advective heat transport associated to regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Chiarabba, Claudio; Frondini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The main springs of central Italy Apennines were investigated, in order to compute the amount of heat transported by groundwaters and to compute the fraction of heat due to the geothermal heat flux. The 46 investigated springs represent a significant portion of the permeable structures of the Apennine being characterised by a cumulative flow rate of 130 m3/s, i.e. ~ 50% of the water discharged in this sector of the Apennines. The groundwaters are characterised by relatively low temperatures, but the occurrence of an heat anomaly is evident when the differences between the temperatures of springs and recharge waters are compared with the corresponding altitude difference. A total amount of heat of ~ 2.1 × 109 J/s has been estimated to be transported by these groundwaters. Most of this heat (57%) is given by geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. The computed geothermal warming implies very high heat flux, with values higher than 300 mW/m2, in a large sector of the Apennines which was considered to date be characterised by normal to low conductive heat flux. The same area is affected by high fluxes of CO2 from a deep source and the strict correlation between the geothermal warming and the input of deep CO2-rich fluids is testified by the fact that all the thermally anomalous groundwaters are also affected by the input of deeply derived CO2 contrary to those not thermally anomalous which display any input of deeply derived CO2. This correspondence reasonably suggest the geothermal heat is transported from depth by CO2 rich fluids, which enter the aquifers and mix with infiltrating waters. The amount of geothermal heat transported by central Apennine cold groundwaters is in absolute very high. It results the double than the hydrothermal heat discharge of the US Cascade Range (~1×103 MW) and is about the half of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone, one of the largest hydrothermal system of the world (5-6

  8. Preliminary study of the intense sympathetic discharge induced centrally after lateral ventricular administration of whole venom of Dendroaspis polylepis.

    PubMed

    Kyegombe, D B; Njoroge, D; Wangai, J; Telang, B V

    1977-01-01

    Lateral ventricular administration of 100 microgram of Dendroaspis polylepis venom is cats consistently produced a marked rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate dilatation of pupils and piloerection. This intense central sympathetic discharge occurred after a latent period of 11.7 +/- 0.72 min. Bilateral adrenelectomy abolished the sympathetic discharge showing that central release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla may play an important role in elicting the cardiovascular response. PMID:885604

  9. Posttraumatic administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in central fluid percussion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kövesdi, Erzsébet; Tamás, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Farkas, Orsolya; Pál, József; Tóth, Gábor; Bukovics, Péter; Dóczi, Tamás; Büki, András

    2008-04-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in focal cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PACAP administration on diffuse axonal injury (DAI), an important contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with TBI, in a central fluid percussion (CFP) model of TBI. Rats were subjected to moderate (2 Atm) CFP injury. Thirty min after injury, 100 microg PACAP was administered intracerebroventricularly. DAI was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid precursor protein, indicating impaired axoplasmic transport, and RMO-14 antibody, representing foci of cytoskeletal alterations (neurofilament compaction), both considered classical markers of axonal damage. Analysis of damaged, immunoreactive axonal profiles revealed significant axonal protection in the PACAP-treated versus vehicle-treated animals in the corticospinal tract, as far as traumatically induced disturbance of axoplasmic transport and cytoskeletal alteration were considered. Similarly to our former observations in an impact acceleration model of diffuse TBI, the present study demonstrated that PACAP also inhibits DAI in the CFP injury model. The finding indicates that PACAP and derivates can be considered potential candidates for further experimental studies, or purportedly for clinical trials in the therapy of TBI. PMID:18515209

  10. Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  12. Preventive Effect of Central Administration of Venlafaxine on Morphine Physical Dependence, Nociception, and Blood Cortisol Level in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ebrahimzadeh, Andia; Shabab, Behnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic abuse of opiates induces dependency, but the neurobiological mechanisms of this event remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intracerebroventricular of venlafaxine on the morphine dependence and pain perception. Methods: A total of 80 adult male rats were divided into two major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (morphine dependent) negative control (received saline) and morphine dependent groups under treatment by central administration of venlafaxine at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg), after drug treatment total withdrawal index (TWI), latency time of withdrawal syndrome expression and blood cortisol as marker of anxiety were measured and compared with positive control and negative control. (2) Forty rats were grouped in control; indometacin treated (5 mg/kg) and grouped which received central administration of venlafaxine at three doses (25, 50, or 100 μg) and then pain perception and expression was assessed in the writhing test (acetic acid induced abdominal constriction), tail flick, and hot plate test. Results: Central administration of three doses (25, 50, or 100 μg,) of venlafaxine attenuates TWI to 47 ± 1.2, 38 ± 1.5, and 23 ± 1.1 and decrease blood cortisol level to 14 ± 1, 13.75 ± 0.5, and 12.5 ± 0.8, this decreases was significant in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05). Central administration of venlafaxine at mentioned doses significantly attenuates pain response with 37%, 24%, and 20% inhibition in writhing test, 69%, 34%, and 23% inhibition in hot plate test, and 29%, 23%, and 15% inhibition in tail flick test in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that central administration of venlafaxine attenuated morphine withdrawal index and can be effective in modulation of pain that was induced by morphine dependency. PMID:25538838

  13. A new perspective on the 1930s mega-heat waves across central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Tim; Hegerl, Gabi

    2016-04-01

    The unprecedented hot and dry conditions that plagued contiguous United States during the 1930s caused widespread devastation for many local communities and severely dented the emerging economy. The heat extremes experienced during the aptly named Dust Bowl decade were not isolated incidences, but part of a tendency towards warm summers over the central United States in the early 1930s, and peaked in the boreal summer 1936. Using high-quality daily maximum and minimum temperature observations from more than 880 Global Historical Climate Network stations across the United States and southern Canada, we assess the record breaking heat waves in the 1930s Dust Bowl decade. A comparison is made to more recent heat waves that have occurred during the latter half of the 20th century (i.e., in a warming world), both averaged over selected years and across decades. We further test the ability of coupled climate models to simulate mega-heat waves (i.e. most extreme events) across the United States in a pre-industrial climate without the impact of any long-term anthropogenic warming. Well-established heat wave metrics based on the temperature percentile threshold exceedances over three or more consecutive days are used to describe variations in the frequency, duration, amplitude and timing of the events. Casual factors such as drought severity/soil moisture deficits in the lead up to the heat waves (interannual), as well as the concurrent synoptic conditions (interdiurnal) and variability in Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures (decadal) are also investigated. Results suggest that while each heat wave summer in the 1930s exhibited quite unique characteristics in terms of their timing, duration, amplitude, and regional clustering, a common factor in the Dust Bowl decade was the high number of consecutive dry seasons, as measured by drought indicators such as the Palmer Drought Severity and Standardised Precipitation indices, that preceded the mega-heat waves. This

  14. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  15. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  16. Uptake of Mass Drug Administration Programme for Schistosomiasis Control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bagonza, James; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa; Yeka, Adoke; Elliott, Alison M.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda. Methods In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012) MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers. Results Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615), 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.8–48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6%) reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22–2.81) and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67–9.65). Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands. Conclusions Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education

  17. Changes in cause-specific mortality during heat waves in central Spain, 1975-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, Isidro Juan; Linares, Cristina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan Jose; Díaz, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between heat waves and mortality has been widely described, but there are few studies using long daily data on specific-cause mortality. This study is undertaken in central Spain and analysing natural causes, circulatory and respiratory causes of mortality from 1975 to 2008. Time-series analysis was performed using ARIMA models, including data on specific-cause mortality and maximum and mean daily temperature and mean daily air pressure. The length of heat waves and their chronological number were analysed. Data were stratified in three decadal stages: 1975-1985, 1986-1996 and 1997-2008. Heat-related mortality was triggered by a threshold temperature of 37 °C. For each degree that the daily maximum temperature exceeded 37 °C, the percentage increase in mortality due to circulatory causes was 19.3 % (17.3-21.3) in 1975-1985, 30.3 % (28.3-32.3) in 1986-1996 and 7.3 % (6.2-8.4) in 1997-2008. The increase in respiratory cause ranged from 12.4 % (7.8-17.0) in the first period, to 16.3 % (14.1-18.4) in the second and 13.7 % (11.5-15.9) in the last. Each day of heat-wave duration explained 5.3 % (2.6-8.0) increase in respiratory mortality in the first period and 2.3 % (1.6-3.0) in the last. Decadal scale differences exist for specific-causes mortality induced by extreme heat. The impact on heat-related mortality by natural and circulatory causes increases between the first and the second period and falls significantly in the last. For respiratory causes, the increase is no reduced in the last period. These results are of particular importance for the estimation of future impacts of climate change on health.

  18. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) user's manual: Solar heating and cooling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple sites is presented. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supported continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consisted of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. Users of the performance data base were identified, and procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance were outlined. The manual also defined the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  19. Development of a solar thermal central heat receiver using molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1981-06-01

    The development and test of a 5 MWth solar heat receiver using a molten nitrate salt (60 percent NaNO3, 40 percent KNaNO3) as the heat transfer fluid is described. The application of the receiver concept in a central receiver solar power system is explained. The advantages of using molten nitrate salts as the receiver heat transfer fluid and the storage fluid are discussed. The problems associated with the receiver development including the need for high temperatures and combinations of creep and fatigue in the receiver tubes are discussed. Our approach to scaling from the 5 MWth test receiver to commercial receivers in the range of 200 MWth to 500 MWth is defined. The 5 MWth test system is described including the instrumentation used. The test facility which has a 60 m tower and 222 heliostats is described. The test results are presented. The receiver was in test for 500 hr at temperature and heat flux levels expected in commercial receiver systems.

  20. The central role of heat shock factor 1 in synaptic fidelity and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Philip L; Durham, Heather D; Török, Zsolt; Hooper, Paul L; Crul, Tim; Vígh, László

    2016-09-01

    Networks of neuronal synapses are the fundamental basis for making and retaining memory. Reduced synapse number and quality correlates with loss of memory in dementia. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the major transcription factor regulating expression of heat shock genes, plays a central role in proteostasis, in establishing and sustaining synaptic fidelity and function, and in memory consolidation. Support for this thesis is based on these observations: (1) heat shock induces improvements in synapse integrity and memory consolidation; (2) synaptic depolarization activates HSF1; (3) activation of HSF1 alone (independent of the canonical heat shock response) augments formation of essential synaptic elements-neuroligands, vesicle transport, synaptic scaffolding proteins, lipid rafts, synaptic spines, and axodendritic synapses; (4) HSF1 coalesces and activates memory receptors in the post-synaptic dendritic spine; (5) huntingtin or α-synuclein accumulation lowers HSF1 while HSF1 lowers huntingtin and α-synuclein aggregation-a potential vicious cycle; and (6) HSF1 agonists (including physical activity) can improve cognitive function in dementia models. Thus, via direct gene expression of synaptic elements, production of HSPs that assure high protein fidelity, and activation of other neuroprotective signaling pathways, HSF1 agonists could provide breakthrough therapy for dementia-associated disease. PMID:27283588

  1. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  2. Central heating plant modernization study for defense distribution Region East. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Durbin, T.E.; McCammon, T.; Carroll, R.

    1996-08-01

    Due to the age of its central heating plant (CHP) equipment and changes in energy industry environmental regulations, the Defense Distribution Region East (DDRE), New Cumberland, PA, began investigating modernization opportunities for its CHP. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was tasked with performing a central heating plant modernization study to determine viable options to provide energy for the coming years. Energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment were determined, and five major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated on the basis of energy consumption and economics, including initial capital costs, annual fuel consumption, and annual Operations and Maintenance (OM) costs. For economy, it was recommended that boiler replacement be delayed until the year 2009, and that natural gas be used as fuel both before and after replacement, provided that funding for a natural gas pipeline can be obtained. If funding to replace the boilers does become available, the small difference in Life Cycle Cost should not delay DDRE from an immediate equipment upgrade.

  3. Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fsadni, A.-M.; Ge, Y. T.

    2013-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.

  4. Spatial and temporal characteristics of heat waves over Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) to reproduce spatial and temporal characteristics of severe Central European heat waves. We analysed an ensemble of seven RCM simulations driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis over the 1961-2000 period, in comparison to observed data from the E-OBS gridded dataset. Heat waves were defined based on regionally significant excesses above the model-specific 95 % quantile of summer daily maximum air temperature distribution and their severity was described using the extremity index. The multi-model mean reflected the observed characteristics of heat waves quite well, but considerable differences were found among the individual RCMs. The RCMs had a tendency to simulate too many heat waves that were shorter but their temperature peak was more pronounced on average compared to E-OBS. Deficiencies were found also in reproducing interannual and interdecadal variability of heat waves. Using as an example the most severe Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994, we demonstrate that its magnitude was underestimated in all RCMs and that this bias was linked to overestimation of precipitation during and before the heat wave. By contrast, a simulated precipitation deficit during summer 1967 in the majority of RCMs contributed to an "erroneous" heat wave. This shows that land-atmosphere coupling is crucial for developing severe heat waves and its proper reproduction in climate models is essential for obtaining credible scenarios of future heat waves.

  5. Central and peripheral administration of kisspeptin activates gonadotropin but not somatotropin secretion in prepubertal gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role that kisspeptin might have in regulating the onset of puberty in large domestic animals is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that either central or peripheral infusion of kisspeptin would stimulate gonadotropin and growth hormone secretion in prepubertal gilts. In experiment 1, prepuberta...

  6. Serving Six Institutions: A History of Administrative Computing at the Associated Colleges of Central Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ray; Doughty, Gavin; McDowell, Valerie

    This paper offers a brief history and description of a voluntary consortium of six church-related private colleges, the Associated Colleges of Central Kansas (ACCK), that is governed by a board of directors made up of the presidents of the member colleges. The schools, all within close geographical proximity, have a combined enrollment of over…

  7. Anomalous subglacial heat flow in central Greenland induced by the Iceland plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Rogozhina, Irina; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Johnson, Jesse; Koulakov, Ivan; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    3000 m of ice sheet thickness has ensured that central Greenland has kept it geothermal heat flow (GHF) distribution enigmatic. Some few direct ice temperature measurements from deep ice cores reveal a GHF of 50 to 60 mW/m² in the Summit region and this is noticeably above what would be expected for the underlying Early Proterozoic lithosphere. In addition, indirect estimates from zones of rapid basal melting suggest extreme anomalies 15 to 30 times continental background. Subglacial topography indicates caldera like topographic features in the zones hinting at possible volcanic activity in the past [1], and all of these observations combined hint at an anomalous lithospheric structure. Further supporting this comes from new high-resolution P-wave tomography, which shows a strong thermal anomaly in the lithosphere crossing Greenland from east to west [2]. Rock outcrops at the eastern and western end of this zone indicate significant former magmatic activity, older in the east and younger in the west. Additionally, plate modelling studies suggest that the Greenland plate passed over the mantle plume that is currently under Iceland from late Cretaceous to Neogene times, consistent with the evidence from age of magmatism. Evidence of rapid basal melt revealed by ice penetrating radar along the hypocentre of the putative plume track indicates that it continues to affect the Greenland continental geotherm today. We analyse plume-induced thermal disturbance of the present-day lithosphere and their effects on the central Greenland ice sheet by using a novel evolutionary model of the climate-ice-lithosphere-upper mantle system. Our results indicate that mantle plume-induced erosion of the lithosphere has occurred, explaining caldera-type volcanic structures, the GHF anomaly, and requiring dyke intrusion into the crust during the early Cenozoic. The residual thermo-mechanical effect of the mantle plume has raised deep-sourced heat flow by over 25 mW/m² since 60 Ma and

  8. Women Administrators in Christian Universities: Making Family and Career Co-Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindoffer, Tamara; Reid, Barbara; Freed, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women in administrative positions in Christian higher education integrate their professional and personal lives. Six women in leadership positions in small, faith-based liberal arts colleges were interviewed. Levinson's (1996) concept of gender-splitting was used as a lens to analyze the data. The women…

  9. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Experience of using heat citric acid disinfection method in central dialysis fluid delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Koji; Uchiumi, Nobuko; Sato, Sumihiko; Aida, Nobuhiko; Ishimatsu, Taketo; Igoshi, Tadaaki; Kodama, Yoshihiro; Hotta, Hiroyuki

    2010-09-01

    We applied the heat citric acid disinfection method in the main part of the central dialysis fluid delivery system (MPCDDS), which consists of a multiple-patient dialysis fluid supply unit, dialysis console units, and dialysis fluid piping. This disinfection method has been used for single-patient dialysis machines, but this is the first trial in the MPCDDS. We examined, by points of safety and disinfection effect, whether this disinfection method is comparable to conventional disinfection methods in Japan. The conventional disinfection method is a combination of two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid, used separately for protein removal and decalcification. Consequently, total microbial counts and endotoxin concentrations fully satisfied the microbiological requirements for standard dialysis fluid of ISO 11663. From our results and discussion, this heat citric acid disinfection method is proved to be safe and reliable for MPCDDS. However, to satisfy the microbiological requirements for ultrapure dialysis fluid, further consideration for this method in MPCDDS including the reverse osmosis device composition and piping is necessary. PMID:20514548

  11. Insensitivity of well-conditioned mature sheep to central administration of a leptin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Ehrhardt, R A; Hileman, S M; Gertler, A; Boisclair, Y R

    2015-11-01

    Ruminants remain productive during the energy insufficiency of late pregnancy or early lactation by evoking metabolic adaptations sparing available energy and nutrients (e.g. higher metabolic efficiency and induction of insulin resistance). A deficit in central leptin signaling triggers these adaptations in rodents but whether it does in ruminants remains unclear. To address this issue, five mature ewes were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula in the third ventricle. They were used in two experiments with an ovine leptin antagonist (OLA) when well-conditioned (average body condition score of 3.7 on a 5 point scale). The first experiment tested the ability of OLA to antagonize leptin under in vivo conditions. Ewes received continuous ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), ovine leptin (4 µg/h) or the combination of ovine leptin (4 µg/h) and its mutant version OLA (40 µg/h) for 48 h. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured every day and blood samples were collected on the last day of infusion. ICV infusion of leptin reduced DMI by 24% (P < 0.05), and this effect was completely abolished by OLA co-infusion. A second experiment tested whether a reduction in endogenous leptin signaling in the brain triggers metabolic adaptations. This involved continuous ICV infusions of aCSF or OLA alone (40 µg/h) for 4 consecutive days. The infusion of OLA did not alter voluntary DMI over the treatment period or on any individual day. OLA did not affect plasma variables indicative of insulin action (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and the disposition of plasma glucose during an insulin tolerance test) or plasma cortisol, but tended to reduce plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine (P < 0.07). Overall, these data show that a reduction of central leptin signaling has little impact on insulin action in well-conditioned mature sheep. They also raise the possibility that reduced central leptin signaling plays a role in controlling thyroid

  12. A Comparison of the Perceptions of School Work Culture by Administrators and Faculty in the Public Charter and Non-Charter Elementary Schools of a Central Florida County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Wayne Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of school work culture of instructional staff members (administrators and faculty) in public charter and public non-charter elementary schools in a large urban metropolitan county of Central Florida by assessing differences in perceptions of administrators and faculty related to school work culture, perceptions…

  13. Dense gas in the Galactic central molecular zone is warm and heated by turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Henkel, Christian; Ao, Yiping; Riquelme, Denise; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Immer, Katharina; Testi, Leonardo; Ott, Juergen; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Darling, Jeremy; Aalto, Susanne; Stanke, Thomas; Kendrew, Sarah; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Longmore, Steven; Dale, James; Guesten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The Galactic center is the closest region where we can study star formation under extreme physical conditions like those in high-redshift galaxies. Aims: We measure the temperature of the dense gas in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and examine what drives it. Methods: We mapped the inner 300 pc of the CMZ in the temperature-sensitive J = 3-2 para-formaldehyde (p - H2CO) transitions. We used the 32,1-22,0/ 30,3-20,2 line ratio to determine the gas temperature in n ~ 104-105 cm-3 gas. We have produced temperature maps and cubes with 30'' and 1 km s-1 resolution and published all data in FITS form. Results: Dense gas temperatures in the Galactic center range from ~60 K to >100 K in selected regions. The highest gas temperatures TG> 100 K are observed around the Sgr B2 cores, in the extended Sgr B2 cloud, the 20 km s-1 and 50 km s-1 clouds, and in "The Brick" (G0.253+0.016). We infer an upper limit on the cosmic ray ionization rate ζCR< 10-14s-1. Conclusions: The dense molecular gas temperature of the region around our Galactic center is similar to values found in the central regions of other galaxies, in particular starburst systems. The gas temperature is uniformly higher than the dust temperature, confirming that dust is a coolant in the dense gas. Turbulent heating can readily explain the observed temperatures given the observed line widths. Cosmic rays cannot explain the observed variation in gas temperatures, so CMZ dense gas temperatures are not dominated by cosmic ray heating. The gas temperatures previously observed to be high in the inner ~75 pc are confirmed to be high in the entire CMZ. The data can be accessed from doi:10.7910/DVN/27601 and are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A50

  14. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  15. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves over the Chickasaw Nation in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Basara Richter, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (>2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (>1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  16. Micro bubble formation and bubble dissolution in domestic wet central heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fsadni, Andrew M.; Ge, Yunting

    2012-04-01

    16 % of the carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are known to originate from wet domestic central heating systems. Contemporary systems make use of very efficient boilers known as condensing boilers that could result in efficiencies in the 90-100% range. However, research and development into the phenomenon of micro bubbles in such systems has been practically non-existent. In fact, such systems normally incorporate a passive deaerator that is installed as a `default' feature with no real knowledge as to the micro bubble characteristics and their effect on such systems. High saturation ratios are known to occur due to the widespread use of untreated tap water in such systems and due to the inevitable leakage of air into the closed loop circulation system during the daily thermal cycling. The high temperatures at the boiler wall result in super saturation conditions which consequently lead to micro bubble nucleation and detachment, leading to bubbly two phase flow. Experiments have been done on a test rig incorporating a typical 19 kW domestic gas fired boiler to determine the expected saturation ratios and bubble production and dissolution rates in such systems.

  17. Floating atomic central heating-and-power plant converted from a strategic submarine

    SciTech Connect

    Bilashenko, V.P.; Gorigledzhan, E.A.; Slonimsky, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    In accordance with {open_quotes}The Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Arms{close_quotes} signed in July 1991, the operations envisages by {open_quotes}The Procedures for elimination of SSBN`s Launchers{close_quotes} should be accomplished at submarines of the second generation both by eliminating missile compartments together with launchers and by removal of launchers only from missile compartments. THe number of such ships could reach 30 units as has been forecasted for the year of 1998 inclusive. With regard to the fact that the remaining operation life of the main power plant equipment of a nuclear submarine decommissioned in accordance with the Treaty is about 50 per cent, potentially there is a possibility to convert them into floating atomic central heating-and-power plants. The latter variant envisaged in the {open_quotes}Procedures...{close_quotes} is preferable for developing a floating plant based on ships decommissioned from the Navy, since it permits to remove launchers without cutting and subsequent connection of main cables, pipelines and systems which provide the control of the main power plant, nuclear safety, radiological safety, damage control and fire safety of the floating plant. A submarine could be delivered for refitting into a floating plant only after accomplishing the works envisaged by the {open_quotes}Procedures...{close_quotes}.

  18. Thermal conditions of the central Sinai Microplate inferred from new surface heat-flow values and continuous borehole temperature logging in central and southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, F.; Förster, H.-J.; Förster, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports ten new surface heat-flow density (qs) values for central and southern Israel (central Sinai Microplate), whose crystalline crust and lithosphere formed as part of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield. Heat flow was calculated in Mesozoic sediments using the classical approach of heat-flow determination by implementing in the analysis high-precision continuous temperature logs obtained in air- and/or water-filled boreholes. Thermal conductivity (TC) measured for a large suite of rock samples of lithotypes making up the sequence was assigned to temperature gradients in intervals for which the lithology was known. The heat-flow values obtained for different depth intervals in a borehole as well as the average values for the individual borehole locations cover a narrow range, attesting heat-conduction conditions. A steady-state thermal model along an E-W crustal cross section through the area shows that the observed systematic spatial distribution of the qs values, which range between 50 and 62 mW m-2, can primarily be explained by variations in the thickness of the upper crust and in the ratio between sedimentary and crystalline rocks therein. Given the time lapse of thermal heat transfer through the lithosphere, the qs data monitor the crustal thermal conditions prior to rift- and plume-related lithospheric thermal perturbations that have started in the larger area ca. 30 Ma ago. Observed and modeled qs display the best fit for a pre-Oligocene lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at ˜150 km, which would be at the upper end of LAB depths determined from stable areas of the Arabian Shield (150-120 km) not affected by the young, deep-seated thermal processes that have caused a further uprise of the LAB. Our data imply or predict that the surface heat flow of the Sinai Microplate generally tends to increase along N-S and W-E traverses, from ˜45-50 mW m-2 to ˜55-60 mW m-2. Surface heat flows on the order of 55-60 mW m-2 may be common in the

  19. Recent trends (2003-2013) of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Novice efforts have been made in order to study the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas utilizing high-resolution remotely sensed products, but these have been on instantaneous scale. In this study the Surface Energy Balance System model is used to obtain annual averaged maps of the land surface heat fluxes for 11 years (2003-2013) and study their annual trends on the central Himalayan region. The maps were derived at 5 km resolution using monthly input products ranging from satellite derived to Global Land Data Assimilation System meteorological data. It was found that the net radiation flux is increasing as a result of decreasing precipitation (drier environment). The sensible heat flux did not change much except for the northwestern High Himalaya and High Mountains. In northwestern High Himalaya sensible heat flux is decreasing because of decrease in wind speed, ground-air temperature difference, and increase in winter precipitation, whereas in High Mountains it is increasing due to increase in ground-air temperature difference and high rate of deforestation. The latent heat flux has an overall increasing trend with increase more pronounced in the lower regions compared to high elevated regions. It has been reported that precipitation is decreasing with altitude in this region. Therefore, the increasing trend in latent heat flux can be attributed to increase in net radiation flux under persistent forest cover and irrigation land used for agriculture.

  20. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam. PMID:26911626

  1. Reduction of food intake by central administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide in the rat is dependent upon inhibition of brain peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Griesbacher, T.; Leighton, G. E.; Hill, R. G.; Hughes, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and caerulein, an amphibian decapeptide structurally related to CCK-8, are inconsistent in the rat. We have therefore investigated the possibility that enzymatic degradation could be responsible for the lack of activity of CCK-8 seen in some studies on food intake. 2. Injections of CCK-8 at doses of 2.5 nmol and 25 nmol into the lateral cerebral ventricle of rats did not reduce the intake of a highly palatable diet whereas injections of the same doses of caerulein reduced food intake potently and dose-dependently. 3. Co-administration of CCK-8 with a combination of the peptidase inhibitors bestatin (70 nmol), captopril (100 nmol) and thiorphan (120 nmol) resulted in an inhibition of feeding similar to that seen after the injection of caerulein alone. The peptidase inhibitors alone did not affect food intake. 4. When caerulein was injected i.c.v. in combination with bestatin, captopril and thiorphan the effect of caerulein was potentiated, suggesting that enzymatic breakdown of caerulein does occur. 5. It is concluded that the effect of centrally administered CCK-8 on food intake is dependent on the activity of cleaving enzymes in the brain. It is emphasized that the action of brain peptidases is a major factor which has to be considered when investigating the role of peptides in the central nervous system. PMID:2647203

  2. Neuronal Uptake of Nanoformulated Superoxide Dismutase and Attenuation of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension Following Central Administration

    PubMed Central

    Savalia, Krupa; Manickam, Devika S.; Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Tian, Jun; Ahmad, Iman M.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive production of superoxide (O2•−) in the central nervous system has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including chronic heart failure and hypertension. In an attempt to overcome the failed therapeutic impact of currently available antioxidants in cardiovascular disease, we developed a nanomedicine-based delivery system for the O2•− scavenging enzyme, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to poly-L-lysine (PLL50)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block co-polymer to form CuZnSOD nanozyme. Different formulations of CuZnSOD nanozyme are covalently stabilized by either reducible or non-reducible crosslinked bonds between the PLL50-PEG polymers. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that PLL50-PEG CuZnSOD nanozyme delivers active CuZnSOD protein to neurons and decreases blood pressure in a mouse model of AngII-dependent hypertension. As determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, nanozymes retain full SOD enzymatic activity as compared to native CuZnSOD protein. Non-reducible CuZnSOD nanozyme delivers active CuZnSOD protein to central neurons in culture (CATH.a neurons) without inducing significant neuronal toxicity. In vivo studies conducted in adult male C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that hypertension established by chronic subcutaneous infusion of AngII is significantly attenuated for up to 7 days following a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of non-reducible nanozyme. These data indicate the efficacy of non-reducible PLL50-PEG CuZnSOD nanozyme in counteracting excessive O2•− and decreasing blood pressure in AngII-dependent hypertensive mice following central administration. Additionally, this study supports the further development of PLL50-PEG CuZnSOD nanozyme as an antioxidant-based therapeutic option for hypertension. PMID:24924945

  3. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Belkus, P.; Tuluca, A.

    1993-06-01

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  4. Analysis of temperature trends, heat and cold waves in Central Italy (1952-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, E.; Volpi, E.; Stefanucci, F.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the recent studies on climate change agree in assessing a positive global trend of the mean temperature. However, analysis of temperature data at basin scale appears to be quite complicated because of several factors affecting measures: location, slope exposition, distance from the sea, etc., resulting in a high meteorological variability also at short distances. In this study we present an analysis of minimum and maximum daily temperature data registered in Umbria Region (Tiber Basin, Central Italy) for the period 1952-2008 in order to estimate mean trends and possible increases in the "extreme events" such us "heat waves" and "cold waves". Among the about 80 stations available for the study period, only those ones with at least 45 years of data, even not consecutive, have been retained, resulting in a data set of only 5 stations. Data have been analyzed at annual and seasonal time scale, taking into account the spatial trend due to the elevation. The spatial correlation among stations appear to be quite high, but not related to the reciprocal distances. The time trend of each temperature time series has been studied by means of classical trend tests (Mann-Kendall and t-Student test). Results are comparable for the two tests but not unique for minimum and maximum temperature. Concerning Tmax, 3 out of 5 stations present a positive trend in the last 30 years, ranging from 0.02 to 0.09 °C/y, while the remaining two stations do not present any significant trend; however, the same stations show a negative trend over the period 1960-1990. This results in a positive trend over the whole period 1952-2008 ranging from 0.02 to 0.03 °C/y. Concerning Tmin, 3 out of 5 of the study stations do not present any statistically significant trend over the last 30 years, while one station shows a negative trend (- 0.05 °C/y) and one a positive trend (+ 0.07 °C/y); moreover, 3 out of 5 stations have a significant positive trend in the period 1952-2008 (the annual

  5. Development of a Two-Phase Capillary Pumped Heat Transport for Spacecraft Central Thermal Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Triem; Brown, Michael; Baldauff, Robert; Cummings, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    Thermal requirements of future spacecraft and satellites will certainly outgrow the capability of conventional heat pipes in terms of heat transport, heat density, and temperature control. Emerging passive heat transport technologies such as Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) and Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) have demonstrated in both ground testing and micro-gravity flight experiments that they have the potential to replace heat pipes as primary heat transport devices in next generation thermal control technology. Like heat pipes, CPLs and LHPs are completely passive systems which have no mechanical moving part to wear out or to introduce unwanted vibration to the spacecraft. However, the heat transport capabilities of CPLs and LHPs are at least one order of magnitude higher than those of heat pipes. Despite sharing many operational characteristics. CPLs and LHPs do have differences. CPLs require a lengthy and tedious start-up procedure to prime the wicks before heat is applied to the evaporator plate. Even with the start-up procedure, start-ups are not always successful. LHPs, on the other hand, do not require a wick pre-conditioning process. But the LHP effective thermal conductance is not as high as that of a CPL. Temperature control of a LHP is not easily achieved. A novel concept, which combined a CPL and a LHP into one loop, was proposed to take advantage of selective features of each system without inheriting their shortcomings. The resultant loop was called Advanced Loop Heat Pipe (A-LHP). A proof-of-concept testbed was put together and tested at the Naval Research Laboratory. Test results showed that the A-LHP performed like a CPL without start-up problems associated with CPLs.

  6. [Functional changes in the organ of vision and locomotor apparatus in adolescents from the Central Administrative District of Moscow].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, M A; Ushakova, E G

    2009-01-01

    The Russian Federation and Moscow also show a global tendency for dysfunctions of the locomotor apparatus (LMA) and the organ of vision (OV) to increase. Eight hundred and two adolescents from the Central Administrative District of Moscow were found to have involvements of LMA (35.4%) and OV (22.5%). There were more common abnormal posture (12.9%), spinal axis changes (11.7%), talpes (12.5%), and myopia (17.8%). The follow-ups made from 1997 to 2002 revealed an increase in the number of adolescents with functional changes (D2) with a decrease in that of apparently healthy adolescents (D1). The changes were prevalent in children born in 1986 onward. Examination of the interaction of LMA and OV as the uniform visual motor system revealed sexual dimorphism suggesting that the girls were more susceptible to these changes, which should be considered while developing a adifferential approach to teaching schoolchildren during pubertal period. Schoolchildren's health status should be systematically considered by a wide circle of specialists to estimate the maximum number of parameters in order to determine the reasons resulting in a steady-state tendency for ODA and OV dysfunctions to progress. PMID:19358355

  7. Contracting Out. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Central Library. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, and the Judiciary, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In response to a request by the Senate Committee on Appropriations for an examination of the A-76 program of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in particular NOAA's decision to contract for the operation of its Central Library, this report describes a General Accounting Office (GAO) review which:…

  8. Examining Perceptions of Administrators, Teachers, Parents, and Community Residents about Advantages and Disadvantages of Consolidating Two High Schools in a School District in Central Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods triangulation approach examined the perceptions of administrators, teachers, parents, and community residents about a consideration of a secondary school consolidation in a school district in central Pennsylvania. These groups are referred to as "stakeholders" in this study. The purpose of this research was to develop…

  9. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (<60 mW m-2) characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  10. Wastewater recycling and heat reclamation at the Red Lion Central Laundry, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Garlick, T.F.; Halverson, M.A.; Ledbetter, M.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report discusses water, energy, and cost savings that can be achieved in a commercial laundry through the use of a wastewater recycling and heat recovery system. Cost savings are achieved through reductions in water use, reduction in sewage charges, reductions in water heating energy, and potential reductions in water treatment chemicals. This report provides an economic analysis of the impact of capital investment, daily consumption, and local utility rates on the payback period.

  11. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  12. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D; Sun, WenLin

    2012-03-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment, which is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue to use cocaine despite potentially severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) plays a critical role in such regulation. To this end, rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine under a chained schedule: a response on one lever (cocaine-seeking lever) led to access to the other lever (cocaine-taking lever), on which a response was reinforced by cocaine and cues. Thereafter, responses on the seeking lever were punished by footshock with a probability of 0.5. Cocaine self-administration (SA) was significantly suppressed by punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats trained with daily 6-h (extended access) but not 2-h (limited access) sessions showed resistance to the lower intensity of punishment. Inactivation of the CeN induced a robust anti-punishment effect in both groups. These data provided evidence that the CeN is a critical neural substrate involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine SA. Rats with a history of extended cocaine SA appeared to be less sensitive to punishment. The decreased sensitivity could result from the neuroplastic changes induced by extended cocaine SA in the CeN. PMID:22304754

  13. Effects of nomegestrol acetate administration on central and peripheral beta-endorphin and allopregnanolone in ovx rats.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Elena; Pluchino, Nicola; Begliuomini, Silvia; Ninni, Filippo; Freschi, Letizia; Centofanti, Manolo; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Stefano; Valentino, Valeria; Luisi, Michele; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) on the central nervous system by analyzing the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and the opioid beta-endorphin (beta-endorphin). 104 Wistar female rats were used in this study; one group of fertile and one group of ovariectomized rats were used as control. The others were ovariectomized and they underwent a 2-week oral treatment of NOMAc (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1mg/kg/day), alone or with 0.05 mg/kg/day of estradiol valerate (E2V). Allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin were assessed in different brain areas and in circulation. Ovariectomy decreased allopregnanolone anywhere except in the adrenal gland and E2V reversed the effects of ovariectomy. 0.5 and 1mg/kg/day of NOMAc increased allopregnanolone levels in hippocampus. Combined administration of 1mg/kg/day of NOMAc plus E2V induced a further increase of allopregnanolone levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary. NOMAc (1mg/kg/day) decreased the adrenal content of allopregnanolone, both by itself and associated with E2V. NOMAc increased hippocampal and hypothalamic content of beta-endorphin at the highest doses, and it increased positively E2V action, at 1mg/kg/day, also in anterior pituitary and plasma. These findings reinforce the clinical data regarding the capability of NOMAc to modulate the pathways involved in mood and behaviour. In fact, due to the NOMAc action on hippocampus, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary, our results highlight the selectivity of NOMAc on part of the limbic system and the anterior pituitary, regarding both allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin. PMID:18420401

  14. Do heat and smoke increase emergence of exotic and native plants in the matorral of central Chile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Javier A.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.; Gómez-González, Susana; Montenegro, Marco Molina; Jaksic, Fabian M.

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effect of heat shock and wood-fueled smoke on the emergence of native and exotic plant species in soil samples obtained in an evergreen shrubland of central Chile, located on the eastern foothills of the Coastal Range of Lampa. Immediately after collection samples were dried and stored under laboratory condition. For each two transect, 10 samples were randomly chosen, and one of the following treatments was applied: 1) Heat-shock treatment. 2) Plant-produced smoke treatment. 3) Combined heat-and-smoke treatment. 4) Control, corresponding to samples not subjected to treatment. Twenty-three species, representing 12 families, emerged from the soil samples. The best-represented families were Poaceae and Asteraceae. All of the emerged species were herbs, 21 were annuals, and 14 were exotic to Chile. Fire-related triggers used in this study did not increase the emergence and/or abundance of exotic species with respect to natives in soil samples. Interestingly, this study provides evidence that heat-shock can increase the emergence of native herbs.

  15. Heat flow and thermotectonic problems of the central Ventura Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Rito, R. F.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; Moses, T.H., Jr.; Munroe, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ventura Basin, southern California, is located near the Big Bend area of the San Andreas fault system, within the Transverse Ranges physiographic province. Negative curvature of the Ventura Avenue temperature profiles may be explained by an increase in thermal conductivity associated with tectonic compaction of the underlying Pliocene clastic sequence. Basinwide, heat flow averages about 48 mW/m2, a value which is low relative to most of southern California. As heat flow does not vary systematically to the maximum measured depth of about 4 km, this anomly is not easily explained in terms of hydrologic effects or recent uplift and erosion. However, a diminution of heat flow is an expectable consequence of the accumulation of cold sediments (up to 12 km) since Eocene time. -from Authors

  16. Heat Flow and Geothermal Potential in the South-Central United States

    SciTech Connect

    Negraru, Petru T. Blackwell, David D.; Erkan, Kamil

    2008-12-15

    Geothermal exploration is typically limited to high-grade hydrothermal reservoirs that are usually found in the western United States, yet large areas with subsurface temperatures above 150 deg. C at economic drilling depths can be found east of the Rocky Mountains. The object of this paper is to present new heat flow data and to evaluate the geothermal potential of Texas and adjacent areas. The new data show that, west of the Ouachita Thrust Belt, the heat flow values are lower than east of the fault zone. Basement heat flow values for the Palo Duro and Fort Worth Basins are below 50 mW/m{sup 2} while, in the frontal zone of the belt, they can exceed 60 mW/m{sup 2}. Further east, along the Balcones fault system the heat flow is in general higher than 55 mW/m{sup 2}. The eastern most heat flow sites are in Louisiana and they show very high heat flow (over 80 mW/m{sup 2}), which is associated with the apparently highly radioactive basement of the Sabine uplift. The geothermal resource in this area is large and diverse, and can be divided in high grade (temperature above 150 deg. C) convective systems, conductive based enhanced geothermal systems and geothermal/geopressured systems. One of the most attractive areas east of the cordillera extends from eastern Texas across Louisiana and Arkansas to western Mississippi. Here temperatures reach exploitation range at depths below 4 km, and tapping such a resource from shut in hydrocarbon fields is relatively easy. The initial costs of the development can be greatly reduced if existing hydrocarbon infrastructure is used, and therefore using shut-in hydrocarbon fields for geothermal purposes should not be neglected.

  17. Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

    1980-07-01

    This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

  18. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Kristen N.; Vontell, Regina; López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA) rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg) or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg) or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 μmoles). IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg), while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration. PMID:23745109

  19. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  20. Central limit theorem for the solution to the heat equation with moving time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junfeng; Tudor, Ciprian A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider the solution to the stochastic heat equation driven by the time-space white noise and study the asymptotic behavior of its spatial quadratic variations with “moving time”, meaning that the time variable is not fixed and its values are allowed to be very big or very small. We investigate the limit distribution of these variations via Malliavin calculus.

  1. Safety review package for University of Central Florida flat-plate heat pipe experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    A flat-plate heat pipe (FPHP) experiment has been set up for micro-gravity tests on a NASA supplied aircraft. This report presents an analysis on various components of the experimental setup to certify that it will satisfy the flight safety and operation requirements.

  2. Compliance testing of Grissom Air Force Base Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana. Final technical report, 3-21 Feb 92

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron-Ocasio, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    A source emission testing for particulate matter and visible emissions was conducted on coal-fired boilers at the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant during 3-21 February 1992 by the Air Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regard to Indiana Administration Code, Title 325 Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. All boilers were tested through the bypass stack. Results indicated that boilers 3 and 4 met applicable, visible, and particulate matter emissions standards. Boiler 5 exceeded the particulate standard.

  3. Seepage at western Sagami Bay, Central Japan: Results from heat flow and seismic reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Machiyama, H.; Yamashita, M.; Soh, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Izu Peninsula on the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) collides NNW-ward with the mainland Honshu. The subduction boundary at the northern boundary of PHS is thus distorted northward, forming an oblique subduction boundary Sagami Trough to the east of Izu Peninsula. Also a fault plane is inferred at the western Sagami Bay off Hatsushima Island, in order to explain tremors activity. The volcanic front of IBM arc runs at the western Sagami Bay, producing a group of monogenetic volcanoes. Active cold seep communities develop off Hatsushima at 1200 m water depth. Intensive heat flow studies, including dive results and recent survey in 2004 revealed a high heat flow distribution (> 1,000 mWm-2) within 500m of the colony and low (~50 mWm-2) on the Sagami Trough to the east. Hydrological conduit along the potential fault or along the lithologic boundary will feed nutrients to the colony, as well as it will provide heat conductively in the surrounding region. Dive studies revealed almost zero heat flow within 50 m of the colony, whereas heat flow is as high as 20,000 mWm-2 on the colony. Continuous monitoring of heat flow in and outside the colony (only 1m apart) was conducted for 4 years using JAMSTEC_fs cabled observatory. A temperature decrease by 0.8°C only at sensors 10-20 cm below seafloor within the colony occurred within two months. Piston core samples taken in 2003 include massive carbonate crust of 20 cm thickness, which probably forms a hydrological seal. This suggests that the hydrological system here is dynamically supported through time-variant chemical reaction and fluid transport. In 2005 we conducted a grid survey of single-channel seismics at 0.1-0.2 miles interval around the Hatsushima seep community. A potential reservoir, showing negative reflectivity, was located 200-300m below sea floor. We plan to submit a drilling proposal to IODP in this area, in order to characterize hydrological system trough sampling and long-term monitoring.

  4. Line-focus solar central power system, phase I. Subsystem experiment: receiver heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    Wind-tunnel tests confirmed that heat losses due to natural convection are negligible in the line-focus, solar-powered receiver. Anomalies in the forced-convection tests prevented definitive conclusions regarding the more important forced convection. Flow-visualization tests using a water table show much lower velocities inside the receiver cavity than outside, supporting the supposition that the forced-heat transfer should be less than that from a standard exposed cylinder. Furthermore, the water-table tests showed ways to decrease the low velocities in the cavity should this be desired. Further wind-tunnel testing should be done to confirm estimates and to support advanced design. This testing can be done in standard wind tunnels since only the forced convection is of concern.

  5. Report of results of benchmarking survey of central heating operations at NASA centers and various corporations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Total Quality Management has swept across the country. Many companies and the Government have started looking at every aspect on how business is done and how money is spent. The idea or goal is to provide a service that is better, faster and cheaper. The first step in this process is to document or measure the process or operation as it stands now. For Lewis Research Center, this report is the first step in the analysis of heating plant operations. This report establishes the original benchmark that can be referred to in the future. The report also provides a comparison to other organization's heating plants to help in the brainstorming of new ideas. The next step is to propose and implement changes that would meet the goals as mentioned above. After the changes have been implemented the measuring process starts over again. This provides for a continuous improvement process.

  6. Report of results of benchmarking survey of central heating operations at NASA centers and various corporations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, Total Quality Management has swept across the country. Many companies and the Government have started looking at every aspect on how business is done and how money is spent. The idea or goal is to provide a service that is better, faster and cheaper. The first step in this process is to document or measure the process or operation as it stands now. For Lewis Research Center, this report is the first step in the analysis of heating plant operations. This report establishes the original benchmark that can be referred to in the future. The report also provides a comparison to other organization's heating plants to help in the brainstorming of new ideas. The next step is to propose and implement changes that would meet the goals as mentioned above. After the changes have been implemented the measuring process starts over again. This provides for a continuous improvement process.

  7. Using the sun and waste wood to heat a central Ohio home. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The description of a house in Ohio built on a south facing slope with two levels above ground on the north, east, and west sides and three levels exposed to the southern winter Sun is presented. The floor plan, a general history of the project, the operation of the system, the backup heat source (wood), the collection of data, and the procedure for determining actual heat loss are described. Additionally, the calculation of the solar contribution percentage and the amount of mass to be included in the greenhouse and problems with an indirect gain wall are discussed. The location of the wood stove in the system is noted. The east wall temperature data are given. Soil temperature, air infiltration, thermal comfort, and energy usage are discussed. (MCW).

  8. Heat source for an amagmatic hydrothermal system, Noto Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Koji; Ninomiya, Atusi; Negi, Tateyuki

    2009-01-01

    Although there is no evidence of volcanism in the Noto Peninsula since the late Miocene, the peninsula has long been known to be unusual and atypical of non-volcanic regions, as indicated by high-temperature hot springs and a geothermal gradient greater than 50 K/km. In order to provide geochemical constraints on the heat source for amagmatic hydrothermal activity, the chemical and isotopic compositions of 14 gas and water samples from hot springs were measured. The observed 3He/4He ratios of most hot spring gases range from 0.03 to 1.2 RA (RA denotes the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.4 × 10-6). In these samples, mantle helium composes less than 10% of the total helium, indicating an insignificant contribution of mantle-derived volatiles from, for example, newly ascending magma and/or aqueous fluid generated by dehydration of the subducting slab. The Noto Peninsula mainly consists of Neogene volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks overlying Paleozoic to Mesozoic basement rocks associated with uranium-bearing granite pegmatite containing elevated concentrations of heat generating elements such as uranium, thorium, and potassium. A plausible heat source for the amagmatic hydrothermal activity can be attributed to this distinctive geological environment where high heat producing granitic rocks are buried under Neogene sedimentary rocks with low thermal conductivities that act as thermal blankets. Most Noto Peninsula hot springs are found in areas of active faulting, where stress concentrations since the late Miocene could open an existing fault pathway because the fluid pressure is close to the lithostatic pressure. Meteoric waters circulating through hot basement rock come to the surface along these permeable conduits with minimal mixing with shallow groundwater, resulting in emanation of high-temperature hot springs with low 3He/4He ratio gases along active fault zones.

  9. Wastewater recycling and heat reclamation project: Red Lion Central Laundry, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Garlick, T.F.; Halverson, M.A.; Ledbetter, M.R.

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses water, energy, and cost savings that can be achieved in a commercial laundry through the use of a wastewater recycling and heat recovery system. Cost savings are achieved through reductions in water use, reduction in sewage charges (typically based on water use), reductions in water heating energy, and potential reductions in water treatment chemicals because the recycled water has already been treated with soaps and conditioners. A recovery system saves water by recycling wash water that would normally be dumped into the city sewage system. Recycling the wash water produces considerable energy savings because the recycled water has a higher temperature than fresh water. As a result, a hot water heater consumes less energy to heat the recycled water. The demonstration project discussed in this report was based in a large commercial laundry in Portland, Oregon. The laundry serves a large hotel/motel chain and processes an average of 25,000 pounds of laundry per day. A wastewater recovery system using a membrane microfiltration unit (MFU) was installed in the laundry in September 1995. Time series data of the water and energy consumption of the laundry were taken before and after installation of the MFU. Energy savings were measured by performing a thermal energy balance around the washing machines. Water savings were calculated by metering volumetric flow rates. After a period of approximately five months, the MFU has achieved final results of 52 percent savings in water consumption and 44 percent savings in energy to heat water. This five-month period represents a learning curve during which several small technical improvements were made to the MFU and laundry staff adjusted laundry operations to maximize the benefits of the MFU. An economic analysis discusses the impact of capital investment, daily consumption, and local utility rates on the payback period.

  10. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  11. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3 -- Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.; Baldwin, C.A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad.

  12. Late summer heat-transfer regimes at adjacent permafrost and non-permafrost sites in central Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, K.M.; Nicholas, J. . Dept. of Geography); Outcalt, S.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Hourly observations of soil temperature and a surrogate index of soil water ion concentration were collected during late summer from the upper 50 cm of soil at two adjacent sites in the discontinuous permafrost zone of central Alaska. One site is above permafrost while the other, 13 m away in an area of weak groundwater discharge, has no underlying permafrost. At the permafrost site, temperatures at the surface of the dry, porous organic mat experienced large diurnal variation but temperature amplitude was strongly attenuated with depth. Steep thermal gradients induce diffusion of water vapor from the base of the active layer toward the surface. Evaporative cooling thus inhibits heat penetration and maintains subfreezing temperatures at depth. However, infiltration of precipitation is an effective method of transporting sensible heat to the base of the active layer and extending seasonal thaw depth above permafrost. Conversely, at the groundwater seep site, saturation maintained by throughflow damps temperature variation with time and depth, and precipitation has little impact on the evolution of the thermal regime. Soil conditions and precipitation patterns strongly influence the nonconductive heat flux component and produce complex spatial and temporal thaw patterns.

  13. Systematic method for the condition assessment of central heating plants in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Starmack, G.J.

    1990-09-01

    Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.

  14. Effects of central administration of oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin on chronic inflammation and feeding/drinking behaviors in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takanori; Kawasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sabanai, Ken; Mori, Toshiharu; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-05-16

    An increase in the arthritis index as a marker of chronic inflammation and suppression of food intake are observed in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats. Our previous study demonstrated that central oxytocin (OXT)-ergic pathways were activated potently in AA rats. In the present study, OXT-saporin (SAP) cytotoxin, which chemically disrupts OXT signaling was administered centrally to determine whether central OXT may be involved in the developments of chronic inflammation and alteration of feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. The arthritis index was significantly enhanced in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered intrathecally (i.t.) but not intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Suppression of food intake was significantly attenuated transiently in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered i.c.v. but not i.t. Suppression of drinking behavior was not affected by i.t. or i.c.v. administration of OXT-SAP in AA rats. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of an OXT receptor antagonist did not change the arthritis index or feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. These results suggest that central OXT-ergic pathways may be involved in anti-inflammation at the spinal level and suppression of feeding behavior at the forebrain-brainstem level in AA rats. PMID:27060190

  15. Monitored performance of residential geothermal heat pumps in central Texas and Southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, W.N.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes measured performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHP`s) that were installed in family housing units at Ft. Hood, Texas and at Selfridge Air National Guard base in Michigan. These units were built as part of a joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy program to evaluate the energy savings potential of GHP`s installed at military facilities. At the Ft. Hood site, the GHP performance was compared to conventional forced air electric air conditioning and natural gas heating. At Selfridge, the homes under test were originally equipped with electric baseboard heat and no air conditioning. Installation of the GHP systems at both sites was straightforward but more problems and costs were incurred at Selfridge because of the need to install ductwork in the homes. The GHP`s at both sites produced impressive energy savings. These savings approached 40% for most of the homes tested. The low cost of energy on these bases relative to the incremental cost of the GHP conversions precludes rapid payback of the GHP`s from energy savings alone. Estimates based on simple payback (no inflation and no interest on capital) indicated payback times from 15 to 20 years at both sites. These payback times may be reduced by considering the additional savings possible due to reduced maintenance costs. Results are summarized in terms of 15 minute, hourly, monthly, and annual performance parameters. The results indicate that all the systems were working properly but several design shortcomings were identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in future installations at both sites.

  16. [The effectiveness of intravaginal administration of estrumate for cows in silent heat in relation to the progesterone concentration in the blood].

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, S; Andresen, P; Janowski, T; Chmielewski, A

    1994-11-01

    In 22 silent heat cows with functional corpus luteum the blood progesterone concentrations and appearance of oestrus after administration of Estrumate were examined. 2 ml Estrumate (500 micrograms cloprostenol) were given intravaginally to 12 cows and intramuscularly to 10 cows respectively. Progesterone concentrations declined 32 hrs after application to levels below 3, 18 nmol/l in all animals. Within 10 days 66.6% of the cows after intravaginal administration of Estrumate and 70% after intramuscular administration came into oestrus. The results indicate that intravaginal application of Estrumate in silent cows with functional corpus luteum induced luteolysis and oestrus identical with intramuscular application. PMID:7895624

  17. Preliminary design study of a central solar heating plant with seasonal storage at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, D. S.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the design development and selection of the final preliminary design of a Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) for the University of Massachusetts in Amherst (UMass). The effort has been performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at UMass under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. Phase 1 of this project was directed at site selection for the CSHPSS project and was reported earlier. This report focuses on the Phase 2 development of the site conditions and analytical study of project design, performance, and cost. The UMass site presents an excellent opportunity of a CSHPSS project in terms of land availability for a large collector array, a 100 foot deep deposit of soft, saturated clay for seasonal thermal energy storage, and appropriate low temperature heating loads. The project under study represents the first implementation of this solar technology in the United States and results from the International Energy Agency collaboration on CSHPSS since 1979. The preliminary design calls for a large 10,000 m(exp 2) parabolic trough collector array, 70,000 m(exp 3) storage volume in clay with heat transfer through 900 boreholes. Design optimization is based on computer simulations using MINSUN and TRNSYS. The design is expected to provide 95 percent of the 3500 MWh heating and hot water load. A project cost of $3.12 million (plus $240,000 for HVAC load retrofit) is estimated, which provides an annualized cost of $66.2/MWh per unit solar energy delivered. The project will proceed into an engineering phase in Spring 1991.

  18. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

  19. Central radio galaxies in groups: cavities, bubbles and the history of AGN heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; Venturi, T.; Raychaudhury, S.; Vrtilek, J.

    2008-10-01

    E' noto che le regioni centrali degli ammassi e gruppi di galassie costituiscono un ambiente in cui gas caldo e plasma radioemittente proveniente dalle galassie dominanti interagiscono tra loro. In particolare, si pensa che la radioemissione dell'AGN centrale ed i suoi possibili cicli di attivita', siano strettamente legati alla presenza di cavita' e "bubbles" nel gas intergalattico. Si presentera' lo status di un progetto osservativo effettuato con il Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) su di un campione di 18 gruppi di galassie, osservati a tre frequenze radio (235 MHz, 325 MHz e 610 MHz). Lo studio della morfologia radio degli AGN centrali e la relativa analisi spettrale permettono di ottenere stime sull'eta' di questi oggetti, e sulla loro energia totale, che a loro volta sono in relazione con le proprieta' X dei gruppi stessi. Per tutti gli oggetti del campione sono disponibili osservazioni Chandra di proprieta'. Per due oggetti del campione, 4C+24.36 (al centro di AWM04) e NGC741 (al centro di RSOG17) verra' presentato uno studio dettagliato.

  20. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Arthur L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  1. Surface heating and patchiness in the coastal ocean off central California during a wind relaxation event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramp, Steven R.; Garwood, Roland W.; Snow, Richard L.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1991-01-01

    The difference between the temperature of the ocean at 4-cm and 2-m depth was continuously monitored during a cruise to the coastal transition zone off Point Arena, California, during June 1987. The two temperatures were coincident most of the time but diverged during one nearshore leg of the cruise where large temperature differences of up to 4.7 C were observed between the 4-cm and 2-m sensors, in areas which were separated by regions where the two temperatures were coincident as usual. The spatial scale of this 'patchy' thermal structure was about 5-10 km. A mixed layer model (Garwood, 1977) was used to simulate the near surface stratification when forced by the observed wind stress, surface heating, and optical clarity of the water. The model produced a thin strongly stratified surface layer at stations where exceptionally high turbidity was observed but did not produce such features otherwise. This simple model could not explain the horizontal patchiness in the thermal structure, which was likely due to patchiness in the near-surface chlorophyll distributions or to submesoscale variability of the surface wind stress.

  2. Use of heat tolerance traits in discriminating between groups of sheep in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Landim, Aline; Fiorvanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Dallago, Bruno Stefano; Correa, Patricia Spoto; McManus, Concepta

    2010-12-01

    The animal and its environment make up an integrated system, where each acts on the other. Tropical regions are characterized by high levels of solar radiation and environmental temperature which may adversely affect animal production. This study carries out a multivariate analysis of physical and physiological traits in sheep in the Federal District of Brazil to test the ability to separate groups of animals and determine which traits are most important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress. The variables studied included coat thickness, number and length of hairs, pigmentation of the skin and coat, number of sweat glands as well as heart and respiratory rates, rectal and skin temperatures, sweating rate, and blood parameters. Five groups of ten animals were used depending on breed (Bergamasca, crossbred, or Santa Inês) or coat color (Santa Inês--brown, white, and black). The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses including cluster, discriminate, and canonical, using Statistical Analysis System--SAS®. The tree diagram showed clear distances between groups studied and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups, especially Bergamasca and white Santa Inês. The canonical correlation redundancy analysis showed that coat reflectance as well as hair length and number of hairs per unit area were the most useful in explaining changes in physiological traits. Skin and coat traits such as hair length, coat reflectance, percentage of epithelial area occupied by sweat glands, skin reflectance and thickness, as well as heart and breathing rates were the most important in separating these groups. PMID:20652407

  3. Differential long-term neuroadaptations of glutamate receptors in the basolateral and central amygdala after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Dempsey, Jack; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2005-07-01

    Humans and laboratory animals remain highly vulnerable to relapse to cocaine-seeking after prolonged periods of withdrawal from the drug. It has been hypothesized that this persistent cocaine relapse vulnerability involves drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic synapses within the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. Previous studies have shown that cocaine self-administration induces long-lasting neuroadaptations in glutamate neurons of the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens. Here, we determined the effect of cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal on glutamate receptor expression in the amygdala, a component of the mesolimbic dopamine system that is involved in cocaine seeking and craving induced by drug-associated cues. Rats were trained for 10 days to self-administer intravenous cocaine (6 h/day) or saline (a control condition) and were killed after one or 30 withdrawal days. Basolateral and central amygdala tissues were assayed for protein expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A and NR2B). In the basolateral amygdala, GluR1 but not GluR2 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR2A levels were increased on day 1, and NR2B levels were decreased on day 30 of withdrawal from cocaine. In the central amygdala, GluR2 but not GluR1 levels were increased on days 1 and 30, NR1 levels were increased on day 30 and NR2A or NR2B levels were not altered after withdrawal from cocaine. These results indicate that cocaine self-administration and subsequent withdrawal induces long-lasting and differential neuroadaptations in basolateral and central amygdala glutamate receptors. PMID:15953359

  4. Chronic central leptin infusion modulates the glycemia response to insulin administration in male rats through regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frago, Laura M; Chowen, Julie A; Frühbeck, Gema; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    Leptin and insulin use overlapping signaling mechanisms to modify hepatic glucose metabolism, which is critical in maintaining normal glycemia. We examined the effect of an increase in central leptin and insulin on hepatic glucose metabolism and its influence on serum glucose levels. Chronic leptin infusion increased serum leptin and reduced hepatic SH-phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1, the association of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 to the insulin receptor in liver and the rise in glycemia induced by central insulin. Leptin also decreased hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase levels and increased insulin's ability to phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt and glycogen synthase kinase on Ser9 and to stimulate glucose transporter 2 and glycogen levels. Peripheral leptin treatment reproduced some of these changes, but to a lesser extent. Our data indicate that leptin increases the hepatic response to a rise in insulin, suggesting that pharmacological manipulation of leptin targets may be of interest for controlling glycemia. PMID:26296906

  5. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  6. Central Nervous System Parasitosis and Neuroinflammation Ameliorated by Systemic IL-10 Administration in Trypanosoma brucei-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Kennedy, Peter G E; Sternberg, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by African trypanosomes represents a critical step in the development of human African trypanosomiasis. In both clinical cases and experimental mouse infections it has been demonstrated that predisposition to CNS invasion is associated with a type 1 systemic inflammatory response. Using the Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR35 experimental infection model, we demonstrate that systemic delivery of the counter-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 lowers plasma IFN-γ and TNF-α concentrations, CNS parasitosis and ameliorates neuro-inflammatory pathology and clinical symptoms of disease. The results provide evidence that CNS invasion may be susceptible to immunological attenuation. PMID:26505761

  7. A Pharmacologically Active Monoclonal Antibody against the Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor: Effectiveness After Peripheral and Central Administration

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Jean-Christophe; Lecourt, Anne-Catherine; Weckering, Marjorie; Zipfel, Géraldine; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Hofbauer, Karl G.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a constituent of an important pathway regulating food intake and energy expenditure. We produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the N-terminal domain of the MC4R and evaluated its potential as a possible therapeutic agent. This mAb (1E8a) showed specific binding to the MC4R in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the human MC4R and blocked the activity of the MC4R under basal conditions and after stimulation with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The inverse agonist action of Agouti-related protein was significantly enhanced in the presence of mAb 1E8a. After a single intracerebroventricular injection into the third ventricle, mAb 1E8a (1 μg) increased 24-h food intake in rats. After 7 days of continuous intracerebroventricular administration, mAb 1E8a increased food intake, body weight, and fat pad weight and induced hyperglycemia. Because the complete mAb was ineffective after intravenous injection, we produced single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) derived from mAb 1E8a. In pharmacokinetic studies it was demonstrated that these scFvs crossed the blood-brain barrier and reached the hypothalamus. Consequently, the scFv 1E8a increased significantly food intake and body weight in rats after intravenous administration (300 μg/kg). The pharmacological profile of mAb 1E8a and the fact that its scFv was active after peripheral administration suggest that derivatives of anti-MC4R mAbs may be useful in the treatment of patients with anorexia or cachexia. PMID:20118207

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate, but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1beta administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Horrobin, David

    2004-06-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta can cause cognitive impairment, activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impair monoaminergic neurotransmission in the rat. IL-1beta has also been shown to increase the concentration of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood. Omega (n)-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are components of fish oil, have been shown to reduce both the proinflammatory cytokines and the synthesis of PGE2. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary supplements of EPA would attenuate the inflammation-induced impairment of spatial memory by centrally administered IL-1beta. Rats were fed with a diet of coconut oil (contained a negligible quantity of fatty acids), soybean oil (contained mainly n-6 fatty acids), or a diet of coconut oil enriched with ethyl-EPA (E-EPA). The rats were then injected intracerebroventricularly with IL-1beta or saline. The results of this study demonstrated that the IL-1-induced deficit in spatial memory was correlated with an impairment of central noradrenergic and serotonergic (but not dopaminergic) function and an increase in the serum corticosterone concentration. IL-1beta also caused an increase in the hippocampal PGE2 concentration. These effects of IL-1 were attenuated by the chronic administration of E-EPA. By contrast, rats fed with the soybean oil diet showed no effect on the changes induced by the IL-1 administration. PMID:15060086

  9. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  13. Heat tracing to examine seasonal groundwater flow beneath a low-gradient stream in rural central Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, Hridaya; Peterson, Eric W.

    2016-02-01

    The thermal profile of a streambed is affected by a number of factors including: temperatures of stream water and groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity of the streambed, and the geometry of hyporheic flow paths. Changes in these parameters over time cause changes in thermal profiles. In this study, temperature data were collected at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 150 cm at six streambed wells 5 m apart along the thalweg of Little Kickapoo Creek, in rural central Illinois, USA. This is a third-order low-gradient baseflow-fed stream. A positive temperature gradient with inflection at 90-cm depth was observed during the summer period. A negative temperature gradient with inflection at 30 cm was observed during the winter period, which suggests greater influence of stream-water temperatures in the substrate during the summer. Thermal models of the streambed were built using VS2DHI to simulate the thermal profiles observed in the field. Comparison of the parameters along with analysis of temperature envelopes and Peclet numbers suggested greater upwelling and stability in temperatures during the winter than during the summer. Upwelling was more pronounced in the downstream reach of the pool in the riffle and pool sequence.

  14. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  15. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  16. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug. PMID:18418357

  17. Use of Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility as a high-intensity heat source for testing missile nose-cone (Radome) radar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    A series of tests at Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility in support of the US Navy's SM-2 Blk 2 Radome Improvement Program is described. The CRTF was the source of high-intensity solar radiation for testing onboard radar-tracking systems under heating conditions intended to simulate those that occur in supersonic flight. Also discussed are the hardware used and the software developed at the CRTF.

  18. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  19. The Membrane-Associated Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Channel Is the Central Heat Shock Receptor Controlling the Cellular Heat Shock Response in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Zohar; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Saidi, Younousse; Weiss, Yoram George

    2013-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved molecular response to various types of stresses, including heat shock, during which heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are produced to prevent and repair damages in labile proteins and membranes. In cells, protein unfolding in the cytoplasm is thought to directly enable the activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), however, recent work supports the activation of the HSR via an increase in the fluidity of specific membrane domains, leading to activation of heat-shock genes. Our findings support the existence of a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism of HSF-1 activation in animal cells, which is initiated by a membrane-associated transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV). We found in various non-cancerous and cancerous mammalian epithelial cells that the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX), upregulated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70 and Hsp90 respectively, while the TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and AMG-9810, attenuated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70, Hsp90, respectively. Capsaicin was also shown to activate HSF-1. These findings suggest that heat-sensing and signaling in mammalian cells is dependent on TRPV channels in the plasma membrane. Thus, TRPV channels may be important drug targets to inhibit or restore the cellular stress response in diseases with defective cellular proteins, such as cancer, inflammation and aging. PMID:23468922

  20. Estimating and interpretation of radioactive heat production using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present work deals with mapping of radioactive heat production from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive heat production in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive heat production values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive heat production of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of heat production of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of heat production values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.

  1. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  2. Effects of the Oral Administration of Viable and Heat-Killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 Cells to Pre-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Aline D.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Dias, Roberto S.; Rocha, Alípio S.; de Oliveira, Leandro L.; Neves, Clóvis A.; de Paula, Sérgio O.; Mantovani, Hilário C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V) and heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen) the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals. PMID:23144752

  3. Heat Stress-Induced PI3K/mTORC2-Dependent AKT Signaling Is a Central Mediator of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survival to Thermal Ablation Induced Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Scott M; Callstrom, Matthew R; Jondal, Danielle E; Butters, Kim A; Knudsen, Bruce E; Anderson, Jill L; Lien, Karen R; Sutor, Shari L; Lee, Ju-Seog; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Grande, Joseph P; Roberts, Lewis R; Woodrum, David A

    2016-01-01

    Thermal ablative therapies are important treatment options in the multidisciplinary care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but lesions larger than 2-3 cm are plagued with high local recurrence rates and overall survival of these patients remains poor. Currently no adjuvant therapies exist to prevent local HCC recurrence in patients undergoing thermal ablation. The molecular mechanisms mediating HCC resistance to thermal ablation induced heat stress and local recurrence remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the HCC cells with a poor prognostic hepatic stem cell subtype (Subtype HS) are more resistant to heat stress than HCC cells with a better prognostic hepatocyte subtype (Subtype HC). Moreover, sublethal heat stress rapidly induces phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent-protein kinase B (AKT) survival signaling in HCC cells in vitro and at the tumor ablation margin in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation or direct inhibition of AKT function both enhance HCC cell killing and decrease HCC cell survival to sublethal heat stress in both poor and better prognostic HCC subtypes while mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-inhibition has no impact. Finally, we showed that AKT isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially upregulated in primary human HCCs and that overexpression of AKT correlates with worse tumor biology and pathologic features (AKT3) and prognosis (AKT1). Together these findings define a novel molecular mechanism whereby heat stress induces PI3K/mTORC2-dependent AKT survival signaling in HCC cells and provide a mechanistic rationale for adjuvant AKT inhibition in combination with thermal ablation as a strategy to enhance HCC cell killing and prevent local recurrence, particularly at the ablation margin. PMID:27611696

  4. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2 ml of PBS containing 6 × 10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; P<0.05). By contrast, no significant change was observed in the skin test response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant. PMID:27032499

  5. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Mycobacterium manresensis Delays Progression toward Active Tuberculosis in C3HeB/FeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Paula; Marzo-Escartín, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Díaz, Jorge; García, Vanessa; Varela, Ismael; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2016-01-01

    Low-dose tolerance using heat-killed mycobacteria has been tested as a means of stopping progression toward active tuberculosis (TB) lesions in a human-like murine model using C3HeB/FeJ mice. In the present study, we studied the effect of different treatment schedules with heat-killed non-tuberculous-mycobacteria (NTM) species when given orally, based on the hypothesis of generating oral tolerance. This study included M. manresensis, a new species belonging to the fortuitum group, present in drinking water. Oral treatment with M. manresensis for 2 weeks was able to induce a PPD-specific Tregs population, which has been related to a decrease in the neutrophilic infiltration found in TB lesions. Further mechanistic analysis using PPD-stimulated splenocytes links this 2-week treatment with heat-killed M. manresensis to IL-10 production and memory PPD-specific Tregs, and also to a weak PPD-specific global immune response stimulation, increasing IL-6, TNF, and IFN-γ production. In lungs, this treatment decreased the bacillary load, granulomatous infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17). Oral administration of M. manresensis during standard treatment for TB also significantly reduced the relapse of active TB after ending the treatment. Overall the data suggest that the use of heat-killed M. manresensis could be a new and promising tool for avoiding active TB induction and as adjunctive to TB treatment. This supports the usefulness of generating a new kind of protection based on a complex balanced immune response focused on both destroying the bacilli and including control of an excessive inflammatory response. PMID:26779140

  6. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    PubMed

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures. PMID:19703117

  7. Teacher Union Official and Central Office Administrator Descriptions of the Level of Difficulty and Importance for Negotiating Selected Elements of Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) into Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between teacher union officials and central office administrators' descriptions of the level of importance and the level of difficulty when negotiating Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) language into a teachers' union collective bargaining agreement was examined. Relationships were investigated using the New…

  8. Higher Education Administrators' Perceptions of the Academic Quality Improvement Project as Compared to the Program to Evaluate and Advance Quality within the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jennifer Nobles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine higher education administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Academic Quality Improvement Project (AQIP) as compared to the Program to Evaluate and Advance Quality (PEAQ) within the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). The Higher Learning Commission (HLC), a commission…

  9. A critical evaluation of the upper ocean heat budget in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data for the south central equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Liu H.; Lin W.; Liu, X.; Zhang, M.

    2011-08-26

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric models suffer from the common bias of a spurious rain belt south of the central equatorial Pacific throughout the year. Observational constraints on key processes responsible for this bias are scarce. The recently available reanalysis from a coupled model system for the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data is a potential benchmark for climate models in this region. Its suitability for model evaluation and validation, however, needs to be established. This paper examines the mixed layer heat budget and the ocean surface currents - key factors for the sea surface temperature control in the double Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the central Pacific - from 5{sup o}S to 10{sup o}S and 170{sup o}E to 150{sup o}W. Two independent approaches are used. The first approach is through comparison of CFSR data with collocated station observations from field experiments; the second is through the residual analysis of the heat budget of the mixed layer. We show that the CFSR overestimates the net surface flux in this region by 23 W m{sup -2}. The overestimated net surface flux is mainly due to an even larger overestimation of shortwave radiation by 44 W m{sup -2}, which is compensated by a surface latent heat flux overestimated by 14 W m{sup -2}. However, the quality of surface currents and the associated oceanic heat transport in CFSR are not compromised by the surface flux biases, and they agree with the best available estimates. The uncertainties of the observational data from field experiments are also briefly discussed in the present study.

  10. Gabapentinoid Insensitivity after Repeated Administration is Associated with Down-Regulation of the α(2)δ-1 Subunit in Rats with Central Post-Stroke Pain Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Yang, Fan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Li, Zhen; Lu, Yun-Fei; Yu, Yao-Qing; Fu, Han; He, Ting; Sun, Wei; Wang, Rui-Rui; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The α2δ-1 subunit of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) is a molecular target of gabapentin (GBP), which has been used as a first-line drug for the relief of neuropathic pain. GBP exerts its anti-nociceptive effects by disrupting trafficking of the α2δ-1 subunit to the presynaptic membrane, resulting in decreased neurotransmitter release. We previously showed that GBP has an anti-allodynic effect in the first two weeks; but this is followed by insensitivity in the later stage after repeated administration in a rat model of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) hypersensitivity induced by intra-thalamic hemorrhage. To explore the mechanisms underlying GBP insensitivity, the cellular localization and time-course of expression of the α2δ-1 subunit in both the thalamus and spinal dorsal horn were studied in the same model. We found that the α2δ-1 subunit was mostly localized in neurons, but not astrocytes and microglia. The level of α2δ-1 protein increased in the first two weeks after injury but then decreased in the third week, when GBP insensitivity occurred. Furthermore, the α2δ-1 down-regulation was likely caused by later neuronal loss in the injured thalamus through a mechanism other than apoptosis. In summary, the present results suggest that the GBP receptor α2δ-1 is mainly expressed in thalamic neurons in which it is up-regulated in the early stage of CPSP but this is followed by dramatic down-regulation, which is likely associated with GBP insensitivity after long-term use. PMID:26781878

  11. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 ameliorates alcoholic liver disease in ethanol-containing diet-fed C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Shuichi; Wakita, Yoshihisa; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watari, Junji

    2008-12-10

    We examined the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 on the development of alcoholic liver disease using ethanol-containing diet-fed mice. Heat-killed L. brevis was orally administered at a dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg once a day for 35 days. Alcoholic liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a serum, and the alcoholic fatty liver was assessed from the content of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol in the liver. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, SREBP-2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the liver, as well as E-cadherin, Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), and heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 in the small intestine. Oral administration of L. brevis significantly inhibited an increase in the level of serum ALT and AST, as well as the content of TG and total cholesterol in the liver caused by ethanol intake. L. brevis supplementation suppressed the overexpression of TNF-alpha, SREBP-1, and SREBP-2 mRNA in the liver induced by ethanol intake and up-regulated the expression of Hsp25 mRNA in the small intestine. These results suggest that L. brevis ameliorated the ethanol-induced liver injury and the fatty liver by suppressing the up-regulation of TNF-alpha and SREBPs in the liver. We speculate that the inhibition of TNF-alpha and SREBPs up-regulation by L. brevis is due to the inhibition of gut-derived endotoxin migration into the liver through the enhancement of intestinal barrier function by the induction of cytoprotective Hsps. PMID:18976829

  12. The Perspectives of University Administrators towards International Leadership, Study Abroad Programs, and Cooperative Agreements in Central American Public and Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbelo Ruiz, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes globalized by the influence of science and technology, academic institutions in Central America must provide international academic and research opportunities that are conductive to multicultural learning for students, faculty, and staff. Public and private universities in Central America are attempting to increase awareness…

  13. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  14. Is the oceanic heat flux on the central Amundsen sea shelf caused by barotropic or baroclinic currents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalén, Ola; Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The glaciers that drain the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Amundsen Sea are accelerating and experiencing increased basal melt of the floating ice shelves. Warm and salty deep water has been observed to flow southward in deep troughs leading from the shelf break to the inner shelf area where the glaciers terminate. It has been suggested that the melting induced by this warm water is responsible for the acceleration of the glaciers. Here we investigate the structure of the currents and the associated heat flow on the shelf using in-situ observations from 2008 to 2014 in Dotson Trough, the main channel in the western part of the Amundsen Sea shelf, together with output from a numerical model. The model is generally able to reproduce the observed velocities and temperatures in the trough, albeit with a thicker warm bottom layer. In the absence of measurements of sea surface height we define the barotropic component of the flow as the vertical average of the velocity. It is shown that the flow is dominated by warm barotropic inflows on the eastern side and colder and fresher barotropic outflows on the western side. The transport of heat appears to be primarily induced by this clockwise barotropic circulation in the trough, contrary to earlier studies emphasizing a bottom-intensified baroclinic inflow as the main contributor.

  15. Demonstration of the use of ADAPT to derive predictive maintenance algorithms for the KSC central heat plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) were employed to determine laws capable of detecting failures in a heat plant up to three days in advance of the occurrence of the failure. The projected performance of algorithms yielded a detection probability of 90% with false alarm rates of the order of 1 per year for a sample rate of 1 per day with each detection, followed by 3 hourly samplings. This performance was verified on 173 independent test cases. The program also demonstrated diagnostic algorithms and the ability to predict the time of failure to approximately plus or minus 8 hours up to three days in advance of the failure. The ADAPT programs produce simple algorithms which have a unique possibility of a relatively low cost updating procedure. The algorithms were implemented on general purpose computers at Kennedy Space Flight Center and tested against current data.

  16. Heat flow, strong near-fault seismic waves, and near-fault tectonics on the central San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2016-05-01

    The main San Andreas Fault strikes subparallel to compressional folds and thrust faults. Its fault-normal traction is on average a factor of γ=1+2μthr>(√(1+μthr2)+μthr>), where μthr is the coefficient of friction for thrust faults, times the effective lithostatic pressure. A useful upper limit for μthr of 0.6 (where γ is 3.12) is obtained from the lack of heat flow anomalies by considering off-fault convergence at a rate of 1 mm/yr for 10 km across strike. If the fault-normal traction is in fact this high, the well-known heat flow constraint of average stresses of 10-20 MPa during strike slip on the main fault becomes more severe. Only a few percent of the total slip during earthquakes can occur at the peak stress before dynamic mechanisms weaken the fault. The spatial dimension of the high-stress rupture-tip zone is ˜10 m for γ = 3.12 and, for comparison, ˜100 m for γ = 1. High dynamic stresses during shaking occur within these distances of the fault plane. In terms of scalars, fine-scale tectonic stresses cannot exceed the difference between failure stress and dynamic stress. Plate-scale slip causes stresses to build up near geometrical irregularities of the fault plane. Strong dynamic stresses near the rupture tip facilitate anelastic deformation with the net effects of relaxing the local deviatoric tectonic stress and accommodating deformation around the irregularities. There also is a mild tendency for near-fault material to extrude upward. Slip on minor thrust faults causes the normal traction on the main fault to be spatially variable.

  17. Intraseasonal variations in the surface layer heat balance of the central equatorial Indian Ocean: The importance of zonal advection and vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Foltz, G. R.

    2013-06-01

    examine the ocean mixed layer response to intraseasonal atmospheric forcing using moored time series data in the central equatorial Indian Ocean for October 2004 to March 2005, a period coincident with two active phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Both MJO events were accompanied by a sea surface temperature decrease that was partially the consequence of reduced net surface heat flux. In addition, during the first event in October-November 2004, advection by an enhanced Wyrtki Jet contributed substantial cooling, while during the second event in December 2004 to January 2005, vertical processes, most likely related to entrainment mixing, were pronounced. Heavy rainfall at the mooring location during the first event may have contributed to the formation of a 30-40 m thick barrier layer that limited turbulent vertical transfers between the mixed layer and the thermocline. There was no barrier layer present during the second event, which presumably allowed for much freer vertical turbulent exchanges.

  18. Clay mineralogy and thermal history of the Neogene Vinchina Basin, central Andes of Argentina: Analysis of factors controlling the heating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collo, Gilda; DáVila, Federico M.; Nóbile, Julieta; Astini, Ricardo A.; Gehrels, George

    2011-08-01

    The Vinchina Foreland Basin, western Argentina, contains a ˜7 km thick nonmarine stratigraphy, chronologically constrained within the Mio-Pliocene (circa 19-3.4 Ma), and where distribution of Illite/Smectite interstratified phases has shown a progressive smectite-illitization progress (R0 → R1 → R3), is consistent with an incipient burial history. R0 represents randomly mixed-layered illite/smectite normally found at shallow depths, as this ordering is not stable at ˜120°C. In the Vinchina Basin, however, the R0 is still persistent at ˜7 km depth, and its appearance even in the deepest levels is consistent with previous interpretations of low burial temperatures based on thermochronologic studies of detrital apatites. The maximum paleotemperature estimation and basin depth imply geothermal gradient as low as ˜15°C/km, which allowed an estimate of heat flow values between 33 and 42 mW/m2, that would rise to between ˜40 and 51 mW/m2 when the sedimentation rate (thermal blanketing) is taken into account. These values were only reported for cold basins and represent a paleothermal state of a refrigerated lithosphere. We suggest the central Andes were dominated since the Miocene by heat transfer derived mostly from crustal contributions with a minimum input from the asthenosphere. This refrigerated lithosphere is typical of segments affected by flat subduction. Preliminary thermal models based on previous geodynamic approaches support our conclusions.

  19. 12. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, HEAT EXCHANGER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, HEAT EXCHANGER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  1. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  2. Immune responses and stress resistance in red sea bream, Pagrus major, after oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the interactive benefits of dietary administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and vitamin C (VC) on the growth, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major). A diet without LP and VC supplements was employed as a control diet. Four other test diets with 0 or 1 g LP kg(-1) combined with 0.5 or 1 g VC kg(-1) (2 × 2 factorial design) were fed to red sea bream (2 ± 0.01 g) for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between LP and VC on final body weight (FNW), weight gain (WG), hematocrit (HCT), serum bactericidal (BA) and lysozyme (LZY) activities, mucus LZY and peroxidase (PA) activities, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), catalase, mucus secretion and tolerance against low salinity stress test (LT50) (P < 0.05). In addition, FNW, WG, specific growth rate, feed and protein efficiency ratio, serum (BA, LZY, PA and NBT), mucus (LZY and PA), superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and mucus secretion were significantly affected by either LP or VC (P < 0.05). Furthermore, only LP was a significant factor on survival, plasma total cholesterol, mucus BA and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05). However, VC supplementation affected on HCT and LT50. Interestingly, fish fed with both LP at 1 g kg(-1) diet with VC at 0.5 or 1 g kg(-1) diet showed higher growth, humoral and mucosal immune responses, anti-oxidative status, mucus secretion and LT50 as well as decreased plasma, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than the fish fed control diet (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dietary LP and VC had a significant interaction for red sea bream with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing stress resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:27095173

  3. A Study to Determine the Practices of High School Principals and Central Office Administrators Who Effectively Foster Continuous Professional Learning in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchers, Bruce Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the ways that central office and school level leaders initiate and advance a culture of continuous professional learning in high schools. The conceptual framework for this study was built from a synthesis of literature related to professional learning and leadership for continuous improvement. Relying…

  4. Enhanced central serotonin release from slices of rat hypothalamus following repeated nialamide administration: evidence supporting the overactive serotonin receptor theory of depression

    SciTech Connect

    Offord, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers are suggesting unipolar affective disorders may be related to an abnormality in biogenic amine receptor-sensitivity. This abnormality may be a result of a dysfunction in central serotonin (5-HT) release mechanisms. 5-HT neurotransmission is modulated by presynaptic autoreceptors, which are members of the 5-HT/sub 1/ receptor subtype. The autoreceptor is thought to play an important role in the homeostasis of the central 5-HT synapse and could be a site at which some antidepressants mediate their therapeutic effect. The number of 5-HT/sub 1/ type receptor binding sites are reduced and behavior mediated by this receptor is abolished following repeated injections of monoamine oxidase inhibitor type antidepressants. These changes did not occur following a single injection. It was hypothesized that repeated treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor would reduce the sensitivity of 5-HT autoreceptors and enhance 5-HT release. Rats were pretreated with single or repeated (twice daily for 7 days) intraperitoneal injections of nialamide (40 mg/kg) or chlorimipramine (10 mg/kg) and the ability of the autoreceptor agonist to inhibit potassium-induced /sup 3/H-5-HT release was evaluated using an in vitro superfusion system. These changes in 5-HT autoreceptor activity are consistent with other reports evaluating monoamine oxidase inhibitors on 5-HT/sub 1/ type receptors. It is hypothesized that the changes in 5-HT neurotransmission are related to the antidepressant mechanism of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

  5. Stimulation of food intake after central administration of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone is similar in genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    McConn, Betty R; Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Cline, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), first isolated from the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), when centrally administered exerts orexigenic effects in birds. However, the precise mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood and limited information is available on this effect in models of body weight dysfunction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-associated effects of GnIH in chicks from lines that have been selected for either low or high body weight, and are anorexic or become obese, respectively. Central GnIH injection increased food intake in both lines with a similar magnitude of response. There was no effect on water intake. Hypothalamic GnIH mRNA was greater in the low than high weight lines and was greater in the fasted than fed chicks. GnIH receptor mRNA was similarly expressed in both lines, and was greater in fed than fasted chicks. Thus, although selection for body weight did not alter the effect of GnIH on feeding, fasting increased GnIH mRNA in both lines implying that it is an innate hunger factor. PMID:26764213

  6. Central and Peripheral Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Amyloid Precursor Protein Improves Learning and Memory and Reduces Neuroinflammatory Cytokines in Tg2576 (APPswe) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Susan A.; Erickson, Michelle A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The World Health Organization estimates that there are currently 18 million people worldwide living with AD and that number is expected to double by early 2025. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid betaprotein precursor (AβPP) that can decrease AβPP expression and amyloid beta protein (Aβ) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress and restores brain-to-blood efflux of Aβ in SAMP8 mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of this AβPP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. The Tg2576 overproduces human Aβ, develops age-related learning and memory deficits, and exhibits oxidative damage in the brain. First, we administered the AβPP antisense centrally into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2 week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with AβPP antisense 3 times at two week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze foot shock avoidance, novel object recognition and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue was collected for evaluation of AβPP, Aβ, and expression of cytokines and chemokines. AβPP antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. AβPP antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze the mice which received OL-1 AβPP antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant

  7. Solar Heating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

  8. Comparison of the effects of central and peripheral aluminum administration on regional 2-deoxy-D-glucose incorporation in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Tolchard, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) Injection of aluminum tartrate (ALT 205.7 mcg) in the rat induces a progressive encephalopathy characterized by neurobehavioral derangements. The condition is associated with a reduced ability of cerebral synaptosomes to incorporate radiolabeled 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) in vitro. The present study surveyed and compared the in vivo regional cerebral glucose uptake (rCGlu) capacity of rats injected with ALT 7 or 14 days previously either by the ICV or intraperitoneal routes. ICV injection produces transient rCGlu depression in caudate-putamen, geniculate bodies and periaquaeductal gray, resolving by day 14. Thalamic nuclei exhibit depressed rCGlu by the 7th day undergoing further depression by day 14. The rCGlu of occipitoparietal cortices, normal at day 7, was increased by day 14. In contrast, peripheral aluminum administration produced transient rCGlu depression in olfactory bulbs, frontal and occipitoparietal cortices, nucleus accumbens and cerebellum, and transiently increased rCGlu in the geniculate nuclei. These effects, present by day 7, had resolved by day 14 when rCGlu has increased in the previously normal pontine nuclei and decreased in the previously normal hippocampus.

  9. No Apparent Reduction in Schistosome Burden or Genetic Diversity Following Four Years of School-Based Mass Drug Administration in Mwea, Central Kenya, a Heavy Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Lelo, Agola E.; Mburu, David N.; Magoma, Gabriel N.; Mungai, Ben N.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Loker, Eric S.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Steinauer, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that infects over 200 million people worldwide. To combat this disease, in 2012, the World Health Organization announced a goal of reducing and eliminating transmission of schistosomes. Current control focuses primarily on mass drug administration (MDA). Therefore, we monitored transmission of Schistosoma mansoni via fecal egg counts and genetic markers in a typical school based MDA setting to ascertain the actual impacts of MDA on the targeted schistosome population. Methods For 4 years, we followed 67 children enrolled in a MDA program in Kenya. Infection status and egg counts were measured each year prior to treatment. For 15 of these children, for which there was no evidence of acquired resistance, meaning they became re-infected following each treatment, we collected microsatellite genotype data from schistosomes passed in fecal samples as a representation of the force of transmission between drug treatments. We genotyped a total of 4938 parasites from these children, with an average of 329.2 parasites per child for the entire study, and an average of 82.3 parasites per child per annual examination. We compared prevalence, egg counts, and genetic measures including allelic richness, gene diversity (expected heterozygosity), adult worm burdens and effective number of breeders among time points to search for evidence for a change in transmission or schistosome populations during the MDA program. Findings We found no evidence of reduced transmission or schistosome population decline over the course of the program. Although prevalence declined in the 67 children as it did in the overall program, reinfection rates were high, and for the 15 children studied in detail, schistosome egg counts and estimated adult worm burdens did not decline between years 1 and 4, and genetic diversity increased over the course of drug treatment. Interpretation School based control programs undoubtedly improve the

  10. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements in the extreme ultraviolet region of central carbon concentrations during high power neutral beam heating in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Synakowski, E.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Taylor, G.; Valanju, P.M. . Plasma Physics Lab.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX . Fusion Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    The carbon concentration in the central region of TFTR discharges with high power neutral beam heating has been measured by charge-extracted recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) of the C{sup +5} n = 3--4 transition in the extreme ultraviolet region. The carbon concentrations were deduced from absolute measurements of the line brightness using a calculation of the beam attenuation and the appropriate cascade-corrected line excitation rates. As a result of the high ion temperatures in most of the discharges, the contribution of beam halo neutrals to the line brightness was significant and therefore had to be included in the modeling of the data. Carbon concentrations have been measured in discharges with I{sub p} = 1.0-1.6 MA and beam power in the range of 2.6-30 MW, including a number of supershots. The results are in good agreement with carbon concentrations deduced from the visible bremsstrahlung Z{sub eff} and metallic impurity concentrations measured by x-ray pulse-height analysis, demonstrating the reliability of the atomic rates used in the beam attenuation and line excitation calculations. Carbon is the dominant impurity species in these discharges; the oxygen concentration measured via CXRS in a high beam power case was 0.0006 of n{sub e}, compard to 0.04 for carbon. Trends with I{sub p} and beam power in the carbon concentration and the inferred deuteron concentration are presented. The carbon concentration is independent of I{sub p} and decreases from 0.13 at 2.6 MW beam power to 0.04 at 30 MW, while the deuteron concentration increases from 0.25 to 0.75 over the same range of beam power. These changes are primarily the result of beam particle fueling, as the carbon density did not vary significantly with beam power. The time evolutions of the carbon and deuteron concentrations during two high power beam pulses, one which exhibited a carbon bloom and one which did not, are compared. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis-expressing heat shock protein 65 and tandemly repeated IA2P2 prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Li, Guo-Liang; Lu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells upon autoreactive T cell attack. Oral administration of autoantigens is an attractive approach to treating T1DM, but an effective carrier should be used in order to protect antigens. Lactococcus lactis, a safe engineering strain, was used for this task in the present study. Two recombinant L. lactis expressing protein HSP65-6IA2P2 were used and be investigated the effects and mechanisms against T1DM in NOD mice. Our findings demonstrate that recombinant L. lactis strains can successfully both deliver antigens to intestinal mucosa and maintain the epitopes for a long time in NOD mice. Oral administration of recombinant L. lactis could prevent hyperglycemia, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce insulitis by inhibiting antigen-specific proliferation of T cells, augmenting regulatory immune reactions, and balancing ratios of Th17/Tregs and Th1/Th2. These results prove that orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6IA2P2 is an effective approach for the prevention of T1DM in NOD mice. PMID:27085380

  12. Heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Leon, Lisa R; Bouchama, Abderrezak

    2015-04-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition clinically diagnosed as a severe elevation in body temperature with central nervous system dysfunction that often includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and coma. Classic heat stroke primarily occurs in immunocompromised individuals during annual heat waves. Exertional heat stroke is observed in young fit individuals performing strenuous physical activity in hot or temperature environments. Long-term consequences of heat stroke are thought to be due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose to heat stroke, the role of endotoxin and cytokines in mediation of multi-organ damage, the incidence of hypothermia and fever during heat stroke recovery, clinical biomarkers of organ damage severity, and protective cooling strategies. Risk factors include environmental factors, medications, drug use, compromised health status, and genetic conditions. The role of endotoxin and cytokines is discussed in the framework of research conducted over 30 years ago that requires reassessment to more clearly identify the role of these factors in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We challenge the notion that hypothalamic damage is responsible for thermoregulatory disturbances during heat stroke recovery and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the regulated nature of these responses. The need for more sensitive clinical biomarkers of organ damage is examined. Conventional and emerging cooling methods are discussed with reference to protection against peripheral organ damage and selective brain cooling. PMID:25880507

  13. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  14. Establishing the Department's Credibility with Central Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makay, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents some of the comments the author has shared in recent years with a number of faculty, particularly colleagues who attended workshops he conducted at Bowling Green State University for new department chairs. Explains how the department increased its credibility. Blends explanations with ideas for establishing credibility from three…

  15. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient calculation. 3.9 Test procedures for Frost Accumulation heating mode tests (the H2, H22, H2V, and... during cyclic tests and frost accumulation tests, if needed, to produce stabilized room air temperatures... system (see Definition 1.42), the manufacturer must specify the frosting interval to be used during...

  17. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  18. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  19. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  20. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  1. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Exposure levels of anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody in the central nervous system and dose-efficacy relationships in rat spinal cord remyelination models after systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Pepinsky, R Blake; Shao, Zhaohui; Ji, Benxiu; Wang, Qin; Meng, Gym; Walus, Lee; Lee, Xinhua; Hu, Yinghui; Graff, Christilyn; Garber, Ellen; Meier, Werner; Mi, Sha

    2011-11-01

    LINGO-1 (leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein-1) is a negative regulator of myelination and repair of damaged axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Blocking LINGO-1 function leads to robust remyelination. The anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the first MS therapy that directly targets myelin repair. LINGO-1 is selectively expressed in brain and spinal cord but not in peripheral tissues. Perhaps the greatest concern for Li81 therapy is the limited access of the drug to the CNS. Here, we measured Li81 concentrations in brain, spinal cord, and cerebral spinal fluid in rats after systemic administration and correlated them with dose-efficacy responses in rat lysolecithin and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis spinal cord models of remyelination. Remyelination was dose-dependent, and levels of Li81 in spinal cord that promoted myelination correlated well with affinity measurements for the binding of Li81 to LINGO-1. Observed Li81 concentrations in the CNS of 0.1 to 0.4% of blood levels are consistent with values reported for other antibodies. To understand the features of the antibody that affect CNS penetration, we also evaluated the pharmacokinetics of Li81 Fab2, Fab, and poly(ethylene glycol)-modified Fab. The reagents all showed similar CNS exposure despite large differences in their sizes, serum half-lives, and volumes of distribution, and area under the curve (AUC) measurements in the CNS directly correlated with AUC measurements in serum. These studies demonstrate that exposure levels achieved by passive diffusion of the Li81 monoclonal antibody into the CNS are sufficient and lead to robust remyelination. PMID:21807883

  3. Initial TMX central-cell ICRH experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Coffield, F.E.; Falabella, S.; Griffin, D.; McVey, B.; Pickles, W.; Poulsen, P.; Simonen, T.C.; Yugo, J.

    1980-12-09

    Four topics are discussed in this report: the feasibility of applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the TMX central cell, some applications of heating, the results of preliminary experiments, and plans for further ICRH experiments.

  4. CENTRALIZATION OF CAMPUS CONTROLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    A COLLEGE CAMPUS HAVING A LARGE NUMBER OF SEPARATE BUILDINGS WITH ONE BASIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM IS AN IDEAL SITUATION FOR REALIZING GREAT BENEFITS FROM CENTRALIZED BUILDING CONTROL SYSTEMS. TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS AND ADVANTAGES OF SUCH SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SYSTEM AT FOUR MAJOR UNIVERSITIES ARE GIVEN. THIS…

  5. Central electron temperature estimations of TJ-II neutral beam injection heated plasmas based on the soft x ray multi-foil technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baiao, D.; Varandas, C.

    2012-05-15

    The core electron temperature (T{sub e0}) of neutral beam heated plasmas is determined in TJ-II stellarator by using soft x ray detectors with beryllium filters of different thickness, based on the method known as the foil absorption technique. T{sub e0} estimations are done with the impurity code IONEQ, making use of complementary information from the TJ-II soft x ray tomography and the VUV survey diagnostics. When considering the actual electron density and temperature profile shapes, an acceptable agreement is found with Thomson scattering measurements for 8 different magnetic configurations. The impact of the use of both neutral beam injectors on the T{sub e0} measurements is addressed. Also, the behaviour of T{sub e0} during spontaneous profile transitions is presented.

  6. Protracted late magmatic stage of the Caleu pluton (central Chile) as a consequence of heat redistribution by diking: Insights from zircon data and thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Pablo G.; Parada, Miguel A.; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.; Ma, Changqian; Li, Jianwei; Yuanyuan, Liu; Reich, Martin; Aravena, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry are combined with whole-rock composition and thermal modeling to decipher the late magmatic stage of the composite Cretaceous Caleu pluton, which consists of four lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Quartz Monzodiorite Zone (QMDZ), Granodiorite Zone (GZ) and Monzogranite Zone (MGZ). The four lithological zones include felsic dikes and veins of variable thickness and distribution. Zircons of four representative samples, each from the mentioned zones, were dated and chemically analyzed. The U-Pb ages exhibit sample-scale scatter derived from protracted zircon crystallization. At pluton scale the ages are substantially overlapped with a subtle decrease of ages from mafic to felsic sample; the latter has a normal age span distribution with a mean age of 94.68 ± 0.71 (2σ confidence) and a MSWD of 0.95. Zircon grains from the uppermost zone of the pluton, where the QMDZ is emplaced, have the highest REE and HFSE contents. Zircon crystallization temperatures oscillate between 680 and 850 °C, regardless of the zircon age and sample composition. Differences in temperature and age of zircon crystallization of up to 185 °C and 2.6 Myr were identified at sample scale, respectively. Numerical modeling indicates that the melts from which zircon crystallized are highly crystalline (mostly higher than 60% crystal) and resemble MGZ in compositions. Time-dependent thermal models were performed to account for preservation of the system above solidus temperature for long time intervals consistent with those of zircon crystallization. Two non-exclusive scenarios for the late-stage development of Caleu pluton were considered: (i) pluton construction by magma pulses assembled incrementally and (ii) upward transport of residual melts by diking through a mush system to yield heat redistribution to the levels where the samples collected. The first scenario does not preserve residual melts for intervals as long as 2.6 Myr unless an

  7. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  8. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  9. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  13. 41 CFR 105-53.130 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator. 105-53.130 Section 105-53.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130 Office of the Administrator. The Administrator of General Services... assigned to the General Services Administration. The Deputy Administrator, who is appointed by...

  14. 41 CFR 105-53.130 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrator. 105-53.130 Section 105-53.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130 Office of the Administrator. The Administrator of General Services... assigned to the General Services Administration. The Deputy Administrator, who is appointed by...

  15. 41 CFR 105-53.130 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrator. 105-53.130 Section 105-53.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130 Office of the Administrator. The Administrator of General Services... assigned to the General Services Administration. The Deputy Administrator, who is appointed by...

  16. 41 CFR 105-53.130 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrator. 105-53.130 Section 105-53.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130 Office of the Administrator. The Administrator of General Services... assigned to the General Services Administration. The Deputy Administrator, who is appointed by...

  17. 41 CFR 105-53.130 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrator. 105-53.130 Section 105-53.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130 Office of the Administrator. The Administrator of General Services... assigned to the General Services Administration. The Deputy Administrator, who is appointed by...

  18. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  19. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  20. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  1. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1961 to 2100: projected changes in mean temperature and future heat waves characterization (with a statistical evaluation of RCMs local performance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    Marche region (central Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea) climate dynamics are connected to the Mediterranean basin, identified as one of the most sensitive areas to ongoing climate change. Taken into account difficulties to carry out an overarching assessment over the heterogeneous Mediterranean climate-change issues frame, we opted toward a consistent regional bordered study. Projected changes in mean seasonal temperature, with an introductory multi-statistical model performance evaluation and a future heat waves intensity and duration characterization, are here presented. Multi-model projections over Marche Region, on daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of 7 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research Institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations from 1961 to 2100 refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km. Furthermore, two RCMs outputs from Med-CORDEX project, with a higher horizontal resolution (12km x 12km) and boundary conditions provided by the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, are considered. Observed daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature over Marche region domain have been extracted from E-OBS gridded data set (Version 9.0) referring to the period 1970-2004. This twofold work firstly provides a concise statistical summary of how well employed RCMs reproduce observed (1970-2004) mean temperature over Marche region in term of correlation, root-mean-square difference, and ratio of their variances, graphically displayed on a 2D-Taylor diagram. This multi-statistical model performance evaluation easily allows: - to compare the agreement with observation of the 9 individual RCMs - to compare RCMs with different horizontal resolution (12 km and 25 km) - to evaluate the improvement provided by the RCMs ensemble. Results indicate that the 9 RCMs ensemble

  2. Nasa-wide Standard Administrative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Factors to be considered in developing agency-wide standard administrative systems for NASA include uniformity of hardware and software; centralization vs. decentralization; risk exposure; and models for software development.

  3. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  4. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  5. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  6. 9. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOORING PLANS FOR ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOORING PLANS FOR ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 6. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING WITH FLAG POLE, LOOKING SOUTH. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING WITH FLAG POLE, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 1. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. 4. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. 3. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. 5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. 2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING EAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 48 CFR 801.670-4 - National Cemetery Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-4 National Cemetery Administration. The Director of Logistics Management Service, the Centralized Contracting Division, and the Construction Support Division...

  15. Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juckiewicz, Robert; Kroculick, Joseph

    Columbia University's major program to distribute its central administrative data processing to its various schools and departments is described. The Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS) will link every department and school within the university via micrcomputers, terminals, and/or minicomputers to the central…

  16. How To Hire Top School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauscher, Richard H.; Reynoldson, Roger L.

    The basic procedures for the recruitment, selection, induction, and development of administrative central office or building personnel are presented in this document. Also included are the addresses of 11 associations with which to advertise for administrative applicants, examples of interview questions and discussion statements, 10 steps to a…

  17. Realigning the Orbits of Central Office and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Eliot W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses why the work of central-office administrators and building administrators seem so disconnected from one another. The fact that central-office administrators and principals seem to travel in orbits with different paths, with seemingly few areas of significant overlap, has a decidedly negative impact on the ability of the…

  18. Optimal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Andre; Doering, Charles R.

    2015-11-01

    The transport of heat by buoyancy driven flows, i.e., thermal convection plays a central role in many natural phenomena and an understanding of how to control its mechanisms is relevant to many engineering applications. In this talk we will consider a variational formulation of optimal heat transport in simple geometries. Numerical results, limits on heat transport, and a comparison to Rayleigh-Bénard convection will be presented. Research supported by NSF Awards PHY-1205219, PHY-1338407, PHY-1443836, PHY-1533555 and DMS-1515161.

  19. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  20. Central control of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  1. Central control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  2. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  3. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  4. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  5. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  6. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  7. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  8. The Board's Role in Selecting the Administrative Team. The Administrative Team Career Development Series, Book 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    As an aid for school board members, this handbook offers advice on selecting central-office and building administrators. The introduction discusses the board's role in administrator selection, lists 16 areas in which board policies are needed, and suggests criteria and information needed for board policies. Chapter 1 reviews recent changes in the…

  9. Research Proposal for the Design and Engineering Phase of a Solar Heating and Cooling System Experiment at the Warner Robins Public Library, Warner Robins, Georgia. Submitted to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Warren H.; And Others

    A number of reasons are advanced to include a solar heating and cooling experiment in a library building. The unique aspects of the experiment are to be a seasonally adjustable collector tilt and testing of a new generation of absorption air conditioners. After a brief description of the proposed experiment, the proposal contains forms filed by…

  10. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

  11. [Pathophysiology of heat illness].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Tohru; Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-06-01

    Human core temperature is strictly controlled by mechanism of radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation from skin surface. Serial hot and humid climate induces dehydration which interferes heat pump-out from the body. Heart dysfunction is the third factor to rise body temperature. Hyperthermia and hypo-perfusion caused by dehydration and heart failure deteriorate specific organ functions, i.e. central nervous system, liver and renal functions and coagulation system. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy is one of the standard indicators of severity and mortality of heat stroke. PMID:22690597

  12. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing...

  2. 14 CFR 27.859 - Heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heating systems. 27.859 Section 27.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.859 Heating systems. (a) General. For each heating system...

  3. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  4. Heating Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

  5. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  6. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  7. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  8. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  9. Lung cancer and indoor pollution from heating and cooking with solid fuels - The IARIC International Multicentre Case-Control study in Eastern/Central Europe and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Lissowska, J.; Bardin-Mikolajczak, A.; Fletcher, T.; Zaridze, D.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Rudnai, P.; Fabianova, E.; Cassidy, A.; Mates, D.; Holcatova, I.; Vitova, V.; Janout, V.; Mannetje, A.; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P.

    2005-08-15

    Exposure to fuel from cooking and heating has not been studied in Europe, where lung cancer rates are high and many residents have had a long tradition of burning coal and unprocessed biomass. Study subjects included 2,861 cases and 3,118 controls recruited during 1998-2002 in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The odds ratio of lung cancer associated with solid fuel use was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.44) for cooking or heating, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.09) for solid fuel only for cooking, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) for solid fuels used for both cooking and heating. Risk increased relative to the percentage of time that solid fuel was used for cooking (P-trend {lt} 0.0001), while no risk increase was detected for solid fuel used for heating. The odds ratio of lung cancer in whole-life users of solid cooking fuel was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.40). Switching to nonsolid fuels resulted in a decrease in risk. The odds ratio for the longest duration of time since switching was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92). The data suggest a modest increased risk of lung cancer related to solid-fuel use for cooking rather than heating.

  10. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central and regional office organization. 790.2 Section 790.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION DESCRIPTION OF NCUA; REQUESTS FOR AGENCY ACTION § 790.2 Central and regional office organization....

  11. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  12. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  13. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  14. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  15. Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA 'Future Flight Central,' the world's first full-scale virtual airport control tower, opened December 13, 1999 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Constructed at a cost of $10 million, the two story facility was jointly funded by NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The facility is designed to test ways to solve potential air and ground traffic problems at commercial airports under realistic airport conditions and configurations. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines and airports to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management, ramp movement procedures, and various other airport improvements. Twelve rear projection screens provide a seamless 360 degree high- resolution view of the airport or other screens being depicted. The imaging system, powered by supercomputers, provides a realistic view of weather conditions, enviromental and seasonal effects and the movement of up to 200 active aircraft and ground vehicles.

  16. 7 CFR 3.44 - Centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in 31 CFR part 285.5. (d) Payment authorizing agency responsibilities. (1) The names and... forth in paragraph (d)(4) of this section. (3) As described in 31 CFR 285.5(g)(1) and (2), any USDA... in 31 CFR 285.5(f)(3)....

  17. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures for... in 31 CFR part 285 and 10 CFR 15.33. Procedures for internal salary offset are contained in § 16.15... debt as contained in 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 10 CFR 15.26. (3) Submit the debt to Treasury for...

  18. The School Administrator Payoff from Teacher Pensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that teacher quality is the central input in school performance. This insight has put human resource and compensation policies, including performance pay, tenure, alternative route recruitment, and mentoring, at center stage in school reform debates. Some school administrators have been innovators and reform leaders in…

  19. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  20. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  1. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  2. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  3. Heated Goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

  4. The application of heat pump water heating in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Hawaiian Electric Company is the national leader in the application and general commercial acceptance of heat pump water heating. Since 1980, over 600 commercial-size heat pump water heaters have been installed in Hawaii. Over 300 apartment buildings with over 35,000 living units, some 30 hotels, 8 hospitals and numerous restaurants and lauderettes have replaced their central gas water heating systems with commercial-size heat pump water heaters. This exceptionally efficient electrotechnology permits hotels and apartments to extract significant amounts of solar energy from the warm sub-tropical atmosphere or to recycle waste heat from the building`s air conditioning system for water heating. Heat pump water heaters discharge thermal energy from their condensers that is 2.5 to 6.5 times greater than the electric energy that they consume. Existing gas and oil-fired water heater efficiencies will vary from 0.50 to 0.75 depending on their age, their duty cycle, their adjustment and the cleanliness of their heat exchange surfaces. As a result, these conventional fuel fired water heaters consume 3 to 12 times more energy than the heat pumps that replace them.

  5. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  6. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  7. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  8. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  9. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  10. 6 CFR 11.4 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (h) Payment agency's responsibilities. (1) As required by 5 CFR 550.1109, if the employee separates... administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR parts 900-904. (b) Centralized Offset through the Treasury Offset Program. DHS adopts the provisions of 31 CFR 901.3. (c) Non-centralized Offset for DHS Debts....

  11. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  13. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    PubMed

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature. PMID:26939103

  14. Collection development at the NOAA Central Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quillen, Steve R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Central Library collection, approximately one million volumes, incorporates the holdings of its predecessor agencies. Within the library, the collections are filed separately, based on their source and/or classification schemes. The NOAA Central Library provides a variety of services to users, ranging from quick reference and interlibrary loan to in-depth research and online data bases.

  15. Profiles of School Administrators in South Korea: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Songmi; Kim, Eugene P.

    2005-01-01

    Research literature considering school administrators in South Korea is disappointingly sparse. A central focus of this article is to investigate vital descriptors of Korean school administrators, including demographic profiles, entry perspectives, pre-service and in-service training and career commitment. Secondarily, the findings are compared to…

  16. Interactive Education in Public Administration (2): Strategies for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jonathan; Alford, John

    2015-01-01

    The previous article ("Interactive education in public administration (1): The role of teaching 'objects'") described the benefits of "moving from behind the lectern" to engage in interactive teaching in public policy and administration, and the central role of "objects" in that process. But teaching…

  17. Personnel Administration in Education: Leadership for Instructional Improvement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben M.; And Others

    The central thesis of this book is that personnel administration must be concerned more with the process of educational change and less with the filling of openings, more with instructional change and less with instructional personnel per se. The 12 chapters deal with these personnel administration topics: (1) the improvement of instruction…

  18. Rethinking Educational Administration: T. B. Greenfield and His Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    This monograph discusses Thomas Greenfield's writings and those of his two major detractors, Daniel Griffiths and Donald J. Willower. For nearly a decade Greenfield has attacked traditional theories of educational administration and argued for the centrality of mind in the construction of organizational and administrative reality. An introductory…

  19. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  20. Heat Pipes and Heat Rejection Component Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being evaluated for use in the heat rejection system for space fission power systems. The heat rejection syst em currently comprises heat pipes with a graphite saddle and a composite fin. The heat input is a pumped water loop from the cooling of the power conversion system. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been life testing titanium-water heat pipes as well as eval uating several heat pipe radiator designs. The testing includes thermal modeling and verification of model, material compatibility, frozen startup of heat pipe radiators, and simulating low-gravity environments. Future thermal testing of titanium-water heat pipes includes low-g ravity testing of thermosyphons, radiation testing of heat pipes and fin materials, water pump performance testing, as well as Small Busine ss Innovation Research funded deliverable prototype radiator panels.

  1. Heat intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003094.htm Heat intolerance To use the sharing features on this ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  2. Inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase abolishes fatigue induced by central tryptophan in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, L M S; Guimarães, J B; Wanner, S P; La Guardia, R B; Miranda, R M; Marubayashi, U; Soares, D D

    2014-02-01

    Fatigue during prolonged exercise is related to brain monoamines concentrations, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of increased central tryptophan (TRP) availability on physical performance and thermoregulation in running rats that were pretreated with parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), an inhibitor of the conversion of TRP to serotonin. On the 3 days before the experiment, adult male Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline or p-CPA. On the day of the experiment, animals received intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of either saline or TRP (20.3 μM) and underwent a submaximal exercise test until fatigue. Icv TRP-treated rats that received ip saline presented higher heat storage rate and a 69% reduction in time to fatigue compared with the control animals. Pretreatment with ip p-CPA blocked the effects of TRP on thermoregulation and performance. Moreover, ip p-CPA administration accelerated cutaneous heat dissipation when compared with saline-pretreated rats. We conclude that an elevated availability of central TRP interferes with fatigue mechanisms of exercising rats. This response is modulated by serotonergic pathways, because TRP effects were blocked in the presence of p-CPA. Our data also support that a depletion of brain serotonin facilitates heat loss mechanisms during exercise. PMID:22540893

  3. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  6. Vocational Education Administration Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Karen, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This handbook for vocational administrators presents an overview of vocational education programs, services, and administrative structures in Alaska. The manual contains three parts. The first, brief section introduces secondary vocational education and lists its enabling legislation. The second part presents a detailed overview of vocational…

  7. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  8. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  9. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  10. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  11. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  12. Networked Administration Streamlines Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An Iowa school district has retooled its computer systems for more standardized administration. In addition to administration, the district is doing inhouse databasing of financial accounting, and doing inhouse scheduling and grade reporting. A partnership with the Chamber of Commerce contributed $500,000 for the network system. (MLF)

  13. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  14. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  15. Administration for Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  16. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  17. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  18. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Webb, L. Dean

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the societal and organizational changes affecting school business administration, describes major activities encompassed in the practice of school business administration, and reviews current literature specifically related to such activities as electronic data processing, fiscal planning and budgeting, purchasing and property management,…

  19. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  20. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  1. 20 CFR 654.409 - Heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heating. 654.409 Section 654.409 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.409 Heating. (a) All living quarters and service rooms shall...

  2. 20 CFR 654.409 - Heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heating. 654.409 Section 654.409 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.409 Heating. (a) All living quarters and service rooms shall...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  7. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  8. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  9. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  10. Exertional heat illness: a review of the syndrome affecting racing Thoroughbreds in hot and humid climates.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, M A; Dart, A J; Jeffcott, L B

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses. The clinical signs described in racehorses would suggest that the pathophysiological events affecting the central nervous (CNS) and gastrointestinal systems are similar to those described in humans. Clinical signs are progressive and include signs of endotoxaemia and increasing levels of CNS dysfunction. Initially, horses that may be mildly irritable (agitated, randomly kicking out) may progress to unmanageable (disorientation, severe ataxia, falling) and ultimately convulsions, coma and death. Currently, the approach to treatment is largely empirical and involves rapid and effective cooling, administration of drugs to provide sedation, administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ameliorate the effects of endotoxaemia and glucocorticoids to stabilise cell membranes and reduce the effects of inflammation on the CNS. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about EHI in Thoroughbred racehorses, suggests a likely pathophysiology of the syndrome in horses based on the current literature on heat illness in humans and horses, and outlines current treatment strategies being used to treat racehorses with clinical signs of EHI. PMID:27349884

  11. Directory of Energy Information Administration models 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1995, DOE/EIA-0293(95), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy, July 1995. Four models have been deleted in this directory as they are no longer being used: (1) Market Penetration Model for Ground-Water Heat Pump Systems (MPGWHP); (2) Market Penetration Model for Residential Rooftop PV Systems (MPRESPV-PC); (3) Market Penetration Model for Active and Passive Solar Technologies (MPSOLARPC); and (4) Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS).

  12. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  13. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  14. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  15. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP OF STAIRWAY, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 45 CFR 30.12 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 3716(c), and implementing regulation at 31 CFR 285.4; (iii) Debts arising under, or payments... such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7; and... centralized administrative offset pursuant to and in accordance with 31 CFR 901.3(b). Debts which are...

  18. 45 CFR 30.12 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S.C. 3716(c), and implementing regulation at 31 CFR 285.4; (iii) Debts arising under, or payments... such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7; and... centralized administrative offset pursuant to and in accordance with 31 CFR 901.3(b). Debts which are...

  19. 45 CFR 30.12 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 3716(c), and implementing regulation at 31 CFR 285.4; (iii) Debts arising under, or payments... such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7; and... centralized administrative offset pursuant to and in accordance with 31 CFR 901.3(b). Debts which are...

  20. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

  1. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  2. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...; California Central Valley Angler Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (Sacramento River winter Chinook, Central Valley spring Chinook, Central Valley steelhead). The survey is... restoration. II. Method of Collection A random sample of recreational anglers who fish on Central...

  3. 29. View East, Central Court, Showing typical interior detail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View East, Central Court, Showing typical interior detail and lunettes above. Two lunettes present, Public Works Administration, 1938-42. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 7. INTERIOR, KITCHEN SOUTH OF CENTRAL EASTWEST CORRIDOR, FROM ENTRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, KITCHEN SOUTH OF CENTRAL EAST-WEST CORRIDOR, FROM ENTRY, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ....S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including engineering services; fuel... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY... States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is organizing a Civil Nuclear...

  6. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  7. Copyright Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol Mann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses copyright compliance policies for school administrators and the librarian's role in policy implementation. Topics addressed include fines; court litigation; monitoring compliance; training sessions for teachers and staff; computer software audits; and sources for more information. (LRW)

  8. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  9. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  10. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  11. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  12. Introducing Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of documents and the analysis of definitions are recommended as a means for adding zest to an introduction to public administration course to obtain student interest and motivation. (Author/ND)

  13. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  14. Infrared Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  15. Thermal hyperalgesia and light touch allodynia after intradermal Mycobacterium butyricum administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Maria Isabel; Escribano, Elvira; Calpena, Ana; Domenech, Josep; Queralt, Josep

    2003-10-01

    We examined the time course (7 weeks) of thermal hyperalgesia and light touch allodynia in rats after intradermal administration of Mycobacterium butyricum. Nociceptive thresholds to heat and light touch were assessed. Paw edema and temperature, motor function, body weight, and propioception were also tested. Some rats developed arthritis (named AA rats) but others did not (named non-AA rats). Both groups were compared with healthy animals. Persistent hyperalgesia was found in both groups; in AA rats it appeared before clinical evidence of arthritis. Transient allodynia ocurred only after edema development and fell when edema decreased. Motor function was impaired only in AA rats. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperalgesia, but not allodynia, appeared after Mycobacterium butyricum in both groups, suggesting that changes in sensitivity were not merely the result of local hypersensitivity of the inflamed tissue, but may also be due to alterations in nociception in the central nervous system. PMID:14635786

  16. Heat stroke-like episode in a child caused by zonisamide.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Yamashita, Y; Satoi, M; Togo, A; Wada, N; Matsuishi, T; Ohnishi, A; Kato, H

    1997-07-01

    A 2-year-old mentally retarded boy with frontal lobe epilepsy presented with an episode that resembled heat stroke during the administration of zonisamide. He developed hyperpyrexia with oligohidrosis and central neurological symptoms, including, chorea-like involuntary movements, resting tremor, and cogwheel rigidity. A sweat test using pilocarpine iontophoresis revealed a marked reduction in the sweat response, which suggested a postganglionic sweating dysfunction. A skin biopsy examined by light and electron microscopy showed no morphological abnormality in the sweat glands. The oligohidrosis caused by zonisamide was reversible in that the patient regained the ability to sweat within 2 weeks of the cessation of drug administration. Children receiving zonisamide should be monitored for oligohidrosis and the development of neurological symptoms associated with an elevation of body temperature. PMID:9253492

  17. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY/PLATEAU DE BURE INTERFEROMETER MULTIPLE LINE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEARBY SEYFERT 2 GALAXY NGC 1068: SHOCK-RELATED GAS KINEMATICS AND HEATING IN THE CENTRAL 100 pc?

    SciTech Connect

    Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Martin, S. E-mail: neri@iram.fr

    2011-07-20

    We present high angular resolution (0.''5-2.''0) observations of the millimeter continuum and the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2), {sup 13}CO(J = 3-2), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1), HCN(J = 3-2), HCO{sup +}(J = 4-3), and HCO{sup +}(J = 3-2) line emission in the circumnuclear disk (r {approx}< 100 pc) of the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, carried out with the Submillimeter Array. We also include in our analysis new {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) and improved {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1) observations of NGC 1068 at high angular resolution (1.''0-2.''0) and sensitivity, conducted with the Institute de Radioastronomie Millimetrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Based on the complex dynamics of the molecular gas emission indicating non-circular motions in the central {approx}100 pc, we propose a scenario in which part of the molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk of NGC 1068 is blown radially outward as a result of shocks. This shock scenario is further supported by quite warm (T{sub kin} {>=} 200 K) and dense (n(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) gas constrained from observed molecular line ratios. The HCN abundance in the circumnuclear disk is found to be [HCN]/[{sup 12}CO] {approx} 10{sup -3.5}. This is slightly higher than the abundances derived for Galactic and extragalactic star-forming/starbursting regions. This result lends further support to X-ray-enhanced HCN formation in the circumnuclear disk of NGC 1068 as suggested by earlier studies. The HCO{sup +} abundance ([HCO{sup +}]/[{sup 12}CO] {approx} 10{sup -5}) appears to be somewhat lower than that of Galactic and extragalactic star-forming/starbursting regions. When trying to fit the centimeter-to-millimeter continuum emission by different thermal and non-thermal processes, it appears that electron-scattered synchrotron emission yields the best results while thermal free-free emission seems to overpredict the millimeter continuum emission.

  18. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  19. Reducing home heating and cooling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326 Section 25.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326 Section 23.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326 Section 25.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326 Section 23.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326 Section 25.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed,...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326 Section 23.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326 Section 25.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed,...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326 Section 23.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1326 Section 25.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating system is installed,...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1326 - Pitot heat indication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pitot heat indication systems. 23.1326 Section 23.1326 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instruments: Installation § 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. If a flight instrument pitot heating...

  10. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (CPAP) , bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep ... et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based ...

  11. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

  12. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  13. The hypophagic response to heat stress is not mediated by GPR109A or peripheral β-OH butyrate.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Chelsea; Foy, Caroline E; Higgins, Mark R; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2016-05-15

    Rising temperatures resulting from climate change will increase the incidence of heat stress, negatively impacting the labor force and food animal production. Heat stress elevates circulating β-OH butyrate, which induces vasodilation through GPR109a. Interestingly, both heat stress and intraperitoneal β-OH butyrate administration induce hypophagia. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of β-OH butyrate in heat stress hypophagia in mice. We found that niacin, a β-OH butyrate mimetic that cannot be oxidized to generate ATP, also reduces food intake. Interestingly, the depression in food intake as a result of 8-h intraperitoneal niacin or 48-h heat exposure did not result from changes in hypothalamic expression of orexigenic or anorexigenic signals (AgRP, NPY, or POMC). Genetically eliminating GPR109a expression did not prevent the hypophagic response to heat exposure, intraperitoneal β-OH butyrate (5.7 mmol/kg), or niacin (0.8 mmol/kg). Hepatic vagotomy eliminated the hypophagic response to β-OH butyrate and niacin but did not affect the hypophagic response to heat exposure. We subsequently hypothesized that the hypophagic response to heat stress may depend on direct effects of β-OH butyrate at the central nervous system: β-OH butyrate induced hormonal changes (hyperinsulinemia, hypercorticosteronemia, and hyperleptinemia), or gene expression changes. To test these possibilities, we blocked expression of hepatic hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA synthase II (HMGCS2) to prevent hepatic β-OH butyrate synthesis. Mice that lack HMGCS2 maintain a hypophagic response to heat stress. Herein, we establish that the hypophagia of heat stress is independent of GPR109a, the hepatic vagus afferent nerve, and hepatic ketone body synthesis. PMID:26936786

  14. Heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods, including both finite difference and finite element techniques, are presented with applications to heat conduction problems. Numerical and analytical methods are integrated throughout the text and a variety of complexities are thoroughly treated with many problems, solutions and computer programs. This book is presented as a fundamental course suitable for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students, with end-of-chapter problems and answers included. Sample case studies and suggested projects are included.

  15. Heat stress modifies human baroreflex function independently of heat-induced hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Hayano, Junichiro; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2003-06-01

    Since human thermoregulatory heat loss responses, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating, cause hypovolemia, they should resultantly stimulate human baroreflexes. However, it is possible that the thermoregulatory system directly interacts with the baroreflex system through central neural connections independently of the heat-induced hypovolemia. We hypothesized that heat stress modifies the baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity independently of heat-induced hypovolemia in humans. We made whole-body heating with tube-lined suits perfused with warm water (46-47 degrees C) on 10 healthy male subjects. The heating increased skin and tympanic temperatures by 10.0 and 0.4 degrees C, respectively. It increased resting total muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) by 94 +/- 9% and decreased central venous pressure (CVP, dependent arm technique) by 2.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg. The heating increased arterial baroreflex gain by 193%, assessed as a response of MSNA to a decrease in diastolic arterial pressure during Valsalva's maneuver, but it did not change threshold arterial pressure for MSNA activation. Although the heating did not change the cardiopulmonary baroreflex gain assessed as a response of MSNA to a change in estimated central venous pressure (CVP) during a 10 degrees head-down and -up tilt test, it upwardly shifted the stimulus-response baroreflex relationship. These changes in baroreflex functions during heating were not restored by an intravenous infusion of warmed isotonic saline (37 degrees C, 15 ml/kg) that restored the heat-induced reduction of CVP. Our results support our hypothesis that heat stress modifies the baroreflex control of MSNA independently of heat-induced hypovolemia in humans. Our results also suggest that the hyperthermal modification of baroreflex results from central neural interaction between thermoregulatory and baroreflex systems. PMID:14529582

  16. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  17. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  18. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  19. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  20. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  1. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  2. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  3. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  5. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  6. Redis database administration tool

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  7. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  8. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  9. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  10. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  11. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  12. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  13. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  14. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  15. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  16. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  17. "Complicating" Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.

    Administrators desiring to lead organizations that will adapt and survive in a complex environment like today's public schools need to develop what Karl Weick calls "complicated" understanding of "requisite variety." The law of requisite variety states that a diverse and complicated environment demands similar diversity from its inhabitants if…

  18. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  19. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  20. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  1. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  2. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  4. Using Administrative Data. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLeonardi, Joan W.; Yuan, Ying-Ying T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of administrative data to child welfare researchers. Considers issues in using client records--confidentiality, selection of data, historical data, sampling reliability, replication of findings, and access to data--that can be resolved in standardized ways. Notes other problematic issues, such as greater distance from subject,…

  5. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  6. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  7. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats.

    PubMed

    Barney, Christopher C; Kuhrt, David M

    2016-04-01

    Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 days of intermittent heat exposure, reductions in evaporative water loss were observed in all animals and reductions in water intake following heat exposure occurred as the days of heat exposure increased. Rats that were not allowed water during the 7 days of exposure had decreased rehydration levels, however, rats allowed access to water increased water intake during exposure and exhibited higher overall rehydration levels over the same time period. Peripheral administration of angiotensinII, mimicking activation of volemic thirst, or hypertonic saline solution, activating intracellular thirst, did not result in alteration of water intake in rats exposed to heat with access to water compared to control rats. In contrast, rats exposed to heat without access to water had reduced water intake after administration of hypertonic saline and increased water intake after administration of angiotensinIIcompared to control rats. These experiments demonstrate that thirst responses to intermittent heat exposure are altered by providing water during heat exposure and that intermittent heat exposure without access to water alters drinking responses to both intracellular and extracellular thirst challenges. PMID:27095836

  8. Heat-Transfer Coupling For Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welded heat-transfer coupling joins set of heat pipes to thermoelectric converter. Design avoids difficult brazing operation. Includes pair of mating flanged cups. Upper cup integral part of housing of thermoelectric converter, while lower cup integral part of plate supporting filled heat pipes. Heat pipes prefilled. Heat of welding applied around periphery of coupling, far enough from heat pipes so it would not degrade working fluid or create excessive vapor pressure in the pipes.

  9. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  10. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  11. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  12. Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

  13. Perioperative thermoregulation and heat balance.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2016-06-25

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated to within a few tenths of a degree. The major thermoregulatory defences in humans are sweating, arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction, and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. General anaesthetics greatly impair thermoregulation, synchronously reducing the thresholds for vasoconstriction and shivering. Neuraxial anaesthesia also impairs central thermoregulatory control, and prevents vasoconstriction and shivering in blocked areas. Consequently, unwarmed anaesthetised patients become hypothermic, typically by 1-2°C. Hypothermia results initially from an internal redistribution of body heat from the core to the periphery, followed by heat loss exceeding metabolic heat production. Complications of perioperative hypothermia include coagulopathy and increased transfusion requirement, surgical site infection, delayed drug metabolism, prolonged recovery, shivering, and thermal discomfort. Body temperature can be reliably measured in the oesophagus, nasopharynx, mouth, and bladder. The standard-of-care is to monitor core temperature and to maintain normothermia during general and neuraxial anaesthesia. PMID:26775126

  14. Bonneville, Power Administration Timing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Time is an integral part of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) operational systems. Generation and power transfers are planned in advance. Utilities coordinate with each other by making these adjustments on a timed schedule. Price varies with demand, so billing is based on time. Outages for maintenance are scheduled to assure they do not interrupt reliable power delivery. Disturbance records are aligned with recorded timetags for analysis and comparison with related information. Advanced applications like traveling wave fault location and real-time phase measurement require continuous timing with high precision. Most of BPA is served by a Central Time System (CTS) at the Dittmer Control Center near Portland, OR. This system keeps time locally and supplies time to both the control center systems and field locations via a microwave signal. It is kept synchronized to national standard time and coordinated with interconnected utilities. It is the official BPA time. Powwer system control and operation is described, followed by a description of BPA timing systems including CTS, the Fault Location Acquisition Reporter, time dissemination, and phasor measurements. References are provided for further reading.

  15. 28 CFR 513.40 - Inmate access to Inmate Central File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Inmate Requests to Institution for Information § 513.40 Inmate access to Inmate Central File. Inmates are encouraged to use the simple access... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate access to Inmate Central File....

  16. 28 CFR 513.41 - Inmate access to Inmate Central File in connection with parole hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Inmate Requests to Institution for Information § 513.41 Inmate access to Inmate Central File in connection with... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate access to Inmate Central File...

  17. Flexible Support Liquid Argon Heat Intercept

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-18

    A device in the flexible support system for the Central Calorimeter is the Liquid Argon Heat Intercept. The purpose of this apparatus is to intercept heat outside the inner vessel so that bubbles do not form inside. If bubbles did happen to form inside the vessel, they would cause an electric arc between the read-out board and the absorption plates, thus destroying the pre-amplifier. Since this heat intercept is located in the center of the flexible support, it must also support the load of the Central Caloimeter. Figure 1 shows how the intercept works. The subcooled liquid argon is driven through a 1/4-inch x 0.049-inch w tube by hydrostatic pressure. the ambient heat boils the subcooled argon. The gaseous argon flows through the tube and is condensed at the top of the vessel by a 100 kW cooling coil. This process is rpesent in all four flexible support systems.

  18. Heat waves and urban heat islands in Europe: A review of relevant drivers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kathrin; Lauf, Steffen; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    The climate change and the proceeding urbanization create future health challenges. Consequently, more people around the globe will be impaired by extreme weather events, such as heat waves. This study investigates the causes for the emergence of surface urban heat islands and its change during heat waves in 70 European cities. A newly created climate class indicator, a set of meaningful landscape metrics, and two population-related parameters were applied to describe the Surface Urban Heat Island Magnitude (SUHIM) - the mean temperature increase within the urban heat island compared to its surrounding, as well as the Heat Magnitude (HM) - the extra heat load added to the average summer SUHIM during heat waves. We evaluated the relevance of varying urban parameters within linear models. The exemplary European-wide heat wave in July 2006 was chosen and compared to the average summer conditions using MODIS land surface temperature with an improved spatial resolution of 250m. The results revealed that the initial size of the urban heat island had significant influence on SUHIM. For the explanation of HM the size of the heat island, the regional climate and the share of central urban green spaces showed to be critical. Interestingly, cities of cooler climates and cities with higher shares of urban green spaces were more affected by additional heat during heat waves. Accordingly, cooler northern European cities seem to be more vulnerable to heat waves, whereas southern European cities appear to be better adapted. Within the ascertained population and climate clusters more detailed explanations were found. Our findings improve the understanding of the urban heat island effect across European cities and its behavior under heat waves. Also, they provide some indications for urban planners on case-specific adaptation strategies to adverse urban heat caused by heat waves. PMID:27366983

  19. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  20. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  1. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  2. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Craig G.; Wilson, Thad E.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  3. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  4. Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  5. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  6. High-temperature solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinrood, A. C.

    1981-07-01

    Designs and concepts for solar central receiver thermal power plants are reviewed. Concentrations of over 1,000 suns are now possible, and seven prototype plants, producing from 1-10 MWe, are close to completion, employing cavity and external receiver configurations. Heat transfer fluids are discussed, noting that the water/steam cycle is emerging as the dominant mode; liquid sodium is benefitting from extensive testing for nuclear power plants; molten salt provides thermal storage at $10-30/kWt-hr; high temperature gas systems (815 C) can be applied for gypsum board drying and NH3 production. Heliostats are all of a steel/glass configuration and require mass production to become economical. Thermal storage systems, applications for repowering in conjunction with conventional power plants, and cogeneration for electricity/process heat are examined, and power costs are projected to match those of coal if the central receiver construction costs can be halved.

  7. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  8. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  9. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  10. Heat recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Richarts, F.

    1985-04-16

    Heat is recovered by combining a heat transfer system including heat exchangers interconnected in a circulatory system, with a heat pump system. The heat pump system is preferably operated in accordance with the Lorenz-Principle. It is not necessary to divide the heat carrier circuit of the heat pump into two or three separate circulatory circuits. The heat carrier circuit of the heat pump can thus continue to operate unchanged even if the heat pump is switched off. For this purpose the warm heat carrier coming from a discharge fluid cooler, is heated further in a condenser of the heat pump and the cold heat carrier coming from a preheater or cooler group, is cooled further in an evaporator of the heat pump.

  11. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  12. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  13. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  14. Current and future centrally acting antitussives☆

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight some important issues regarding current centrally acting antitussive drugs as well as discuss the implications of these matters on the development of future cough suppressants. Drugs that act in the central nervous system to inhibit cough are termed centrally acting and this designation is based exclusively on evidence obtained from animal models. This classification can include drugs that act both at peripheral and central sites following systemic administration. These drugs are intended to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing resulting from disorders of any etiology. There are a number of central cough suppressants identified by their efficacy in animal models and the most prominent of these are codeine and dextromethorphan. Although the exact neural elements on which these drugs act are currently unknown, they are thought to inhibit a functionally identified component of the central system for cough known as the gating mechanism. The efficacy of codeine and dextromethorphan in humans has recently been questioned. These drugs are less effective on cough induced by upper airway disorders than in pathological conditions involving the lower airways in humans. The reasons for this difference in antitussive sensitivity are not clear. We propose that sensory afferents from different regions of the airways actuate coughing in humans by antitussive sensitive and insensitive control elements in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with results from an animal model in which laryngeal and tracheobronchial cough had different sensitivities to codeine. Other factors that may be very important in the action of central antitussive drugs in humans include the role of sensations produced by a tussigenic stimulus as well as plasticity of central pathways in response to airway inflammation. Resolution of these issues in the human will be a challenging process, but one which will lay the foundation for the

  15. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be... administrator to the manufacturer. Each solar water heating system shall be marked as conforming to UM 100....

  16. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be... administrator to the manufacturer. Each solar water heating system shall be marked as conforming to UM 100....

  17. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be... administrator to the manufacturer. Each solar water heating system shall be marked as conforming to UM 100....

  18. Central pontine myelinolysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  19. Domino System Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, R.

    Need a concise, practical explanation about the new features of Domino, and how to make some of the advanced stuff really work? You need answers and solutions from someone who's been in the trenches. You want information from someone like you, who has worked with the product for years, and understands what it is you need to know. Domino System Administration from New Riders is the answer-the first book on Domino that attacks the technology at the professional level, with practical, hands-on assistance to get Domino 5 running in your organization.

  20. Central diffraction at ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämsä, J. W.; Orava, R.

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  1. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... voltage transformer used when testing coil-only residential central air conditioners and heat pumps, 75 FR... heat pumps, as required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(gg)(2)(A). 75 FR 31238-39. These proposals included testing... (parameter P2). 75 FR 31238-39. P1 and P2 are both expressed in units of watts. Since heat pumps are...

  2. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  3. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an isotopic heat source. It comprises; at least one isotopic fuel stack, comprising alternating layers of: thulium oxide; and a low atomic weight diluent for thulium oxide; a heat block defining holes into which the fuel stacks can be placed; at least one heat pipe for heat removal, with the heat pipe being positioned in the heat block in thermal connection with the fuel stack; and a structural container surrounding the heat block.

  4. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  5. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  6. Solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, M.; Startevant, R.C.

    1985-01-22

    A solar heater has an outlet conduit above an inlet conduit intercoupling a solar heating chamber with the inside of a building through a window opening. In one form the solar collecting chamber is outside the building below the window and the outlet conduit and inlet conduit are contiguous and pass through the window opening between the windowsill and the lower sash. In another form of the invention the solar collecting chambers are located beside each side of the window and joined at the top by the outlet conduit that passes through an opening between the upper window sash and the top of the window frame and at the bottom by an inlet conduit that passes through an opening between the lower sash and the windowsill. The outlet conduit carries photoelectric cells that provide electrical energy for driving a squirrel-cage fan in the outlet conduit through a mercury switch seated on a damper actuated by a bimetallic coil that closes the damper when the temperature in the outlet conduit goes below a predetermined temperature.

  7. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  8. Central vascular catheters and infections.

    PubMed

    Dioni, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Renata; Marzollo, Roberto; Oprandi, Daniela; Chirico, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Newborn infants in critical conditions require a permanent intra-venous line to allow for the administration of fluids, parenteral nutrition and drugs. The use of central venous catheters, however, is associated with an increased risk of infections, leading to prolongation of length of stay and higher hospitalization costs, particularly in extremely preterm infants. Dwell time is a significant factor for complications, with a predicted risk of catheter related infections of about 4 per 1000 catheter-days. To reduce the incidence of complications, several requirements must be met, including adequate staff and resources to provide education, training, and quality improvement programs, within a culture of communication and teamwork. Rigorous reporting schedule on line care and the implementation of unique bundle elements, the use of health care failure mode and effect analysis, the judicious use of antibiotics through an antimicrobial stewardship strategy, the application of specific antifungal prophylaxis are among the most effective interventions, while the addition of heparin to parenteral solution, or the use of antibiotic plus heparin lock therapy are under evaluation. Nursing assistance plays a fundamental role in managing central venous lines and in reducing or preventing the incidence of infection, by the application of several complex professional strategies. PMID:24709460

  9. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs... and circulation) of the central nervous system. The BBB is an area consisting of specialized...

  10. How Central Exams Affect Educational Achievement: International Evidence from TIMSS and TIMSS-Repeat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    This study asserts that central examinations need not necessarily be those administered by the government; they can be examinations centralized at some administrative level, but in any case, they are external to the school. This study also assessed the impact of central examinations on the functioning of the education system and students academic…

  11. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  12. Authority Control at the National Archives and Records Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Lydia J. E.; Simmons, C. Jerry

    2007-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) launched the Archival Research Catalog (ARC) in 2002. ARC was the first centralized system for describing materials held throughout NARA's nationwide system of archival repositories. ARC's complicated development involved the entire agency, as staff wrestled with years of distinct descriptive…

  13. The Community College Theatre Department: An Administrative Point of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine, Don

    This paper discusses aspects of faculty, administration, departmental structure, curriculum, and production operations of community college theatre departments in general and of Illinois Central College in particular. It contends that the common and revered tenet of community college institutional philosophy is "community service." The importance…

  14. Civil Rights in Crisis: The Reagan Administration's Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroyer-Portillo, Janet

    This paper identifies major changes in the area of civil rights which have been instituted during President Reagan's term in office and discusses their implications for Hispanics. Section I briefly outlines central themes of the Administration's attitude towards civil rights. Questions about their negative impact on Hispanics are raised. The next…

  15. Relevant Adult Programs, Resilient Students, and Retention-Driven Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beth Sullivan, Esther; Pagano, Rosanne V.

    2012-01-01

    In ten years, Alaska Pacific University has moved from a totally decentralized administration of its adult online program to a very centralized structure. Drastic changes in funding sources and student needs have compelled the university to take new approaches. As the learning landscape continues to shift for adults, online learners, and Alaska…

  16. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Wilson, Thad E; Crandall, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Heat stress profoundly and unanimously reduces orthostatic tolerance. This review aims to provide an overview of the numerous and multifactorial mechanisms by which this occurs in humans. Potential causal factors include changes in arterial and venous vascular resistance and blood distribution, and the modulation of cardiac output, all of which contribute to the inability to maintain cerebral perfusion during heat and orthostatic stress. A number of countermeasures have been established to improve orthostatic tolerance during heat stress, which alleviate heat stress induced central hypovolemia (e.g., volume expansion) and/or increase peripheral vascular resistance (e.g., skin cooling). Unfortunately, these countermeasures can often be cumbersome to use with populations prone to syncopal episodes. Identifying the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in orthostatic intolerance during heat stress has proven elusive, but could provide greater insights into the development of novel and personalized countermeasures for maintaining or improving orthostatic tolerance during heat stress. This development will be especially impactful in occuational settings and clinical situations that present with orthostatic intolerance and/or central hypovolemia. Such investigations should be considered of vital importance given the impending increased incidence of heat events, and associated cardiovascular challenges that are predicted to occur with the ensuing changes in climate. PMID:26723547

  17. Mass drug administration for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Eugenie; Skarbinski, Jacek; Sinclair, David; Kachur, S Patrick; Slutsker, Laurence; Hwang, Jimee

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA), defined as the empiric administration of a therapeutic antimalarial regimen to an entire population at the same time, has been a historic component of many malaria control and elimination programmes, but is not currently recommended. With renewed interest in MDA and its role in malaria elimination, this review aims to summarize the findings from existing research studies and program experiences of MDA strategies for reducing malaria burden and transmission. Objectives To assess the impact of antimalarial MDA on population asexual parasitaemia prevalence, parasitaemia incidence, gametocytaemia prevalence, anaemia prevalence, mortality and MDA-associated adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE+, EMBASE, to February 2013. We also searched CABS Abstracts, LILACS, reference lists, and recent conference proceedings. Selection criteria Cluster-randomized trials and non-randomized controlled studies comparing therapeutic MDA versus placebo or no MDA, and uncontrolled before-and-after studies comparing post-MDA to baseline data were selected. Studies administering intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) to sub-populations (for example, pregnant women, children or infants) were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were stratified by study design and then subgrouped by endemicity, by co-administration of 8-aminoquinoline plus schizonticide drugs and by plasmodium species. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Two cluster-randomized trials, eight non-randomized controlled studies and 22 uncontrolled before-and-after studies are included in this review. Twenty-two studies (29 comparisons) compared MDA to placebo or no intervention of which two comparisons were

  18. Active galaxies and radiative heating.

    PubMed

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Ciotti, Luca

    2005-03-15

    There is abundant evidence that heating processes in the central regions of elliptical galaxies have both prevented large-scale cooling flows and assisted in the expulsion of metal rich gas. We now know that each such spheroidal system harbours in its core a massive black hole weighing ca. 0.13% of the mass in stars and also know that energy was emitted by each of these black holes with an efficiency exceeding 10% of its rest mass. Since, if only 0.5% of that radiant energy were intercepted by the ambient gas, its thermal state would be drastically altered, it is worth examining in detail the interaction between the out-flowing radiation and the equilibrium or inflowing gas. On the basis of detailed hydrodynamic computations we find that relaxation oscillations are to be expected with the radiative feedback quite capable of regulating both the growth of the central black hole and also the density and thermal state of the gas in the galaxy. Mechanical input of energy by jets may assist or dominate over these radiative effects. We propose specific observational tests to identify systems which have experienced strong bursts of radiative heating from their central black holes. PMID:15681285

  19. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  20. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  1. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  2. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  3. Selecting the Administrative Computing Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielec, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Important steps in the computing administrator selection process are outlined, including: reviewing the administrative computing organization, determining a search methodology, selecting a search or screening committee, narrowing the candidate pool, scheduling interviews and evaluating candidates, and conducting negotiations. (MSE)

  4. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  5. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  6. Heated tool for autoclaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Vanucci, R. D.; Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Components made of composite materials are heated in autoclaves by employing electrical resistance heating blankets, thus avoiding need to heat entire autoclave volume. Method provides not only significant energy savings compared to heating entire pressure vessel but offers time savings in accelerated heat-up and cool-down cycles.

  7. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  8. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat rash consist of controlling heat and humidity. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help to reduce fever. Remove ... without any sweat. Your child may complain of dizziness, nausea, weakness, headache, confusion, or difficulty breathing. This ...

  9. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  10. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  11. The Future of Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    Past approaches to public administration, the diminishing distinctions between foreign and domestic policy, the role of the public administrator, and leadership qualities are discussed. As a relatively young discipline, public administration first focused on scientific management (1920's). It then shifted to the art and science of getting things…

  12. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  13. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  14. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  15. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  16. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  17. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  18. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk is higher if you: Are in the intensive care unit (ICU) Have a weakened immune system or serious ... unless you have washed your hands. Tell your nurse if your central line: Gets dirty Is coming ...

  19. Diabetes insipidus - central

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus is caused by a genetic problem. Symptoms Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus include: Increased urine production Excessive thirst Confusion and changes in alertness due to dehydration and higher than normal sodium level in the ...

  20. 76 FR 6477 - Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ..., Food and Drug Administration, 4040 North Central Expressway, suite 900, Dallas, Texas 75204, 214-253-4952, FAX: 214-253-4970, e-mail: David.Arvelo@fda.hhs.gov . Registration: You are encouraged...

  1. Heat Wave Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... heat has caused more deaths than all other weather events, including floods. A heat wave is a ... care for heat- related emergencies … ❏ Listen to local weather forecasts and stay aware of upcoming temperature changes. ❏ ...

  2. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  3. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  5. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  6. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  7. Higgs central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Dechambre, A.; Hernández, O. F.

    2012-01-01

    Using the CHIDe model, we tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs production to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive production of Higgs boson at the LHC. In this model, due to different choices of the scale in the Sudakov form factor for dijet and Higgs production, it is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.

  8. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Blattner, Collin; Polley, Dennis C.; Ferritto, Frank; Elston, Dirk M.

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races. PMID:23440368

  9. Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Brian; Fiedler, Lon

    2012-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, many schools and universities are considering energy-saving solutions, including solar heating options, to lower costs and to attract students and staff that support environmentally friendly practices. However, administrators and facility engineers should take several issues into account before pursuing a solar…

  10. Balanced Centrality of Networks.

    PubMed

    Debono, Mark; Lauri, Josef; Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  11. Balanced Centrality of Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings.

  12. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  13. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  14. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  15. 19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Cold dark matter heats up.

    PubMed

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio

    2014-02-13

    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities. PMID:24522596

  19. Enhancement of heat transfer in waste-heat heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1980-07-01

    The Fluidfire shallow fluidized bed heat transfer facility was modified to give increased air flow capacity and to allow testing with different distributor plates and with two stage heat exchangers. The effect of reduced distributor plate pressure loss and amount and type of bed material on the heat transfer performance of a single stage fluidized bed heat exchanger is explored. Elutriation from the bed was measured for different bed materials and distributor plates; alternate heat exchanger surfaces having different fin spacings were also tested. Two types of two stage fluidized bed heat exchangers were tested: one having a baffle (having almost no pressure loss) located between the stages and which allowed bed material to recirculate between upper and lower beds; the second having two distributor plates in series with no recirculation of the bed material.

  20. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.