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Sample records for administration favors muscle

  1. Leptin Administration Favors Muscle Mass Accretion by Decreasing FoxO3a and Increasing PGC-1α in ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2009-01-01

    Absence of leptin has been associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of leptin on the catabolic and anabolic pathways regulating muscle mass. Gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle mass as well as fiber size were significantly lower in ob/ob mice compared to wild type littermates, being significantly increased by leptin administration (P<0.001). This effect was associated with an inactivation of the muscle atrophy-related transcription factor forkhead box class O3 (FoxO3a) (P<0.05), and with a decrease in the protein expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin-ligases muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) (P<0.05) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) (P<0.05). Moreover, leptin increased (P<0.01) protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a regulator of muscle fiber type, and decreased (P<0.05) myostatin protein, a negative regulator of muscle growth. Leptin administration also activated (P<0.01) the regulators of cell cycle progression proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1, and increased (P<0.01) myofibrillar protein troponin T. The present study provides evidence that leptin treatment may increase muscle mass of ob/ob mice by inhibiting myofibrillar protein degradation as well as enhancing muscle cell proliferation. PMID:19730740

  2. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients’ neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were ‘very important’ to them (p<0.0001). Patients had ‘little concern’ for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients’ preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  3. Brain glucagon-like peptide–1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D.; Perrin, Christophe; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Maury, Jean François; Bernard, Elodie; Benhamed, Fadilha; Grémeaux, Thierry; Drucker, Daniel J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Girard, Jean; Tanti, Jean François; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Postic, Catherine; Burcelin, Rémy

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal glucagon-like peptide–1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released into the hepatoportal circulation that stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion. GLP-1 also acts as a neuropeptide to control food intake and cardiovascular functions, but its neural role in glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show that brain GLP-1 controlled whole-body glucose fate during hyperglycemic conditions. In mice undergoing a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, icv administration of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content. This effect did not require muscle insulin action, as it also occurred in muscle insulin receptor KO mice. Conversely, icv infusion of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 (Ex4) reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization. In hyperglycemia achieved by i.v. infusion of glucose, icv Ex4, but not Ex9, caused a 4-fold increase in insulin secretion and enhanced liver glycogen storage. However, when glucose was infused intragastrically, icv Ex9 infusion lowered insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen levels, whereas no effects of icv Ex4 were observed. In diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet, a 1-month chronic i.p. Ex9 treatment improved glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia. Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state. PMID:16322793

  4. Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage.

    PubMed

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D; Perrin, Christophe; Iglesias, Miguel A; Maury, Jean François; Bernard, Elodie; Benhamed, Fadilha; Grémeaux, Thierry; Drucker, Daniel J; Kahn, C Ronald; Girard, Jean; Tanti, Jean François; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Postic, Catherine; Burcelin, Rémy

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released into the hepatoportal circulation that stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion. GLP-1 also acts as a neuropeptide to control food intake and cardiovascular functions, but its neural role in glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show that brain GLP-1 controlled whole-body glucose fate during hyperglycemic conditions. In mice undergoing a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, icv administration of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content. This effect did not require muscle insulin action, as it also occurred in muscle insulin receptor KO mice. Conversely, icv infusion of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 (Ex4) reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization. In hyperglycemia achieved by i.v. infusion of glucose, icv Ex4, but not Ex9, caused a 4-fold increase in insulin secretion and enhanced liver glycogen storage. However, when glucose was infused intragastrically, icv Ex9 infusion lowered insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen levels, whereas no effects of icv Ex4 were observed. In diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet, a 1-month chronic i.p. Ex9 treatment improved glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia. Our data show that during hyperglycemia, brain GLP-1 inhibited muscle glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion to favor hepatic glycogen stores, preparing efficiently for the next fasting state.

  5. Identification of a vibration regime favorable for bone healing and muscle in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Ammon, Jan; Lieberwirth, Peggy; Sauerhoff, Cordula; Trautmann, Lukas; Wicke, Michael; Dullin, Christian; Stuermer, Klaus M; Stuermer, Ewa K

    2013-06-01

    Numerous whole-body vibration (WBV) devices of various forces are available on the market, although their influence on the musculoskeletal system is not yet understood. The effect of different WBVs on bone healing and muscle function was evaluated in rats ovariectomized at 3 months of age. 2 months after ovariectomy, bilateral metaphyseal tibia osteotomy and T-plate osteosynthesis were performed. Rats were divided into groups: intact, OVX, and OVX exposed to vertical WBVs of 35, 50, 70, or 90 Hz (experiment 1) or horizontal WBVs of 30, 50, 70, or 90 Hz (experiment 2) 5 days after osteotomy (0.5 mm, 15 min/day for 30 days). The tibia and gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were collected. Vertical vibrations (>35 Hz) improved cortical and callus densities, enlarged callus area and width, suppressed the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase gene, enhanced citrate synthase activity, accelerated osteotomy bridging (35 and 50 Hz), upregulated the osteocalcin (Oc) gene (70 Hz), and increased relative muscle weight (50 Hz). Horizontal vibrations reduced cortical width (<90 Hz) and callus density (30 Hz), enhanced alkaline phosphatase (Alp) gene expression (50 Hz), decreased the size of oxidative fibers (35 and 70 Hz), and increased capillary density (70, 90 Hz). Biomechanical data; serum Oc, Alp, and creatine kinase activities; body weight; and food intake did not change after WBVs. Vertical WBVs of 35 and 50 Hz produced more favorable results than the higher frequencies. Horizontal WBV showed no positive or negative effects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of WBV on different physiological systems, and precautions must be taken when implementing WBV in the treatment of patients.

  6. Ultrastructure of mouse striated muscle fibers following pravastatin administration.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael; Salman, Hertzel; Djaldetti, Meir; Alexandrova, Svetlana; Punsky, Igor; Bessler, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    To examine the effect of pravastatin administration on striated muscle ultrastructure, 10 BalbC mice were given pravastatin 40 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn for evaluation of the serum creatine phospho-kinase (CPK) level and the muscles of the hind legs, as well as the heart and liver of the animals were examined with a light and transmission electron microscope. After treatment with pravastatin the results showed a 101% increase in serum CPK level in comparison to untreated controls. Hematoxillin-eosin stained tissues of pravastatin treated mice did not show any abnormal findings. While the ultrastructure of the heart and liver of the treated animals appeared normal, the muscle fibers showed a marked alterations of the mitochondria, which were increased in size compared to those of the controls. The cristae were heavily damaged and even completely destructed, giving the mitochondria appearance of empty vacuoles. The findings are in favor of a specificity of pravastatin for striated muscles.

  7. Artificial selection for high activity favors mighty mini-muscles in house mice.

    PubMed

    Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Guderley, Helga; Swallow, John G; Garland, Theodore

    2003-02-01

    After 14 generations of selection for voluntary wheel running, mice from the four replicate selected lines ran, on average, twice as many revolutions per day as those from the four unselected control lines. To examine whether the selected lines followed distinct strategies in the correlated responses of the size and metabolic capacities of the hindlimb muscles, we examined mice from selected lines, housed for 8 wk in cages with access to running wheels that were either free to rotate ("wheel access" group) or locked ("sedentary"). Thirteen of twenty individuals in one selected line (line 6) and two of twenty in another (line 3) showed a marked reduction ( approximately 50%) in total hindlimb muscle mass, consistent with the previously described expression of a small-muscle phenotype. Individuals with these "mini-muscles" were not significantly smaller in total body mass compared with line-mates with normal-sized muscles. Access to free wheels did not affect the relative mass of the mini-muscles, but did result in typical mammalian training effects for mitochondrial enzyme activities. Individuals with mini-muscles showed a higher mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity as revealed by the maximal in vitro rates of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, these mice showed the highest activities of hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase. Females with mini-muscles showed the highest levels of phosphofructokinase, and males with mini-muscles the highest levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase. As shown by total muscle enzyme contents, the increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity almost completely compensated for the reduction caused by the "loss" of muscle mass. Moreover, the mini-muscle mice exhibited the lowest contents of lactate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase. Interestingly, metabolic capacities of mini-muscled mice resemble those of muscles after endurance training. Overall, our results demonstrate that during selection for voluntary wheel

  8. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  9. Plyometric Training Favors Optimizing Muscle-Tendon Behavior during Depth Jumping.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kuniaki; Iwanuma, Soichiro; Ikeda, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Ayumi; Ema, Ryoichi; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscle-tendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ. Maximal static plantar flexion strength and Achilles tendon stiffness were also determined. In the training group, maximal strength remained unchanged while tendon stiffness increased. The force impulse of DJ increased, with a shorter contact time and larger reaction force over the latter half of braking and initial half of propulsion phases. In the latter half of braking phase, the average electromyographic activity (mEMG) increased in the triceps surae and decreased in tibialis anterior, while fascicle behavior of the gastrocnemius remained unchanged. In the initial half of propulsion, mEMG of triceps surae and shortening velocity of gastrocnemius fascicle decreased, while shortening velocity of the tendon increased. These results suggest that the following mechanisms play an important role in improving SSC exercise performance through plyometric training: (1) optimization of muscle-tendon behavior of the agonists, associated with alteration in the neuromuscular activity during SSC exercise and increase in tendon stiffness and (2) decrease in the neuromuscular activity of antagonists during a counter movement.

  10. Effects of taurine administration in rat skeletal muscles on exercise.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Miyazaki, Teruo; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of taurine administration on exercise, we studied taurine concentrations in rat skeletal muscles after endurance running and the duration of running time to exhaustion, with and without taurine administration. For study 1 we divided 40 male SD rats into two groups: endurance exercise group ( n = 20) and sedentary control group ( n = 20). Each was further divided into two groups; one received distilled water ( n = 10) and the other taurine solution in water 0.5 g/kg/day orally ( n = 10) for 2 weeks. The exercise group performed treadmill running (60 min) once only after their nursing period. For study 2, we divided 10 male SD rats into two groups; one ( n = 5) received taurine 0.5 g/kg/day, and the other ( n = 5) received no taurine for 2 weeks; the two groups then performed treadmill running to exhaustion. In study 1, taurine administration increased taurine concentrations in leg skeletal muscles, whereas the concentrations were significantly lower in the exercised groups without taurine administration. Taurine administration reduced the decrease in taurine concentration in skeletal muscles on exercise. In study 2, the duration of running time to exhaustion was significantly increased by taurine administration. We concluded that peroral administration of taurine maintains the taurine concentration in skeletal muscle on exercise and up-regulates physical endurance.

  11. The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JOO WAN; KU, SAE-KWANG; HAN, MIN HO; KIM, KI YOUNG; KIM, SUNG GOO; KIM, GI-YOUNG; HWANG, HYE JIN; KIM, BYUNG WOO; KIM, CHEOL MIN; CHOI, YUNG HYUN

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable

  12. ECM-mimetic heparin glycosamioglycan-functionalized surface favors constructing functional vascular smooth muscle tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimin; Wang, Jianing; Wei, Yongzhen; Gao, Cheng; Chen, Xuejiao; Kong, Wei; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Contractile vascular smooth muscle accounts for the normal physiological function of artery. Heparin, as a native glycosaminoglycan, has been well known for its important function in promoting or maintaining the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, heparin-functionalized non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) mat was fabricated by a facile and efficient surface modification protocol, which enables the control of surface heparin density within a broad range. Surface heparization remarkably increased the hydrophilicity of PCL, and reduced platelet adhesion. MTT assay showed that VSMC proliferation was evidently inhibited on the heparin-functionalized PCL surface in a dose-dependent manner. Gene analysis confirmed that surface heparization also promoted the transition of VSMCs from synthetic phenotype to contractile one. Furthermore, with a proper surface density of heparin, it allowed VSMCs to grow in a certain rate, while exhibiting contractile phenotype. Culture of VSMCs on a modified PCL mat with moderate heparin density (PCL-Hep-20) for 2 days resulted in a confluent layer of contractile smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that the heparin-modified PCL scaffolds may be a promising candidate to generate functional vascular tissues in vitro.

  13. Carnitine supplementation to obese Zucker rats prevents obesity-induced type II to type I muscle fiber transition and favors an oxidative phenotype of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation counteracts obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. Methods 24 obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into two groups of 12 rats each (obese control, obese carnitine) and 12 lean Zucker rats were selected for lean control group. A control diet was given to both control groups and a carnitine supplemented diet (3 g/kg diet) was given to obese carnitine group for 4 wk. Components of the muscle fiber transformation in skeletal muscle were examined. Results The plasma level of carnitine were lower in the obese control group compared to the lean control group and higher in the obese carnitine group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were increased in obese animals compared to lean animals and the obese carnitine group had lower level compared to the obese control group (P < 0.05). The obese carnitine group had an increased number of type I muscle fibers and higher mRNA levels of type I fiber-specific myosin heavy chain, regulators of muscle fiber transition and of genes involved in carnitine uptake, fatty acid transport, β-oxidation, angiogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and thermo genesis in M. rectus femoris compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrate that carnitine supplementation to obese Zucker a rat counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition and restores the muscle oxidative metabolic phenotype. Carnitine supplementation is supposed to be beneficial for the treatment of elevated levels of plasma lipids during obesity or diabetes. PMID:23842456

  14. Effects of Chronic Pyridostigmine Administration on Muscle Fatigue and Morphology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    muscles of rats that were treated with pyridostigmine and also ran exhaustively for 1 hour per day for 14 days. Only one cystic body, or mitochondrial (m...Note widespread or scattered mitochondrial (m) damage in muscle. Figure 16. Electron micrographs, X-S, of gastrocnemius of 28-day pyridostigmine-treated...junction from the presynaptic nerve. In consonance with this, degenerative changes in muscle fibers were focused at subjunctional areas. The myopathy

  15. Brain and Muscle Redox Imbalance Elicited by Acute Ethylmalonic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2’,7’-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  16. Brain and muscle redox imbalance elicited by acute ethylmalonic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

  17. Oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 favors intestinal development and alters the intestinal microbiota in formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Fengjuan; Thacker, Phil A; Zhang, Guolong; Qiao, Shiyan; Ma, Xi

    2014-01-29

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 on intestinal development and microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract using a neonatal piglet model. Full-term 4 day old piglets, fed with milk replacer, were divided into a control group (given placebo of 0.1% peptone water) and a L. fermentum I5007 group (dosed daily with 6 × 10(9) CFU/mL L. fermentum I5007). The experiment lasted 14 days. On day 14, a significant increase in the jejunum villous height (583 ± 33 vs 526 ± 18) and increases in the concentrations of butyrate (7.55 ± 0.55 vs 5.33 ± 0.39) and branched chain fatty acids in the colonic digesta were observed in piglets in the L. fermentum I5007 treatment (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of IL-1β (1.29 ± 0.29 vs. 0.62 ± 0.07) in the ileum were lower after 14 days of treatment with L. fermentum I5007. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that L. fermentum I5007 affected the colonic microbial communities on day 14 and, in particular, reduced numbers of Clostridium sp. L. fermentum I5007 play a positive role in gut development in neonatal piglets by modulating microbial composition, intestinal development, and immune status. L. fermentum I5007 may be useful as a probiotic for application in neonatal piglets.

  18. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

    PubMed

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function.

  19. Effect of nandrolone decanoate administration on recovery from bupivacaine-induced muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    White, James P.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Sato, Shuichi; Wilson, L. Britt

    2009-01-01

    Although testosterone administration elicits well-documented anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass, the enhancement of muscle regeneration after injury has not been widely examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration improves skeletal muscle regeneration from bupivacaine-induced injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were castrated 2 wk before muscle injury induced by an intramuscular bupivacaine injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Control mice received an intramuscular PBS injection. Anabolic steroid [nandrolone decanoate (ND), 6 mg/kg] or sesame seed oil was administered at the time of initial injury and continued every 7 days for the study's duration. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 5, 14, or 42 days of recovery, as follows: 1) control (uninjured); 2) ND only (uninjured + ND); 3) bupivacaine only (injured); or 4) bupivacaine + ND (injured + ND). TA morphology, protein, and gene expression were analyzed at 14 and 42 days after injury; protein expression was analyzed at 5 days after injury. After 14 days of recovery, the injury and injury + ND treatments induced small-diameter myofiber incidence and also decreased mean myofiber area. The increase in small-myofiber incidence was 65% greater in injury + ND muscle compared with injury alone. At 14 days, injury + ND induced a fivefold increase in muscle IGF-I mRNA expression, which was greater than injury alone. Muscle Akt activity and glycogen synthetase kinase-3β activity were also induced by injury + ND at 14 days of recovery, but not by injury alone. ND had a main effect for increasing muscle MyoD and cyclin D1 mRNA expression at 14 days. After 42 days of recovery, injury + ND increased large-diameter myofiber incidence compared with injury only. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) administration can enhance castrated mouse muscle regeneration during the recovery from bupivacaine-induced injury. PMID:19745189

  20. TWEAK favors phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells through canonical and non-canonical activation of NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Hénaut, L; Sanz, A B; Martin-Sanchez, D; Carrasco, S; Villa-Bellosta, R; Aldamiz-Echevarria, G; Massy, Z A; Sanchez-Nino, M D; Ortiz, A

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) recently emerged as a new biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. TWEAK binding to its functional receptor Fn14 was reported to promote several steps of atherosclerotic plaque progression. However, no information is currently available on the role of TWEAK/Fn14 on the development of medial calcification, which is highly prevalent in aging, CKD and T2DM. This study explored the involvement of TWEAK in human vascular smooth muscle cells (h-VSMCs) calcification in vitro. We report that TWEAK binding to Fn14 promotes inorganic phosphate-induced h-VSMCs calcification, favors h-VSMCs osteogenic transition, decreasing acta2 and myh11 and increasing bmp2 mRNA and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and increases MMP9 activity. Blockade of the canonical NFκB pathway reduced by 80% TWEAK pro-calcific properties and decreased osteogenic transition, TNAP and MMP9 activity. Blockade of non-canonical NFκB signaling by a siRNA targeting RelB reduced by 20% TWEAK pro-calcific effects and decreased TWEAK-induced loss of h-VSMCs contractile phenotype and MMP9 activity, without modulating bmp2 mRNA or TNAP activity. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by a MAPK kinase inhibitor did not influence TWEAK pro-calcific properties. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14 directly favors inorganic phosphate-induced h-VSMCs calcification by activation of both canonical and non-canonical NFκB pathways. Given the availability of neutralizing anti-TWEAK strategies, our study sheds light on the TWEAK/Fn14 axis as a novel therapeutic target in the prevention of VC. PMID:27441657

  1. Losartan Administration Reduces Fibrosis but Hinders Functional Recovery after Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-25

    Texas Submitted 1 August 2014; accepted in final form 23 September 2014 Garg K, Corona BT, Walters TJ. Losartan administration re- duces fibrosis but...therapy. Pre- viously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of...recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and

  2. Ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations of skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Machida, M; Takemasa, T

    2010-10-01

    Exercise training induces many adaptations in skeletal muscle, representative examples of which include an increase in the IIa myofibre and an increase in the capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:F ratio). Moreover, these phenomena are thought to be dependent on running distance. Ibuprofen is one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is often used as an analgesic, but its effect on skeletal muscle adaptation during endurance training is unclear. In the present study, therefore, we administered ibuprofen to mice during running wheel exercise for four weeks, and examined its effects on the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle. We observed a significant increase of the IIa myofibre and C:F ratio even in the presence of ibuprofen. Moreover, in untreated mice, there was a significant positive and strong correlation between these parameters and running distance. These results indicate that the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle usually depend on running distance. Interestingly, we observed no significant correlation between these parameters and running distance in ibuprofen-administered mice. Moreover, we found no significant increase of these parameters when the running distance was significantly increased, in comparison with untreated mice. These results indicate that ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations in skeletal muscle. This suggests that even if ibuprofen administration facilitates longer-distance running, no further effects of training on skeletal muscle can be expected.

  3. [Nandrolone administration does not promote hypertrophy of soleus muscle in rats].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Tatiana S; Tanno, Ana Paula; Marcondes, Fernanda K; Perez, Sérgio E A; Selistre-Araújo, Heloisa S

    2006-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are compounds formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, which are largely used by amateur e professional athletes to improve the athletic performance. However, the scientific information about the relation between the use of AAS and muscle hypertrophy is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of testosterone and physical training on muscle hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats received i.m. injections of Deca-Durabolin or vehicle during 6 weeks. Trained rats were submitted to a resistance physical training, by jumping up and down in water carrying an overload. Sedentary and trained animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Soleus muscle was removed for the quantification of total protein and DNA concentration. In the end of the treatment, body weight of trained animals treated with vehicle or AAS was lower than the body weight of respective sedentary. Total protein concentration and the ratio muscle weight/body weight of all experimental groups were not altered. Trained group treated with AAS presented lower DNA concentration than trained group treated with vehicle. The administration of nandrolone decanoate did not promote hypertrophy on soleus muscle, not even when the use of AAS was associated to resistance physical training.

  4. Fenofibrate administration to arthritic rats increases adiponectin and leptin and prevents oxidative muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Castillero, Estíbaliz; Martín, Ana Isabel; Nieto-Bona, Maria Paz; Fernández-Galaz, Carmen; López-Menduiña, María; Villanúa, María Ángeles; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation induces skeletal muscle wasting and cachexia. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα (PPARA)) agonist, reduces wasting of gastrocnemius, a predominantly glycolytic muscle, by decreasing atrogenes and myostatin. Considering that fenofibrate increases fatty acid oxidation, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether fenofibrate is able to prevent the effect of arthritis on serum adipokines and on soleus, a type I muscle in which oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy. Arthritis was induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant. Four days after the injection, control and arthritic rats were gavaged daily with fenofibrate (300 mg/kg bw) or vehicle over 12 days. Arthritis decreased serum leptin, adiponectin, and insulin (P<0.01) but not resistin levels. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate administration increased serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. Arthritis decreased soleus weight, cross-sectional area, fiber size, and its Ppar α mRNA expression. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate increased soleus weight, fiber size, and Ppar α expression and prevented the increase in Murf1 mRNA. Fenofibrate decreased myostatin, whereas it increased MyoD (Myod1) and myogenin expressions in the soleus of control and arthritic rats. These data suggest that in oxidative muscle, fenofibrate treatment is able to prevent arthritis-induced muscle wasting by decreasing Murf1 and myostatin expression and also by increasing the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and myogenin. Taking into account the beneficial action of adiponectin on muscle wasting and the correlation between adiponectin and soleus mass, part of the anticachectic action of fenofibrate may be mediated through stimulation of adiponectin secretion. PMID:23781298

  5. Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.

    2011-05-01

    Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( p<0.05) and 40% and 25% in the HSN group, as compared to the CTR group ( p<0.05), respectively. CSA of ST and FT muscle fibers were 25% and 16% larger in the HSL group in comparison with the HS group ( p<0.05), respectively. The atrophy of FT muscle fibers in the HSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, p<0.05). The destructions in dystrophin layer integrity and reductions of desmin content were significantly prevented in HSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L

  6. Effect of oral theaflavin administration on body weight, fat, and muscle in healthy subjects: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Teruki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Ueno, Tomoya

    2017-02-01

    Theaflavins are reddish-colored polyphenols in black tea. To test the efficacy of theaflavin administration on body fat and muscle, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and investigated the effect of theaflavins administration on the body composition using of healthy subjects. In this study, 30 male and female Japanese were enrolled and participants were randomly allocated to receive placebo, theaflavin (50 or 100 mg/day), or catechin (400 mg/ml) for 10 weeks. The effects were evaluated using body weight, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage. Theaflavin administration significantly improved body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage when compared to with the placebo. In contrast, there was no significant difference in all measured outcomes between the catechin and the placebo groups. The results indicate that oral administration of theaflavin had a beneficial effect on body fat and muscle in healthy individuals.

  7. Effects of Taurine Administration on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle during the Post-Exercise Phase.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Kitaoka, Yu; Terada, Shin; Hatta, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; dose: 0.5 mg/g body weight) administration after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min increased the glycogen concentration in the skeletal muscle of ICR mice at 120 min after the exercise (Takahashi et al. 2014). In the current study, we further investigated the effects of taurine administration on glycogen repletion and carbohydrate metabolism in the tibialis anterior muscle after endurance exercise. The metabolomic profiles of the tibialis anterior muscle at 120 min after the exercise were analyzed by a capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n=6). Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6P), a glycogenolytic/glycolytic intermediate produced by phosphofructokinase, was significantly lower in the taurine-treated group than that in the control group (p<0.01). Dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP), a downstream product of F1,6P was lower (p=0.05) and glycerol 3-phosphate, a downstream product of F1,6P and DHAP, tended to be lower (p=0.09) in the taurine-treated group than in the controls. At that time, phosphorylated Ser(293) on the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) tended to be higher in the taurine-treated mice than in the controls (p=0.09, n=5). There was a positive correlation between phosphorylation of the PDH E1α subunit at Ser(293) and glycogen concentration (r=0.73, p<0.05). Our results showed that the enhanced glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle by taurine treatment during the post-exercise phase was accompanied by the lower levels of glycogenolytic/glycolytic intermediates.

  8. Effect of opioid administration on cardiorespiratory and muscle oxygenation during lifting in chronic back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Yagesh; Gross, Douglas P; Haykowsky, Mark; Rashiq, Saifudin

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of opioid administration on the acute cardiorespiratory and muscle oxygenation responses during a repetitive lifting and lowering test (RLL) to voluntary fatigue in participants with chronic low back pain (LBP). Written informed consent was obtained from 27 LBP participants (mean age 50.9 +/- 16.4 years) who completed one testing session during which they were administered a saline placebo and opioid (1 microg/kg of fentanyl intravenously) in random order. The participants performed the RLL at a rate that they felt that they could sustain for an 8-h working day. Acute opioid administration increased the total lifting time and total work done during RLL by 35 and 48%, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the increased work capacity was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in oxygen cost of 22% per unit amount of work done and significant (p < 0.05) increases in heart rate (7%) and ventilation rate (10%). Near infrared spectroscopic analysis of erector spinae oxygenation and blood volume responses during RLL indicated no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the opioid and placebo phases. These findings suggest that the increased energy cost of lifting as a result of opioid administration was due to enhanced central oxygen transport and not peripheral muscle oxygen extraction.

  9. BTX-A administration to the target muscle affects forces of all muscles within an intact compartment and epimuscular myofascial force transmission.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Can A; Emre Arıkan, Önder; Ateş, Filiz

    2012-11-01

    Measurement of forces of mono- and bi-articular muscles of an entire intact muscle compartment can allow for a comprehensive assessment of the effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) both at and beyond the injection site, and in conditions close to those in vivo. The goal was to test the hypotheses that BTX-A affects (1) the forces of not only the injected but also the noninjected muscles of the compartment, and (2) epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: Control (no BTX-A injected) and BTX (0.1 units of BTX-A were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA). Isometric forces were measured simultaneously at the distal tendons of the tibialis anterior (TA) at different lengths, the restrained extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles and at the proximal tendon of EDL. Five days post-injection, BTX-A did affect the total forces of all muscles significantly: (1) The TA force decreased differentially (by 46.6%-55.9%) for most lengths such that a significant negative correlation was found between force reductions and increased muscle length. The maximum TA force decreased by 47.3%. However, the muscle's length range of force production did not change significantly. (2) Distal and proximal EDL forces decreased (on average by 67.8% and 62.9%, respectively). (3) The EHL force also decreased (on average by 9.2%). The passive forces of only the TA showed a significant increase at higher lengths. EMFT effects were shown for the control group: (1) at the shortest TA lengths, the EDL proximo-distal force differences were in favor of the distal force, which was reversed at higher lengths. (2) the EHL force measured at the shortest TA length decreased (by 34%) as a function of TA lengthening. After BTX-A exposure, such EMFT effects disappeared for the EDL, whereas they remained as profound for the EHL. Exposure to BTX-A does affect forces of all muscles operating in an intact compartment. For

  10. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Cory D.; Preeyanon, Likit; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    While much of our understanding of stress physiology is derived from biomedical studies, little is known about the downstream molecular consequences of adaptive stress responses in free-living animals. We examined molecular effectors of the stress hormones cortisol and aldosterone in the northern elephant seal, a free-ranging study system in which extreme physiological challenges and cortisol fluctuations are a routine part of life history. We stimulated the neuroendocrine stress axis by administering exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and examined the resultant effects by measuring corticosteroid hormones, metabolites, and gene expression before, during, and following administration. ACTH induced an elevation in cortisol, aldosterone, glucose, and fatty acids within 2 h, with complete recovery observed within 24 h of administration. The global transcriptional response of elephant seal muscle tissue to ACTH was evaluated by transcriptomics and involved upregulation of a highly coordinated network of conserved glucocorticoid (GC) target genes predicted to promote metabolic substrate availability without causing deleterious effects seen in laboratory animals. Transcriptional recovery from ACTH was characterized by downregulation of GC target genes and restoration of cell proliferation, metabolism, and tissue maintenance pathways within 24 h. Differentially expressed genes included several adipokines not previously described in muscle, reflecting unique metabolic physiology in fasting-adapted animals. This study represents one of the first transcriptome analyses of cellular responses to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation in a free-living marine mammal and suggests that compensatory, tissue-sparing mechanisms may enable marine mammals to maintain cortisol and aldosterone sensitivity while avoiding deleterious long-term consequences of stress. PMID:26038394

  11. Deferred radiotherapy and upfront procarbazine–ACNU–vincristine administration for 1p19q codeleted oligodendroglial tumors are associated with favorable outcome without compromising patient performance, regardless of WHO grade

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Nobuhiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Hatae, Ryusuke; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Shono, Tadahisa; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Recently updated phase III trials revealed the favorable effect of add-on procarbazine-lomustine-vincristine chemotherapy (CT) to radiotherapy (RT) in treating anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion (codel). However, the underlying rationality of deferring RT and upfront CT administration for these tumors is yet to be elucidated. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the long-term outcome of our case series with oligodendroglial tumors treated with deferred RT and upfront procarbazine+nimustine+vincristine (PAV) in the introduction administration. We enrolled 36 patients with newly diagnosed oligodendroglial tumors (17, grade II and 19, grade III) treated during 1999–2012 and followed up for a median period of 69.0 months. Their clinical and genetic prognostic factors were analyzed, and progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and deterioration-free survival (DFS) were evaluated. Regardless of the WHO grade, the 25 patients with 1p19q codel tumors never received RT initially, and of these 25, 23 received PAV treatment upfront. The 75% OS of patients with 1p19q codel tumor was 135.3 months (did not reach the median OS), indicating a favorable outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that IDH mutation and 1p19q, not WHO grade, are independent prognostic factors; furthermore, IDH and 1p19q status stratified the cohort into 3 groups with significantly different OS. The DFS explained the prolonged survival without declining performance in patients with both grade II and III 1p19q codel tumors. Deferred RT and upfront PAV treatment for 1p19q codel oligodendrogliomas were associated with favorable outcomes without compromising performance status, regardless of WHO grade. PMID:27895504

  12. Evaluation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Function after Chronic Administration of Thymosin β-4 in the Dystrophin Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Spurney, Christopher F.; Cha, Hee-Jae; Sali, Arpana; Pandey, Gouri S.; Pistilli, Emidio; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tβ4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ) and mdx mice, 8–10 weeks old, were treated with 150 µg of Tβ4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tβ4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tβ4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tβ4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tβ4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:20126456

  13. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, A. B. W.; Micmacher, E.; Biesek, S.; Assumpção, R.; Redorat, R.; Veloso, U.; Vaisman, M.; Farinatti, P. T. V.; Conceição, F.

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD) through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.). Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects) and placebo (7 subjects) and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group). Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566. PMID:24382963

  14. Biomarker evaluation of skeletal muscle toxicity following clofibrate administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Bodié, Karen; Buck, Wayne R; Pieh, Julia; Liguori, Michael J; Popp, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The use of sensitive biomarkers to monitor skeletal muscle toxicity in preclinical toxicity studies is important for the risk assessment in humans during the development of a novel compound. Skeletal muscle toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats was induced with clofibrate at different dose levels for 7 days to compare standard clinical pathology assays with novel skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle biomarkers, gene expression and histopathological changes. The standard clinical pathology assays aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity were compared to novel biomarkers fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), muscular isoform of CK immunoreactivity (three isoforms CKBB, CKMM, CKMB), parvalbumin (Prv), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), CKMM, and myoglobin (Myo). The biomarker elevations were correlated to histopathological findings detected in several muscles and gene expression changes. Clofibrate predominantly induced skeletal muscle toxicity of type I fibers of low magnitude. Useful biomarkers for skeletal muscle toxicity were AST, Fabp3, Myl3, (CKMB) and sTnI. Measurements of CK enzyme activity by a standard clinical assay were not useful for monitoring clofibrate-induced skeletal muscle toxicity in the rat at the doses used in this study.

  15. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  16. AICAR administration affects glucose metabolism by upregulating the novel glucose transporter, GLUT8, in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; Robinson, M A; Gruntmeir, K J; Liu, Y; Soma, L R; Lacombe, V A

    2015-09-01

    Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for this insidious disease. Glucose uptake is mediated by a family of glucose transporters (GLUT), and is regulated by insulin-dependent and -independent pathways, including 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Importantly, the activation of AMPK, by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) stimulates glucose uptake in both healthy and diabetic humans. However, whether AICAR promotes glucose uptake in horses has not been established. It is hypothesized that AICAR administration would enhance glucose transport in equine skeletal muscle through AMPK activation. In this study, the effect of an intravenous AICAR infusion on blood glucose and insulin concentrations, as well as on GLUT expression and AMPK activation in equine skeletal muscle (quantified by Western blotting) was examined. Upon administration, plasma AICAR rapidly reached peak concentration. Treatment with AICAR resulted in a decrease (P <0.05) in blood glucose and an increase (P <0.05) in insulin concentration without a change in lactate concentration. The ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK was increased (P <0.05) in skeletal muscle. While GLUT4 and GLUT1 protein expression remained unchanged, GLUT8 was increased (P <0.05) following AICAR treatment. Up-regulation of GLUT8 protein expression by AICAR suggests that this novel GLUT isoform plays an important role in equine muscle glucose transport. In addition, the data suggest that AMPK activation enhances pancreatic insulin secretion. Collectively, the findings suggest that AICAR acutely promotes muscle glucose uptake in healthy horses and thus its therapeutic potential for managing IR requires investigation.

  17. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung R; Lee, Min K; Lim, Koang H; Yang, Gwi Y; Jeon, Hye J; Ju, Jin S; Yoon, Young W; Kim, Sung K; Ahn, Dong K

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral mu opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.

  18. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Brandon N.; Enos, Reilly T.; Murphy, E. Angela; Carson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6. PMID:27449092

  19. Impairment of electron transfer chain induced by acute carnosine administration in skeletal muscle of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I-III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I-III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  20. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  1. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  2. Oral administration of myostatin-specific whole recombinant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine increases body weight and muscle composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Hanjiang; Wang, Rui; Xu, Kun; Xin, Ying; Ren, Gang; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Cunfang; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiying

    2011-10-26

    Myostatin negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. It was found that active immunization with myostatin-specific vaccine blocked myostatin function in vivo, which resulted in increase of body weight and muscle composition in mice. However, traditional vaccine and its administration method are expensive and laborious. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using heat-killed whole recombinant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine to modulate myostatin function in mice. The CDS of myostatin was obtained from a pig genome by PCR and subcloned into a yeast expression vector, which was driven by a copper-inducible promoter. Expression of recombinant myostatin was induced by CuSO(4) and confirmed by western blot. We vaccinated mice by oral feeding and subcutaneous injection as comparison. We found that oral feeding resulted in the similar effective immune response than injection, which was measured by the presence of myostatin-specific antibodies in mouse serum. Interestingly, animals vaccinated by both methods demonstrated enhanced growth performance compared to control. All animals were healthy looking throughout the course of experiment, suggesting that whole recombinant yeast vaccine is nontoxic and therefore safe to use. Given the simplicity of its nature, heat-killed myostatin-specific whole recombinant yeast vaccine holds a promise to treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  3. Persistence of chloramphenicol residues in chicken muscle tissue after a therapeutic dose administration.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Bureš, Jiří; Vernerová, Eva; Hera, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    One-day-old chickens were individually orally treated with chloramphenicol at a dose of 100 mg per kg of body weight per day for three consecutive days. After the final treatment, the groups of six birds were sacrificed in seven-day intervals up to 42 days. The muscle tissue collected from the breasts and legs of each bird was individually examined for the presence of chloramphenicol residues using a GC/MS-NCI analytical method, which was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCα) obtained for the method was 0.05 ng g(-1). The results showed a rapid decrease of chloramphenicol concentration in the muscle tissue after termination of the treatment, but also showed a relatively long persistence of low residue concentrations. Levels of chloramphenicol in muscle tissue averaged 64 ng g(-1) seven days after the final treatment and fell to 0.21 ng g(-1) after 35 days. All animals tested on the 35th day after the final treatment showed detectable chloramphenicol concentrations above the decision limit of the method used. No residues were detected in the animal tissues 42 days after the end of the treatment.

  4. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Auchenberg, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max: 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were included in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled parallel study. At baseline, after acute administration, and again after 2-week administration of the study drugs (8 mg salbutamol or placebo), subjects' maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps and isometric endurance of m. deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P < 0.05). Two-week administration of salbutamol increased (P < 0.05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports.

  5. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  6. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  7. Deletion of mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells blunts renal vascular resistance following acute cyclosporine administration

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Cristian A.; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Andre-Gregoire, Gwennan; Placier, Sandrine; Van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Berger, Stefan; Warnock, David G.; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Rieu, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) are still commonly used after renal transplantation, despite CsA–induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), which is partly related to vasoactive mechanisms. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is now recognized as a key player in the control of vascular tone, and both endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-MR modulate the vasoactive responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Here we tested whether vascular MR is involved in renal hemodynamic changes induced by CsA. The relative contribution of vascular MR in acute CsA treatment was evaluated using mouse models with targeted deletion of MR in endothelial cell or SMC. Results indicate that MR expressed in SMC, but not in endothelium, contributes to the increase of plasma urea and creatinine, the appearance of isometric tubular vacuolization, and overexpression of a kidney injury biomarker (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin) after CsA treatment. Inactivation of MR in SMC blunted CsA–induced phosphorylation of contractile proteins. Finally, the in vivo increase of renal vascular resistance induced by CsA was blunted when MR was deleted from SMC cells, and this was associated with decreased L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Thus, our study provides new insights into the role of vascular MR in renal hemodynamics during acute CIN, and provides rationale for clinical studies of MR antagonism to manage the side effects of calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:26422501

  8. Skeletal muscle glycogen synthase subcellular localization: effects of insulin and PPAR-alpha agonist (K-111) administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ortmeyer, Heidi K; Adall, Yohannes; Marciani, Karina R; Katsiaras, Andreas; Ryan, Alice S; Bodkin, Noni L; Hansen, Barbara C

    2005-06-01

    Insulin covalently and allosterically regulates glycogen synthase (GS) and may also cause the translocation of GS from glycogen-poor to glycogen-rich locations. We examined the possible role of subcellular localization of GS and glycogen in insulin activation of GS in skeletal muscle of six obese monkeys and determined whether 1) insulin stimulation during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist treatment (K-111, 3 mg.kg(-1).day(-1); Kowa) induced translocation of GS and 2) translocation of GS was associated with insulin activation of GS. GS and glycogen were present in all fractions obtained by differential centrifugation, except for the cytosolic fraction, under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. We found no evidence for translocation of GS by insulin. GS total (GST) activity was strongly associated with glycogen content (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). Six weeks of treatment with K-111 increased GST activity in all fractions, except the cytosolic fraction, and mean GST activity, GS independent activity, and glycogen content were significantly higher in the insulin-stimulated samples compared with basal samples, effects not seen with vehicle. The increase in GST activity was strongly related to the increase in glycogen content during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp after K-111 administration (r = 0.74, P < 0.001). Neither GS protein expression nor GS gene expression was affected by insulin or by K-111 treatment. We conclude that 1) in vivo insulin does not cause translocation of GS from a glycogen-poor to a glycogen-rich location in primate skeletal muscle and 2) the mechanism of action of K-111 to improve insulin sensitivity includes an increase in GST activity without an increase in GS gene or protein expression.

  9. Long-term administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate fails to attenuate age-related oxidative damage or rescue the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K.; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P.; Nye, Gareth A.; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I.; Griffiths, Richard D.; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is the underlying cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 and over. Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype that occurs with aging. To examine this, we administered the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate {[10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl] triphenylphosphonium; 100 μM} to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for 15 wk (from 24 to 28 mo of age) and investigated the effects on age-related loss of muscle mass and function, changes in redox homeostasis, and mitochondrial organelle integrity and function. We found that mitoquinone mesylate treatment failed to prevent age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with myofiber atrophy or alter a variety of in situ and ex vivo muscle function analyses, including maximum isometric tetanic force, decline in force after a tetanic fatiguing protocol, and single-fiber-specific force. We also found evidence that long-term mitoquinone mesylate administration did not reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or induce significant changes in muscle redox homeostasis, as assessed by changes in 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, protein carbonyl content, protein nitration, and DNA damage determined by the content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Mitochondrial membrane potential, abundance, and respiration assessed in permeabilized myofibers were not significantly altered in response to mitoquinone mesylate treatment. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that long-term mitochondria-targeted mitoquinone mesylate administration failed to attenuate age-related oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of old mice or provide any protective effect in the context of muscle aging.—Sakellariou, G. K., Pearson, T., Lightfoot, A. P., Nye, G. A., Wells, N., Giakoumaki, I. I., Griffiths, R. D., McArdle, A., Jackson, M. J. Long-term administration of the

  10. Long-term administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate fails to attenuate age-related oxidative damage or rescue the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P; Nye, Gareth A; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I; Griffiths, Richard D; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2016-11-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is the underlying cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 and over. Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype that occurs with aging. To examine this, we administered the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate {[10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl] triphenylphosphonium; 100 μM} to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for 15 wk (from 24 to 28 mo of age) and investigated the effects on age-related loss of muscle mass and function, changes in redox homeostasis, and mitochondrial organelle integrity and function. We found that mitoquinone mesylate treatment failed to prevent age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with myofiber atrophy or alter a variety of in situ and ex vivo muscle function analyses, including maximum isometric tetanic force, decline in force after a tetanic fatiguing protocol, and single-fiber-specific force. We also found evidence that long-term mitoquinone mesylate administration did not reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or induce significant changes in muscle redox homeostasis, as assessed by changes in 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, protein carbonyl content, protein nitration, and DNA damage determined by the content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Mitochondrial membrane potential, abundance, and respiration assessed in permeabilized myofibers were not significantly altered in response to mitoquinone mesylate treatment. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that long-term mitochondria-targeted mitoquinone mesylate administration failed to attenuate age-related oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of old mice or provide any protective effect in the context of muscle aging.-Sakellariou, G. K., Pearson, T., Lightfoot, A. P., Nye, G. A., Wells, N., Giakoumaki, I. I., Griffiths, R. D., McArdle, A., Jackson, M. J. Long-term administration of the

  11. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of in ovo administration of diamond nanoparticles and L-glutamine on molecular responses in chicken embryo pectoral muscles.

    PubMed

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kutwin, Marta; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2013-11-20

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with L-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND) and L-glutamine (Gln) on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2) and differentiation (MyoD1). Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  12. Phosphorylation of 4EBP by oral leucine administration was suppressed in the skeletal muscle of PGC-1α knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ryoji; Minami, Kimiko; Matsuda, Junichiro; Sawada, Naoki; Miura, Shinji; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-01-01

    Leucine is known to increase mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of 4EBP. In this study, leucine was administered to skeletal muscle-PGC-1α knockout mice. We observed attenuated 4EBP phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle, but not in the liver, of the PGC-1α knockout mice. These data suggest that skeletal muscle-PGC-1α is important for leucine-mediated mTOR activation and protein biosynthesis.

  13. Combined administration of 5-HT2 and thromboxane A2 antagonists: effects on platelet aggregation and isolated cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Linda A; Batey, Andrew J; Coker, Susan J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the ability of combined administration of a 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) antagonist and a thromboxane A2 antagonist to reduce reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, the effects of these drugs alone and in combination on platelet aggregation and on cardiac muscle were determined. Platelet aggregation was measured in whole blood obtained from anaesthetized rats. Concentrations of 5-HT (10 μM) and the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 (1 μM) which did not cause aggregation themselves, enhanced the responses to ADP (0.1 μM) and to collagen (1 μg ml−1). For example, the response of 1.0±0.5 Ω to ADP alone was increased significantly to 6.4±1.0 Ω by 5-HT, 15.5±2.8 Ω by U46619, and 17.3±1.3 Ω when U46619, 5-HT and ADP were added together. In further experiments blood was obtained from rats which had received either the 5-HT2 antagonist, ICI 170,809 (1 mg kg−1), or the thromboxane A2 antagonist, ICI 192,605 (1 mg kg−1 min−1), or both in combination. When ADP was used as the primary aggregating agent, the ability of U46619 alone, or together with 5-HT, to enhance responses was reduced significantly by ICI 192,605 alone and in combination with ICI 170,809. Similar results were obtained with lower doses of ICI 170,809 (0.3 mg kg−1) and ICI 192,605 (0.3 mg kg−1 min−1). When collagen was used as the primary aggregating agent ICI 170,809 (1 mg kg−1) reduced the response to 5-HT (5.0±0.8 Ω versus 10.9±1.2 Ω in controls), and ICI 192,605 (1 mg kg−1 min−1) reduced the response to U46619 (6.8±2.5 Ω versus 11.2±2.2 Ω in control). The greatest reduction of platelet aggregation was seen in blood from rats which had received both antagonists, with the response to U46619 plus 5-HT plus collagen being 2.7± 0.6 Ω compared to 14.2±1.7 Ω in controls. In contrast, there was no significant attenuation of platelet aggregation in blood from rats which had received the lower

  14. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  15. Regulation of Akt-mTOR, ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways in response to formoterol administration in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Joassard, Olivier Roger; Amirouche, Adel; Gallot, Yann Simon; Desgeorges, Marine Maud; Castells, Josiane; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Berthon, Phanélie; Freyssenet, Damien Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Administration of β2-agonists triggers skeletal muscle anabolism and hypertrophy. We investigated the time course of the molecular events responsible for rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to 1, 3 and 10 days of formoterol administration (i.p. 2000μg/kg/day). A marked hypertrophy of rat tibialis anterior muscle culminated at day 10. Phosphorylation of Akt, ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1 and ERK1/2 was increased at day 3, but returned to control level at day 10. This could lead to a transient increase in protein translation and could explain previous studies that reported increase in protein synthesis following β2-agonist administration. Formoterol administration was also associated with a significant reduction in MAFbx/atrogin-1 mRNA level (day 3), suggesting that formoterol can also affect protein degradation of MAFbx/atrogin1 targeted substrates, including MyoD and eukaryotic initiation factor-3f (eIF3-f). Surprisingly, mRNA level of autophagy-related genes, light chain 3 beta (LC3b) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1 (Gabarapl1), as well as lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, was significantly and transiently increased after 1 and/or 3 days, suggesting that autophagosome formation would be increased in response to formoterol administration. However, this has to be relativized since the mRNA level of Unc-51-like kinase1 (Ulk1), BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein3 (Bnip3), and transcription factor EB (TFEB), as well as the protein content of Ulk1, Atg13, Atg5-Atg12 complex and p62/Sqstm1 remained unchanged or was even decreased in response to formoterol administration. These results demonstrate that the effects of formoterol are mediated, in part, through the activation of Akt-mTOR pathway and that other signaling pathways become more important in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass with chronic administration of β2-agonists.

  16. Responses of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in rat gastrocnemius to hypothyroidism and iodothyronine administration: a putative role for FAT/CD36.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Assunta; De Matteis, Rita; Moreno, Maria; Napolitano, Laura; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Senese, Rosalba; de Lange, Pieter; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-11-15

    Iodothyronines such as triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)) influence energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. Skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy homeostasis, and the above iodothyronines are known to act on this tissue. However, little is known about the cellular/molecular events underlying the effects of T(3) and T(2) on skeletal muscle lipid handling. Since FAT/CD36 is involved in the utilization of free fatty acids by skeletal muscle, specifically in their import into that tissue and presumably their oxidation at the mitochondrial level, we hypothesized that related changes in lipid handling and in FAT/CD36 expression and subcellular redistribution would occur due to hypothyroidism and to T(3) or T(2) administration to hypothyroid rats. In gastrocnemius muscles isolated from hypothyroid rats, FAT/CD36 was upregulated (mRNA levels and total tissue, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial protein levels). Administration of either T(3) or T(2) to hypothyroid rats resulted in 1) little or no change in FAT/CD36 mRNA level, 2) a decreased total FAT/CD36 protein level, and 3) further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria. Thus, the main effect of each iodothyronine seemed to be exerted at the level of FAT/CD36 cellular distribution. The effect of further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria was already evident at 1 h after iodothyronine administration. Each iodothyronine increased the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate. However, the mechanisms underlying their rapid effects seem to differ; T(2) and T(3) each induce FAT/CD36 translocation to mitochondria, but only T(2) induces increases in carnitine palmitoyl transferase system activity and in the mitochondrial substrate oxidation rate.

  17. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  18. Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Skeletal Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss. PMID:20671928

  19. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

  20. Chronic administration of taurine to aged rats improves the electrical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Pierno, S; De Luca, A; Camerino, C; Huxtable, R J; Camerino, D C

    1998-09-01

    A reduction of resting chloride conductance (GCl) and a decrease of the voltage threshold for contraction are observed during aging in rat skeletal muscle. The above alterations are also observed in muscle of adult rat after taurine depletion. As lower levels of taurine were found by others in aged rats compared to young rats, we tested the hypothesis that a depletion of taurine may contribute to the alteration of the electrical and contractile properties we found in skeletal muscle during aging. This was accomplished by evaluating the potential benefit of a pharmacological treatment with the amino acid. To this aim 25-mo-old Wistar rats were chronically treated (2-3 mo) with taurine (1 g/kg p.o. daily) and the effects of such a treatment were evaluated in vitro on the passive and active membrane electrical properties of extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers by means of current-clamp intracellular microelectrode technique. Excitation-contraction coupling was also evaluated by measuring the voltage threshold for contraction with the intracellular microelectrode "point" voltage clamp method. In parallel muscle and blood taurine contents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Taurine supplementation significantly raised taurine content in muscle toward that found in adult rats. Supplementation also significantly increased GCl vs. the adult value, in parallel the excitability characteristics (threshold current and latency) related to this parameter were ameliorated. The increase of GCl induced by taurine was accompanied by a restoration of the pharmacological sensitivity to the R(+) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid, a specific chloride channel ligand. In parallel also the protein kinase C-mediated modulation of the channel was restored; in fact the potency of 4-beta-phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate in reducing GCl was lower in taurine-treated muscles vs. untreated aged, being rather similar to that observed in adult. The treatment also

  1. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and ...

  2. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  3. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and lung and muscle concentrations of tulathromycin following subcutaneous administration in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Bachtold, K A; Alcorn, J M; Boison, J O; Matus, J L; Woodbury, M R

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory tract infections are common in farmed North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tulathromycin is approved for use in cattle but not deer but is often employed to treat deer. The pharmacokinetic properties and lung and muscle concentrations of tulathromycin in white-tailed deer were investigated. Tulathromycin was administered to 10 deer, and then, serum, lung, and muscle tulathromycin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The mean maximal serum tulathromycin concentration in deer was 359 ng/mL at 1.3 h postinjection. The mean area under the serum concentration-time curve, apparent volume of distribution, apparent clearance, and half-life was 4883 ng·h/mL, 208 L/kg, 0.5 L/h/kg, and 281 h (11.7 days), respectively. The maximal tulathromycin concentration in lung and muscle homogenate from a single animal was 4657 ng/g (14 days) and 2264 ng/g (7 days), respectively. The minimum concentrations in lung and muscle were 39.4 ng/g (56 days) and 9.1 ng/g (56 days), respectively. Based on similarity in maximal serum concentrations between deer and cattle and high lung concentrations in deer, we suggest the recommended cattle dosage is effective in deer. Tissue concentrations persisted for 56 days, suggesting a need for longer withdrawal times in deer than cattle. Further tissue distribution and depletion studies are necessary to understand tulathromycin persistence in deer tissue; clinical efficacy studies are needed to confirm the appropriate dosage regimen in deer.

  5. Effects of L-carnitine administration on mitochondrial electron transport activity present in human muscle during circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Gasparetto, A; Antonelli, M; Bufi, M; Crimi, G; Conti, G; De Blasi, R A; Candiani, A; Cooper, M B; Jones, D A

    1985-01-01

    Carnitine was administered to a group of patients in shock, and the activities of cytochrome oxidase and succinate cytochrome c reductase in muscle needle biopsies from these patients were compared to those activities present in a non-carnitine treated control group of patients. Carnitine seemingly exerted a significant protective action on cytochrome oxidase activity during the initial phases of shock, but not to such an extent on succinate cytochrome c reductase activities.

  6. Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J W; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Haub, M D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of sodium citrate (CIT) or acetate (ACE) to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, pH decline, and quality attributes of pork. Previous studies have shown that CIT has the potential to inhibit phosphofructokinase (PFK), a key enzyme in postmortem muscle glycolysis. In Exp. 1, CIT, ACE, or water was orally administered (0.75 g/kg of BW) to 24 pigs. After a 30-min rest, pigs were exercised, and blood samples were taken at 45 and 75 min after oral treatment. Citrate and ACE tended (P = 0.08) to increase blood pH and increased (P = 0.02) bicarbonate levels immediately after exercise. After a 30-min rest, blood pH of pigs administered ACE tended (P = 0.09) to remain higher, whereas blood pH of CIT-treated pigs was similar to that of control pigs. Bicarbonate levels in ACE- and CIT-treated pigs were still greater (P < 0.05) than those of control pigs at 75 min after oral treatment. In Exp. 2, 30 pigs were administered CIT, ACE, or water 45 min before stunning (electric plus captive bolt). Antemortem treatments had no effect (P > 0.10) on muscle pH or postmortem concentrations of the glycolytic metabolites of glucose-6 phosphate, fructose-6 phosphate, fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, or lactate. Minor, but inconsistent, differences in quality attributes were found in LM chops, and no differences in quality attributes were found between control and CIT- or ACE-treated pigs for inside and outside semimembranosus muscles (P > 0.10). There was no significant inhibition of the PFK enzyme by orally administered CIT or ACE; however, the PFK glycolytic metabolite data analysis indicated that PFK was a main regulatory enzyme in postmortem muscle.

  7. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities in rat skeletal muscle by the administration of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf with spontaneous running-training.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Koike, K; Che, Q; Yamaguchi, M; Takahashi, S

    1999-09-01

    We examined the effect of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf on rat skeletal muscles together with spontaneous running-training in terms of the isozyme profile and specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) and 3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD; EC 1.1.1.35). On the twenty-ninth day of the experimental period, a mandatory endurance running exercise (treadmill, 7 degrees grade) was conducted. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and the skeletal muscles and other organs were dissected. Due to the training, the HAD specific activity in the skeletal muscles had increased and a more oxidative metabolism had developed, which was further enhanced by the administration of the leaf. In soleus (SOL) muscle in the Eucommia leaf treated running-training group (ET), the LDH specific activity in the skeletal muscle was significantly higher than in the sedentary control group (SC). The isozyme profile of the group ET was significantly different when compared with the group SC. The changes in the LDH isozyme profile were larger in the SOL than that in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. The results show that mechanical training and the use of the leaf cooperatively increase the ability to avoid lactate accumulation in skeletal muscle. This effect is supported by the group where 67% of rats accomplished the endurance running exercise. Theses results suggest that the administration of Eucommia ulmoides OLIVER leaf along with light intensity training enhances the ability of a muscle to resist fatigue.

  8. Chronic binge alcohol administration accentuates expression of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Tracy; Simon, Liz; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mussell, Jason; Berner, Paul; Ford, Stephen; Dufour, Jason; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration exacerbates skeletal muscle (SKM) wasting at the terminal stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques. This is associated with a pro-inflammatory and oxidative milieu which we have previously shown to be associated with a disrupted balance between anabolic and catabolic mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to characterize the SKM gene expression signature in CBA-administered SIV-infected macaques; using the same animals from the previous study. Methods Administration of intragastric alcohol or sucrose to male rhesus macaques began three months prior to SIV infection and continued throughout the duration of study. Gene transcriptomes of SKM excised at necropsy (~10 mo. post-SIV) from healthy naive control (Control), sucrose-administered, SIV-infected (SUC-SIV), and CBA-administered, SIV-infected (CBA-SIV) macaques were evaluated in microarray datasets. The Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) classification tool was used to filter differentially regulated genes based on their predicted function into select biological processes relevant to SKM wasting which were: inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and metabolism. Results In total, 1124 genes were differentially regulated between SUC-SIV and controls, 2022 genes were differentially expressed between the CBA-SIV and controls and 836 genes were differentially expressed between CBA-SIV and SUC-SIV animals. The relevance of altered gene expression was reflected in the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory CCL-2, CCL-8, CX3CL1, SELE, HP, and TNFRS10A mRNA expression. In addition, ECM remodeling was reflected in the up-regulation of TIMP-1, MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression and TGF-β protein expression. In addition, hydroxyproline content and picrosirius staining reflected increased collagen deposition in the CBA-SIV muscle tissue. Conclusions The results of the study demonstrate SKM inflammation as an

  9. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  10. Chronic administration of imipramine but not agomelatine and moclobemide affects the nitrergic relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gocmez, Semil Selcen; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat

    2013-08-15

    Sexual dysfunction is a common and underestimated effect of antidepressants. However, the mechanism by which these drugs cause erectile dysfunction is unclear. We investigated the reactivity of the corpus cavernosum of rabbits that were treated with either chronic imipramine, which is a tricyclic agent; agomelatine, which is a melatonergic agonist and serotonin 5HT(2c) antagonist; or moclobemide, which is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine-oxidase A. Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: the control group (n=5), the imipramine-treated group (n=5), which received i.p. injections of 10 mg/kg/day of imipramine, the moclobemide-treated group (n=5), which received i.p. injections of 20 mg/kg/day of moclobemide, and the agomelatine-treated group (n=5), which was orally administered 10 mg/kg/day of agomelatine. The reactivities of corpus cavernosum tissue obtained from the antidepressant-treated and the control groups were studied in organ chambers after the animals were subjected to 21 days of drug administration. The acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent and the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced neurogenic relaxation of the corpus cavernosum of the imipramine-treated group was significantly decreased compared with the control group. However, neither the acetylcholine- nor EFS-induced relaxation was changed in the moclobemide- or agomelatine-treated groups. There were no change in the relaxant response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside and contractile response to KCl between the groups. This study suggests that chronic imipramine treatment but not agomelatine and moclobemide treatments causes significant functional changes in the penile erectile tissue of rabbits and that these changes may contribute to the development of impotence.

  11. GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Williams, Paul T; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B; Tadinada, Sashi; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the objective of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface project is to create the capability to apply GRIZZLY 3-D finite element (thermal and stress) analysis results as input to FAVOR probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses. The one benefit of FAVOR to Grizzly is the PROBABILISTIC capability. This document describes the implementation of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface, the preliminary verification and tests results and a user guide that provides detailed step-by-step instructions to run the program.

  12. Differences in histone modifications between slow- and fast-twitch muscle of adult rats and following overload, denervation, or valproic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Fuminori; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Nakai, Naoya; Nakata, Ken; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-15

    Numerous studies have reported alterations in skeletal muscle properties and phenotypes in response to various stimuli such as exercise, unloading, and gene mutation. However, a shift in muscle fiber phenotype from fast twitch to slow twitch is not completely induced by stimuli. This limitation is hypothesized to result from the epigenetic differences between muscle types. The main purpose of the present study was to identify the differences in histone modification for the plantaris (fast) and soleus (slow) muscles of adult rats. Genome-wide analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing revealed that trimethylation at lysine 4 and acetylation of histone 3, which occurs at transcriptionally active gene loci, was less prevalent in the genes specific to the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Conversely, gene loci specific to the fast-twitch plantaris muscle were associated with the aforementioned histone modifications. We also found that upregulation of slow genes in the plantaris muscle, which are related to enhanced muscular activity, is not associated with activating histone modifications. Furthermore, silencing of muscle activity by denervation caused the displacement of acetylated histone and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in 5' ends of genes in plantaris, but minor effects were observed in soleus. Increased recruitment of Pol II induced by forced acetylation of histone was also suppressed in valproic acid-treated soleus. Our present data indicate that the slow-twitch soleus muscle has a unique set of histone modifications, which may relate to the preservation of the genetic backbone against physiological stimuli.

  13. Injection of testosterone may be safer and more effective than transdermal administration for combating loss of muscle and bone in older men.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2015-06-15

    The value of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older men is currently a topic of intense debate. While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the past decade (9), debate continues over the risks and benefits of TRT. TRT is currently prescribed for older men with either low serum testosterone (T) or low T plus accompanying symptoms of hypogonadism. The normal range for serum testosterone is 300 to 1,000 ng/dl. Serum T ≤ 300 ng/dl is considered to be low, and T ≤ 250 is considered to be frank hypogonadism. Most experts support TRT for older men with frank hypogonadism and symptoms. Treatment for men who simply have low T remains somewhat controversial. TRT is most frequently administered by intramuscular (im) injection of long-acting T esters or transdermally via patch or gel preparations and infrequently via oral administration. TRT produces a number of established benefits in hypogonadal men, including increased muscle mass and strength, decreased fat mass, increased bone mineral density, and improved sexual function, and in some cases those benefits are dose dependent. For example, doses of TRT administered by im injection are typically higher than those administered transdermally, which results in greater musculoskeletal benefits. TRT also produces known risks including development of polycythemia (Hct > 50) in 6% of those treated, decrease in HDL, breast tenderness and enlargement, prostate enlargement, increases in serum PSA, and prostate-related events and may cause suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Importantly, TRT does not increase the risk of prostate cancer. Putative risks include edema and worsening of sleep apnea. Several recent reports have also indicated that TRT may produce cardiovascular (CV) risks, while others report no risk or even benefit. To address the potential CV risks of TRT, we have recently reported via meta-analysis that oral TRT increases CV risk and suggested that the CV risk profile for im TRT

  14. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles A A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-503 Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) The law provides criminal penalties for whoever... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal provisions relating to...

  16. Variable gearing in pennate muscles.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-02-05

    Muscle fiber architecture, i.e., the physical arrangement of fibers within a muscle, is an important determinant of a muscle's mechanical function. In pennate muscles, fibers are oriented at an angle to the muscle's line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique such that the fraction of force directed along the muscle's line of action decreases throughout a contraction. Fiber rotation decreases a muscle's output force but increases output velocity by allowing the muscle to function at a higher gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). The magnitude of fiber rotation, and therefore gear ratio, depends on how the muscle changes shape in the dimensions orthogonal to the muscle's line of action. Here, we show that gear ratio is not fixed for a given muscle but decreases significantly with the force of contraction (P < 0.0001). We find that dynamic muscle-shape changes promote fiber rotation at low forces and resist fiber rotation at high forces. As a result, gearing varies automatically with the load, to favor velocity output during low-load contractions and force output for contractions against high loads. Therefore, muscle-shape changes act as an automatic transmission system allowing a pennate muscle to shift from a high gear during rapid contractions to low gear during forceful contractions. These results suggest that variable gearing in pennate muscles provides a mechanism to modulate muscle performance during mechanically diverse functions.

  17. New Study Says CAI May Favor Introverts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmeier, George

    1981-01-01

    A personality research study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates that computer-assisted instruction programs favor introverts, i.e., those learners who can concentrate on details, memorize facts, and stay with a task until it is completed. (JJD)

  18. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  19. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    PubMed

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  20. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  1. Effects of taurine administration on exercise.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime; Mishima, Hajime; Adachi, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Taurine concentration in rat skeletal muscles after endurance running, with and without taurine administration was studied. Taurine concentrations in skeletal muscles was significantly decreased in exercised groups without taurine administration. However, taurine administration reduced the decrease of taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. Oral administration of taurine has effect for maintaining taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. The duration of running time to exhaustion of rats, with and without taurine administration were studied. The duration of running time to exhaustion was significantly increased by taurine administration. Oral administration of taurine increases the ability of physical endurance. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) after treadmill running, with and without taurine administration were studied. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-MH after treadmill running was significantly decreased with taurine administration. Taurine administration was considered to reduce the exercise-induced muscle fatigue.

  2. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  3. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  4. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal Muscle Now, let's talk about the kind of muscle ... soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle ...

  5. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion.

    PubMed

    Chen Scarabelli, Carol; McCauley, Roy B; Yuan, Zhaokan; Di Rezze, Justin; Patel, David; Putt, Jeff; Raddino, Riccardo; Allebban, Zuhair; Abboud, John; Scarabelli, Gabriele M; Chilukuri, Karuna; Gardin, Julius; Saravolatz, Louis; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2008-06-02

    Sarcopenia is an inevitable age-related degenerative process chiefly characterized by decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and impaired mitochondrial function, leading to progressive loss of muscle mass. Here, we sought to probe whether long-term administration of oral amino acids (AAs) can increase protein and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged rats, enhancing functional performance. To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent treated group and underwent 1-month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30% reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50% reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats (p <0.001). Long-term supplementation with mixed AAs significantly improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming their values to those of adult control animals (p <0.001). The improved availability of protein and high-energy substrates in the gastrocnemius muscle of treated aged rats paralleled a significant enhancement in functional performance assessed by swim test, with dramatic elongation of maximal exertion times compared with untreated senescent rats (p <0.001). In line with these findings, we observed that, after 6 hours of rest following exhaustive swimming, the recovery in mitochondrial ATP content was approximately 70% in adult control rats, approximately 60% in senescent control rats, and normalized in treated rats as compared with animals of the same age unexposed to maximal exertion (p <0.001). In conclusion, nutritional supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing

  6. Children's need for favorable acoustics in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.

    2003-10-01

    Children continue to improve their understanding of speech in noise and reverberation throughout childhood and adolescence. They do not typically achieve adult performance levels until their late teenage years. As a result, schools that are designed to be acoustically adequate for adult understanding may be insufficient for full understanding by young children. In addition, children with hearing loss, those with attention problems, and those learning in a non-native language require even more favorable signal-to-noise ratios. This tutorial will review the literature gathered by the ANSl/ASA working group on classroom acoustics that shaped the recommendations of the working group. Special topics will include speech perception data from typically developing infants and children, from children with hearing loss, and from adults and children listening in a non-native language. In addition, the tutorial will overview recommendations contained within ANSI standard 12.60-2002: Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools. The discussion will also include issues related to designing quiet classrooms and working with local schools and professionals.

  7. Aceneuramic Acid Extended Release Administration Maintains Upper Limb Muscle Strength in a 48-week Study of Subjects with GNE Myopathy: Results from a Phase 2, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Argov, Zohar; Caraco, Yoseph; Lau, Heather; Pestronk, Alan; Shieh, Perry B.; Skrinar, Alison; Koutsoukos, Tony; Ahmed, Ruhi; Martinisi, Julia; Kakkis, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Background: GNE Myopathy (GNEM) is a progressive adult-onset myopathy likely caused by deficiency of sialic acid (SA) biosynthesis. Objective: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of SA (delivered by aceneuramic acid extended-release [Ace-ER]) as treatment for GNEM. Methods: A Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating Ace-ER 3 g/day or 6 g/day versus placebo was conducted in GNEM subjects (n = 47). After the first 24 weeks, placebo subjects crossed over to 3 g/day or 6 g/day for 24 additional weeks (dose pre-assigned during initial randomization). Assessments included serum SA, muscle strength by dynamometry, functional assessments, clinician- and patient-reported outcomes, and safety. Results: Dose-dependent increases in serum SA levels were observed. Supplementation with Ace-ER resulted in maintenance of muscle strength in an upper extremity composite (UEC) score at 6 g/day compared with placebo at Week 24 (LS mean difference +2.33 kg, p = 0.040), and larger in a pre-specified subgroup able to walk ≥200 m at Screening (+3.10 kg, p = 0.040). After cross-over, a combined 6 g/day group showed significantly better UEC strength than a combined 3 g/day group (+3.46 kg, p = 0.0031). A similar dose-dependent response was demonstrated within the lower extremity composite score, but was not significant (+1.06 kg, p = 0.61). The GNEM-Functional Activity Scale demonstrated a trend improvement in UE function and mobility in a combined 6 g/day group compared with a combined 3 g/day group. Patients receiving Ace-ER tablets had predominantly mild-to-moderate AEs and no serious adverse events. Conclusions: This is the first clinical study to provide evidence that supplementation with SA delivered by Ace-ER may stabilize muscle strength in individuals with GNEM and initiating treatment earlier in the disease course may lead to better outcomes. PMID:27854209

  8. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  9. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  10. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  11. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  12. 45 CFR 1303.22 - Decision on appeal in favor of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of grantee. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  13. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  14. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with P-MAPA and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Queila Cristina; Nunes, Iseu da Silva; Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Fávaro, Wagner José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy. PMID:24893914

  15. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with p - mapa and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Queila Cristina; Nunes, Iseu da Silva; Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Favaro, Wagner Jose

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy.

  16. EFFECT OF USE OF BONE-MARROW CENTRIFUGATE ON MUSCLE INJURY TREATMENT: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Daniel Ferreira Fernandes; Guarniero, Roberto; Vaz, Carlos Eduardo Sanches; de Santana, Paulo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right tibialis anterior muscle, to which an absorbable collagen sponge, soaked in a centrifugate of bone marrow aspirate from the ipsilateral iliac bone, was added. The left hind limb was used as a control and underwent the same injury, but in this case only the absorbable collagen sponge. Thirty days later, the animals were sacrificed to study the muscle healing. These muscle areas were subjected to histological analysis with histomorphometry, with the aim of measuring the number of muscle cells per square micrometer undergoing regeneration and the proportion of resultant fibrosis. Results: The centrifugation method used in this study resulted in an average concentration of nucleated cells greater than the number of these cells in original aspirates, without causing significant cell destruction. Addition of the bone marrow centrifugate did not result in any significant increase in the number of muscle cells undergoing regeneration, in relation to the control group. There was also no significant difference in the proportion of resultant fibrosis, compared with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of the bone marrow centrifugate used in this study did not favor healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. PMID:27047832

  17. Muscle Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  18. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  19. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...

  20. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  1. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... solicit from a person having business with the Council anything of value as a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business,...

  2. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs Even many smokers think these warnings should ... 31, 2017 FRIDAY, March 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette packs carry health warnings, but many Americans think ...

  3. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  4. Filtering the Net in Libraries: The Case (Mostly) in Favor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues and decision-making involved in restricting Internet access in libraries, for the most part favoring filtering devices. Questions to consider when selecting a filtering program are provided. Some of the better filtering programs are described, and Web addresses are included for each. Security risks associated with Java and…

  5. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.519 Gifts, entertainment and favors. (a) Acceptance of gratuities... individuals with whom Commission employees do business. This prohibition extends to the acceptance of meals and refreshments offered by individuals conducting or seeking business with the Commission...

  6. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  7. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  8. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305 Section 1203.735-305 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... the Constitution and in 5 U.S.C. 7342, and the regulations promulgated thereunder pursuant to...

  9. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305 Section 1203.735-305 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... the Constitution and in 5 U.S.C. 7342, and the regulations promulgated thereunder pursuant to...

  10. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  11. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  12. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  13. 11 CFR 7.8 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employees or Commissioners § 7.8 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) A Commissioner or employee of the... affected by the performance or nonperformance of the Commissioner or employee's official duty. (b... persons concerned which are the motivating factors; (2) To the acceptance of food, refreshments,...

  14. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 200.735-105 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Provisions Governing Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 200.735... employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  15. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his...

  16. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage caused by injury, diabetes, toxins, or alcohol Polio ( poliomyelitis ) Spinal cord injury Although people can adapt to ... Guillain-Barré syndrome Hypotonia Muscle cramps Muscular dystrophy Polio Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Joseph ...

  17. Getting Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscular as a superhero or your favorite professional athlete? Well, the big muscles you're thinking about ... Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes are grownups, whose bodies are different from kids' ...

  18. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Selcen D. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. Multimodality therapy of favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Corder, M.P.; Leimert, J.T.; Tewfik, H.H.; Lovett, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-seven previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of total body irradiation followed by cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisone (CVP). The dose of total body irradiation was planned to be 150 rad followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 59%; the complete plus partial response rate, 93%. The 50% disease-free survival was 8 months. The actuarial projected 5 year survival was 60% and the disease-free survival at 5 years was 27%. The program was well tolerated by the majority of patients. It is possible for some patients with favorable non-Hodgkin's lymphomas to achieve prolonged periods of disesase-free survival when treated with combinations of irradiation plus chemotherapy.

  1. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  2. Contact line pinning favors the mass production of monodisperse microbubbles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Riboux, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A robust method for the generation of phospholipid covered monodisperse microbubbles of diameters ~10 microns at production rates exceeding 0.1 MHz, is presented here. We show that bubbles are periodically formed from the tip of a long and thin gas ligament stabilized thanks to both the strong favorable pressure gradient existing at the entrance region of a long rectangular PDMS-PDMS channel and to the pinning of the gas-liquid interface at a centered groove of several microns width placed on one of its walls. Moreover, the long exit channel incorporated in our design, favors the transport of phospholipid molecules towards the gas-liquid interface. Our experiments show that the resulting phospholipid shell inhibit both the diffusion of the gas in the surrounding liquid as well as the coalescence between contacting bubbles. These evidences indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the generation of monodisperse microbubbles for diagnosis or therapeutical applications.

  3. Autophagy favors Brucella melitensis survival in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu; Hu, Shengwei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yong; Du, Guoqing

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the role of autophagy in the survival of the invasive bacterium Brucella melitensis strain 16M in murine macrophages. Here, Brucella melitensis 16M was found to trigger autophagosome formation, enhance autophagy flux and increase the expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), Brucella replication efficiency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These results suggest that autophagy favors Brucella melitensis 16M survival in murine macrophages.

  4. Bioactive, mechanically favorable, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis of mechanically favorable, bioactive, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for potential bone applications. The nanocomposites consist of in situ polymerized biodegradable copolyester with hydroxyapatite (HA). Biodegradable copolyesters comprise carboxy terminated poly(propylene fumarate) (CT-PPF) and poly(trimethylol propane fumarate co mannitol sebacate) (TF-Co-MS). Raman spectral imaging clearly reveals a uniform homogenous distribution of HA in the copolymer matrix. The mechanical studies reveal that improved mechanical properties formed when crosslinked with methyl methacrylate (MMA) when compared to N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The SEM micrographs of the copolymer nanocomposites reveal a serrated structure reflecting higher mechanical strength, good dispersion, and good interfacial bonding of HA in the polymer matrix. In vitro degradation of the copolymer crosslinked with MMA is relatively more than that of NVP and the degradation decreases with an increase in the amount of the HA filler. The mechanically favorable and degradable MMA based nanocomposites also have favorable bioactivity, blood compatibility, cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. The present nanocomposite is a more promising material for orthopedic applications.

  5. Gestational Weight Gain in Japanese Women With Favorable Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the healthy Japanese women with favorable perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy. Methods We calculated the average GWG in the women whose height was 150 - 164 cm with favorable perinatal outcomes set for this study. The women were categorized to underweight, normal, overweight and obese based on the pre-pregnancy body mass index categories according to the Institute of Medicine guideline. Results The average GWG in the normal-weight women with the favorable perinatal outcomes was 11.4 ± 3.7 kg. It was not significantly different from that in the underweight and overweight women (12.0 ± 3.4 and 10.0 ± 4.8 kg) by Student’s t-test. The average GWG in the obese women was significantly lower than that in the other three groups (3.2 ± 2.2 kg, P < 0.01). Conclusion Based on the current results, the optimal GWG for the Japanese women without obesity was found to be 10 - 12 kg. PMID:27924177

  6. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  7. A Favorability Score for Vaginal Hysterectomy in a Statewide Collaborative.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Bethany D; Kamdar, Neil S; Mahnert, Nichole; Lim, Courtney S; Mullard, Andrew J; Campbell, Darrell A; As-Sanie, Sawsan; Morgan, Daniel M

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Because it is associated with fewer complications and more rapid recovery, the vaginal approach is preferred for benign hysterectomy. Patient characteristics that traditionally favor a vaginal approach include adequate vaginal access, small uterine size, and low suspicion for extrauterine disease. However, the low proportion of hysterectomies performed vaginally in the United States suggests that these data are not routinely applied in clinical practice. We sought to analyze the association of parity, prior pelvic surgery, and uterine weight with the use of the vaginal, laparoscopic, robotic, and abdominal approaches to hysterectomy.

  8. Clinical quality is independently associated with favorable bond ratings.

    PubMed

    Haydar, Ziad; Nicewander, David; Convery, Paul; Black, Michael; Ballard, David

    2010-01-01

    The relation between clinical quality and bond rating for nonprofit hospitals has been proposed but never fully studied. We analyzed the relation between bond rating, clinical quality measures (The Joint Commission/Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS] core measures), and balance sheet and income statement financial measures of 236 hospitals across the United States that are rated by Moody's Investors Service and that reported clinical quality measures to CMS during the study period. We found a statistically significant relation between higher quality measures and more favorable bond ratings. This association remained significant after controlling for traditional financial parameters.

  9. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  10. Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling favorable winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, Hans; Basdurak, N. Berkay; Gräwe, Ulf; Knoll, Michaela; Mohrholz, Volker; Müller, Selina

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses and explains the phenomenon of salinity inversions in the thermocline offshore from an upwelling region during upwelling favorable winds. Using the nontidal central Baltic Sea as an easily accessible natural laboratory, high-resolution transect and station observations in the upper layers are analyzed. The data show local salinity minima in the strongly stratified seasonal thermocline during summer conditions under the influence of upwelling favorable wind. A simple analytical box model using parameters (including variation by means of a Monte Carlo method) estimated from a hindcast model for the Baltic Sea is constructed to explain the observations. As a result, upwelled water with high salinity and low temperature is warmed up due to downward surface heat fluxes while it is transported offshore by the Ekman transport. The warming of upwelled surface water allows maintenance of stable stratification despite the destabilizing salinity stratification, such that local salinity minima in the thermocline can be generated. Inspection of published observations from the Benguela, Peruvian, and eastern tropical North Atlantic upwelling systems shows that also there salinity inversions occur in the thermocline, but in these cases thermocline salinity shows local maxima, since upwelled water has a lower salinity than the surface water. It is hypothesized that thermocline salinity inversions should generally occur offshore from upwelling regions whenever winds are steady enough and surface warming is sufficiently strong.

  11. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Joseph P; Price, Mary; McWilliams, J Michael; Hsu, John; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans.

  12. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  13. Donepezil regulates energy metabolism and favors bone mass accrual.

    PubMed

    Eimar, Hazem; Alebrahim, Sharifa; Manickam, Garthiga; Al-Subaie, Ahmed; Abu-Nada, Lina; Murshed, Monzur; Tamimi, Faleh

    2016-03-01

    The autonomous nervous system regulates bone mass through the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) favors bone loss whereas the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) promotes bone mass accrual. Donepezil, a central-acting cholinergic agonist, has been shown to down-regulate SNS and up-regulate PNS signaling tones. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the use of donepezil could have beneficial effects in regulating bone mass. To test our hypothesis, two groups of healthy female mice were treated either with donepezil or saline. Differences in body metabolism and bone mass of the treated groups were compared. Body and visceral fat weights as well as serum leptin level were increased in donepezil-treated mice compared to control, suggesting that donepezil effects on SNS influenced metabolic activity. Donepezil-treated mice had better bone quality than controls due to a decrease in osteoclasts number. These results indicate that donepezil is able to affect whole body energy metabolism and favors bone mass in young female WT mice.

  14. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  15. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  16. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. Does a Favor Request Increase Liking Toward the Requester?

    PubMed

    Niiya, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Although a request for help can impose a burden on the provider and has the potential of harming a relationship, the theory of amae suggests that in fact it could help promote a stronger relationship. In an experiment, both Japanese and American participants who were asked for help from a confederate increased their liking of the confederate relative to the baseline. Sociable impression of the confederate and perceived closeness of the relationship also increased relative to the baseline. There was, however, no such increase when participants helped the confederate without receiving a direct request. This study suggests that despite the potential risks to relationships, asking favors can provide opportunities for requesters to build and promote relationships.

  18. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips

    PubMed Central

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard‐Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean‐Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García‐Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity‐based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co‐occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. PMID:27346066

  19. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips.

    PubMed

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity-based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co-occur with genetically variable asexual lineages.

  20. On Favorable Thermal Fields for Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analyses [14] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  1. Reticulate evolution is favored in influenza niche switching

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nichola J.; Zabilansky, Justin; Yuan, Kyle; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution is thought to accelerate the process of evolution beyond simple genetic drift and selection, helping to rapidly generate novel hybrids with combinations of adaptive traits. However, the long-standing dogma that reticulate evolutionary processes are likewise advantageous for switching ecological niches, as in microbial pathogen host switch events, has not been explicitly tested. We use data from the influenza genome sequencing project and a phylogenetic heuristic approach to show that reassortment, a reticulate evolutionary mechanism, predominates over mutational drift in transmission between different host species. Moreover, as host evolutionary distance increases, reassortment is increasingly favored. We conclude that the greater the quantitative difference between ecological niches, the greater the importance of reticulate evolutionary processes in overcoming niche barriers. PMID:27114508

  2. White House Budget Proposal Favorable Overall for Federal Science Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of 3.8 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2013, released on 13 February, provides an overall favorable funding picture for federal science agencies in a tight economic environment. However, there are also a number of proposed decreases, including a sharp cut to NASA's Planetary Science account. Overall, the budget proposal includes 140.8 billion for the federal investment in research and development, a 1.4% increase above the FY 2012 enacted level. Funding for federal basic and applied research would be 64 billion, 3.3% above FY 2012 enacted levels. Funding for defense research and development (R&D) would decrease to 75.9 billion, a drop of 1.5%; nondefense R&D would increase 5% to $64.9 billion.

  3. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi.

  4. Favorable Geochemistry from Springs and Wells in COlorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno Nevada Originator: United States Geological Survey (USGS) Originator: Colorado Geological Survey Publication Date: 2012 Title: Favorable Geochemistry Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer contains favorable geochemistry for high-temperature geothermal systems, as interpreted by Richard "Rick" Zehner. The data is compiled from the data obtained from the USGS. The original data set combines 15,622 samples collected in the State of Colorado from several sources including 1) the original Geotherm geochemical database, 2) USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), 3) Colorado Geological Survey geothermal sample data, and 4) original samples collected by R. Zehner at various sites during the 2011 field season. These samples are also available in a separate shapefile FlintWaterSamples.shp. Data from all samples were reportedly collected using standard water sampling protocols (filtering through 0.45 micron filter, etc.) Sample information was standardized to ppm (micrograms/liter) in spreadsheet columns. Commonly-used cation and silica geothermometer temperature estimates are included. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4515595.841032 m Left: 149699.513964 m Right: 757959.309388 m Bottom: 4104156.435530 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  5. Expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 in cocultures of dissociated DRG neurons and skeletal muscle cells in administration of NGF or NT-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Hao; Xing, Ziying; Yuan, Hongtu; Kindy, Mark S; Li, Zhenzhong

    2012-07-05

    Both neurotrophins (NTs) and target skeletal muscle (SKM) cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons and nerve-muscle communication. However, much less is known about the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for preprotachykinin (PPT), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), neurofilament 200 (NF-200), and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. In the present study, a neuromuscular coculture model of dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and SKM cells was established. The morphology of DRG neurons and SKM cells in coculture was observed with an inverted phase contrast microscope. The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 was analyzed by real time-PCR assay. The morphology of DRG neuronal cell bodies and SKM cells in neuromuscular coculture at different conditions was similar. The neurons presented evidence of dense neurite outgrowth in the presence of distinct NTs in neuromuscular cocultures. NGF and NT-3 increased mRNA levels of PPT, CGRP, and NF-200, but not MAP-2, in neuromuscular cocultures. These results offer new clues towards a better understanding of the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200 and MAP-2, and implicate the association of target SKM cells and NTs with DRG sensory neuronal phenotypes.

  6. Strategies for functional bioscaffold-based skeletal muscle reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sicari, Brian M.; Dziki, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine-based strategies for the reconstruction of functional skeletal muscle tissue have included cellular and acellular approaches. The use of acellular biologic scaffold material as a treatment for volumetric muscle loss (VML) in five patients has recently been reported with a generally favorable outcome. Further studies are necessary for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) behind acellular bioscaffold-mediated skeletal muscle repair, and for combination cell-based/bioscaffold based approaches. The present overview highlights the current thinking on bioscaffold-based remodeling including the associated mechanisms and the future of scaffold-based skeletal muscle reconstruction. PMID:26605302

  7. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  8. Coevolution of robustness, epistasis, and recombination favors asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Thomas; Bergman, Aviv

    2007-07-31

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains one of the most perplexing phenomena in evolutionary biology. The deterministic mutation hypothesis postulates that sexual reproduction will be advantageous under synergistic epistasis, a condition in which mutations cause a greater reduction in fitness when combined than would be expected from their individual effects. The inverse condition, antagonistic epistasis, correspondingly is predicted to favor asexual reproduction. To assess this hypothesis, we introduce a finite population evolutionary process that combines a recombination modifier formalism with a gene-regulatory network model. We demonstrate that when reproductive mode and epistasis are allowed to coevolve, asexual reproduction outcompetes sexual reproduction. In addition, no correlation is found between the level of synergistic epistasis and the fixation time of the asexual mode. However, a significant correlation is found between the level of antagonistic epistasis and asexual mode fixation time. This asymmetry can be explained by the greater reduction in fitness imposed by sexual reproduction as compared with asexual reproduction. Our findings present evidence and suggest plausible explanations that challenge both the deterministic mutation hypothesis and recent arguments asserting the importance of emergent synergistic epistasis in the maintenance of sexual reproduction.

  9. Gender bias in food intake favors male preschool Guatemalan children.

    PubMed

    Frongillo, E A; Bégin, F

    1993-02-01

    Gender bias in food intake and its subsequent effects on growth and illness were examined using data from rural Guatemalan children. Multiple regression controlled for energy requirements, illness, and maternal and economic factors. Gender bias in energy and protein intake favored boys; the magnitude for ages 2-5 y was 247 kJ/d. Analysis of subsequent effects showed that boys had higher rates of weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake than did girls for ages 1-2 y (0.27-0.97 kg/y), when there were no differences in illness rates due to gender bias in energy intake. For age 3-5 y, boys and girls did not differ in weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake. For ages 1-2 y for weight and stature, the growth rate for boys was faster than that of girls by 6-49% due to gender bias. This study provides evidence of gender bias in food intake in a Latin American population, but more work on the existence of and reasons for gender bias in food intake is needed before advocating that education or health programs should focus on this issue.

  10. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  11. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  12. Phenotypic selection favors missing trait combinations in coexisting annual plants.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Huxman, Travis E; Lawrence Venable, D; Angert, Amy L

    2013-08-01

    Trade-offs among traits are important for maintaining biodiversity, but the role of natural selection in their construction is not often known. It is possible that trade-offs reflect fundamental constraints, negative correlational selection, or directional selection operating on costly, redundant traits. In a Sonoran Desert community of winter annual plants, we have identified a trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency among species, such that species with high relative growth rate have low water-use efficiency and vice versa. We measured selection on water-use efficiency, relative growth rate, and underlying traits within populations of four species at two study sites with different average climates. Phenotypic trait correlations within species did not match the among-species trade-off. In fact, for two species with high water-use efficiency, individuals with high relative growth rate also had high water-use efficiency. All populations experienced positive directional selection for water-use efficiency and relative growth rate. Selection tended to be stronger on water-use efficiency at the warmer and drier site, and selection on relative growth rate tended to be stronger at the cooler and wetter site. Our results indicate that directional natural selection favors a phenotype not observed among species in the community, suggesting that the among-species trade-off could be due to pervasive genetic constraints, perhaps acting in concert with processes of community assembly.

  13. Favorable Selection, Risk Adjustment, and the Medicare Advantage Program

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Becker, David J; Smith, Wilson; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of changes in payment and risk adjustment on (1) the annual enrollment and switching behavior of Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries, and (2) the relative costliness of MA enrollees and disenrollees. Data From 1999 through 2008 national Medicare claims data from the 5 percent longitudinal sample of Parts A and B expenditures. Study Design Retrospective, fixed effects regression analysis of July enrollment and year-long switching into and out of MA. Similar regression analysis of the costliness of those switching into (out of) MA in the 6 months prior to enrollment (after disenrollment) relative to nonswitchers in the same county over the same period. Findings Payment generosity and more sophisticated risk adjustment were associated with substantial increases in MA enrollment and decreases in disenrollment. Claims experience of those newly switching into MA was not affected by any of the policy reforms, but disenrollment became increasingly concentrated among high-cost beneficiaries. Conclusions Enrollment is very sensitive to payment levels. The use of more sophisticated risk adjustment did not alter favorable selection into MA, but it did affect the costliness of disenrollees. PMID:23088500

  14. Sperm competition favors harmful males in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Hotzy, Cosima; Arnqvist, Göran

    2009-03-10

    One of the most enigmatic observations in evolutionary biology is the evolution of morphological or physiological traits in one sex that physically injure members of the other sex. Such traits occur in a wide range of taxa and range from toxic ejaculate substances to genital or external spines that wound females during copulation. Current hypotheses for the adaptive evolution of such injurious traits rest entirely on the assumption that they are beneficial to their bearer by aiding in reproductive competition. Here, we assess this key assumption in seed beetles where genital spines in males physically injure females. We demonstrate that male spine length is positively correlated with harm to females during mating but also that males with longer spines are more successful in sperm competition. This is the first complete support for the proposal that sexual selection by sperm competition can favor morphological traits in males that inflict injury upon females. However, our results suggest that harm to females is a pleiotropic by-product, such that genital spines in males elevate success in sperm competition by means other than by causing harm.

  15. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  16. Action of Obestatin in Skeletal Muscle Repair: Stem Cell Expansion, Muscle Growth, and Microenvironment Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  17. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  18. Transduction of skeletal muscles with common reporter genes can promote muscle fiber degeneration and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winbanks, Catherine E; Beyer, Claudia; Qian, Hongwei; Gregorevic, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV vectors) are promising tools for delivering transgenes to skeletal muscle, in order to study the mechanisms that control the muscle phenotype, and to ameliorate diseases that perturb muscle homeostasis. Many studies have employed rAAV vectors carrying reporter genes encoding for β-galactosidase (β-gal), human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP), and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as experimental controls when studying the effects of manipulating other genes. However, it is not clear to what extent these reporter genes can influence signaling and gene expression signatures in skeletal muscle, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained in experimentally manipulated muscles. Herein, we report a strong pro-inflammatory effect of expressing reporter genes in skeletal muscle. Specifically, we show that the administration of rAAV6:hPLAP vectors to the hind limb muscles of mice is associated with dose- and time-dependent macrophage recruitment, and skeletal muscle damage. Dose-dependent expression of hPLAP also led to marked activity of established pro-inflammatory IL-6/Stat3, TNFα, IKKβ and JNK signaling in lysates obtained from homogenized muscles. These effects were independent of promoter type, as expression cassettes featuring hPLAP under the control of constitutive CMV and muscle-specific CK6 promoters both drove cellular responses when matched for vector dose. Importantly, the administration of rAAV6:GFP vectors did not induce muscle damage or inflammation except at the highest doses we examined, and administration of a transgene-null vector (rAAV6:MCS) did not cause damage or inflammation at any of the doses tested, demonstrating that GFP-expressing, or transgene-null vectors may be more suitable as experimental controls. The studies highlight the importance of considering the potential effects of reporter genes when designing experiments that examine gene manipulation in vivo.

  19. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  20. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  1. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  2. Mangiferin protects against adverse skeletal muscle changes and enhances muscle oxidative capacity in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Luz M.; Raya, Ana I.; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Obese Zucker rats were fed gelatin pellets with (15 mg/kg BW/day) or without (placebo group) mangiferin for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received the same gelatin pellets without mangiferin and served as non-obese and non-diabetic controls. Lesser diameter, fiber composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of myosin-based fiber-types were assessed in soleus and tibialis cranialis muscles. A multivariate discriminant analysis encompassing all fiber-type features indicated that obese rats treated with mangiferin displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes significantly different compared with both lean and obese control rats. Mangiferin significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, preserved skeletal muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional size, and fiber-type composition, and enhanced muscle fiber oxidative capacity. These data demonstrate that mangiferin attenuated adverse skeletal muscle changes in obese rats. PMID:28253314

  3. Kinesthetic illusions attenuate experimental muscle pain, as do muscle and cutaneous stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gay, André; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith

    2015-07-30

    In the present study, muscle pain was induced experimentally in healthy subjects by administrating hypertonic saline injections into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. We first aimed at comparing the analgesic effects of mechanical vibration applied to either cutaneous or muscle receptors of the TA or to both types simultaneously. Secondly, pain alleviation was compared in subjects in whom muscle tendon vibration evoked kinesthetic illusions of the ankle joint. Muscle tendon vibration, which primarily activated muscle receptors, reduced pain intensity by 30% (p<0.01). In addition, tangential skin vibration reduced pain intensity by 33% (p<0.01), primarily by activating cutaneous receptors. Concurrently stimulating both sensory channels induced stronger analgesic effects (-51%, p<0.01), as shown by the lower levels of electrodermal activity. The strongest analgesic effects of the vibration-induced muscle inputs occurred when illusory movements were perceived (-38%, p=0.01). The results suggest that both cutaneous and muscle sensory feedback reduce muscle pain, most likely via segmental and supraspinal processes. Further clinical trials are needed to investigate these new methods of muscle pain relief.

  4. Muscle shape consistency and muscle volume prediction of thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of a muscle volume prediction method using only the muscle length (L(M)), the maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA(max)), and a muscle-specific shape factor (p) on the quadriceps vastii. L(M), ACSA(max), muscle volume, and p were obtained from magnetic resonance images of the vastus intermedius (VI), lateralis (VL), and medialis (VM) of female (n = 20) and male (n = 17) volleyball athletes. The average p was used to predict muscle volumes (V(p)) using the equation V(p)  = p × ACSA(max)  × L(M). Although there were significant differences in the muscle dimensions between male and female athletes, p was similar and on average 0.582, 0.658, 0.543 for the VI, VL, and VM, respectively. The position of ACSA(max) showed low variability and was at 57%, 60%, and 81% of the thigh length for VI, VL, and VM. Further, there were no significant differences between measured and predicted muscle volumes with root mean square differences of 5-8%. These results suggest that the muscle shape of the quadriceps vastii is independent of muscle dimensions or sex and that the prediction method could be sensitive enough to detect changes in muscle volume related to degeneration, atrophy, or hypertrophy.

  5. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.

  6. Vanadium distribution following decavanadate administration.

    PubMed

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Aureliano, M

    2006-01-01

    An acute exposure of two vanadate solutions-metavanadate and decavanadate-containing different vanadate oligomers, induces different patterns of subcellular vanadium distribution in blood plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and cardiac muscle subcellular fractions of the fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). The highest amount of vanadium was found in blood plasma 1 h after (5 mM) intravenous vanadate administration (295 +/- 64 and 383 +/- 104 microg V/g dry tissue, for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively), being 80-fold higher than in RBC. After 12 h of administration, the amount of vanadium in plasma, as well as in cardiac cytosol, decreased about 50%, for both vanadate solutions. During the period between 1 and 12 h, the ratio of vanadium in plasma/vanadium in RBC increased from 27 to 128 for metavanadate, whereas it remains constant (77) for decavanadate. Both vanadium solutions were primarily accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (138 +/- 0 and 195 +/- 34 ng V/g dry tissue for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively, after 12 h exposure), rather than in cytosol. The amount of vanadium in cardiac mitochondria was twofold higher than in cytosol, earlier for metavanadate (6 h) than for decavanadate (12 h). It is concluded that, in fish cardiac muscle, the vanadium distribution is dependent on the administration of decameric vanadate, with vanadium being mainly distributed in plasma, before being accumulated into the mitochondrial fraction.

  7. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  8. ALCOHOL MODULATION OF MMP AND TIMP EXPRESSION IN THE HEART FAVORS COLLAGEN ACCUMULATION

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, E.C.; El hajj, M.C.; Voloshenyuk, T.G.; Mouton, A.J.; Khoutorova, E.; Molina, P.E.; Gilpin, N.W.; Gardner, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown in human and animal studies to result in collagen accumulation, myocardial fibrosis, and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts produce collagen and regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis through the synthesis and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP), with the balance of MMPs/TIMPs determining the rate of collagen turnover. Dynamic changes of MMP and TIMP expression were reported in alcohol induced hepatic fibrosis; however, the effect of alcohol on MMP/TIMP balance in the heart and cardiac fibroblasts is unknown. We hypothesized that alcohol exposure alters cardiac fibroblast MMP and TIMP expression to promote collagen accumulation in the heart. Methods Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from adult rats were cultured in the presence of alcohol (12.5–200 mM) for 48 hrs. MMP, TIMP, and collagen type I and III expression were assayed by Western blot analysis. Hydroxyproline (HPro) was used as a marker of collagen production. The in vivo cardiac effects of ethanol were determined using rats exposed to ethanol vapor for two weeks, resulting in blood alcohol levels of 150–200 mg/dl. Cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF), as well as MMP, TIMP and collagen expression, was assessed. Results Ethanol exposed rats exhibited upregulation of TIMP-1, -3 and -4 in the heart, with no significant increases in MMPs. Cardiac fibroblasts exhibited transformation to a profibrotic phenotype following exposure to alcohol. These changes were reflected by increased α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I and III expression, as well as increased collagen secretion. In vivo ethanol exposure also produced fibrosis, indicated by increased CVF and expression of collagens. Conclusion Alcohol exposure modulates cardiac fibroblast MMP/TIMP expression favoring a profile associated with collagen accumulation. Our data suggest that this disrupted MMP/TIMP profile may contribute to the development of

  9. Reconditioning aging muscles.

    PubMed

    Kraus, H

    1978-06-01

    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  10. Both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens modify favorably the blood lipoprotein profile in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2006-06-28

    The present study compared the hypolipidemic activity of kudzu phytoestrogens with that of soybean phytoestrogen in estrogen- and androgen-deficient hamsters. In the first experiment, ovariectomized hamsters (n = 37) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9-10 each group). The first group was the control group, whereas the second group had the time-releasing estradiol-17beta subcutaneous (pellet) implants as a positive control. The third and fourth groups were orally administered soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts (30 mg/kg of body weight) per day. In the second experiments, the first group of male hamsters (n = 9) received a sham operation, whereas the other three groups of male hamsters (n = 9 each) were castrated. The castrated control group received orally distilled water, whereas the second and third castrated groups were orally given 30 mg/kg soybean or kudzu phytoestrogen extracts. The results for the first experiment showed that the ovariectomized hamsters orally given soybean and kudzu phytoestrogen extracts had significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) being unaffected. The data from the second experiment demonstrated that administration of soybean but not kudzu phytoestrogen extracts decreased significantly serum TC. However, administration of kudzu phytoestrogens caused redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins, leading to a significant decrease in the ratio of non-HDL-C to HDL-C. It was concluded that both soybean and kudzu phytoestrogens could modify favorably lipoprotein profiles in ovariectomized and castrated hamsters.

  11. Muscle Atrophy in Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Is Dependent on Intact Glucocorticoid Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Theodore P.; Szumowski, Marek; Levasseur, Peter R.; Grossberg, Aaron J.; Zhu, XinXia; Agarwal, Anupriya; Marks, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of weight loss that results from the selective depletion of skeletal muscle mass and contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. The driver of skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is systemic inflammation arising from both the cancer and cancer treatment. While the importance of tumor derived inflammation is well described, the mechanism by which cytotoxic chemotherapy contributes to cancer cachexia is relatively unexplored. We found that the administration of chemotherapy to mice produces a rapid inflammatory response. This drives activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which increases the circulating level of corticosterone, the predominant endogenous glucocorticoid in rodents. Additionally, chemotherapy administration results in a significant loss of skeletal muscle mass 18 hours after administration with a concurrent induction of genes involved with the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy lysosome systems. However, in mice lacking glucocorticoid receptor expression in skeletal muscle, chemotherapy-induced muscle atrophy is completely blocked. This demonstrates that cytotoxic chemotherapy elicits significant muscle atrophy driven by the production of endogenous glucocorticoids. Further, it argues that pharmacotherapy targeting the glucocorticoid receptor, given in concert with chemotherapy, is a viable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:25254959

  12. [Muscle cramps--differential diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Reichel, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    Calf cramps are sudden, involuntary, painful contractions of part of or the entire calf muscle that are visible, persist for seconds to minutes and then spontaneously resolve. They can occur with no identifiable cause, and are then referred to as common calf cramps. They may also be symptoms associated with diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system and muscle diseases. They also occur in association with metabolic disorders. In such cases the cramps are more extensive, intense and persist for longer. Cramp-fasciculation-myalgia syndrome additionally involves paresthesias and other signs of hyperexcitability of peripheral nerves. The recommended treatment for patients with frequent calf cramps causing significant impairment of well-being is oral administration of quinidine and/or botulinum toxin treatment of the calf muscles. During pregnancy both products are contraindicated, while probatory administration of magnesium is indicated.

  13. A muscle-targeting peptide displayed on AAV2 improves muscle tropism on systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-Y; Yuan, Z; Cao, Z; Wang, B; Qiao, C; Li, J; Xiao, X

    2009-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become a leading gene transfer vector for striated muscles. However, the AAV vectors also exhibit broad tropisms after systemic delivery. In an attempt to improve muscle tropism, we inserted a 7-amino-acid (ASSLNIA) muscle-targeting peptide (MTP) in the capsids of AAV2 at residue 587 or 588, generating AAV(587)MTP and AAV(588)MTP. In vitro studies showed that both viruses diminished their infectivity on non-muscle cell lines as well as on un-differentiated myoblasts; however, preserved or enhanced their infectivity on differentiated myotubes. AAV(587)MTP, but not AAV(588)MTP, also abolished its heparin-binding capacity and infected myotubes in a heparin-independent manner. Furthermore, in vivo studies by intravenous vector administration in mice showed that AAV(587)MTP enhanced its tropism to various muscles and particularly to the heart (24.3-fold of unmodified AAV2), whereas reduced its tropism to the non-muscle tissues such as the liver, lungs, spleen and so on. This alteration of tissue tropism is not simply because of the loss of heparin-binding, as a mutant AAV2 (AAVHBSMut) containing heparin-binding site mutations lost infectivity on both non-muscle and muscle cells. Furthermore, free MTP peptide, but not the scrambled control peptide, competitively inhibited AAV(587)MTP infection on myotubes. These results suggest that AAV2 could be re-targeted to the striated muscles by a MTP inserted after residue 587 of the capsids. This proof of principle study showed first evidence of peptide-directed muscle targeting on systemic administration of AAV vectors.

  14. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate muscle soreness and improve muscle protein synthesis after eccentric contractions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Mimura, Masako; Inoue, Yoshiko; Sugita, Mayu; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2015-06-01

    Eccentric exercise results in prolonged muscle weakness and muscle soreness, which are typical symptoms of muscle damage. Recovery from muscle damage is related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) stimulate muscle protein synthesis via activation of the mTOR pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LEAAs on muscle protein synthesis and muscle soreness after eccentric contractions (EC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-11 weeks old) were administered an LEAA solution (AminoL40; containing 40 % leucine and 60 % other essential amino acids) at 1 g/kg body weight or distilled water (control) 30 min before and 10 min after EC. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was exposed to 500 EC by electrical stimulation under anesthesia. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR; %/h) in the TA muscle was measured by incorporating L-[ring-(2)H5] phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein. Muscle soreness was evaluated by the paw withdrawal threshold using the Randal-Selitto test with some modifications from 1 to 3 days after EC. The FSR in the EC-control group (0.147 ± 0.016 %/h) was significantly lower than in the sedentary group (0.188 ± 0.016 %/h, p < 0.05). AminoL40 administration significantly mitigated the EC-induced impairment of the FSR (0.172 ± 0.018 %/h). EC decreased the paw withdrawal threshold at 1 and 2 days after EC, which indicated that EC induced muscle soreness. Furthermore, AminoL40 administration alleviated the decreased paw withdrawal threshold. These findings suggest that LEAA supplementation improves the rate of muscle protein synthesis and ameliorates muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

  15. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  16. Designation of less favorable areas by the regionalization of soil degradation on various spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, L.; Szabó, J.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Laborczi, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in less favorable areas (LFA) in order (among others) to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. LFA assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Delimitation of LFAs can be carried out by using biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions. Identification of low-productivity areas requires regionalization of soil functions related to food and other biomass production. This process can be carried out in different scales from national to local level, but always requires map-based pedological and further environmental information with appropriate spatial resolution. For the regionalization of less productive areas in national scale a functional approach was used which integrates the knowledge on soil degradation processes in nationwide level. Specific soil threats were classified into ranked categories. Supposing (quasi)uniform distribution of vulnerability measure along these classes, we introduced a "standardized" value as a ratio of the class order to the maximum class order expressed in percentage. For the overall spatial characterization of degradation status, spatial information was integrated in a result map by summarizing the degradation specific "standardized" cell values. This map in one hand has been used for the delineation of soil degradation regions. On the other hand appropriate spatial aggregation of index values on geographical and administrative regions is suitable for their quantitative comparison thus they can be ranked and this feature can be used for the identification of less favorable areas. At the more detailed, county level the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System was used as a tool of the regionalization of soil functions related to soil

  17. Erythropoietin administration partially prevents adipose tissue loss in experimental cancer cachexia models

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Pin, Fabrizio; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized, among other symptoms, by a dramatic loss of both muscle and fat. In addition, the cachectic syndrome is often associated with anemia. The object of the present investigation was to assess the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on experimental cancer cachexia models. The results clearly show that, in addition to the improvement of the hematocrit, EPO treatment promoted a partial preservation of adipose tissue while exerting negligible effects on muscle loss. Administration of EPO to tumor-bearing animals resulted in a significant increase of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipose tissue, suggesting that the treatment favored triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the adipose tissue. In vitro experiments using both adipose tissue slices and 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggests that EPO is able to increase the lipogenic rate through the activation of its specific receptor (EPOR). This metabolic pathway, in addition to TAG uptake by LPL, may contribute to the beneficial effects of EPO on fat preservation in cancer cachexia. PMID:23966665

  18. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  19. Regeneration of frog twitch and slow muscle fibers after mincing.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Emser, W

    1985-10-01

    Iliofibularis muscles of Rana temporaria were minced and allowed to regenerate in the iliofibularis or the sartorius bed of the same frog. Regenerated muscles were examined for the presence of slow muscle fibers using electrophysiologic, histochemical, and contractile parameters. Muscle regeneration from sartorius mince was also studied. Regeneration was more successful from iliofibularis than from sartorius mince, and the iliofibularis bed was more favorable for regeneration than the sartorius bed for both types of muscle. Twitch fibers regenerated within a few months, but slow fibers could not be identified earlier than 14 months after muscle destruction. Slow muscle fibers regenerated only from iliofibularis mince, both orthotopically and heterotopically. All regenerates capable of maintaining a K-contracture contained histochemically identified slow fibers; the membrane properties of electrophysiologically identified slow fibers were normal. It is concluded that slow muscle fibers regenerate only from the remnants of a muscle that contains slow fibers. The results are discussed with respect to the role of innervating nerve fibers.

  20. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  1. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Matoba, Motohiro; Narita, Minoru

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  2. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  3. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Katharine L; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2005-07-28

    Plasticity of respiratory muscles must be considered in the context of their unique physiological demands. The continuous rhythmic activation of respiratory muscles makes them among the most active in the body. Respiratory muscles, especially the diaphragm, are non-weight-bearing, and thus, in contrast to limb muscles, are not exposed to gravitational effects. Perturbations in normal activation and load known to induce plasticity in limb muscles may not cause similar adaptations in respiratory muscles. In this review, we explore the structural and functional properties of the diaphragm muscle and their response to alterations in load and activity. Overall, relatively modest changes in diaphragm structural and functional properties occur in response to perturbations in load or activity. However, disruptions in the normal influence of phrenic innervation by frank denervation, tetrodotoxin nerve block and spinal hemisection, induce profound changes in the diaphragm, indicating the substantial trophic influence of phrenic motoneurons on diaphragm muscle.

  4. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  5. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  6. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production.

    PubMed

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Park, SooHyun; James, Jose K; Makarewich, Catherine A; Philippou, Anastassios; Eletto, Davide; Lei, Hanqin; Brisson, Becky; Ostrovsky, Olga; Li, Zihai; Argon, Yair

    2012-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical for development and growth of skeletal muscles, but because several tissues produce IGFs, it is not clear which source is necessary or sufficient for muscle growth. Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth. These mice exhibited smaller skeletal muscles with diminished IGF contents but with normal contractile function and no apparent endoplasmic reticulum stress response. This result shows that muscles rely on GRP94 primarily to support local production of IGFs, a pool that is necessary for normal muscle growth. In addition, body weights were ∼30% smaller than those of littermate controls, and circulating IGF-I also decreased significantly, yet glucose homeostasis was maintained with little disruption to the growth hormone pathway. The growth defect was complemented on administration of recombinant IGF-I. Thus, unlike liver production of IGF-I, muscle IGF-I is necessary not only locally but also globally for whole-body growth.

  7. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  8. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  9. β-Carotene Increases Muscle Mass and Hypertrophy in the Soleus Muscle in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kitakaze, Tomoya; Harada, Naoki; Imagita, Hidetaka; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Supplements and naturally occurring nutraceuticals effective for maintenance or enhancement of skeletal muscle mass are expected to contribute to prevention of decreased mobility and increased risk of developing metabolic diseases. However, information about available food components remains widely unavailable. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary β-carotene on the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle under physiological conditions. Male ddY mice (8 wk old) were orally administered β-carotene (0.5 mg once daily) for 14 d. Dietary β-carotene had no influence on body weight, but increased the soleus muscle/body weight ratio. The cross-sectional area (CSA) in muscle fibers of the soleus muscle was increased, indicating that administration of β-carotene induces muscle hypertrophy. In the soleus muscle of the β-carotene-administered mice, twitch force tended to be increased (p=0.06) and tetanic force was significantly increased, whereas specific force (force per CSA) remained unchanged. Dietary β-carotene increased the mRNA level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf-1) as its splicing variant Igf-1ea, but had no influence on the liver Igf-1 mRNA level or serum IGF-1 level. β-Carotene promoted protein synthesis in the soleus muscle and reduced levels of ubiquitin conjugates, but had no influence on the mRNA levels of two atrogenes, Atrogin-1 and Murf1. On the other hand, β-carotene had no influence on the processing of the autophagy marker protein light chain 3. These results indicate that in mice, administration of β-carotene increases mass and induces functional hypertrophy in the soleus muscle, perhaps by promoting IGF-1-mediated protein synthesis and by reducing ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.

  10. Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Goldsmith, Rochelle; Bloomfield, Daniel; Magnano, Anthony; Weimer, Louis; Heymsfield, Steven; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Murphy, Ellen; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by decreased energy expenditure that is due largely to increased skeletal muscle work efficiency. In addition, decreased sympathetic nervous system tone and circulating concentrations of leptin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine act coordinately to favor weight regain. These “weight-reduced” phenotypes are similar to those of leptin-deficient humans and rodents. We examined metabolic, autonomic, and neuroendocrine phenotypes in 10 inpatient subjects (5 males, 5 females [3 never-obese, 7 obese]) under 3 sets of experimental conditions: (a) maintaining usual weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; (b) maintaining a 10% reduced weight by ingesting a liquid formula diet; and (c) receiving twice-daily subcutaneous doses of leptin sufficient to restore 8 am circulating leptin concentrations to pre–weight-loss levels and remaining on the same liquid formula diet required to maintain a 10% reduced weight. During leptin administration, energy expenditure, skeletal muscle work efficiency, sympathetic nervous system tone, and circulating concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine returned to pre–weight-loss levels. These responses suggest that the weight-reduced state may be regarded as a condition of relative leptin insufficiency. Prevention of weight regain might be achievable by strategies relevant to reversing this leptin-insufficient state. PMID:16322796

  11. Systemic blockade of ACVR2B ligands prevents chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting by restoring muscle protein synthesis without affecting oxidative capacity or atrogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, T. A.; Degerman, J.; Räsänen, M.; Poikonen, A. R.; Koskinen, S.; Mervaala, E.; Pasternack, A.; Ritvos, O.; Kivelä, R.; Hulmi, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used and effective chemotherapy drug. However, cardiac and skeletal muscle toxicity of doxorubicin limits its use. Inhibiting myostatin/activin signalling can prevent muscle atrophy, but its effects in chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting are unknown. In the present study we investigated the effects of doxorubicin administration alone or combined with activin receptor ligand pathway blockade by soluble activin receptor IIB (sACVR2B-Fc). Doxorubicin administration decreased body mass, muscle size and bone mineral density/content in mice. However, these effects were prevented by sACVR2B-Fc administration. Unlike in many other wasting situations, doxorubicin induced muscle atrophy without markedly increasing typical atrogenes or protein degradation pathways. Instead, doxorubicin decreased muscle protein synthesis which was completely restored by sACVR2B-Fc. Doxorubicin administration also resulted in impaired running performance without effects on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity/function or capillary density. Running performance and mitochondrial function were unaltered by sACVR2B-Fc administration. Tumour experiment using Lewis lung carcinoma cells demonstrated that sACVR2B-Fc decreased the cachectic effects of chemotherapy without affecting tumour growth. These results demonstrate that blocking ACVR2B signalling may be a promising strategy to counteract chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting without damage to skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or cancer treatment. PMID:27666826

  12. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  13. Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-06-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

  14. "Time" and "Newsweek" Favor John F. Kennedy, Criticize Robert and Edward Kennedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Finds that the percentage of favorable, neutral, and unfavorable statements about the three Kennedy brothers in two national news magazines was similar and that both magazines published proportionately more favorable statements about John Kennedy than about either of his brothers. (FL)

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  18. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor... between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor. (b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted...

  19. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  20. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  1. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  2. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Järvinen, Teppo L N; Kääriäinen, Minna; Aärimaa, Ville; Vaittinen, Samuli; Kalimo, Hannu; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-04-01

    Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, there are only a few clinical studies on the treatment of muscle injuries. Lack of clinical studies is most probably attributable to the fact that there is not only a high heterogeneity in the severity of injuries, but also the injuries take place in different muscles, making it very demanding to carry out clinical trials. Accordingly, the current treatment principles of muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested empirically only. Clinically, first aid for muscle injuries follows the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle. The objective of RICE is to stop the injury-induced bleeding into the muscle tissue and thereby minimise the extent of the injury. Clinical examination should be carried out immediately after the injury and 5-7 days after the initial trauma, at which point the severity of the injury can be assessed more reliably. At that time, a more detailed characterisation of the injury can be made using imaging diagnostic modalities (ultrasound or MRI) if desired. The treatment of injured skeletal muscle should be carried out by immediate immobilisation of the injured muscle (clinically, relative immobility/avoidance of muscle contractions). However, the duration of immobilisation should be limited to a period sufficient to produce a scar of sufficient strength to bear the forces induced by remobilisation without re-rupture and the return to activity (mobilisation) should then be started gradually within the limits of pain. Early return to activity is needed to optimise the regeneration of healing muscle and recovery of the flexibility and strength of the injured skeletal muscle to pre-injury levels. The rehabilitation programme should be built around progressive agility and trunk stabilisation exercises, as these exercises seem to yield better outcome for injured skeletal muscle than programmes based

  3. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  4. NGF-evoked sensitization of muscle fascia nociceptors in humans.

    PubMed

    Deising, Saskia; Weinkauf, Benjamin; Blunk, James; Obreja, Otilia; Schmelz, Martin; Rukwied, Roman

    2012-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces local hyperalgesia for a few days after intramuscular injection, but longer-lasting muscle pain upon systemic administration. As the muscle fascia is densely innervated by free nerve endings, we hypothesized a lasting sensitization of fascia nociceptors by NGF. We administered 1 μg NGF (dissolved in 100 μL saline) ultrasound-guided to the fascia of the Musculus erector spinae muscle at the lumbar level of 14 male volunteers and assessed hypersensitivity after 6 hours, and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Pain upon mechanical stimuli (constant pressure and dynamic impact), upon exercise and electrically induced M. erector spinae contraction, and upon injection of 100 μL phosphate buffer pH4 (at day 7 and 14 only) to the fascia of both NGF- and saline-treated muscles, was investigated. Injections into the muscle fascia did not cause acute pain. Local heat pain thresholds were unchanged following NGF and saline (control) administration. NGF evoked a lasting (days 1-7) and significant reduction of pressure pain, pressure thresholds, exercise-evoked muscle pain, and hyperalgesia to impact stimuli (12 m/s). Pain upon injected protons was significantly elevated (P<0.04) for 2 weeks. NGF induced a sensitization of the muscle fascia to mechanical and chemical stimuli lasting for up to 2 weeks. As nociceptors in the fascia appear to be particularly prone to sensitization, they may contribute to acute or chronic muscle pain.

  5. Muscle development and obesity

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

  6. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Turkey United Kingdom...

  8. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  9. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  10. Evaluation of follistatin as a therapeutic in models of skeletal muscle atrophy associated with denervation and tenotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Patricio V.; Lamon, Séverine; Hagg, Adam; Thomson, Rachel E.; Winbanks, Catherine E.; Qian, Hongwei; Bruce, Clinton R.; Russell, Aaron P.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Follistatin is an inhibitor of TGF-β superfamily ligands that repress skeletal muscle growth and promote muscle wasting. Accordingly, follistatin has emerged as a potential therapeutic to ameliorate the deleterious effects of muscle atrophy. However, it remains unclear whether the anabolic effects of follistatin are conserved across different modes of non-degenerative muscle wasting. In this study, the delivery of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing follistatin (rAAV:Fst) to the hind-limb musculature of mice two weeks prior to denervation or tenotomy promoted muscle hypertrophy that was sufficient to preserve muscle mass comparable to that of untreated sham-operated muscles. However, administration of rAAV:Fst to muscles at the time of denervation or tenotomy did not prevent subsequent muscle wasting. Administration of rAAV:Fst to innervated or denervated muscles increased protein synthesis, but markedly reduced protein degradation only in innervated muscles. Phosphorylation of the signalling proteins mTOR and S6RP, which are associated with protein synthesis, was increased in innervated muscles administered rAAV:Fst, but not in treated denervated muscles. These results demonstrate that the anabolic effects of follistatin are influenced by the interaction between muscle fibres and motor nerves. These findings have important implications for understanding the potential efficacy of follistatin-based therapies for non-degenerative muscle wasting. PMID:26657343

  11. Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types a rat model of critical illness myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Benjamin T.; Confides, Amy L.; Rich, Mark M.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40–60% of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and −8 activities, but not caspase-9 and −12, were elevated in TA and not in soleus muscle, while the caspase-independent proteins endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were not changed in abundance nor differentially localized in either muscle. Anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70, −27, and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) were elevated in soleus compared to TA muscle and ARC was significantly decreased with induction of DSIM in soleus. Results indicate that apoptosis is a significant process associated with DSIM in both soleus and TA muscles, and that apoptosis-associated processes are differentially regulated in muscles of different function and fiber type undergoing atrophy due to DSIM. We conclude that interventions combating apoptosis with CIM may need to be directed towards inhibiting caspase-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms to be able to affect muscles of all fiber types. PMID:25740800

  12. Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Benjamin T; Confides, Amy L; Rich, Mark M; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2015-06-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60% of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not caspase-9 and -12, were elevated in TA and not in soleus muscle, while the caspase-independent proteins endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were not changed in abundance nor differentially localized in either muscle. Anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70, -27, and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) were elevated in soleus compared to TA muscle and ARC was significantly decreased with induction of DSIM in soleus. Results indicate that apoptosis is a significant process associated with DSIM in both soleus and TA muscles, and that apoptosis-associated processes are differentially regulated in muscles of different function and fiber type undergoing atrophy due to DSIM. We conclude that interventions combating apoptosis with CIM may need to be directed towards inhibiting caspase-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms to be able to affect muscles of all fiber types.

  13. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  14. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  15. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-04-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle's plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles.

  16. Connexin- and pannexin-based channels in normal skeletal muscles and their possible role in muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cea, Luis A; Riquelme, Manuel A; Cisterna, Bruno A; Puebla, Carlos; Vega, José L; Rovegno, Maximiliano; Sáez, Juan C

    2012-08-01

    Precursor cells of skeletal muscles express connexins 39, 43 and 45 and pannexin1. In these cells, most connexins form two types of membrane channels, gap junction channels and hemichannels, whereas pannexin1 forms only hemichannels. All these channels are low-resistance pathways permeable to ions and small molecules that coordinate developmental events. During late stages of skeletal muscle differentiation, myofibers become innervated and stop expressing connexins but still express pannexin1 hemichannels that are potential pathways for the ATP release required for potentiation of the contraction response. Adult injured muscles undergo regeneration, and connexins are reexpressed and form membrane channels. In vivo, connexin reexpression occurs in undifferentiated cells that form new myofibers, favoring the healing process of injured muscle. However, differentiated myofibers maintained in culture for 48 h or treated with proinflammatory cytokines for less than 3 h also reexpress connexins and only form functional hemichannels at the cell surface. We propose that opening of these hemichannels contributes to drastic changes in electrochemical gradients, including reduction of membrane potential, increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and release of diverse metabolites (e.g., NAD(+) and ATP) to the extracellular milieu, contributing to multiple metabolic and physiologic alterations that characterize muscles undergoing atrophy in several acquired and genetic human diseases. Consequently, inhibition of connexin hemichannels expressed by injured or denervated skeletal muscles might reduce or prevent deleterious changes triggered by conditions that promote muscle atrophy.

  17. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  18. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  19. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  20. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  1. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  2. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  3. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

  4. Short-term oral toxicity study of FAVOR PAC in rats.

    PubMed

    Haselbach, J; Hey, S; Berner, T

    2000-12-01

    A short-term rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the oral toxicity of FAVOR PAC (CAS Registry No. 9003-04-7), one member of a family of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate polymers developed by Stockhausen GmbH & Co KG (Krefeld, Germany). FAVOR polymers are classified as superabsorbent polymers because of their ability to absorb and retain large volumes of fluid. In this short-term study, three groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 0 (control), 1, or 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet daily for up to 32 days. No significant changes in clinical signs, body weight and food consumption, functional observation battery results, ophthalmoscopy, hematology and clinical chemistries, or absolute and relative organ weights were observed. Significant differences between treated and control animals were limited to increases in water consumption and modifications in urinary ionic excretion. Both findings were likely the result of the relatively high concentration of sodium in the test article, and thus consistent with adaptive physiologic changes, not overt toxicity. In conclusion, levels of up to 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet produced no treatment-related toxicity in rats under the conditions of this short-term test (i.e., a NOAEL of 5% FAVOR PAC in the diet was identified).

  5. Favorable alteration of tumor microenvironment by immunomodulatory cytokines for efficient T-cell therapy in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, Siri; Kaikkonen, Saija; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Kanerva, Anna; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I) therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience.

  6. Favorable Alteration of Tumor Microenvironment by Immunomodulatory Cytokines for Efficient T-Cell Therapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tähtinen, Siri; Kaikkonen, Saija; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Kanerva, Anna; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I) therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience. PMID:26107883

  7. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  8. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  9. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  10. Optimal workloop energetics of muscle-actuated systems: an impedance matching view.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Waleed A; Herr, Hugh M

    2010-06-03

    Integrative approaches to studying the coupled dynamics of skeletal muscles with their loads while under neural control have focused largely on questions pertaining to the postural and dynamical stability of animals and humans. Prior studies have focused on how the central nervous system actively modulates muscle mechanical impedance to generate and stabilize motion and posture. However, the question of whether muscle impedance properties can be neurally modulated to create favorable mechanical energetics, particularly in the context of periodic tasks, remains open. Through muscle stiffness tuning, we hypothesize that a pair of antagonist muscles acting against a common load may produce significantly more power synergistically than individually when impedance matching conditions are met between muscle and load. Since neurally modulated muscle stiffness contributes to the coupled muscle-load stiffness, we further anticipate that power-optimal oscillation frequencies will occur at frequencies greater than the natural frequency of the load. These hypotheses were evaluated computationally by applying optimal control methods to a bilinear muscle model, and also evaluated through in vitro measurements on frog Plantaris longus muscles acting individually and in pairs upon a mass-spring-damper load. We find a 7-fold increase in mechanical power when antagonist muscles act synergistically compared to individually at a frequency higher than the load natural frequency. These observed behaviors are interpreted in the context of resonance tuning and the engineering notion of impedance matching. These findings suggest that the central nervous system can adopt strategies to harness inherent muscle impedance in relation to external loads to attain favorable mechanical energetics.

  11. Optimal Workloop Energetics of Muscle-Actuated Systems: An Impedance Matching View

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Waleed A.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2010-01-01

    Integrative approaches to studying the coupled dynamics of skeletal muscles with their loads while under neural control have focused largely on questions pertaining to the postural and dynamical stability of animals and humans. Prior studies have focused on how the central nervous system actively modulates muscle mechanical impedance to generate and stabilize motion and posture. However, the question of whether muscle impedance properties can be neurally modulated to create favorable mechanical energetics, particularly in the context of periodic tasks, remains open. Through muscle stiffness tuning, we hypothesize that a pair of antagonist muscles acting against a common load may produce significantly more power synergistically than individually when impedance matching conditions are met between muscle and load. Since neurally modulated muscle stiffness contributes to the coupled muscle-load stiffness, we further anticipate that power-optimal oscillation frequencies will occur at frequencies greater than the natural frequency of the load. These hypotheses were evaluated computationally by applying optimal control methods to a bilinear muscle model, and also evaluated through in vitro measurements on frog Plantaris longus muscles acting individually and in pairs upon a mass-spring-damper load. We find a 7-fold increase in mechanical power when antagonist muscles act synergistically compared to individually at a frequency higher than the load natural frequency. These observed behaviors are interpreted in the context of resonance tuning and the engineering notion of impedance matching. These findings suggest that the central nervous system can adopt strategies to harness inherent muscle impedance in relation to external loads to attain favorable mechanical energetics. PMID:20532203

  12. Finite element modeling reveals complex strain mechanics in the aponeuroses of contracting skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Hodgson, John; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Reggie Edgerton, V; Shin, David D; Roiz, Ronald A; Sinha, Shantanu

    2010-05-07

    A finite element model was used to investigate the counter-intuitive experimental observation that some regions of the aponeuroses of a loaded and contracting muscle may shorten rather than undergo an expected lengthening. The model confirms the experimental findings and suggests that pennation angle plays a significant role in determining whether regions of the aponeuroses stretch or shorten. A smaller pennation angles (25 degrees ) was accompanied by aponeurosis lengthening whereas a larger pennation angle (47 degrees ) was accompanied by mixed strain effects depending upon location along the length of the aponeurosis. This can be explained by the Poisson effect during muscle contraction and a Mohr's circle analogy. Constant volume constraint requires that fiber cross sectional dimensions increase when a fiber shortens. The opposing influences of these two strains upon the aponeurosis combine in proportion to the pennation angle. Lower pennation angles emphasize the influence of fiber shortening upon the aponeurosis and thus favor aponeurosis compression, whereas higher pennation angles increase the influence of cross sectional changes and therefore favor aponeurosis stretch. The distance separating the aponeuroses was also found to depend upon pennation angle during simulated contractions. Smaller pennation angles favored increased aponeurosis separation larger pennation angles favored decreased separation. These findings caution that measures of the mechanical properties of aponeuroses in intact muscle may be affected by contributions from adjacent muscle fibers and that the influence of muscle fibers on aponeurosis strain will depend upon the fiber pennation angle.

  13. 7 CFR 1403.7 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Department of Justice; or (2) When a person is indebted under a judgment in favor of CCC. (d... (including county), and, where legally available, the social security number or employer ID number of the... interest, administrative charges, and penalties, unless the Department of Justice requests that a...

  14. 7 CFR 1403.7 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Justice; or (2) When a person is indebted under a judgment in favor of CCC. (d... (including county), and, where legally available, the social security number or employer ID number of the... interest, administrative charges, and penalties, unless the Department of Justice requests that a...

  15. Educating Students from Other Nations - A Handbook for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Franklin W.

    1983-01-01

    A book written for administrators of international student programs in the United States is given a favorable review. The book, "Educating Students from Other Nations: American Colleges and Universities in International Education," by Hugh M. Jenkins and associates, provides state-of-the-art descriptions of what program administrators…

  16. School Psychologists' Management of Administrative Pressure to Practice Unethically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccio, Dana E.; Weisz, Gaston; Lefkowitz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In their role as child advocates, school psychologists strive to promote policies and practices that increase the availability of necessary academic and mental health services and enhance the well-being of children. However, administrative pressure to disregard ethical and legal mandates in favor of decisions that would prioritize the needs of the…

  17. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cecilia; Acuña, María José; Torrejón, Javiera; Rebolledo, Daniela; Cabrera, Daniel; Santos, Robson A; Brandan, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7) production, in wild type (wt) and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7), which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  18. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  19. Skeletal muscle-smooth muscle interaction: an unusual myoelastic system.

    PubMed

    Hikida, R S; Peterson, W J

    1983-09-01

    The serratus superficialis metapatagialis (SSM) of pigeons is a skeletal muscle with unusual properties. It lies between the ribs and the trailing edge of the wing, where it is attached to the skin by a system of smooth muscles having elastic tendons. Wing movements during flight induce marked changes in this muscle's length. The SSM inserts onto the deep fascia, and at its termination the skeletal muscle contains large numbers of microtubules. Many myofibrils attach to leptomeric organelles, which then attach to the terminal end of the skeletal muscle fiber. The deep fascia next connects to the dermis of the skin by bundles of smooth muscles that have elastic tendons at both ends. This system allows large movements of the muscle while preventing its fibers from overstretching. The movements and presumed forces acting at this muscle make the presence of sensory receptors such as muscle spindles unlikely. Spindles are absent in this muscle.

  20. Hydrostatic Isolated Limb Perfusion with Adeno-associated Virus Vectors Enhances Correction of Skeletal Muscle in Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) stems from the inherited deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase; EC 3.2.1.20), which primarily involves cardiac and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that hydrostatic isolated limb perfusion (ILP) administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing a muscle specific promoter could achieve relatively higher transgene expression in the hindlimb muscles of GAA-knockout (GAA-KO) mice, in comparison with intravenous (IV) administration. ILP adminstration of AAV2/8 vectors encoding alkaline phosphatase or human GAA transduced skeletal muscles of the hindlimb widely, despite the relatively low number of vector particles administered (1×1011), and IV administration of an equivalent vector dose failed to transduce skeletal muscle detectably. Similarly, ILP administration of fewer vector particles of the AAV2/9 vector encoding human GAA (3×1010) transduced skeletal muscles of the hindlimb widely and significantly reduced glycogen content to, in comparison with IV administration. The only advantage for IV administration was moderately high level transduction of cardiac muscle, which demonstrated compellingly that ILP administration sequestered vector particles within the perfused limb. Reduction of glycogen storage in the extensor digitorum longus demonstrated the potential advantage of ILP-mediated delivery of AAV vectors in Pompe disease, because type II myofibers are resistant to enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, ILP will enhance AAV transduction of multiple skeletal muscles while reducing the required dosages in terms of vector particle numbers. PMID:20686508

  1. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John J; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2011-09-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca(2+) sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells.

  2. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  3. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in a weightless environment is studied. Topics of investigation include physiological factors of muscle atrophy in space flight, biochemistry, countermeasures, modelling of atrophied muscle tissue, and various methods of measurement of muscle strength and endurance. A review of the current literature and suggestions for future research are included.

  4. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralytic shellfish poisoning Periodic paralysis Focal nerve injury Polio Spinal cord injury Stroke Home Care Sudden loss ... Barré syndrome Muscle cramps Poisoning - fish and shellfish Polio Stroke Review Date 2/27/2016 Updated by: ...

  5. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  6. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment.

  7. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of fats, which are the major muscle energy fuels for those with the disorder. A partial deficiency ... genetic defect ( ) interferes with the processing of specific fuels, energy shortages can occur and toxic byproducts may build ...

  8. Buccinator muscle repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Baghele, Om N.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical aberrations and abnormalities are frequently associated with functional, psychosocial, and emotional problems. One such aberration is crestal attachment of frenum or muscle on the alveolar processes of the jaws. Crestal attachment of buccinator muscle is a rare phenomenon, which may pose various problems in routine oral exercises/functions or restoring the edentulous area. A case of abnormal buccinator muscle attachment is presented here, which was relocated apically by surgical means using an acrylic stent. The healing was uneventful and significant apical repositioning was observed. A fixed bridge was fabricated and the long-term results of the restorative therapy were assured because the patient could maintain the oral hygiene well after the muscle repositioning operation. PMID:23162347

  9. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  10. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  11. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  12. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  13. 48 CFR 53.301-275 - Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement in Favor of the United States. 53.301-275 Section 53.301-275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-275...

  14. Monetary favors and their influence on neural responses and revealed preference.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ann H; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H; Montague, P Read

    2010-07-14

    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender, a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm possessing no objectively correct answer for preferring one piece of art over another, we show that sponsorship of the experiment by a company endows the logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preference for art displayed next to the logo. Merely offering to sponsor the experiment similarly endowed the gesturing logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preferences. These effects do not depend upon the size of the displayed art or the proximity of the sponsoring logo to the piece of art. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that such monetary favors do not modulate a special collection of brain responses but instead modulate responses in neural networks normally activated by a wide range of preference judgments. The results raise the important possibility that monetary favors bias judgments in domains seemingly unrelated to the favor but nevertheless act in an implicit way through neural networks that underlie normal, ongoing preference judgments.

  15. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-5 Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  16. The Art of the Favor: The Connection between Networking and Personal Influence within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses various strategies for utilizing favors as a means for developing a personal powerbase and influencing individuals within a college setting. Building a personal network of influence centers upon effectively utilizing various strategies including; learning how to control the budget, how to empower others, when to compromise…

  17. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  18. Evidence from Biochemical Pathways in Favor of Unfinished Evolution Rather than Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward J.; Marzluf, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An argument is made in favor of imperfect or unfinished evolution based on some metabolic pathways in which it seems that intelligent design would have done better. The case studies noted indicate the absence of highly intelligent design and are not intended as comprehensive collection but as a limited sample of inefficient situations in…

  19. Favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy in a patient with primary plasma cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lishner, M; Lang, R; Jutrin, I; Ravid, M

    1985-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia was diagnosed in a previously healthy 58-year-old man. The unusual presentation with concomitant multiple osteolytic lesions and hepatosplenomegaly, the favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy with COAP, and the relatively long survival of 22 months prompted this report. This and several other cases recently reported should encourage an aggressive therapeutic approach to this disease.

  20. Does Favorable Selection Among Medicare Advantage Enrollees Affect Measurement of Hospital Readmission Rates?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Perkins, Mark; Bryson, Chris L; Au, David H; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2014-08-01

    Literature indicates favorable selection among Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees compared with fee-for-service (FFS) enrollees. This study examined whether favorable selection into MA affected readmission rates among Medicare-eligible veterans following hospitalization for congestive heart failure in the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA). We measured total (VA + Medicare FFS) 30-day all-cause readmission rates across hospitals and all of VA. We used Heckman's correction to adjust readmission rates to be representative of all Medicare-eligible veterans, not just FFS-enrolled veterans. The adjusted all-cause readmission rate among FFS veterans was 27.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.5% to 27.7%), while the adjusted readmission rate among Medicare-eligible veterans was 25.3% (95% CI = 23.6% to 27.1%) after correcting for favorable selection. Readmission rate estimates among FFS veterans generalize to all Medicare-eligible veterans only after accounting for favorable selection into MA. Estimation of quality metrics should carefully consider sample selection to produce valid policy inferences.

  1. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  2. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  3. Biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius favored by a competence-stimulating signaling peptide.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Fernanda C; Pecharki, Daniele; Scheie, Anne A

    2004-09-01

    Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate population behavior. In several streptococci, quorum sensing mediated by competence-stimulating peptides (CSP) is associated with development of competence for transformation. We show here that a synthetic CSP favored the biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius without affecting the rate of culture growth.

  4. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  5. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-5 Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  6. Colleges, Fighting U.S. Trade Proposal, Say It Favors For-Profit Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Describes how many colleges are opposing a U.S. plan that they say favors for-profit distance education. The proposal before the World Trade Organization asks member countries to begin formal negotiations to reduce barriers that keep higher education institutions from offering courses in other countries. (EV)

  7. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  8. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components.

  9. Muscle as a secretory organ.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.

  10. Androgen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Michael L; Steiner, Jennifer L; Gordon, Bradley S

    2017-02-22

    Androgens significantly alter muscle mass in part by shifting protein balance in favor of net protein accretion. During various atrophic conditions, the clinical impact of decreased production or bioavailability of androgens (termed hypogonadism) is important as a loss of muscle mass is intimately linked with survival outcome. While androgen replacement therapy increases muscle mass in part by restoring protein balance, this is not a comprehensive treatment option due to potential side effects. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which androgens alter protein balance is needed for the development of androgen-independent therapies. While the data in humans suggest androgens alter protein balance (both synthesis and breakdown) in the fasted metabolic state, a predominant molecular mechanism(s) behind this observation is still lacking. This failure is likely due in part to inconsistent experimental design between studies including failure to control nutrient/feeding status, the method of altering androgens, and the model systems utilized.

  11. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  12. Changes in T2-weighted MRI of supinator muscle, pronator teres muscle, and extensor indicis muscle with manual muscle testing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Akiyama, Sumikazu; Takamori, Masayoshi; Otsuka, D. Eng, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method. PMID:28356621

  13. Muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle after repetitive muscle activation: comparison to the biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Watanabe, Naoshi; Maeda, Sho; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle to those of the biceps brachii muscle during repetitive muscle movements. Seventeen asymptomatic female subjects participated in this study. Each subject, on separate days, undertook a 5-minute unilateral chewing gum task on the right side and a 5-minute flexion-extension exercise on the right hand with a 2kg dumbbell. Using a handheld hardness meter, muscle hardness was measured in the right masseter and in the biceps brachii muscle at eight time points (before the task, immediately after the task, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the task), and the data obtained before and after the task on each muscle were compared. Comparisons of the normalized data were also performed between the two muscles at each time point. As a result, a significant increase in muscle hardness was seen at 1 minute after the task in the biceps brachii muscle (p=0.0093). In contrast, the masseter muscle showed a tendency to lower hardness, with the lowest point of hardness occurring at 10 minutes after the task (p = 0.0160). Between the two muscles, there was a difference in the normalized data immediately after the task, and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after the task (0.01 muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle completely differed from those of the biceps brachii muscle after repetitive muscle activation.

  14. Effect of dexamethasone on the expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in chick skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuki; Ishida, Aiko; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-03-01

    Expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, is high under catabolic conditions, that result in muscle atrophy. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx is increased by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in mammalian skeletal muscle. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks and in chick myotubes. Chicks were given a single intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after dexamethasone administration, the Pectoralis muscle weight of chicks was decreased. mRNA expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle of chicks was significantly increased by dexamethasone administration. Expression of other proteolytic-related genes (20S proteasome C2 subunit, m-calpain large subunit, and cathepsin B) in skeletal muscle of chicks was not increased by dexamethasone administration. Chick myotubes were incubated with dexamethasone (1, 10 or 100 µmol/L) for 6 h. Expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA in chick myotubes was increased in the presence of all concentrations of dexamethasone. However, expression of other proteolytic-related genes (20S proteasome C2 subunit, m-calpain large subunit and cathepsin B) in chick myotubes was not affected by dexamethasone treatment. These results indicate that dexamethasone enhances atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in chick skeletal muscle, resulting in increased muscle atrophy.

  15. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Cousin, Wendy; Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y; Chooljian, Marc S; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P; Conboy, Irina M

    2014-06-10

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation; however, systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin--a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition and social behaviours--is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signalling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation through activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle ageing.

  16. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y.; Chooljian, Marc S.; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation, but systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin- a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition, and social behaviors - is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signaling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation throughactivation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle, but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging. PMID:24915299

  17. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  18. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  19. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  20. Traditionalism and Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    Administration is defined as the enactment of moral choices influencing subordinates within an organizational setting. It is distinguished from management, which is considered to involve a lower level of discretion. Educational administration is therefore in the moral domain; it involves discretionary, moral choices in a field that is itself moral…

  1. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  2. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  3. Administrative Theory in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…

  4. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  5. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  6. Striated Muscle Regulation of Isometric Tension by Multiple Equilibria

    PubMed Central

    Zot, Henry G.; Hasbun, Javier E.; Van Minh, Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative activation of striated muscle by calcium is based on the movement of tropomyosin described by the steric blocking theory of muscle contraction. Presently, the Hill model stands alone in reproducing both myosin binding data and a sigmoidal-shaped curve characteristic of calcium activation (Hill TL (1983) Two elementary models for the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by calcium. Biophys J 44: 383–396.). However, the free myosin is assumed to be fixed by the muscle lattice and the cooperative mechanism is based on calcium-dependent interactions between nearest neighbor tropomyosin subunits, which has yet to be validated. As a result, no comprehensive model has been shown capable of fitting actual tension data from striated muscle. We show how variable free myosin is a selective advantage for activating the muscle and describe a mechanism by which a conformational change in tropomyosin propagates free myosin given constant total myosin. This mechanism requires actin, tropomyosin, and filamentous myosin but is independent of troponin. Hence, it will work equally well with striated, smooth and non-muscle contractile systems. Results of simulations with and without data are consistent with a strand of tropomyosin composed of ∼20 subunits being moved by the concerted action of 3–5 myosin heads, which compares favorably with the predicted length of tropomyosin in the overlap region of thick and thin filaments. We demonstrate that our model fits both equilibrium myosin binding data and steady-state calcium-dependent tension data and show how both the steepness of the response and the sensitivity to calcium can be regulated by the actin-troponin interaction. The model simulates non-cooperative calcium binding both in the presence and absence of strong binding myosin as has been observed. Thus, a comprehensive model based on three well-described interactions with actin, namely, actin-troponin, actin-tropomyosin, and actin-myosin can explain the

  7. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    PubMed

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine.

  8. Trade off situation between thymus and growth hormone: age-related decline of growth hormone is a cause of thymic involution but favorable for elongation of lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Utsuyama, Masanori; Kikuchi, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    High level of growth hormone (GH) is necessary for the activation of thymic function to promote T cell differentiation in the early stage of animal life. In the later stage of the life, administration of GH promotes the development of immune system and rejuvenates declined immune function of elderly people. By contraries, GH deficiency is favorable for the longer lifespan, as hypo-pituitary dwarf mice such as Ames and Snell dwarf mice exhibit longer lifespan than control. Furthermore over-expression of heterologous or homologous GH in transgenic mice shortens the lifespan. Ecuadorians carrying mutations of GH receptor gene are short in height, but exhibited low frequency of malignancy and no cases of diabetes. These data indicate that GH is necessary for the development of thymus dependent immune system but GH deficiency is favorable for long life span and decreases occurrence of cancer and DM. This situation is a kind of trade off situation between the immune system and GH. Thus the early decline of high level of GH occurring shortly after the birth is a cause of early decline of thymic functions, but favorable for longer lifespan. This situation could be a kind of trade off situation between thymus and GH.

  9. A favorable effect of hydroxychloroquine on glucose and lipid metabolism beyond its anti-inflammatory role.

    PubMed

    Hage, Mirella P; Al-Badri, Marwa R; Azar, Sami T

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a commonly used antimalarial drug in rheumatic diseases, has shown favorable metabolic effects on both glucose control and lipid profiles. We describe a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes whose glycemic control was optimized with the introduction of HCQ as a treatment for her Sjogren syndrome in addition to a subtle yet measurable improvement in her lipid profile. An increasing body of evidence supports the beneficial impacts of HCQ in various ancillary conditions, including diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. However, mechanisms of action responsible for these effects remain ill-defined and may include alterations in insulin metabolism and signaling through cellular receptors. These favorable metabolic effects of HCQ and further understanding of underlying mechanisms may provide an additional rational for its use in rheumatic diseases, conditions associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk.

  10. Development of Discussion Supporting System Based on the "Value of Favorable Words' Influence"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Tetsuro; Seki, Kazuya; Matsui, Tatsunori; Okamoto, Toshio

    The importance of the WEB chat in discussion has been well known and used effectively in collaborative learning environment. In order to activate discussions, various functions such as identification of participants' roles, motivation to participate, and resolution of depressed discussions are needed. This research proposes the function to calculate the "values of favorable words' influence" on real time, which are estimated by member of participants' words and their transitive structures. In this paper, firstly we define the "values of favorable wards' influence" as an index for the active direction of discussion and the discussion model based on this index, secondly we introduce an architecture of the discussion supporting system based on this model and its performance and finally through some practical experiments we examine the validity and effectiveness of our discussion model.

  11. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  12. Influences of Mental Illness Stigma on Perceptions of and Responses to Requests for Favors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tatsuya; Dailey, René

    2016-07-01

    This article examines mental illness stigma effects on a request for a favor from a mentally ill individual. Four hundred and fourteen participants interacted with a hypothetical target on Facebook who was believed to have schizophrenia, depression, or a tooth cavity (i.e., the control group). Participants were asked to rate the favor request in terms of face threat, in addition to writing a response, which was then coded using message design logics. Results indicated that a request by a schizophrenic target threatened participants' positive face more significantly than that of a target with depression or without any mental illness. Participants' responses to the schizophrenic target were more likely to be conventional messages, whereas responses to the depressed target were more likely to be rhetorical messages. Theoretical and practical contributions are considered.

  13. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  14. Favorable Long-term Prognosis of Cataract Surgery in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505

  15. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    PubMed

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  16. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  17. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  18. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M

    2016-08-07

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  19. Muscle wasting in cancer.

    PubMed

    Johns, N; Stephens, N A; Fearon, K C H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle loss appears to be the most significant clinical event in cancer cachexia and is associated with a poor outcome. With regard to such muscle loss, despite extensive study in a range of models, there is ongoing debate as to whether a reduction in protein synthesis, an increase in degradation or a combination of both is the more relevant. Each model differs in terms of key mediators and the pathways activated in skeletal muscle. Certain models do suggest that decreased synthesis accompanied by enhanced protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) is important. Murine models tend to involve rapid development of cachexia and may represent more acute muscle atrophy rather than the chronic wasting observed in humans. There is a paucity of human data both at a basic descriptive level and at a molecular/mechanism level. Progress in treating the human form of cancer cachexia can only move forwards through carefully designed large randomised controlled clinical trials of specific therapies with validated biomarkers of relevance to underlying mechanisms. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.

  20. Positronium Formation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    Positronium formation in muscle at +4°C and -4°C was examined by the measurement of the angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation. Since the positronium formation rate in ice is considerably higher than it is in water, there should be a comparable increase in the positronium formation rate in muscle tissue if recent speculation that cellular water is ordered in a semicrystalline icelike state is correct. Comparison of the angular correlation from muscle at +4°C with that from water at +4°C shows no enhancement of the positronium formation rate. Frozen muscle at -4°C shows an enhancement of the positronium formation rate of approximately half that found in ice at -4°C, indicating that most cellular water undergoes a normal water-ice transition when frozen. It is concluded therefore that cell water in muscle is not ordered in a hexagonal icelike structure. While the results are consistent with the hypothesis that cell water is in the liquid state, the hypothesis that cell water is ordered in an undetermined close packed structure which transforms to the hexagonal ice structure at or near 0°C cannot be ruled out. PMID:5436881

  1. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  2. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts’ valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC. PMID:21646526

  3. Experimental Investigation of a Supersonic Boundary Layer Including Favorable Pressure Gradient Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    United States Government. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A SUPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER INCLUDING FAVORABLE PRESSURE GRADIENT EFFECTS THESIS Presented to...flow to be disturbed from its original state . Aside from providing a non-intrusive method of measurement, LDV has the advantage of measuring the...providing some useful test of turbulence modeling. 4. Well-defined experimental boundary conditions: All incoming conditions (especially the state of

  4. Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Patient With Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin P; Mo, Jun; Yoon, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is most commonly associated with malignancy, infection, or an underlying autoimmune disorder. Malignancy-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is responsible for most secondary HLH cases, but it has not been well described in children. We present a case of a 4-year-old female with favorable histology of Wilms tumor who developed secondary HLH after unsuccessful resection of the tumor and initiation of chemotherapy.

  5. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  6. Simulation of active skeletal muscle tissue with a transversely isotropic viscohyperelastic continuum material model.

    PubMed

    Khodaei, Hamid; Mostofizadeh, Salar; Brolin, Karin; Johansson, Håkan; Osth, Jonas

    2013-05-01

    Human body models with biofidelic kinematics in vehicle pre-crash and crash simulations require a constitutive model of muscle tissue with both passive and active properties. Therefore, a transversely isotropic viscohyperelastic continuum material model with element-local fiber definition and activation capability is suggested for use with explicit finite element codes. Simulations of experiments with New Zealand rabbit's tibialis anterior muscle at three different strain rates were performed. Three different active force-length relations were used, where a robust performance of the material model was observed. The results were compared with the experimental data and the simulation results from a previous study, where the muscle tissue was modeled with a combination of discrete and continuum elements. The proposed material model compared favorably, and integrating the active properties of the muscle into a continuum material model opens for applications with complex muscle geometries.

  7. 21 CFR 890.5860 - Ultrasound and muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasound and muscle stimulator. 890.5860 Section 890.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of the body ultrasonic energy at a frequency beyond 20 kilohertz and that is intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5860 - Ultrasound and muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasound and muscle stimulator. 890.5860 Section 890.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of the body ultrasonic energy at a frequency beyond 20 kilohertz and that is intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5860 - Ultrasound and muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasound and muscle stimulator. 890.5860 Section 890.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of the body ultrasonic energy at a frequency beyond 20 kilohertz and that is intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5860 - Ultrasound and muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasound and muscle stimulator. 890.5860 Section 890.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of the body ultrasonic energy at a frequency beyond 20 kilohertz and that is intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5850 - Powered muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered muscle stimulator. 890.5850 Section 890.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5850 Powered...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5850 - Powered muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered muscle stimulator. 890.5850 Section 890.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5850 Powered...

  14. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5850 - Powered muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered muscle stimulator. 890.5850 Section 890.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5850 Powered...

  16. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5860 - Ultrasound and muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasound and muscle stimulator. 890.5860 Section 890.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5850 - Powered muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered muscle stimulator. 890.5850 Section 890.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5850 Powered...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5850 - Powered muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered muscle stimulator. 890.5850 Section 890.5850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5850 Powered...

  20. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850...

  1. 21 CFR 890.1850 - Diagnostic muscle stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic muscle stimulator. 890.1850 Section 890.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1850...

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists favorably address all components of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sanjay; Ghosal, Samit; Chatterjee, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular death is the leading cause of mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The etiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetes may be divided into hyperglycemia per se and factors operating through components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Hyperglycemia causes direct injury to vascular endothelium and possibly on cardiac myocytes. MetS is a cluster of risk factors like obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The incidence of this syndrome is rising globally. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are a group of drugs, which address all components of this syndrome favorably. Experimental evidence suggests that they have favorable actions on myocardium as well. Several compounds belonging to GLP-1RA class are in market now and a large number awaiting their entry. Although, originally this class of drugs emerged as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, more recent data generated revealed beneficial effects on multiple metabolic parameters. We have studied literature published between 2000 and 2016 to look into effects of GLP-1RA on components of MetS. Results from recently concluded clinical trials suggest that some of the molecules in this class may have favorable effects on cardiovascular outcome. PMID:27795818

  3. Favorable prognosis for children with Pfeiffer syndrome types 2 and 3: implications for classification.

    PubMed

    Robin, N H; Scott, J A; Arnold, J E; Goldstein, J A; Shilling, B B; Marion, R W; Cohen, M M

    1998-01-23

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is an autosomal dominant condition comprising bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia with a beaked nasal tip, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. It is a clinically variable disorder and has been divided into three subtypes [Cohen, 1993: Am J Med Genet 45:300-307]. Type 1 represents the less severe cases, while types 2 and 3 are the more severe cases. These latter types tend to have a higher risk for neurodevelopmental problems and a reduced life expectancy. Here we review the clinical course of seven children with PS type 3. All of these children had severe manifestations of PS; however, development was essentially normal in three, mild delay was noted in two, and moderate delay in one. Favorable outcomes in children with types 2 and 3 PS were also documented by Moore et al. [1995: Cleft Pal-Craniofac J 32:62-70]. These cases illustrate that while children with PS types 2 and 3 have an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, a favorable outcome can be achieved in some cases with aggressive medical and surgical management. Finally, although such management should be the rule for PS types 2 and 3, it needs to be remembered that normal outcome is not the rule. The prognosis for favorable neurodevelopmental outcome and/or life expectancy remains guarded in most cases.

  4. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  5. Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal-muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F S; Celeste, A J

    2005-12-01

    Myostatin, or GDF-8 (growth and differentiation factor-8), was first identified through sequence identity with members of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)/TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily. The skeletal-muscle-specific expression pattern of myostatin suggested a role in muscle development. Mice with a targeted deletion of the myostatin gene exhibit a hypermuscular phenotype. In addition, inactivating mutations in the myostatin gene have been identified in 'double muscled' cattle breeds, such as the Belgian Blue and Piedmontese, as well as in a hypermuscular child. These findings define myostatin as a negative regulator of skeletal-muscle development. Myostatin binds with high affinity to the receptor serine threonine kinase ActRIIB (activin type IIB receptor), which initiates signalling through a smad2/3-dependent pathway. In an effort to validate myostatin as a therapeutic target in a post-embryonic setting, a neutralizing antibody was developed by screening for inhibition of myostatin binding to ActRIIB. Administration of this antimyostatin antibody to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in both muscle mass and functional strength. Importantly, similar results were obtained in a murine model of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse. Unlike the myostatin-deficient animals, which exhibit both muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the antibody-treated mice demonstrate increased musculature through a hypertrophic mechanism. These results validate myostatin inhibition as a therapeutic approach to muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenic frailty of the elderly and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  6. Hysteresis in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Jorgelina; Lynch, Stephen; Jones, David; Degens, Hans

    This paper presents examples of hysteresis from a broad range of scientific disciplines and demonstrates a variety of forms including clockwise, counterclockwise, butterfly, pinched and kiss-and-go, respectively. These examples include mechanical systems made up of springs and dampers which have been the main components of muscle models for nearly one hundred years. For the first time, as far as the authors are aware, hysteresis is demonstrated in single fibre muscle when subjected to both lengthening and shortening periodic contractions. The hysteresis observed in the experiments is of two forms. Without any relaxation at the end of lengthening or shortening, the hysteresis loop is a convex clockwise loop, whereas a concave clockwise hysteresis loop (labeled as kiss-and-go) is formed when the muscle is relaxed at the end of lengthening and shortening. This paper also presents a mathematical model which reproduces the hysteresis curves in the same form as the experimental data.

  7. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  8. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  9. Microparticles Carrying Sonic Hedgehog Favor Neovascularization through the Activation of Nitric Oxide Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Benameur, Tarek; Soleti, Raffaella; Porro, Chiara; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martínez, Maria Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles released from plasma membrane upon cell activation and during apoptosis. Human T lymphocytes undergoing activation and apoptosis generate MPs bearing morphogen Shh (MPsShh+) that are able to regulate in vitro angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we investigated the ability of MPsShh+ to modulate neovascularization in a model of mouse hind limb ischemia. Mice were treated in vivo for 21 days with vehicle, MPsShh+, MPsShh+ plus cyclopamine or cyclopamine alone, an inhibitor of Shh signalling. Laser doppler analysis revealed that the recovery of the blood flow was 1.4 fold higher in MPsShh+-treated mice than in controls, and this was associated with an activation of Shh pathway in muscles and an increase in NO production in both aorta and muscles. MPsShh+-mediated effects on flow recovery and NO production were completely prevented when Shh signalling was inhibited by cyclopamine. In aorta, MPsShh+ increased activation of eNOS/Akt pathway, and VEGF expression, being inhibited by cyclopamine. By contrast, in muscles, MPsShh+ enhanced eNOS expression and phosphorylation and decreased caveolin-1 expression, but cyclopamine prevented only the effects of MPsShh+ on eNOS pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that MPsShh+ treatment increased FGF5, FGF2, VEGF A and C mRNA levels and decreased those of α5-integrin, FLT-4, HGF, IGF-1, KDR, MCP-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TSP-1 and VCAM-1, in ischemic muscles. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that MPsShh+ may contribute to reparative neovascularization after ischemic injury by regulating NO pathway and genes involved in angiogenesis. PMID:20856928

  10. Spaceflight effects on adult rat muscle protein, nucleic acids, and amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to conditions of weightlessness has been associated with decrements in muscle mass and strength. The present studies were undertaken to determine muscle responses at the cellular level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (360-410 g) were exposed to 7 days of weightlessness during the Spacelab-3 shuttle flight (May 1985). Animals were killed 12 h postflight, and soleus (S), gastrocnemius (G), and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised. Muscle protein, RNA, and DNA were extracted and quantified. Differential muscle atrophy was accompanied by a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in total protein only in S muscles. There were no significant changes in protein concentration (mg/g) in the muscles examined. In S muscles from flight animals, sarcoplasmic protein accounted for a significantly greater proportion of total protein that in ground controls (37.5 vs. 32.5%). Tissue concentrations (nmol/g) of asparagine-aspartate, glutamine-glutamate, glycine, histidine, and lysine were significantly reduced (from 17 to 63%) in S muscles from flight animals, but only glutamine-glutamate levels were decreased in the G and EDL. Muscle DNA content (microgram) was unchanged in the tissues examined, but S muscle DNA concentration (micrograms/mg) increased 27%. RNA content (micrograms) was significantly (P less than 0.025) reduced in S (-28%) and G(-22%) muscles following spaceflight. These results identify specific alterations in rat skeletal muscle during short term (7-day) exposure to weightlessness and compare favorably with observations previously obtained from ground-based suspension simulations.

  11. Elongated TCR alpha chain CDR3 favors an altered CD4 cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable α and β loops critical for pMHC recognition. During any immune response, tuning of TCR usage through progressive clonal selection occurs. Th1 and Th2 cells operate at different avidities for activation and display distinct transcriptional programs, although polarization may be plastic, influenced by pathogens and cytokines. We therefore hypothesized that CDR3αβ sequence features may intrinsically influence CD4 phenotype during progression of a response. Results We show that CD4 polarization involves distinct CDR3α usage: Th1 and Th17 cells favored short TCR CDR3α sequences of 12 and 11 amino acids, respectively, while Th2 cells favored elongated CDR3α loops of 14 amino acids, with lower predicted affinity. The dominant Th2- and Th1-derived TCRα sequences with14 amino acid CDR3 loops and 12 amino acid CDR3 loops, respectively, were expressed in TCR transgenics. The functional impact of these TCRα transgenes was assessed after in vivo priming with a peptide/adjuvant. The short, Th1-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made IFNγ, but not IL-4, 5 or 13, while the elongated, Th2-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made little or no IFNγ, but increased IL-4, 5 and 13 with progressive re-stimulations, mirrored by GATA-3 up-regulation. T cells from primed Th2 TCRα transgenics selected dominant TCR Vβ expansions, allowing us to generate TCRαβ transgenics carrying the favored, Th2-derived receptor heterodimer. Primed T cells from TCRαβ transgenics made little or no IL-17 or IFNγ, but favored IL-9 after priming with Complete Freund’s adjuvant and IL-4, 5, 9, 10 and 13 after priming with incomplete Freund’s. In tetramer-binding studies, this transgenic receptor showed low binding avidity for pMHC and polarized T cell lines show TCR avidity

  12. Imaging of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Douglas W

    2011-05-01

    Various diagnostic imaging techniques such as sonography, computed tomography, scintigraphy, radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made possible the noninvasive evaluation of skeletal muscle injury and disease. Although these different modalities have roles to play, MRI is especially sensitive in the diagnosis of muscle disorders and injury and has proved to be useful in determining the extent of disease, in directing interventions, and in monitoring the response to therapies. This article describes how magnetic resonance images are formed and how the signal intensities in T1- and T2-weighted images may be used for diagnosis of the above-mentioned conditions and injuries.

  13. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    diabetes ) conditions [17,18]. For acute muscle injuries, it has been shown to accelerate muscle healing/ regeneration by modulating the immune response...The foot of the animal was strapped to a footplate attached to a dual-mode muscle lever system (Aurora Scientific Inc., ON, Canada), and the knee and...Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice

  14. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation

    PubMed Central

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favors the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) as surround muscles during rest and tonic activation of FDI in fourteen subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under MRI-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90% to 120% of adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of FDI, CBI was significantly reduced only for FDI but not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned MEP sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI tonic activation compared to rest, despite background EMG activity increasing only for the FDI. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle. PMID:26900871

  15. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  16. Drug Education for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)

  17. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  18. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  19. Needed: Nursing Administration Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Eunice M.

    1976-01-01

    A master's program that synthesizes clinical nursing knowledge with management theory and skills is one way to prepare nursing service administrators capable of exerting an influence on today's complex health care system. (Editor)

  20. The Administrator Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael F.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)

  1. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  2. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  3. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  4. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Company Administration Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    iTRATION CENTER AND FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON. INDIANA 46216 ATZI -XO 16 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...Mail, files, records management* publications, voting, etc.). ... AnnexA II ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...administration as follows: A. 2 I * * " " " ’+ " " ’ ’ ’ ’’ ’ , ’" I ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company Administration Study tea

  6. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  7. Gantzer muscle. An anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Edie Benedito; Sabongi, João José; Vieira, Luiz Ângelo; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Moraes, Daniel Vinhais

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship of Gantzer muscle to the median and anterior interosseous nerve is debated. METHODS: Ìn an anatomical study with 80 limbs from 40 cadavers the incidence, origin, insertion, nerve supply and relations of Gantzer muscle have been documented. RESULTS: The muscle was found in 54 forearms (68% of limbs) and was supplied by the anterior interosseous nerve. It arose from the deep surface of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, (42 limbs), coronoid process (eight limbs) and medial epicondyle (seven limbs). Its insertion was to the ulnar part of flexor pollicis longus muscle. The Gantzer muscle always lay posterior to both the median and anterior interosseous nerve. CONCLUSION: The Gantzer muscle may contribute to the median nerve and anterior interosseous nerve compression. The muscle was found in 68% of limbs and should be considered a normal anatomical pattern rather than an anatomical variation. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series . PMID:27069404

  8. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: rippling muscle disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. Mutations in CAV3 cause mechanical hyperirritability of skeletal muscle in rippling muscle disease. Nat Genet. 2001 Jul; ... silent" action potentials in the tubular system of skeletal muscle fibers. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May;31(5):652- ...

  10. Ibuprofen Ingestion Does Not Affect Markers of Post-exercise Muscle Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron-Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200mg d−1) or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO) and macrophages (CD68). Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery. PMID:27064890

  11. Fate of 3H-thymidine labelled myogenic cells in regeneration of muscle isografts.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, E; Mares, V; Stichová, J

    1976-03-05

    Intact and denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of 20-day-old inbred Lewis-Wistar rats were labelled with 3H-thymidine. Ninety minutes after the injection of the isotope 4.0% of the nuclei were labelled in the intact (i.e. innervated) and 9.6% in the muscles, denervated 3 days before administration of the isotope. The labelled EDL muscles were grafted into the bed of the previously removed EDL muscles of inbred animals and these isografts were studied 30 days later. In the EDL muscles, regenerated from innervated isografts only occasionally labelled endothelial cells were found whereas in the muscles regenerated from denervated isografts also parenchymal muscle nuclei were regularly labelled. The incidence of labelled nuclei in the regenerated EDL muscles was, however, about 20 times lower than in the donor EDL muscles. The presen experiments provide a direct proof of utilization of donor satelite cell nuclei for regeneration in grafted muscle tissue. With respect to the low incidence of labelled nuclei in regenerated EDL muscles, other sources of cells apparently also contribute to the regeneration process.

  12. Volumetric muscle loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    muscles. Videos facilitate gait analysis and the evaluation of other functional movements.6 These im- ages can be added to the electronic medical record to...FL, August 16-19, 2010. 6. Brunnekreef JJ, van Uden CJ, van Moorsel S, Kooloos JG: Reliability of videotaped observational gait analysis in patients

  13. Sculpturing new muscle phenotypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babij, P.; Booth, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the pattern of muscle activity are followed by new patterns of protein synthesis, both in the contractile elements and in the enzymes of energy metabolism. Although the signal transducers have not been identified, techniques of molecular biology have clearly shown that the adaptive responses are the regulated consequence of differential gene expression.

  14. Molecular Crowding Favors Reactivity of a Human Ribozyme Under Physiological Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to relate RNA folding to function under cellular-like conditions, we monitored the self-cleavage reaction of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like CPEB3 ribozyme in the background of physiological ionic concentrations and various crowding and cosolute agents. We found that under physiological free Mg2+ concentrations (~0.1 to 0.5 mM Mg2+), both crowders and cosolutes stimulate the rate of self-cleavage, up to ~6-fold, but that in 10 mM Mg2+—conditions widely used for in vitro ribozyme studies—these same additives have virtually no effect on self-cleavage rate. We further observe a dependence of self-cleavage rate on crowder size, wherein rate stimulation is diminished for crowders larger than the size of the unfolded RNA. Monitoring effects of crowding and cosolute agents on rates in biological amounts of urea revealed additive-promoted increases in both low and high Mg2+ concentrations, with a maximal stimulation of more than 10-fold and a rescue of the rate to its urea-free values. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments reveal a structural basis for this stimulation in that higher molecular weight crowding agents favor a more compact form of the ribozyme in 0.5 mM Mg2+ that is essentially equivalent to the form under standard ribozyme conditions of 10 mM Mg2+ and no crowder. This finding suggests that at least a portion of the rate enhancement arises from favoring the native RNA tertiary structure. We conclude that cellular-like crowding supports ribozyme reactivity by favoring a compact form of the ribozyme, but only under physiological ionic and cosolute conditions. PMID:24187989

  15. Favorable life-style modification and attenuation of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Kawamura, T; Wakai, K; Ichihara, Y; Anno, T; Mizuno, Y; Yokoi, M; Ohta, T; Iguchi, A; Ohno, Y

    1999-03-01

    In order to develop an effective counseling system for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the association of a favorably changed life-style with improved risk factors was examined. Participants were 7,321 office workers aged 30-69 years from in and around Nagoya city. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the likelihood of risk factor improvement by favorable life-style modifications during a 3-year period. Those who began to eat breakfast and increased their vegetable intake normalized their previously abnormal diastolic blood pressure with more than twice the likelihood (adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.89 [1.29-6.46] and 2.60 [1.18-5.75], respectively). 'Began to eat breakfast' was also significantly associated with normalized total cholesterol (TC) (1.84, [1.05-3.21]). 'Stopped eating till full' significantly normalized the body mass index (2.03; [1.25-3.28]), uric acid (1.65; [1.07-2.52]) and TC (1.43; [1.04-1.97]). Those who started regular exercise significantly normalized their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) abnormality with 1.69-times the likelihood (1.69; [1.24-2.29]) and those who began to walk briskly also improved their TC abnormality (1.85; [1.19-2.89]). HDL-C was normalized with 2.55-times the likelihood in those who quit smoking (2.55; [1.68-3.86]). Because favorable life-style modifications can attenuate abnormal cardiovascular risk factors, then proper advice on specific risk factors should be routinely given at each health check-up in order to prevent the onset of cardiovascular diseases in subsequent years.

  16. Castration alters protein balance after high-frequency muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Fukuda, David H; Rossetti, Michael L; Hoffman, Jay R; Gordon, Bradley S

    2017-02-01

    Resistance exercise increases muscle mass by shifting protein balance in favor of protein accretion. Androgens independently alter protein balance, but it is unknown whether androgens alter this measure after resistance exercise. To answer this, male mice were subjected to sham or castration surgery 7-8 wk before undergoing a bout of unilateral, high-frequency, electrically induced muscle contractions in the fasted or refed state. Puromycin was injected 30 min before euthanasia to measure protein synthesis. The tibialis anterior was analyzed 4 h postcontraction. In fasted mice, neither basal nor stimulated rates of protein synthesis were affected by castration despite lower phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1) substrates [p70S6K1 (Thr389) and 4E-BP1 (Ser65)]. Markers of autophagy (LC3 II/I ratio and p62 protein content) were elevated by castration, and these measures remained elevated above sham values after contractions. Furthermore, in fasted mice, the protein content of Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 (REDD1) was correlated with LC3 II/I in noncontracted muscle, whereas phosphorylation of uncoordinated like kinase 1 (ULK1) (Ser757) was correlated with LC3 II/I in the contracted muscle. When mice were refed before contractions, protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling were not affected by castration in either the noncontracted or contracted muscle. Conversely, markers of autophagy remained elevated in the muscles of refed, castrated mice even after contractions. These data suggest the castration-mediated elevation in baseline autophagy reduces the absolute positive shift in protein balance after muscle contractions in the refed or fasted states.

  17. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  18. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-06

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  19. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  20. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  1. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  2. Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Lewin, C; Wolgers, G; Herlitz, A

    2001-04-01

    Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible.

  3. Expectant management with selective delayed intervention for favorable risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Management options for favorable risk prostate cancer are diverse, varying from a conservative approach (expectant management) to definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.) Several studies have suggested that expectant management provides similar 10-year survival rates and quality-adjusted life years compared with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Expectant management alone clearly deprives some patients with potentially curable life-threatening disease of the opportunity for curative therapy. However, every series of conservative management contains a substantial subset of long-term survivors, particularly in the group with favorable clinical parameters. We have conducted a clinical study to evaluate a novel approach in which the choice between a definitive therapy and conservative policy is determined by the rate of PSA increase or the development of early, rapid clinical and/or histologic progression. This strategy, which has never been previously evaluated, offers the powerful attraction of individualizing therapy according to the biological behavior of the cancer. This would mean that patients with slowly growing malignancy would be spared the side effects of radical treatment, while those with more rapidly progressive cancer would still benefit from curative therapy. Doubling time varied widely. In this series of 200 patients, neither grade, stage, nor baseline PSA predicted the PSA doubling time. Thirty-three percent of patients had a PSA doubling time (T(D)) > 10 years. Doubling time appears to be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed initially with expectant management. A doubling time of less than 2 years appears to identify patients at high risk for local progression in spite of otherwise favorable prognostic factors. Fifteen to 20% of patients will fall into this category. The remainder have a high chance of remaining free of recurrence and progression for many years. Watchful waiting is clearly

  4. Using AAV vectors expressing the β2-adrenoceptor or associated Gα proteins to modulate skeletal muscle mass and muscle fibre size

    PubMed Central

    Hagg, Adam; Colgan, Timothy D.; Thomson, Rachel E.; Qian, Hongwei; Lynch, Gordon S.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists have been proposed as therapeutics for treating muscle wasting but concerns regarding possible off-target effects have hampered their use. We investigated whether β2-AR-mediated signalling could be modulated in skeletal muscle via gene delivery to the target tissue, thereby avoiding the risks of β2-AR agonists. In mice, intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus-based vector (rAAV vector) expressing the β2-AR increased muscle mass by >20% within 4 weeks. This hypertrophic response was comparable to that of 4 weeks’ treatment with the β2-AR agonist formoterol, and was not ablated by mTOR inhibition. Increasing expression of inhibitory (Gαi2) and stimulatory (GαsL) G-protein subunits produced minor atrophic and hypertrophic changes in muscle mass, respectively. Furthermore, Gαi2 over-expression prevented AAV:β2-AR mediated hypertrophy. Introduction of the non-muscle Gαs isoform, GαsXL elicited hypertrophy comparable to that achieved by AAV:β2-AR. Moreover, GαsXL gene delivery was found to be capable of inducing hypertrophy in the muscles of mice lacking functional β1- and β2-ARs. These findings demonstrate that gene therapy-based interventions targeting the β2-AR pathway can promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy independent of ligand administration, and highlight novel methods for potentially modulating muscle mass in settings of disease. PMID:26972746

  5. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Talbot, C Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R; McNally, Elizabeth M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-10-15

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf(-/-)) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf(-/-) mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf(-/-) mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf(-/-) mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf(-/-) mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis.

  6. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Talbot, C. Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf−/−) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf−/− mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf−/− mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf−/− mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf−/− mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis. PMID:26206886

  7. ORAL AND INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED AMINO ACIDS PRODUCE SIMILAR EFFECTS ON MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN THE ELDERLY

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B.B.; Wolfe, R.R.; Volpi, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in the elderly when amino acid availability is increased. OBJECTIVE To determine which mode of delivery of amino acids (intravenous vs. oral ingestion) is more effective in stimulating the rate of muscle protein synthesis in elderly subjects. DESIGN Fourteen elderly subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Following insertion of femoral arterial and venous catheters, subjects were infused with a primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) with the precursor-product model, phenylalanine kinetics across the leg with the three-pool model, and whole body phenylalanine kinetics. Protein metabolism parameters were measured in the basal period, and during the administration of oral amino acids (n=8) or a similar amount of intravenous amino acids (n=6). RESULTS Enteral and parenteral amino acid administration increased amino acid arterial concentrations and delivery to the leg to a similar extent in both groups. Muscle protein synthesis as measured by both FSR, and the three-pool model, increased during amino acid administration (P < 0.05 vs. basal) in both groups with no differences between groups. Whole body proteolysis did not change with the oral amino acids whereas it increased slightly during parenteral amino acid administration. CONCLUSIONS Increased amino acid availability stimulates the rate of muscle protein synthesis independent of the route of administration (enteral vs. parenteral). PMID:12459885

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Launches Dexamethasone-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy via AMPK/FOXO3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Peng, Yunhua; Wang, Xun; Fan, Yingying; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Le; Tang, Ying; Cao, Ke; Li, Hua; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-01-04

    Muscle atrophy occurs in several pathologic conditions such as diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as after long-term clinical administration of synthesized glucocorticoid, where increased circulating glucocorticoid accounts for the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy. Others and we previously reported mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle atrophy-related conditions and that mitochondria-targeting nutrients efficiently prevent kinds of muscle atrophy. However, whether and how mitochondrial dysfunction involves glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we measured mitochondrial function in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in vivo and in vitro, and we found that mitochondrial respiration was compromised on the 3rd day following after dexamethasone administration, earlier than the increases of MuRF1 and Fbx32, and dexamethasone-induced loss of mitochondrial components and key mitochondrial dynamics proteins. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment caused intracellular ATP deprivation and robust AMPK activation, which further activated the FOXO3/Atrogenes pathway. By directly impairing mitochondrial respiration, FCCP leads to similar readouts in C2C12 myotubes as dexamethasone does. On the contrary, resveratrol, a mitochondrial nutrient, efficiently reversed dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and muscle atrophy in both C2C12 myotubes and mice, by improving mitochondrial function and blocking AMPK/FOXO3 signaling. These results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction acts as a central role in dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and that nutrients or drugs targeting mitochondria might be beneficial in preventing or curing muscle atrophy.

  9. Glucocorticoids increase adipocytes in muscle by affecting IL-4 regulated FAP activity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanjun; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; Dong, Yanlan; Zhang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intramuscular adipocyte tissue (IMAT) is associated with glucose dysregulation, decreased muscle strength, and increased risk of disability. Unfortunately, the mechanisms stimulating intramuscular adipogenesis remain unclear. We found that dexamethasone (Dex) administration to mice with injured muscles stimulates the accumulation of IMAT. To identify precursors of these adipocytes, we isolated satellite cells and fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) from muscle; satellite cells did not differentiate into adipocytes even following Dex treatment. In contrast, Dex stimulated FAP differentiation into adipocytes. In vivo, we transplanted purified FAPs from transgenic, EGFP mice into the injured muscles of C57/BL6 mice and found that Dex administration stimulated adipogenesis from FAP-EGFP. The increase in adipogenesis depended on Dex-induced inhibition of interleukin-4 (IL-4). In the injured muscle of IL-4-knockout mice, the levels of adipocytes were increased, while in the injured muscles of Dex-treated mice with IL-4 injections, adipogenesis was suppressed. In cultured FAPs, IL-4 inhibited Dex-induced conversion of FAPs into adipocytes; this did not occur in FAPs expressing knockdown of the IL-4 receptor. Thus, we concluded that glucocorticoids stimulate FAPs to differentiate into adipocytes in injured muscles. This process is blocked by IL-4, suggesting that interfering with IL-4 signaling could prevent adipogenesis in muscle.—Dong, Y., Silva, K. A. S., Dong, Y., Zhang, L. Glucocorticoids increase adipocytes in muscle by affecting IL-4 regulated FAP activity. PMID:24948596

  10. Nerve-muscle interactions during flight muscle development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    During Drosophila pupal metamorphosis, the motoneurons and muscles differentiate synchronously, providing an opportunity for extensive intercellular regulation during synapse formation. We examined the existence of such interactions by developmentally delaying or permanently eliminating synaptic partners during the formation of indirect flight muscles. When we experimentally delayed muscle development, we found that although adult-specific primary motoneuron branching still occurred, the higher order (synaptic) branching was suspended until the delayed muscle fibers reached a favourable developmental state. In reciprocal experiments we found that denervation caused a decrease in the myoblast pool. Furthermore, the formation of certain muscle fibers (dorsoventral muscles) was specifically blocked. Exceptions were the adult muscles that use larval muscle fibers as myoblast fusion targets (dorsal longitudinal muscles). However, when these muscles were experimentally compelled to develop without their larval precursors, they showed an absolute dependence on the motoneurons for their formation. These data show that the size of the myoblast pool and early events in fiber formation depend on the presence of the nerve, and that, conversely, peripheral arbor development and synaptogenesis is closely synchronized with the developmental state of the muscle.

  11. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  12. The muscle spindle as a feedback element in muscle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, L. T.; Iannone, A. M.; Ewing, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The muscle spindle, the feedback element in the myotatic (stretch) reflex, is a major contributor to muscular control. Therefore, an accurate description of behavior of the muscle spindle during active contraction of the muscle, as well as during passive stretch, is essential to the understanding of muscle control. Animal experiments were performed in order to obtain the data necessary to model the muscle spindle. Spectral density functions were used to identify a linear approximation of the two types of nerve endings from the spindle. A model reference adaptive control system was used on a hybrid computer to optimize the anatomically defined lumped parameter estimate of the spindle. The derived nonlinear model accurately predicts the behavior of the muscle spindle both during active discharge and during its silent period. This model is used to determine the mechanism employed to control muscle movement.

  13. Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).

    PubMed

    Gabaldón, Annette M; Nelson, Frank E; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    The force-velocity properties of skeletal muscle have an important influence on locomotor performance. All skeletal muscles produce less force the faster they shorten and typically develop maximal power at velocities of approximately 30% of maximum shortening velocity (V(max)). We used direct measurements of muscle mechanical function in two ankle extensor muscles of wild turkeys to test the hypothesis that during level running muscles operate at velocities that favor force rather than power. Sonomicrometer measurements of muscle length, tendon strain-gauge measurements of muscle force, and bipolar electromyographs were taken as animals ran over a range of speeds and inclines. These measurements were integrated with previously measured values of muscle V(max) for these muscles to calculate relative shortening velocity (V/V(max)). At all speeds for level running the V/V(max) values of the lateral gastrocnemius and the peroneus longus were low (<0.05), corresponding to the region of the force-velocity relationship where the muscles were capable of producing 90% of peak isometric force but only 35% of peak isotonic power. V/V(max) increased in response to the demand for mechanical power with increases in running incline and decreased to negative values to absorb energy during downhill running. Measurements of integrated electromyograph activity indicated that the volume of muscle required to produce a given force increased from level to uphill running. This observation is consistent with the idea that V/V(max) is an important determinant of locomotor cost because it affects the volume of muscle that must be recruited to support body weight.

  14. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps ( θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  15. High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyu Yeoun; Cho, Hyuck; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Bae, Go Eun; Lim, Jun Uk; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Yong-Koo; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Juhie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies on gallbladder carcinogenesis, and mutations of the KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A genes have been reported in gallbladder carcinoma. The DBC1 gene (deleted in breast cancer 1) was initially cloned from region 8p21, which was homozygously deleted in breast cancer. DBC1 has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and death. The functional role of DBC1 in normal cells and the role of DBC1 loss in cancer are not entirely clear. And DBC1 expression and its clinical implications in gallbladder carcinoma have yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated DBC1 expression in 104 gallbladder carcinoma tissues in relation to survival and other prognostic factors via immunohistochemical analysis. DBC1 expression was divided into two categories: high DBC1 expression was observed in 32/104 cases (30.8%) and low expression in 72/104 cases (69.2%). High DBC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable clinicopathologic variables. Furthermore, in survival analysis, the high-DBC1 expression group showed a better survival rate compared to the low-DBC1 expression group. In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma.

  16. Spatial Heterogeneity in Human Activities Favors the Persistence of Wolves in Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people. PMID:25251567

  17. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  18. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  19. Spatial structure favors cooperative behavior in the snowdrift game with multiple interactive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-02-01

    Spatial reciprocity is generally regarded as a positive rule facilitating the evolution of cooperation. However, a few recent studies show that, in the snowdrift game, spatial structure still could be detrimental to cooperation. Here we propose a model of multiple interactive dynamics, where each individual can cooperate and defect simultaneously against different neighbors. We realize individuals' multiple interactions simply by endowing them with strategies relevant to probabilities, and every one decides to cooperate or defect with a probability. With multiple interactive dynamics, the cooperation level in square lattices is higher than that in the well-mixed case for a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratio r, implying that spatial structure favors cooperative behavior in the snowdrift game. Moreover, in square lattices, the most favorable strategy follows a simple relation of r, which confers theoretically the average evolutionary frequency of cooperative behavior. We further extend our study to various homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, which demonstrates the robustness of our results. Here multiple interactive dynamics stabilizes the positive role of spatial structure on the evolution of cooperation and individuals' distinct reactions to different neighbors can be a new line in understanding the emergence of cooperation.

  20. Divalent cation-responsive myotonia and muscle paralysis in skeletal muscle sodium channelopathy.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, Ami; Grunseich, Christopher; Skov, Martin; Cook, Lisa; Aue, Georg; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Bakar, Dara; Lehky, Tanya; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Pedersen, Thomas H; Childs, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    We report a patient with paramyotonia congenita/hyperkalemic periodic paralysis due to Nav1.4 I693T mutation who had worsening of myotonia and muscle weakness in the setting of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia with marked recovery after magnesium administration. Computer simulations of the effects of the I693T mutation were introduced in the muscle fiber model by both hyperpolarizing shifts in the Nav1.4 channel activation and a faster recovery from slow channel inactivation. A further shift in the Nav1.4 channel activation in the hyperpolarizing direction as expected with low divalent cations resulted in myotonia that progressed to membrane inexcitability. Shifting the channel activation in the depolarizing direction as would be anticipated from magnesium supplementation abolished the myotonia. These observations provide clinical and biophysical evidence that the muscle symptoms in sodium channelopathy are sensitive to divalent cations. Exploration of the role of magnesium administration in therapy or prophylaxis is warranted with a randomized clinical trial.

  1. Route of administration for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: patient and nursing considerations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    Several clinical studies have indicated that compared with intravenous (IV) administration, subcutaneous (SC) administration of Epoetin alfa may result in a dose-sparing effect in patients on hemodialysis. However, data also indicate wide inter-patient variability in response, with many patients requiring the same or a higher dose following conversion to SC administration. Convenience favors IV administration of Epoetin alfa in patients on hemodialysis, and patient preferences and comfort should also be primary considerations. For patients who prefer SC injections, the nurse's coordination of the required dosing, administration, and operational factors is key to maintaining and improving anemia-related outcomes.

  2. Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells treatment demonstrated favorable and sustainable therapeutic effect for Crohn's fistula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Cho, Yong Beom; Yoon, Sang Nam; Song, Kee Ho; Kim, Do Sun; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Mihyung; Yoo, Hee-Won; Kim, Inok; Ha, Hunjoo; Yu, Chang Sik

    2013-11-01

    Fistula is a representative devastating complication in Crohn's patients due to refractory to conventional therapy and high recurrence. In our phase I clinical trial, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) demonstrated their safety and therapeutic potential for healing fistulae associated with Crohn's disease. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ASCs in patients with Crohn's fistulae. In this phase II study, forty-three patients were treated with ASCs. The amount of ASCs was proportioned to fistula size and fistula tract was filled with ASCs in combination with fibrin glue after intralesional injection of ASCs. Patients without complete closure of fistula at 8 weeks received a second injection of ASCs containing 1.5 times more cells than the first injection. Fistula healing at week 8 after final dose injection and its sustainability for 1-year were evaluated. Healing was defined as a complete closure of external opening without any sign of drainage and inflammation. A modified per-protocol analysis showed that complete fistula healing was observed in 27/33 patients (82%) by 8 weeks after ASC injection. Of 27 patients with fistula healing, 26 patients completed additional observation study for 1-year and 23 patients (88%) sustained complete closure. There were no adverse events related to ASC administration. ASC treatment for patients with Crohn's fistulae was well tolerated, with a favorable therapeutic outcome. Furthermore, complete closure was well sustained. These results strongly suggest that autologous ASC could be a novel treatment option for the Crohn's fistula with high-risk of recurrence.

  3. Congenital dystrophic medial rectus muscles

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    We report two patients, one with congenital dystrophic medial rectus muscles and one with absence of the medial rectus muscles; in addition, one of them had absence of the lateral rectus muscles. While absence of the superior oblique and superior rectus has been more commonly reported in literature, especially with craniofacial syndromes, our patients were nonsyndromic. Considering the risk of anterior segment ischemia, correction of the large-angle exotropia was performed by horizontal rectus muscle surgery where possible, along with transfer of the superior oblique tendon to the superior part of the normal medial rectus muscle insertion area to create a tethering effect with a good outcome. PMID:28300745

  4. Iliopsoas muscle injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Quentin; Bolliger, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The iliopsoas muscle is formed by the psoas major and iliacus muscles. Due to its length and diameter, the iliopsoas muscle is an important flexor and stabilizer of the hip joint and the vertebral column. Traumatic acute and chronic myopathies of the iliopsoas muscle are commonly diagnosed by digital palpation during the orthopedic examination. Clinical presentations range from gait abnormalities, lameness, and decreased hip joint extension to irreversible fibrotic contracture of the muscle. Rehabilitation of canine patients has to take into account the inciting cause, the severity of pathology and the presence of muscular imbalances.

  5. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  6. Relaxin regulates MMP expression and promotes satellite cell mobilization during muscle healing in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaodong; Urso, Maria L; Murray, Kiley; Fu, Freddie; Li, Yong

    2010-11-01

    The polypeptide hormone relaxin has been proven to be effective in promoting both the remodeling and regeneration of various tissues, including cardiac muscle. In addition, our previous study demonstrated that relaxin is beneficial to skeletal muscle healing by both promoting muscle regeneration and preventing fibrosis formation. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of relaxin in regulating both myogenic cell differentiation and muscle healing process are still unclear. In this study, C2C12 mouse myoblasts and primary human myoblasts were treated with relaxin to investigate its potential effect in vitro; relaxin was also injected intramuscularly into the injured site of the mouse on the second day after injury to observe its function in vivo, especially in the aged muscle. Results showed that relaxin promoted myogenic differentiation, migration, and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of cultured myoblasts in vitro. In the injured muscle, relaxin administration promoted the activation of Pax7-positive skeletal muscle satellite cells and increased its local population compared with nontreated control muscles. Meanwhile, both angiogenesis and revascularization were increased, while the extended inflammatory reaction was repressed in the relaxin-treated injured muscle. Moreover, relaxin similarly promoted muscle healing in mice with aged muscle. These results revealed the multiple effects of relaxin in systematically improving muscle healing as well as its potential for clinical applications in patients with skeletal muscle injuries and diseases.

  7. Characterizing acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes favoring diverse biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhijji, Saleh Mohammed S.

    Strong, self-adhesive acrylic polymer-based tapes have been identified as FDA-approved medical device construction components that might also serve in diverse biological locations as artificial muscles, ligaments, or compressive support discs. After assuring that the tapes themselves were not cytotoxic, they were evaluated as possible low-tension muscle substitutes for eyelids, jaws, and other modest body re-closing needs, and well as for higher-tension applications as artificial ligaments. Self-adhesion of the tapes to representative biomaterials, before and after radio-frequency glow discharge treatment for surface energy modification, illustrated the conditions for maximum attachment strength to nonphysiologic substances. Attachment to bony host parts was challenging but apparently met by the application of acrylic-composite-to-dentin bonding systems that has shown good long-term experience in the mouth. Above all, the compression-relaxation properties of the tape materials were superior and their uses in potential Nucleus Pulposus applications for spinal disc repair were most completely explored. Tests included tape-disc performance longevity, both dry and wet, for over 5000 load-relaxation cycles, with no apparent changes in results for the most dense of the tapes evaluated. Direct abrasion was avoided by insertion of rigid polymeric layers. It is recommended that the compressive loading properties of acrylic tapes be further evaluated for spine repair applications.

  8. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  9. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dale D.

    2008-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275

  10. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  11. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  12. Skeletal muscle adaptations and muscle genomics of performance horses.

    PubMed

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Hill, Emmeline W

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size. Furthermore, equine skeletal muscles have a high mitochondrial volume that permits a higher whole animal aerobic capacity, as well as large intramuscular stores of energy substrates (glycogen in particular). Finally, high buffer and lactate transport capacities preserve muscles against fatigue during anaerobic exercise. Many of these adaptations can improve with training. The publication of the equine genome sequence in 2009 has provided a major advance towards an improved understanding of equine muscle physiology. Equine muscle genomics studies have revealed a number of genes associated with elite physical performance and have also identified changes in structural and metabolic genes following exercise and training. Genes involved in muscle growth, muscle contraction and specific metabolic pathways have been found to be functionally relevant for the early performance evaluation of elite athletic horses. The candidate genes discussed in this review are important for a healthy individual to improve performance. However, muscle performance limiting conditions are widespread in horses and many of these conditions are also genetically influenced.

  13. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  14. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  15. Mentalis muscle related reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uyanık, Özlem; Ertürk, Özdem; Sohtaoğlu, Melis; Kızıltan, Meral Erdemir

    2016-05-01

    The mentalis muscle (MM) arises from the incisive fossa of the mandible, raises and protrudes the lower lip. Here, we aim to characterize responses obtained from MM by supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli in a group of 16 healthy volunteers who did not have clinical palmomental reflex. Reflex activities were recorded from the MM and orbicularis oculi (O.oc) after supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli. Response rates over MM were consistent after each stimulus, however, mean latencies of MM response were longer than O.oc responses by all stimulation modalities. Shapes and amplitudes of responses from O.oc and MM were similar. Based on our findings, we may say that MM motoneurons have connections with trigeminal, vestibulocochlear and lemniscal pathways similar to other facial muscles and electrophysiological recording of MM responses after electrical and auditory stimulation is possible in healthy subjects.

  16. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  17. Contractile function and energy metabolism of skeletal muscle in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul A; Bouitbir, Jamal; Bonifacio, Annalisa; Singh, François; Kaufmann, Priska; Urwyler, Albert; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of carnitine depletion upon metabolic and contractile characteristics of skeletal muscle remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) administration, a carnitine analog inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal reabsorption of carnitine, on skeletal muscle function and energy metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard rat chow in the absence (CON; n = 8) or presence of THP (n = 8) for 3 wk. Following treatment, rats were fasted for 24 h prior to excision of their soleus and EDL muscles for biochemical characterization at rest and following 5 min of contraction in vitro. THP treatment reduced the carnitine pool by ∼80% in both soleus and EDL muscles compared with CON. Carnitine depletion was associated with a 30% decrease soleus muscle weight, whereas contractile function (expressed per gram of muscle), free coenzyme A, and water content remained unaltered from CON. Muscle fiber distribution and fiber area remained unaffected, whereas markers of apoptosis were increased in soleus muscle of THP-treated rats. In EDL muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with reduced free coenzyme A availability (-25%, P < 0.05), impaired peak tension development (-44%, P < 0.05), and increased glycogen hydrolysis (52%, P < 0.05) during muscle contraction, whereas PDC activation, muscle weight, and water content remained unaltered from CON. In conclusion, myopathy associated with carnitine deficiency can have different causes. Although muscle atrophy, most likely due to increased apoptosis, is predominant in muscle composed predominantly of type I fibers (soleus), disturbance of energy metabolism appears to be the major cause in muscle composed of type II fibers (EDL).

  18. Low preoperative albumin-globulin score predicts favorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Wang, De-shen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Fu, Jian-hua; Xu, Rui-hua; Li, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    This study retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of the preoperative albumin-globulin score (AGS) and albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A cohort of 458 newly diagnosed ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) between January 2006 and December 2010 were selected into this study. The optimal cut-off value was identified to be 45.6 g/L, 26.9 g/L and 1.30 for albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) and AGR in terms of survival, respectively. Patients with low ALB levels (< 45.6 g/L) and high GLB levels (≥ 26.9 g/L) were assigned an AGS of 2, those with only one of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 0. Univariate survival analysis showed that low AGS (0) was significantly associated with favorable disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.635; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.441–0.914; P = 0.015] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.387–0.862; P = 0.007), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.630; 95% CI, 0.418–0.952; P = 0.028), but not for DFS (HR, 0.697; 95% CI, 0.479–1.061; P = 0.060) in multivariate models. High AGR (≥ 1.30) was also correlated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.626; 95% CI, 0.430–0.910; P = 0.014) and OS (HR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.422–0.916; P = 0.016) in univariate analysis, but it failed to be an independent prognostic indicator for DFS (HR, 0.730; 95% CI, 0.494–1.078; P = 0.114) or OS (HR, 0.759; 95% CI, 0.507–1.137; P = 0.181) by multivariate analysis. Low preoperative AGS could serve as a valuable and convenient biochemical marker to predict favorable long-term survival in ESCC patients. PMID:27105522

  19. Can focused US with a diagnostic US contrast agent favorably affect renal function?

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2009-12-01

    Focused ultrasonography (US) with simultaneous administration of a US microbubble contrast agent was used to transiently increase the glomerular filtration rate while altering the sieving properties of glomeruli in normal rabbits. In its current form, this process has very limited application potential to states of abnormal renal function.

  20. Linear artificial molecular muscles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Flood, Amar H; Bonvallet, Paul A; Vignon, Scott A; Northrop, Brian H; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Jeppesen, Jan O; Huang, Tony J; Brough, Branden; Baller, Marko; Magonov, Sergei; Solares, Santiago D; Goddard, William A; Ho, Chih-Ming; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2005-07-13

    Two switchable, palindromically constituted bistable [3]rotaxanes have been designed and synthesized with a pair of mechanically mobile rings encircling a single dumbbell. These designs are reminiscent of a "molecular muscle" for the purposes of amplifying and harnessing molecular mechanical motions. The location of the two cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)) rings can be controlled to be on either tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) or naphthalene (NP) stations, either chemically ((1)H NMR spectroscopy) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry), such that switching of inter-ring distances from 4.2 to 1.4 nm mimics the contraction and extension of skeletal muscle, albeit on a shorter length scale. Fast scan-rate cyclic voltammetry at low temperatures reveals stepwise oxidations and movements of one-half of the [3]rotaxane and then of the other, a process that appears to be concerted at room temperature. The active form of the bistable [3]rotaxane bears disulfide tethers attached covalently to both of the CBPQT(4+) ring components for the purpose of its self-assembly onto a gold surface. An array of flexible microcantilever beams, each coated on one side with a monolayer of 6 billion of the active bistable [3]rotaxane molecules, undergoes controllable and reversible bending up and down when it is exposed to the synchronous addition of aqueous chemical oxidants and reductants. The beam bending is correlated with flexing of the surface-bound molecular muscles, whereas a monolayer of the dumbbell alone is inactive under the same conditions. This observation supports the hypothesis that the cumulative nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular muscles" can be harnessed to perform larger-scale mechanical work.

  1. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  2. Administrative Sides of Librarying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author used administrative skills learned as a school library media specialist to meet the demands of a university department chair. Topics include the influence of decisions that are made; budgeting; evaluation concerns and responsibilities; determining guidelines and goals; political concerns; and the flow of information. (LRW)

  3. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  4. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  5. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  6. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  7. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  8. The Administrative Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A., Ed.; Warren, Andrea, Ed.

    This monograph was developed as part of the project known as Internships, Certification, Equity-Leadership, and Support (ICES). The Kansas project successfully field-tested a model for mobilizing statewide resources to prepare women for administrative careers and to place them in appropriate positions. The crucial component of the training program…

  9. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  11. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  12. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  13. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  14. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  15. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  16. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  17. Adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 displays strong muscle tropism following intraperitoneal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jianzhong; Li, Jia; Gessler, Dominic J; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-01-09

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is an attractive tool for basic science and translational medicine including gene therapy, due to the versatility in its cell and organ transduction. Previous work indicates that rAAV transduction patterns are highly dependent on route of administration. Based on this relationship, we hypothesized that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of rAAV produces unique patterns of tissue tropism. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the transduction efficiency of 12 rAAV serotypes carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene in a panel of 12 organs after IP injection. Our data suggest that IP administration emphasizes transduction patterns that are different from previously reported intravascular delivery methods. Using this approach, rAAV efficiently transduces the liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart and diaphragm without causing significant histopathological changes. Of note, rAAVrh.10 showed excellent muscle transduction following IP administration, highlighting its potential as a new muscle-targeting vector.

  18. Distribution of slow muscle fiber of muscle spindle in postnatal rat masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Sato, Iwao; Imura, Kosuke; Miwa, Yoko; Ide, Yoshiaki; Murata, Megumi; Sunohara, Masataka

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the properties of the muscle spindle in the masseter muscle at an immunohistochemical level in rats fed for 6 weeks. Slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were measured and intrafusal fibers in the muscle spindle were studied to determine the relationship between the superficial and deep regions of rat masseter muscle after alternated feeding pattern. However, muscle spindles were found in both regions, mainly in the deep region of the posterior superficial region of masseter muscle. The total number of the slow fiber in the intrafusal fiber and number of muscle spindle in the deep region were high from 5 to 8 weeks old in spite of various dimensions of data such as diameter and the compositions of the intrafusal fiber. The relationship of the protein expression of slow MyHC in the two regions at 5 weeks old reversed five weeks later (10 weeks old). This period is an important stage because the mastication system in masseter muscle with muscle spindle may be changed during the alternated feeding pattern of suckling to mastication. The changes may be a marker of the feeding system and of the control by the tension receptor of muscle spindle in this stage of masseter muscle after postnatal development.

  19. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  20. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Amy L.; Ooms, Ariadne; Gadd, Samantha; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Chen, Qing-Rong; Hsu, Chih Hao; Yan, Chunhua; Nguyen, Cu; Hu, Ying; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Schein, Jacqueline; Marra, Marco A.; Huff, Vicki; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Ross, Nicole; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the most common single nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors (FHWT) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPG) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations. Significantly decreased expression of mature Let-7a and the miR-200 family (responsible for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition) in miRNAPG-mutant tumors is associated with an undifferentiated blastemal histology. The combination of SIX and miRNAPG mutations in the same tumor is associated with evidence of RAS activation and a higher rate of relapse and death. PMID:25670082

  1. High temperature favors elimination of toxin-producing Microcystis and degradation of microcystins by mixotrophic Ochromonas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Gu, Lei; Wei, Qian; Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhou

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of temperature on the ability of the mixotrophic flagellate Ochromonas to eliminate a toxic Microcystis population and degrade microcystins. We exposed Microcystis to cultures with or without Ochromonas YZ1 at 20, 25, and 30 °C for 10 days. Results showed that increased temperature promoted the growth of Ochromonas YZ1 and Microcystis, with the latter achieving high abundance without grazing. With increased temperature, Ochromonas YZ1 clearance rate increased, and Microcystis populations were earlier eliminated. Importantly, Ochromonas YZ1 degraded both intracellular and extracellular microcystins by grazing effects. The reduction ratios of Microcystis abundances and microcystins were both approximately 100% after 6 days at high temperature. In addition, more microcystins were released outside at 20 °C than at the higher temperatures. Overall, this study showed that high temperature favors elimination of toxin-producing Microcystis and degradation of microcystins by mixotrophic Ochromonas.

  2. Favored configurations for four-quasiparticle K isomerism in the heaviest nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. L.; Walker, P. M.; Xu, F. R.

    2014-04-01

    Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations are performed including β6 deformation to investigate high-K isomeric states in nuclei around 254No and 270Ds, the heaviest nuclei where there have been some observations of two-quasiparticle isomers, while data for four-quasiparticle isomers are scarce. We predict the prevalent occurrence of four-quasiparticle isomeric states in these nuclei, together with their favored configurations. The most notable examples, among others, are Kπ=20+ states in 266,268Ds and 268,270Cn having very high K value, relatively low excitation energy, and well-deformed axially symmetric shape. The predicted isomeric states, with hindered spontaneous fission and α decay, could play a significant role in the future study of superheavy nuclei.

  3. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  4. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  5. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  6. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented.

  7. The drive to ban the NOEC/LOEC in favor of ECx is misguided and misinformed.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Staveley, Jane P

    2013-01-01

    Challenges to the use of the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) in ecotoxicology have appeared over the years, with a recent call for banning its use in favor of the x% effects concentration (ECx). This article presents an opposing view, providing reasons for the continued use of the NOEC, and for hypothesis testing in general. Although the use of ECx values is appropriate in many situations, there are numerous real-world examples where it is not suitable and offers no advantage over the use of hypothesis testing. These examples are presented with recommended data analysis techniques, illustrating the variety of statistical approaches that are meaningful in analyzing ecotoxicity data. Thoughtful consideration of study design and proper analysis and interpretation of the results will go further to advance the science of ecotoxicology than attempting to implement a blanket prohibition or endorsement of any single statistical approach.

  8. Graphitic Nanocarbon-Selenium Cathode with Favorable Rate Capability for Li-Se Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai-Feng; Wang, Wen-Peng; Xin, Sen; Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-03-15

    A well-organized selenium/carbon nanosheets nanocomposite(Se/CNSs) is prepared by confining chain-like Sen molecules in hierarchically micromesoporous carbon nanosheets. A unique two-dimensional morphology and high graphitization degree of carbon nanosheets benefits fast Li(+)/e(-) access to the active Se, which guarantees a high utilization of Se during the(de)lithiation process. Besides, the chain-like Se molecules confined in the carbon matrix could alleviate the shuttle effect of polyselenides and promise a stable electrochemistry. Therefore, the resultant Se/CNSs delivers a highly reversible capacity, a long cycle life and favorable rate capabilities. Furthermore, a Li-Se pouch cell built from a metallic Li anode and the as-prepared Se/CNSs cathode exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance, demonstrating the potential of Se/CNSs in serving future energy storage devices with high energy density.

  9. mTOR pathway activation is a favorable prognostic factor in human prostate adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Sanders, Joyce; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; de Jong, Jeroen; Peters, Dennis; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; Jenster, Guido; Bergman, Andries M.; Zwart, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients with localized disease are treated with curative intent. However, the disease will recur in approximately 30% of patients with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify patients with high risk of relapse. mTOR pathway activation is reported in prostate cancer, but clinical trials testing efficacy of mTOR inhibitors were unsuccessful. To explain this clinical observation, we studied the expression and prognostic impact of mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation in localized prostate carcinomas. mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation is indicative for an activated mTOR pathway in prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the mTOR signaling pathway is activated specifically in prostate cancer patients with a favorable outcome. Since tumors from poor-outcome patients have low levels of mTOR-S2448 phosphorylation, this may explain why mTOR inhibitors proved unsuccessful in prostate cancer trials. PMID:27096957

  10. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  11. Evaluation Of Levels Of Climate Favorability For Viticulture In Breasta Viticultural Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzatu, Gilda-Diana; Mărăcineanu, Liviu Cristian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this present research was to evaluate the climatic conditions of a viticultural centre, as there are always needed studies to determine the climate favorability of the vine cultivation and the varieties resistant to heat and water stress, especially when climate change affects globally viticulture. The present research was made using the interpretation of Craiova Regional Weather Centre's meteorological records for the year of 2014, for Breasta viticultural centre. The climatic factors permitted the determination of several indexes used in viticultural climatology for the appreciation of the viticultural biotope characteristics. Assessment of climatic resources through synthetic climatic indexes, clearly express the generous heliothermic offer available for Breasta viticultural centre, the guarantee of quality and specificity of vine products obtained in this area.

  12. ANG II is required for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. E.; Davis, B. S.; Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    ANG II mediates the hypertrophic response of overloaded cardiac muscle, likely via the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor. To examine the potential role of ANG II in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, plantaris and/or soleus muscle overload was produced in female Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) by the bilateral surgical ablation of either the synergistic gastrocnemius muscle (experiment 1) or both the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles (experiment 2). In experiment 1 (n = 10/group), inhibiting endogenous ANG II production by oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor during a 28-day overloading protocol attenuated plantaris and soleus muscle hypertrophy by 57 and 96%, respectively (as measured by total muscle protein content). ACE inhibition had no effect on nonoverloaded (sham-operated) muscles. With the use of new animals (experiment 2; n = 8/group), locally perfusing overloaded soleus muscles with exogenous ANG II (via osmotic pump) rescued the lost hypertrophic response in ACE-inhibited animals by 71%. Furthermore, orally administering an AT(1) receptor antagonist instead of an ACE inhibitor produced a 48% attenuation of overload-induced hypertrophy that could not be rescued by ANG II perfusion. Thus ANG II may be necessary for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, acting at least in part via an AT(1) receptor-dependent pathway.

  13. Dosing schedule-dependent attenuation of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Reiko; Yamamoto, Saori; Yasumoto, Yuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2014-05-01

    Many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are treated using synthetic glucocorticoids. However, excessive glucocorticoid can often cause unpredictable effects including muscle atrophy. Endogenous glucocorticoid levels robustly fluctuate in a circadian manner and peak just before the onset of the active phase in both humans and nocturnal rodents. The present study determines whether muscle atrophy induced by exogenous glucocorticoid can be avoided by optimizing dosing times. We administered single daily doses of the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (Dex) to mice for 10 days at the times of day corresponding to peak (early night) or trough (early morning) endogenous glucocorticoid levels. Administration at the acrophase of endogenous glucocorticoids significantly attenuated Dex-induced wasting of the gastrocnemius (Ga) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles that comprise mostly fast-twitch muscle fibers. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the Dex-induced mRNA expression of genes encoding the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (Fbxo32, also known as MAFbx/Atrogin-1) and Muscle RING finger 1 (Trim63, also known as MuRF1) in the Ga and TA muscles was significantly attenuated by Dex when administered during the early night. Dex negligibly affected the weight of the soleus (So) muscle that mostly comprises slow-twitch muscle fibers, but significantly and similarly decreased the weight of the spleen at both dosing times. These results suggest that glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy can be attenuated by optimizing the dosing schedule.

  14. Muscle Wasting in Hemodialysis Patients: New Therapeutic Strategies for Resolving an Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2013-01-01

    Muscle wasting has long been recognized as a major clinical problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition to its impact on quality of life, muscle wasting has been proven to be associated with increased mortality rates. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in HD patients provides opportunities to resolve this clinical problem. Several signaling pathways and humeral factors have been reported to be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle wasting in HD patients, including ubiquitin-proteasome system, caspase-3, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, endogenous glucocorticoids, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, and sex hormones. Targeting the aforementioned crucial signaling and molecules to suppress protein degradation and augment muscle strength has been extensively investigated in HD patients. In addition to exercise training, administration of megestrol acetate has been proven to be effective in improving anorexia and muscle wasting in HD patients. Correction of metabolic acidosis through sodium bicarbonate supplements can decrease muscle protein degradation and hormone therapy with nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase muscle mass. Although thiazolidinedione has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, its role in the treatment of muscle wasting remains unclear. This review paper focuses on the molecular pathways and potential new therapeutic approaches to muscle wasting in HD patients. PMID:24382946

  15. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  16. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Sharma, M. D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male–male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male–male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  17. Metastasis of circulating tumor cells: Favorable soil or suitable biomechanics, or both?

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ana Sofia; Follain, Gautier; Patthabhiraman, Shankar; Harlepp, Sébastien; Goetz, Jacky G

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the end product of a multistep process where cancer cells disseminate and home themselves in distant organs. Tumor cell extravasation is a rare, inefficient and transient event in nature and makes its studies very difficult. Noteworthy, little is known about how cancer cells arrest, adhere and pass through the endothelium of capillaries. Moreover, the key events driving metastatic growth in specific organs are not well understood. Thus, although metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death, how cancer cells acquire their abilities to colonize distant organs and why they do so in specific locations remain central questions in the understanding of this deadly disease. In this review, we would like to confront 2 concepts explaining the efficiency and location of metastatic secondary tumors. While the “seed and soil” hypothesis states that metastasis occurs at sites where the local microenvironment is favorable, the “mechanical” concept argues that metastatic seeding occurs at sites of optimal flow patterns. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the primary event driving tumor cell arrest before extravasation is mostly controlled by blood circulation patterns as well as mechanical cues during the process of extravasation. In conclusion, the organ tropism displayed by cancer cells during metastatic colonization is a multi-step process, which is regulated by the delivery and survival of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through blood circulation, the ability of these CTCs to adhere and cross the physical barrier imposed by the endothelium and finally by the suitability of the soil to favor growth of secondary tumors. PMID:26312653

  18. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) expression predicts a favorable clinical outcome in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Elzagheid, Adam; Birkman, Eva-Maria; Avoranta, Tuulia; Kytölä, Ville; Korkeila, Eija; Syrjänen, Kari; Westermarck, Jukka; Sundström, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for high mortality. So far, there is lack of markers capable of predicting which patients are at risk of aggressive course of the disease. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibitor proteins have recently gained interest as markers of more aggressive disease in certain cancers. Here, we report the role of PP2A inhibitor PME-1 in CRC. PME-1 expression was assessed from a rectal cancer patient cohort by immunohistochemistry, and correlations were performed for various clinicopathological variables and patient survival. Rectal cancer patients with higher cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (above median) had less recurrences (P = 0.003, n = 195) and better disease-free survival (DFS) than the patients with low cytoplasmic PME-1 protein expression (below median). Analysis of PPME-1 mRNA expression from TCGA dataset of colon and rectal adenocarcinoma (COADREAD) patient cohort confirmed high PPME1 expression as an independent protective factor predicting favorable overall survival (OS) (P = 0.005, n = 396) compared to patients with low PPME1 expression. CRC cell lines were used to study the effect of PME-1 knockdown by siRNA on cell survival. Contrary to other cancer types, PME-1 inhibition in CRC cell lines did not reduce the viability of cells or the expression of active phosphorylated AKT and ERK proteins. In conclusion, PME-1 expression predicts for a favorable outcome of CRC patients. The unexpected role of PME-1 in CRC in contrast with the oncogenic role of PP2A inhibitor proteins in other malignancies warrants further studies of cancer-specific function for each of these proteins.

  19. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    PubMed

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  20. Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenyan; Sun, Wujin; Feng, Jinmei; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Dalu; Ouyang, Pingkai; Gu, Zhen; Xie, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL, E.C. number 4.1.3.3) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Due to the equilibrium favoring Neu5Ac cleavage, the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of two biocatalytic reactions producing Neu5Ac in industry. We report the biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a “GRAS” (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (CgNal). Compared to all previously reported NALs, CgNal exhibited the lowest kcat/Km value for Neu5Ac and highest kcat/Km values for ManNAc and pyruvate, which makes CgNal favor Neu5Ac synthesis the most. The recombinant CgNal reached the highest expression level (480 mg/L culture), and the highest reported yield of Neu5Ac was achieved (194 g/L, 0.63 M). All these unique properties make CgNal a promising biocatalyst for industrial Neu5Ac biosynthesis. Additionally, although showing the best Neu5Ac synthesis activity among the NAL family, CgNal is more related to dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) by phylogenetic analysis. The activities of CgNal towards both NAL's and DHDPS' substrates are fairly high, which indicates CgNal a bi-functional enzyme. The sequence analysis suggests that CgNal might have adopted a unique set of residues for substrates recognition. PMID:25799411

  1. Dynamic telecytology compares favorably to rapid onsite evaluation of endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, James L.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Linder, Ami; Crowe, Amanda E.; Jhala, Darshana; Jhala, Nirag C.; Crowe, David R.; Eltoum, Isam A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) has been demonstrated to correlate with final cytologic interpretations and improves the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA, however, its availability is variable across centers. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether remote telecytology can substitute for ROSE. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for diverse indications at a high volume referral center were enrolled All samples were prospectively evaluated by three methods. ROSE was performed by a cytopathologist in the procedure room; simultaneously dynamic telecytology was done by a different cytopathologist in a remote location at our institution. The third method, final cytologic interpretation in the laboratory, was the gold standard. Telecytology was performed using an Olympus microscope system (BX) which broadcasts live images over the internet. Accuracy of telecytology and agreement with other methods were the principle outcome measurements. Results Twenty-five consecutive samples were obtained from participants 40–87 years (median age =63, 48% male). There was 88% agreement between telecytology and final cytology (p < 0.001) and 92% agreement between ROSE and final cytology (p <0.001). There was consistency between telecytology and ROSE (p-value for McNemar’s χ2 = 1.0). Cohen’s kappa for agreement for telecytology and ROSE was 0.80 (SE = 0.11), confirming favorable correlation. Conclusion Dynamic telecytology compares favorably to ROSE in the assessment of EUS acquired fine needle aspirates. If confirmed by larger trials, this system might obviate the need for onsite interpretation of EUS-FNA specimens. PMID:22729624

  2. Computation assisted design of favored composition for ternary Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2015-06-14

    With the aid of ab initio calculations, a realistic interatomic potential was constructed for the Mg-Cu-Y ternary system under the proposed formalism of smoothed and long-range second-moment approximation of tight-binding. Taking the potential as the starting base, an atomistic computation/simulation route was developed for designing favored and optimized compositions for Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation. Simulations revealed that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is the collapse of crystalline lattice when solute concentration exceeds a critical value, thus leading to predict a hexagonal region in the Mg-Cu-Y composition triangle, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed that the hexagonal region can be defined as the intrinsic glass formation region, or quantitative glass formation ability of the system. Inside the hexagonal region, the driving force for formation of each specific glassy alloy was further calculated and correlated with its forming ability in practice. Calculations pinpointed the optimized stoichiometry in the Mg-Cu-Y system to be Mg64Cu16Y20, at which the formation driving force reaches its maximum, suggesting that metallic glasses designed to have compositions around Mg64Cu16Y20 are most stable or easiest to obtain. The predictions derived directly from the atomistic simulations are supported by experimental observations reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, Honeycutt-Anderson analysis indicated that pentagonal bipyramids (although not aggregating to form icosahedra) dominate in the local structure of the Mg-Cu-Y metallic glasses. A microscopic picture of the medium-range packing can then be described as an extended network of the pentagonal bipyramids, entangled with the fourfold and sixfold disclination lines, jointly fulfilling the space of the metallic glasses.

  3. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  4. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness].

    PubMed

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C

    2004-08-01

    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  5. Ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Gómez-Viquez, Leticia; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Rueda, Angélica

    2002-07-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle is endowed with two different types of Ca2+ release channels, i.e. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In general, both release channels mobilize Ca2+ from the same internal store in smooth muscle. While the importance of IP3Rs in agonist-induced contraction is well established, the role of RyRs in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle is not clear. The participation of smooth muscle RyRs in the amplification of Ca2+ transients induced by either opening of Ca2+-permeable channels or IP3-triggered Ca2+ release has been studied. The efficacy of both processes to activate RyRs by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is highly variable and not widely present in smooth muscle. Although RyRs in smooth muscle generate Ca2+ sparks that are similar to those observed in striated muscles, the contribution of these local Ca2+ events to depolarization-induced global rise in [Ca2+]i is rather limited. Recent data suggest that RyRs are involved in regulating the luminal [Ca2+] of SR and also in smooth muscle relaxation. This review summarizes studies that were carried out mainly in muscle strips or in freshly isolated myocytes, and that were aimed to determine the physiological role of RyRs in smooth muscle.

  6. l-Carnitine supplement reduces skeletal muscle atrophy induced by prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiwoong; Park, Jonghoon; Chang, Hyukki; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-12-01

    l-Carnitine was recently found to downregulate the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and increase insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in animal models. However, the effect of l-carnitine administration on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension has not yet been studied. Thus, we hypothesized that l-carnitine may have a protective effect on muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension via the Akt1/mTOR and/or UPP. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: hindlimb suspension group, hindlimb suspension with l-carnitine administration (1250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) group, and pair-fed group adjusted hindlimb suspension. l-Carnitine administration for 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension alleviated the decrease in weight and fiber size in the soleus muscle. In addition, l-carnitine suppressed atrogin-1 mRNA expression, which has been reported to play a pivotal role in muscle atrophy. The present study shows that l-carnitine has a protective effect against soleus muscle atrophy caused by hindlimb suspension and decreased E3 ligase messenger RNA expression, suggesting the possibility that l-carnitine protects against muscle atrophy, at least in part, through the inhibition of the UPP. These observations suggest that l-carnitine could serve as an effective supplement in the decrease of muscle atrophy caused by weightlessness in the fields of clinical and rehabilitative research.

  7. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hitoshi; Sumiya, Noriyoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kimura, Naohiro; Akizuki, Ayako; Maruyama, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) is a disease in which muscular ossification develops following trauma. Almost all cases of MOT are found in skeletal muscle. The authors report in a 39-year-old man MOT involving several muscles in the head and neck, namely, bilateral masseter muscles, the left temporal muscle, the left lateral pterygoid muscle, and the left frontal muscle. Involvement of the lateral pterygoid muscle is especially rare.

  8. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Böl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon

  9. Ghrelin prevents tumour- and cisplatin-induced muscle wasting: characterization of multiple mechanisms involved

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-an; Splenser, Andres; Guillory, Bobby; Luo, Jiaohua; Mendiratta, Meenal; Belinova, Blaga; Halder, Tripti; Zhang, Guohua; Li, Yi-Ping; Garcia, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cachexia and muscle atrophy are common consequences of cancer and chemotherapy administration. The novel hormone ghrelin has been proposed as a treatment for this condition. Increases in food intake and direct effects on muscle proteolysis and protein synthesis are likely to mediate these effects, but the pathways leading to these events are not well understood. Methods We characterized molecular pathways involved in muscle atrophy induced by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumour implantation in c57/bl6 adult male mice and by administration of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The effects of exogenous ghrelin administration and its mechanisms of action were examined in these settings. Results Tumour implantation and cisplatin induced muscle atrophy by activating pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38-C/EBP-β, and myostatin, and by down-regulating Akt, myoD, and myogenin, leading to activation of ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis and muscle weakness. Tumour implantation also increased mortality. In vitro, cisplatin up-regulated myostatin and atrogin-1 by activating C/EBP-β and FoxO1/3. Ghrelin prevented these changes in vivo and in vitro, significantly increasing muscle mass (P < 0.05 for LLC and P < 0.01 for cisplatin models) and grip strength (P = 0.038 for LLC and P = 0.001 for cisplatin models) and improving survival (P = 0.021 for LLC model). Conclusion Ghrelin prevents muscle atrophy by down-regulating inflammation, p38/C/EBP-β/myostatin, and activating Akt, myogenin, and myoD. These changes appear, at least in part, to target muscle cells directly. Ghrelin administration in this setting is associated with improved muscle strength and survival. PMID:26136189

  10. A vapor pressure thermometer for use in muscle microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Ian W; Taberner, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the energy consumption of isolated cardiac trabeculae requires highly sensitive temperature sensors. In this paper we describe and characterize an initial prototype of a vapor pressure thermometer being designed and built for application to muscle microcalorimetry. The device exploits the change in vapor pressure with temperature of a solvent and the change in pressure with volume of a gas. The sensor achieves a sensitivity of 86 μm/K and a resolution of 3.6 μK. Predictions from a finite element model of the expected displacement compare favorably with the tests performed.

  11. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  12. Hydrostatic isolated limb perfusion with adeno-associated virus vectors enhances correction of skeletal muscle in Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Li, S; Bird, A; Koeberl, D D

    2010-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease; MIM 232300) stems from the inherited deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase; EC 3.2.1.20), which primarily involves cardiac and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that hydrostatic isolated limb perfusion (ILP) administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing a muscle-specific promoter could achieve relatively higher transgene expression in the hindlimb muscles of GAA-knockout (GAA-KO) mice, in comparison with intravenous (IV) administration. ILP administration of AAV2/8 vectors encoding alkaline phosphatase or human GAA-transduced skeletal muscles of the hindlimb widely, despite the relatively low number of vector particles administered (1 × 10¹¹), and IV administration of an equivalent vector dose failed to transduce skeletal muscle detectably. Similarly, ILP administration of fewer vector particles of the AAV2/9 vector encoding human GAA (3 × 10¹⁰) transduced skeletal muscles of the hindlimb widely and significantly reduced glycogen content to, in comparison with IV administration. The only advantage for IV administration was moderately high-level transduction of cardiac muscle, which demonstrated compellingly that ILP administration sequestered vector particles within the perfused limb. Reduction of glycogen storage in the extensor digitorum longus demonstrated the potential advantage of ILP-mediated delivery of AAV vectors in Pompe disease, because type II myofibers are resistant to enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, ILP will enhance AAV transduction of multiple skeletal muscles while reducing the required dosages in terms of vector particle numbers.

  13. Intracerebral and Intravenous Transplantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Application of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lian; Dong, Fang; Bai, Gang; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one severe subtype of stroke, with a very complex pathology. Stem cell-based therapy holds promising potential in the treatment of neurological disorders. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have a therapeutic effect in recovery from brain damage following ICH. The aim of this study was to identify an effective and convenient way of using UC-MSCs in the ICH rat model. Material/Methods CM-DiI-labeled human UC-MSCs were transplanted intracerebrally or intravenously into collagenase VII-induced ICH rat models. Neurological function was evaluated before ICH and at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. ICH rats were sacrificed to evaluate the injury volume. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis and vascular areas were investigated using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) immunohistochemistry at two weeks after transplantation. Results The intracerebral and intravenous administration of UC-MSCs both resulted in significant improvement in neurological function and decrease in injury volume of ICH rats. Transplanted UC-MSCs were chemotactic in vivo and showed a predominant distribution around the ICH region. In addition, UC-MSCs could integrate into the cerebral vasculature in both groups. Conclusions Both intracerebral and intravenous administration of UC-MSCs could have a favorable effect on recovery of neurological function in ICH rats, although the fundamental mechanisms may be different between the two groups. Our data suggest that intravenous implantation of UC-MSCs could serve as a favorable approach for cell-based therapy in central nervous system (CNS) diseases according to clinical needs. PMID:27703134

  14. Role of glucocorticoids in increased muscle glutamine production in starvation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Cook, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of glucocorticoids in the synthesis of muscle glutamine during starvation was investigated in adrenalectomized fasted rats injected with cortisol (1 mg/100 g body weight). It was found that administration of cortisol in vivo increased (compared to nontreated starved adrenalectomized controls) the glutamine/glutamate ratio and the activity of glutamine synthetase in the diaphragm and the extensor digitorum muscles, and that these effects were abolished by prior treatment with actinomycin D or proflavine. The results obtained in in vitro experiments, using fresh-frozen soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscle preparations, supported the in vivo indications of the cortisol-enhanced glutamine synthesis and protein turnover in starved adrenalectomized animals.

  15. Effects of delayed NSAID administration after experimental eccentric contraction injury – A cellular and proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Aldape, Michael J.; Bayer, Clifford R.; Katahira, Eva J.; Bond, Laura; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Stevens, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute muscle injuries are exceedingly common and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed to reduce the associated inflammation, swelling and pain that peak 1–2 days post-injury. While prophylactic use or early administration of NSAIDs has been shown to delay muscle regeneration and contribute to loss of muscle strength after healing, little is known about the effects of delayed NSAID use. Further, NSAID use following non-penetrating injury has been associated with increased risk and severity of infection, including that due to group A streptococcus, though the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of delayed NSAID administration on muscle repair and sought mechanisms supporting an injury/NSAID/infection axis. Methods A murine model of eccentric contraction (EC)-induced injury of the tibialis anterior muscle was used to profile the cellular and molecular changes induced by ketorolac tromethamine administered 47 hr post injury. Results NSAID administration inhibited several important muscle regeneration processes and down-regulated multiple cytoprotective proteins known to inhibit the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. These activities were associated with increased caspase activity in injured muscles but were independent of any NSAID effect on macrophage influx or phenotype switching. Conclusions These findings provide new molecular evidence supporting the notion that NSAIDs have a direct negative influence on muscle repair after acute strain injury in mice and thus add to renewed concern about the safety and benefits of NSAIDS in both children and adults, in those with progressive loss of muscle mass such as the elderly or patients with cancer or AIDS, and those at risk of secondary infection after trauma or surgery. PMID:28245256

  16. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant's arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants' grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant's target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate's grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings provide

  17. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people’s actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant’s arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants’ grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant’s target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate’s grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings

  18. Paraspinal muscle reflex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Slota, G P; Bennett, B C

    2004-02-01

    Neuromuscular control of spinal stability may be represented as a control system wherein the paraspinal muscle reflex acts as feedback response to kinetic and kinematic disturbances of the trunk. The influence of preparatory muscle recruitment for the control of spinal stability has been previously examined, but there are few reported studies that characterize paraspinal reflex gain as feedback response. In the current study, the input-output dynamics of paraspinal reflexes were quantified by means of the impulse response function (IRF), with trunk perturbation force representing the input signal and EMG the output signal. Surface EMGs were collected from the trunk muscles in response to a brief anteriorly directed impact force applied to the trunk of healthy participants. Reflex behavior was measured in response to three levels of force impulse, 6.1, 9.2 and 12.0 Ns, and two different levels of external trunk flexion preload, 0 and 110 N anterior force. Reflex EMG was quantifiable in response to 91% of the perturbations. Mean reflex onset latency was 30.7+/-21.3 ms and reflex amplitude increased with perturbation amplitude. Impulse response function gain, G(IRF), was defined as the peak amplitude of the measured IRF and provided a consistent measure of response behavior. EMG reflex amplitude and G(IRF) increased with force impulse. Mean G(IRF) was 2.27+/-1.31% MVC/Ns and demonstrated declining trend with flexion preload. Results agree with a simple systems model of the neuromechanical feedback behavior. The relative contribution of the reflex dynamics to spinal stability must be investigated in future research.

  19. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  20. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Karoline; Hume, Patria; Maxwell, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted.A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of

  1. New twist on artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Carter S.; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy. PMID:27671626

  2. New twist on artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  3. Strabismus and eye muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar

    2007-11-01

    Studies of external eye muscle morphology and physiology are reviewed, with respect to both motor and sensory functions in concomitant strabismus. The eye muscles have a more complex fibre composition than other striated muscle, and they are among the fastest and most fatigue-resistant muscles in the body. However, it is not generally believed that concomitant strabismus is due to a primary abnormality of the eye muscles or the ocular motor system. The gross anatomy of eye muscles, including the shape and position of the eye muscle pulleys, was not changed in strabismus. The histology of the eye muscle fibres was also basically the same, but changes have been observed in the cellular and biochemical machinery of the fibres, most notably in the singly innervated orbital fibres. Functionally, this was seen as slower contractions and reduced fatigue resistance of eye muscles in animals with strabismus and defects of binocular vision. Most likely the changes represented an adaptation to modified visual demands on the ocular motor control, because of the defects of binocular vision in strabismus from an early age. Adaptation of eye muscle function to visual demands could be seen also in the adult human ocular motor system, but here the effects could be reversed with treatment in some conditions. External eye muscles in the human have sensory organs, muscle spindles and tendon organs, responding to changes in muscle force and length. It is not known how these proprioceptors are used more specifically in ocular motor control, and there is no stretch reflex in the external eye muscles. However, a clear influence on space localization and eye position can be demonstrated with vibratory stimulation of the eye muscles, presumably activating muscle spindles. Different effects were observed in normal subjects and in adult patients with strabismus, which would indicate that the proprioceptive input from one eye of strabismic patients could be suppressed by the other eye, similar

  4. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  5. Biotin ameliorates muscle cramps of hemodialysis patients: a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Shiro; Ando, Itiro; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Sekino, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Masako

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis often have muscle cramps during and after the dialysis therapy. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied with severe pain, resulting in early termination of a HD session and inadequate dialysis. The etiology of the cramps is unknown and effective anti-cramp medicine is not available. We have hypothesized that water-soluble vitamins are deficient in HD patients. Accordingly, we administrated biotin to 14 patients who had frequent muscle cramps during HD sessions. Oral administration of 1 mg/day biotin promptly reduced the onset and the severity of cramps in 12 patients both during and after HD. Then, the plasma biotin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) in HD patients, including 14 patients with cramps and 13 patients without cramps, and 11 healthy volunteers. Plasma biotin levels were elevated in 27 HD patients at baseline compared with healthy volunteers [451 (377 - 649) vs. 224 (148 - 308) ng/l, median (lower-upper quartiles); p < 0.0001]. Unexpectedly, among the 14 cramp patients, the biotin levels were significantly higher in biotin-ineffective 7 patients than biotin-effective 7 patients [1,064 (710 - 1,187) vs. 445 (359 - 476) ng/l; p < 0.001]. Thus, the biotins measured by ELISA may consist of not only intact biotin but also its metabolites that do not function as a vitamin. In conclusion, biotin administration is one choice to relieve HD patients from muscle cramps regardless of their elevated plasma biotin levels.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of exenatide following alternate routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Gedulin, Bronislava R; Smith, Pamela A; Jodka, Carolyn M; Chen, Kim; Bhavsar, Sunil; Nielsen, Loretta L; Parkes, David G; Young, Andrew A

    2008-05-22

    Exenatide is a 39-amino acid peptide incretin mimetic approved for adjunctive treatment of type 2 diabetes. It shares several glucoregulatory activities with the mammalian hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In clinical use, subcutaneous exenatide injections demonstrate glucoregulatory and weight loss effects with sustained plasma concentrations in the 50-100 pM range. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of exenatide in normoglycemic rats and biological activity in diabetic db/db mice after delivery to various epithelial surfaces of the intestinal and respiratory tracts. In rats, elimination kinetics were similar for all routes of administration (median k(e) 0.017 min(-1)). Bioavailability (versus intravenous administration) and C(max) per unit dose differed markedly. For gastrointestinal administration, sublingual administration invoked the highest bioavailability (0.37%); in db/db mice, potentially therapeutic concentrations were obtainable. In contrast, intraduodenal bioavailability was low (0.0053%). In regard to respiratory surfaces, bioavailability of intratracheal exenatide was up to 13.6%, and for nasal administration, 1.68%. Both routes of administration produced therapeutic plasma concentrations and glucose-lowering in db/db mice. At high doses, aerosolized exenatide also achieved effective concentrations and glucose-lowering. In summary, the intestinal tract seems to have limited potential as a route of exenatide administration, with sublingual being most promising. In contrast, the respiratory tract appears to be more viable, comparing favorably with the clinically approved subcutaneous route. Despite little optimization of the delivery formulation, exenatide bioavailability compared favorable to that of several commercially available bioactive peptides.

  7. TRAF4 Is a Novel Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Modulating Tight Junctions and Favoring Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; McEwen, Alastair G.; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rognan, Didier; Nominé, Yves; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Alpy, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration. PMID:24311986

  8. Favorable prognostic influence of T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin in metastatic renal cell cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dielmann, Anastasia; Letsch, Anne; Nonnenmacher, Anika; Miller, Kurt; Keilholz, Ulrich; Busse, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    T-box transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) encoded by Tbx21 and Eomesodermin (Eomes), drive the differentiation of effector/memory T cell lineages and NK cells. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic influence of the expression of these transcription factors in peripheral blood (pB) in a cohort of 41 metastatic (m) RCC patients before receiving sorafenib treatment and to analyze their association with the immunophenotype in pB. In contrast to Tbx21, in the multivariate analysis including clinical features, Eomes mRNA expression was identified as an independent good prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.042) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.001) in addition to a favorable ECOG performance status (p = 0.01 and p = 0.008, respectively). Eomes expression correlated positively not only with expression of Tbx21 and TGFβ1 mRNA, but also with mRNA expression of the activation marker ICOS, and with in vivo activated HLA-DR(+) T cells. Eomes expression was negatively associated with TNFα-producing T cells. On protein level, Eomes was mainly expressed by CD56(+)CD3(-) NK cells in pB. In conclusion, we identified a higher Eomes mRNA expression as an independent good prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients treated with sorafenib.

  9. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering.

  10. Renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty in canine model: a favorable biomaterial?

    PubMed Central

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Mohammadian, Reza; Malekahmadi, Amir; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Natami, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of canine renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Ten adult dogs participated in this study. After induction of anesthesia each animal underwent bed side urodynamic study, bladder capacity and bladder pressure was recorded. Then via mid line incision abdominal cavity was entered, right kidney was identified and its capsule was dissected. Bladder augmentation was done by anastomosing the renal capsule to the bladder. After 6 months bed side urodynamic study was performed again and changes in bladder volume and pressure were recorded. Then the animals were sacrificed and the augmented bladders were sent for histopathology evaluation. Results: Mean maximum anatomic bladder capacity before cystoplasty was 334.00±11.40cc which increased to 488.00±14.83cc post-operatively (p=0.039). Mean anatomic bladder pressure before cystoplasty was 19.00±1.58cmH2O which decreased to 12.60±1.14cmH2O post-operatively (p=0.039). Histopathology evaluation revealed epithelialization of the renal capsule with urothelium without evidence of fibrosis, collagen deposits or contracture. Conclusions: Our data shows that renal capsule is a favorable biomaterial for bladder augmentation in a canine model. PMID:27256195

  11. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.; Gershberg, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  12. Asymmetry of glia near central synapses favors presynaptically directed glutamate escape.

    PubMed Central

    Lehre, Knut Petter; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2002-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that synaptically released excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate activates receptors outside the immediate synaptic cleft and that the extent of such extrasynaptic actions is regulated by the high affinity glutamate uptake. The bulk of glutamate transporter systems are evenly distributed in the synaptic neuropil, and it is generally assumed that glutamate escaping the cleft affects pre- and postsynaptic receptors to a similar degree. To test whether this is indeed the case, we use quantitative electron microscopy and establish the stochastic pattern of glial occurrence in the three-dimensional (3D) vicinity of two common types of excitatory central synapses, stratum radiatum synapses in hippocampus and parallel fiber synapses in cerebellum. We find that the occurrence of glia postsynaptically is strikingly higher (3-4-fold) than presynaptically, in both types of synapses. To address the functional consequences of this asymmetry, we simulate diffusion and transport of synaptically released glutamate in these two brain areas using a detailed 3D compartmental model of the extracellular space with glutamate transporters arranged unevenly, in accordance with the obtained experimental data. The results predict that glutamate escaping the synaptic cleft is 2-4 times more likely to activate presynaptic compared to postsynaptic receptors. Simulations also show that postsynaptic neuronal transporters (EAAT4 type) at dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells exaggerate this asymmetry further. Our data suggest that the perisynaptic environment of these common central synapses favors fast presynaptic feedback in the information flow while preserving the specificity of the postsynaptic input. PMID:12080105

  13. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  14. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  15. Favorable effect of in-situ generated platinum in the membrane on fuel cell membrane durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Wong, Ka Hung; Watson, Mark; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The overall lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is often determined by the membrane durability. Platinum, which may dissolve from the catalyst layers during fuel cell operation and deposit in the membrane, has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on membrane stability. In the present work, we analyze what specific conditions are required in order to reach a favorable, membrane stabilizing effect with the controlled use of platinum in the membrane. Using accelerated membrane durability testing, field operated membrane samples, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that a high platinum concentration with specific particle shapes and sizes is essential for enhanced membrane stability. Specifically, star shaped and dendritic particles with high particle density and high surface area are shown to be preferable. These particles contain high levels of Pt(111) and are expected to have high catalytic activity toward peroxide quenching and crossover gas consumption, thereby mitigating chemical membrane degradation. On the other hand, small, dispersed cubic particles are found to have no effect or the opposite, negative effect on membrane stability.

  16. Intragenomic conflict produces sex ratio dynamics that favor maternal sex ratio distorters.

    PubMed

    Rood, Elaine S; Freedberg, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Maternal sex ratio distorters (MSDs) are selfish elements that enhance their transmission by biasing their host's sex allocation in favor of females. While previous models have predicted that the female-biased populations resulting from sex ratio distortion can benefit from enhanced productivity, these models neglect Fisherian selection for nuclear suppressors, an unrealistic assumption in most systems. We used individual-based computer simulation modeling to explore the intragenomic conflict between sex ratio distorters and their suppressors and explored the impacts of these dynamics on population-level competition between species characterized by MSDs and those lacking them. The conflict between distorters and suppressors was capable of producing large cyclical fluctuations in the population sex ratio and reproductive rate. Despite fitness costs associated with the distorters and suppressors, MSD populations often exhibited enhanced productivity and outcompeted non-MSD populations in single and multiple-population competition simulations. Notably, the conflict itself is beneficial to the success of populations, as sex ratio oscillations limit the competitive deficits associated with prolonged periods of male rarity. Although intragenomic conflict has been historically viewed as deleterious to populations, our results suggest that distorter-suppressor conflict can provide population-level advantages, potentially helping to explain the persistence of sex ratio distorters in a range of taxa.

  17. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  18. The sequential activation of the mitotic microtubule assembly pathways favors bipolar spindle formation

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Malgaretti, Paolo; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Centrosome maturation is the process by which the duplicated centrosomes recruit pericentriolar components and increase their microtubule nucleation activity before mitosis. The role of this process in cells entering mitosis has been mostly related to the separation of the duplicated centrosomes and thereby to the assembly of a bipolar spindle. However, spindles can form without centrosomes. In fact, all cells, whether they have centrosomes or not, rely on chromatin-driven microtubule assembly to form a spindle. To test whether the sequential activation of these microtubule assembly pathways, defined by centrosome maturation and nuclear envelope breakdown, plays any role in spindle assembly, we combined experiments in tissue culture cells and Xenopus laevis egg extracts with a mathematical model. We found that interfering with the sequential activation of the microtubule assembly pathways compromises bipolar spindle assembly in tissue culture cells but not in X. laevis egg extracts. Our data suggest a novel function for centrosome maturation that determines the contribution of the chromosomal microtubule assembly pathway and favors bipolar spindle formation in most animal cells in which tubulin is in limiting amounts. PMID:27489339

  19. Quantifying favorableness for occurrence of a mineral deposit type using fuzzy logic; an example from Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    An application of possibility theory from fuzzy logic to the quantification of favorableness for quartz-carbonate vein deposits in the southern Santa Rita Mountains of southeastern Arizona is described. Three necessary but probably not sufficient conditions for the formation of these deposits were defined as the occurrence of carbonate berain rocks within hypabyssal depths, significant fracturing of the rocks, and proximity to a felsic intrusive. The quality of data available to evaluate these conditions is variable over the study area. The possibility of each condition was represented as a fuzzy set enumerated over the area. The intersection of the sets measures the degree of simultaneous occurrence of hte necessary factors and provides a measure of the possibility of deposit occurrence. Using fuzzy set technicques, the effect of one or more fuzzy sets relative to the others in the intersection can be controlled and logical combinations of the sets can be used to impose a time sequential constraint on the necessary conditions. Other necessary conditions, and supplementary conditions such as variable data quality or intensity of exploration can be included in the analysis by their proper representation as fuzzy sets.

  20. Aerosol deposition favors red tide phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; Chien, C.; Chen, Y.; Glover, D. M.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Chinese marginal seas support vast fisheries and vital economies, but their productivity is threatened by eutrophication from runoff and atmospheric deposition. The East China Sea is inundated with nitrogen from the Yangtze River and anthropogenic emissions, leading to elevated N:P ratios. We show that aerosol additions approximating one week of moderate deposition to offshore waters favor the growth of red tide phytoplankton, such as Skeletonema costatum, by providing nutrients and trace metals (iron and zinc) needed for growth. In contrast toxin-producing Pseudonitzchia does not benefit from aerosols in this region, possibly due to its preference for lower N:P ratios. A dose-dependent toxic response was observed in Synechococcus at high aerosol loads approximating a week of heavy deposition in the region. In contrast, phytoplankton growth at an onshore station was light limited, and aerosol additions did not have an appreciable effect on phytoplankton growth. Aerosol and chlorophyll observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite have the potential to explore the effect of aerosols on phytoplankton blooms over longer time scales and seasons. This study shows the potential for aerosols to control N:P ratios in offshore waters and to shape the phytoplankton community through fertilization and toxicity, contributing to the occurrence of red tides.

  1. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  2. Favorable control of advanced colon adenocarcinoma with severe bone marrow metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Fumiyasu; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Miyuki; Oda, Hisanobu; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Esaki, Taito; Baba, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a propensity to metastasize to the liver, lungs and regional abdominal lymph nodes, but rarely to the bone marrow. A 60-year-old man presented to the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center with a 4-week history of persistent lower back pain, anorexia and difficulty defecating. Complete blood count revealed severe thrombocytopenia and erythroblastosis, suggesting a hematological malignancy. However, the bone marrow examination demonstrated involvement by a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, but no hematopoietic abnormalities. A computed tomography scan revealed thickening of the wall of the sigmoid colon, with para-aortic, hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The patient was thus diagnosed with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with lymph node and bone marrow metastasis. Modified FOLFOX6 was promptly initiated, with concurrent therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An increased number of thrombocytes was observed on day 6. After 3 cycles of treatment, the patient recovered from DIC and the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment were decreased. Tumor biopsy during colonoscopy following recovery from DIC demonstrated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with mucin production, without mutations in the RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA genes, and a cytokeratin (CK) 7-negative, CK20-positive phenotype. The patient has been treated with chemotherapy for 150 days without disease progression. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy for rarely encountered bone marrow metastasis from CRC is poor. The present case was favorably maintained on chemotherapy and survived for 10 months. PMID:27900088

  3. The spreading front of invasive species in favorable habitat or unfavorable habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chengxia; Lin, Zhigui; Zhang, Qunying

    2014-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity and habitat characteristic are shown to determine the asymptotic profile of the solution to a reaction-diffusion model with free boundary, which describes the moving front of the invasive species. A threshold value R0Fr(D,t) is introduced to determine the spreading and vanishing of the invasive species. We prove that if R0Fr(D,t0)⩾1 for some t0⩾0, the spreading must happen; while if R0Fr(D,0)<1, the spreading is also possible. Our results show that the species in the favorable habitat can establish itself if the diffusion is slow or the occupying habitat is large. In an unfavorable habitat, the species dies out if the initial value of the species is small. However, big initial number of the species is benefit for the species to survive. When the species spreads in the whole habitat, the asymptotic spreading speed is given. Some implications of these theoretical results are also discussed.

  4. The cohesion stabilizer sororin favors DNA repair and chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jie; Yuan, Yi-Feng; Wu, Di; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Maintenance and timely termination of cohesion on chromosomes ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes and subsequent chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. Sororin, a cohesion stabilizer whose relevance in antagonizing the anti-cohesive property of Wings-apart like protein (Wapl), has been characterized in mitosis; however, the role of Sororin remains unclear during mammalian oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that Sororin is required for DNA damage repair and cohesion maintenance on chromosomes, and consequently, for mouse oocyte meiotic program. Sororin is constantly expressed throughout meiosis and accumulates on chromatins at germinal vesicle (GV) stage/G2 phase. It localizes onto centromeres from germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to metaphase II stage. Inactivation of Sororin compromises the GVBD and first polar body extrusion (PBE). Furthermore, Sororin inactivation induces DNA damage indicated by positive γH2AX foci in GV oocytes and precocious chromatin segregation in MII oocytes. Finally, our data indicate that PlK1 and MPF dissociate Sororin from chromosome arms without affecting its centromeric localization. Our results define Sororin as a determinant during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation by favoring DNA damage repair and chromosome separation, and thereby, maintaining the genome stability and generating haploid gametes.

  5. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  6. Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression Changes Lysophosphatidic Acid Homeostasis to Favor its Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Bot, Ilze; Lopez-Vales, Rubén; van de Lest, Chris H.A.; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien; Helms, J. Bernd; David, Samuel; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accumulates in the central atheroma of human atherosclerotic plaques and is the primary platelet-activating lipid constituent of plaques. Here, we investigated the enzymatic regulation of LPA homeostasis in atherosclerotic lesions at various stages of disease progression. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in carotid arteries of low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice by semiconstrictive collar placement. At 2-week intervals after collar placement, lipids and RNA were extracted from the vessel segments carrying the plaque. Enzymatic-and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry–based lipid profiling revealed progressive accumulation of LPA species in atherosclerotic tissue preceded by an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine, a precursor in LPA synthesis. Plaque expression of LPA-generating enzymes cytoplasmic phospholipase A2IVA (cPLA2IVA) and calcium-independent PLA2VIA (iPLA2VIA) was gradually increased, whereas that of the LPA-hydrolyzing enzyme LPA acyltransferase α was quenched. Increased expression of cPLA2IVA and iPLA2VIA in advanced lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, LPA receptors 1 and 2 were 50% decreased and sevenfold upregulated, respectively. Therefore, key proteins in LPA homeostasis are increasingly dysregulated in the plaque during atherogenesis, favoring intracellular LPA production. This might at least partly explain the observed progressive accumulation of this thrombogenic proinflammatory lipid in human and mouse plaques. Thus, intervention in the enzymatic LPA production may be an attractive measure to lower intraplaque LPA content, thereby reducing plaque progression and thrombogenicity. PMID:20431029

  7. The multiscale factors favorable for a persistent heavy rain event over Hainan Island in October 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Sixiong; Wei, Jie

    2016-06-01

    A case study is presented of the multiscale characteristics that produced the record-breaking persistent heavy rainfall event (PHRE) over Hainan Island, northern South China Sea (SCS), in autumn 2010. The study documents several key weather systems, from planetary scale to mesoscale, that contributed to the extreme rainfall during this event. The main findings of this study are as follows. First, the convectively active phase of the MJO was favorable for the establishment of a cyclonic circulation and the northward expansion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The active disturbances in the northward ITCZ helped direct abundant moisture from adjacent oceans towards Hainan Island continuously throughout the event, where it interacted with cold air from the midlatitudes and caused heavy rain. Second, the 8-day-long PHRE can be divided into three processes according to different synoptic systems: peripheral cloud clusters of a tropical depression-type disturbance over the central SCS in process 1; interactions between the abnormally far north ITCZ and the invading cold air in process 2; and the newly formed tropical depression near Hainan Island in process 3. In the relatively stable synoptic background of each process, meso- α- and meso- β-scale cloud clusters repeatedly traveled along the same path to Hainan Island. Finally, based on these analyses, a conceptual model is proposed for this type of PHRE in autumn over the northern SCS, which demonstrates the influences of multiscale systems.

  8. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality.

  9. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    PubMed

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  10. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

  11. Predictors of favorable results in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment (Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2004).

    PubMed

    Sassaki, Cinthia Midori; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Hinos, Paula; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2010-06-01

    Based on data available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, predictive factors of favorable results were identified in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 2001 and 2004 and living in Recife-PE, Brazil. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. In multivariate analysis, the following factors remained: Age (years), 0 to 9 (OR = 4.27; p = 0.001) and 10 to 19 (OR = 1.78; p = 0.011), greater chance of cure than over 60; Education (years), 8 to 11 (OR = 1.52; p = 0.049), greater chance of cure than no education; Type of entry, ne wcase s (OR = 3.31; p < 0.001) and relapse (OR = 3.32; p < 0.001), greater chances of cure than restart after abandonment; Time (months) 2, 5--6 (OR = 9.15; p < 0.001); 6--9 (OR = 27.28; p < 0.001) and More than 9 (OR = 24.78; p < 0.001), greater chances of cure than less than 5; Health Unit District, DSII (OR = 1.60; p = 0.018) and DSIIV (OR = 2.87; p < 0.001), greater chance sof cure than DS II.

  12. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.

  13. Music, clicks, and their imaginations favor differently the event-based timing component for rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Del Tongo, Claudia; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The involvement or noninvolvement of a clock-like neural process, an effector-independent representation of the time intervals to produce, is described as the essential difference between event-based and emergent timing. In a previous work (Bravi et al. in Exp Brain Res 232:1663-1675, 2014a. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3845-9 ), we studied repetitive isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs), performed while minimizing visual and tactile information, to clarify whether non-temporal and temporal characteristics of paced auditory stimuli affect the precision and accuracy of the rhythmic motor performance. Here, with the inclusion of new recordings, we expand the examination of the dataset described in our previous study to investigate whether simple and complex paced auditory stimuli (clicks and music) and their imaginations influence in a different way the timing mechanisms for repetitive IWFEs. Sets of IWFEs were analyzed by the windowed (lag one) autocorrelation-wγ(1), a statistical method recently introduced for the distinction between event-based and emergent timing. Our findings provide evidence that paced auditory information and its imagination favor the engagement of a clock-like neural process, and specifically that music, unlike clicks, lacks the power to elicit event-based timing, not counteracting the natural shift of wγ(1) toward positive values as frequency of movements increase.

  14. APOBEC3G ubiquitination by Nedd4-1 favors its packaging into HIV-1 particles.

    PubMed

    Dussart, Sylvie; Douaisi, Marc; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2005-01-21

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase that limits the replication of many retroviruses. This antiviral host factor is packaged into retrovirus particles, where it targets single-stranded DNA generated during reverse transcription and induces up to 2% of G-to-A mutations, which are lethal for the HIV-1 provirus. Vif protein counteracts this antiviral factor by decreasing its packaging into lentivirus particles. Here, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1, an HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with APOBEC3G, through its WW2 and WW3 domains. As a result of this interaction, APOBEC3G undergoes post-translational modification by addition of ubiquitin moieties. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the dominant negative Nedd4-1 C/S form prevents APOBEC3G ubiquitination. Moreover, the packaging of APOBEC3G into Pr55 Gag virus-like particles and into HIV-1 virions is reduced when Nedd4-1 C/S is expressed. During HIV-1 viral production in the presence of APOBEC3G, Nedd4-1 C/S restores partially the infectivity of Deltavif HIV-1. We conclude that the ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by Nedd4-1 favors its targeting to the virus assembly site where APOBEC3G interacts with Gag and is packaged into HIV-1 particles in the absence of Vif.

  15. Factors for Predicting Favorable Outcome of Percutaneous Epidural Adhesiolysis for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Hyun Seok; Shin, Jin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Lower back pain is a common reason for disability and the most common cause is lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis has been applied to relieve pain and increase the functional capacity of patients who present this condition. Objectives. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the factors which predict the outcome of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation. Methods. Electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation who have received percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis treatment were reviewed. The primary outcome was the factors that were associated with substantial response of ≥4 points or ≥50% of pain relief in the numerical rating scale pain score 12 months after the treatment. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of high-intensity zone (HIZ) at magnetic resonance imaging was a predictor of substantial response to percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for 12 months (P = 0.007). The presence of a condition involving the vertebral foramen was a predictor for unsuccessful response after 12 months (P = 0.02). Discussion and Conclusion. The presence of HIZ was a predictor of favorable long-term outcome after percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis for the treatment of lower back pain with radicular pain caused by lumbar disc herniation. PMID:28246488

  16. TTK is a favorable prognostic biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qianqian; Xu, Yali; Pan, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Ren, Xinyu; Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Shen, Songjie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Changjun; Zhong, Ying; Zhou, Liangrui; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haitao; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies demonstrate that threonine and tyrosine kinase (TTK) is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but there are conflicting results regarding its effect on TNBC survival. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of TTK expression in primary TNBC. Results Of 169 consecutive cases eligible for this study, 164 included follow-up information. Cytoplasm and membrane TTK staining was observed in 99.4% of cases, while 5.9% displayed whole cell immunostaining. At a discriminating threshold of 55, elevated TTK expression was associated with prolonged disease free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.024) in primary TNBC and prolonged DFS in individual basal-like (p = 0.001) and non-basal-like (p = 0.001) TNBC subtypes. In addition, Cox regression analysis demonstrated that elevated TTK expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in TNBC (p < 0.001). Methods TTK expression of 169 samples was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify a cutpoint for TTK expression, which was analyzed for its association with patients' clinicopathological factors and survival using Chi-square, log-rank, and Cox regression analyses. Conclusions TTK is a favorable prognostic biomarker associated with TNBC survival. PMID:27833085

  17. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  18. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana.

    PubMed

    Varó, I; Redón, S; Garcia-Roger, E M; Amat, F; Guinot, D; Serrano, R; Navarro, J C

    2015-04-01

    The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological fitness also indicates out-competitive advantages.

  19. Femtomolar inhibitors bind to 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidases with favorable enthalpy and entropy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Keisha; Haapalainen, Antti M; Burgos, Emmanuel S; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Gulab, Shivali; Guan, Rong; Schramm, Vern L

    2012-09-25

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of adenine from methylthioadenosine (MTA). Inhibitor design and synthesis informed by transition state analysis have developed femtomolar inhibitors for MTANs, among the most powerful known noncovalent enzyme inhibitors. Thermodynamic analyses of the inhibitor binding reveals a combination of highly favorable contributions from enthalpic (-24.7 to -4.0 kcal mol(-1)) and entropic (-10.0 to 6.4 kcal mol(-1)) interactions. Inhibitor binding to similar MTANs from different bacterial species gave distinct energetic contributions from similar catalytic sites. Thus, binding of four transition state analogues to EcMTAN and SeMTAN is driven primarily by enthalpy, while binding to VcMTAN is driven primarily by entropy. Human MTA phosphorylase (hMTAP) has a transition state structure closely related to that of the bacterial MTANs, and it binds tightly to some of the same transition state analogues. However, the thermodynamic signature of binding of an inhibitor to hMTAP differs completely from that with MTANs. We conclude that factors other than first-sphere catalytic residue contacts contribute to binding of inhibitors because the thermodynamic signature differs between bacterial species of the same enzyme.

  20. Thermodynamic Conditions Favorable to Superlative Thunderstorm Updraft, Mixed Phase Microphysics and Lightning Flash Rate. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E.; Mushtak, V.; Rosenfeld, D.; Goodman, S.; Boccippio, D.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash rate have been merged with proximal surface station thermodynamic observations toward improving the understanding of the response of the updraft and lightning activity in the tropical atmosphere to temperature. The tropical results have led in turn to an examination of thermodynamic climatology over the continental United States in summertime and its comparison with exceptional electrical conditions documented in earlier studies. The tropical and mid-latitude results taken together support an important role for cloud base height in regulating the transfer of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) to updraft kinetic energy in thunderstorms. In the tropics, cloud base height is dominated by the dry bulb temperature over the wet bulb temperature as the lightning-regulating temperature in regions characterized by moist convection. In the extratropics, an elevated cloud base height may enable larger cloud water concentrations in the mixed phase region, a favorable condition for the positive charging of large ice particles that may result in thunderclouds with a reversed polarity of the main cloud dipole. The combined requirements of instability and cloud base height serve to confine the region of superlative electrification to the vicinity of the ridge in moist entropy in the western Great Plains.