Science.gov

Sample records for administration food safety

  1. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  2. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  3. 76 FR 64354 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Request for...

  4. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  5. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  6. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  7. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  8. 78 FR 32390 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA): Request for Comments on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  9. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part Chapter 1 Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Request for Comments Regarding...

  10. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2.53 Section 2.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the...

  11. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... the public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information... how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket; to respond to...

  12. 78 FR 49988 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the... process, including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket;...

  13. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  14. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer.

  15. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    PubMed

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  16. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Fires and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  17. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  18. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  19. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals, produce, and chips. When buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration ... your cart. Separate any raw meat, fish, or poultry from vegetables, fruit, and other foods you'll ...

  20. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  1. Establishing a list of qualifying pathogens under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is issuing a regulation to establish a list of "qualifying pathogens'' that have the potential to pose a serious threat to public health. This final rule implements a provision of the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). GAIN is intended to encourage development of new antibacterial and antifungal drugs for the treatment of serious or life-threatening infections, and provides incentives such as eligibility for designation as a fast-track product and an additional 5 years of exclusivity to be added to certain exclusivity periods. Based on analyses conducted both in the proposed rule and in response to comments to the proposed rule, FDA has determined that the following pathogens comprise the list of ``qualifying pathogens:'' Acinetobacter species, Aspergillus species, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Campylobacter species, Candida species, Clostridium difficile, Coccidioides species, Cryptococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae), Enterococcus species, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria species, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and Vibrio cholerae. The preamble to the proposed rule described the factors the Agency considered and the methodology used to develop the list of qualifying pathogens. As described in the preamble of this final rule, FDA applied those factors and that methodology to additional pathogens suggested via comments on the proposed rule.

  2. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  3. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  4. The Food and Drug Administration's Post-Licensure Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring program: strengthening the federal vaccine safety enterprise.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael; Ball, Robert; Midthun, Karen; Lieu, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Department of Health and Human Services created the new Post-Licensure Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring (PRISM) program, which used data from national health insurance plans and immunization registries to monitor the safety of the H1N1 influenza vaccine. PRISM has now been integrated into the FDA's Mini-Sentinel pilot program. It strengthens the federal vaccine safety enterprise in two important ways. First, PRISM monitors the largest US general population cohort designated for active surveillance of vaccine safety. Second, PRISM links data from health plans with data from state and city immunization registries, which were a crucial source of exposure data in the H1N1 vaccine evaluation. The Mini-Sentinel data that support PRISM are updated quarterly, and PRISM can conduct medical record review for validation of computerized data. The FDA has structured PRISM as a program that includes specific vaccine evaluations, development of an operational framework to guide the design of vaccine safety evaluations, and development of new statistical methods. A human papillomavirus vaccine, Gardasil, and two rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq and Rotarix, have been chosen for surveillance in the current cycle because their evaluations would benefit most from PRISM's large cohort size. The PRISM program creates important opportunities by offering a robust, responsive new surveillance program with features complementary to existing systems. Methodological and logistical lessons can be shared among PRISM and other surveillance systems, offering potential synergies. FDA and PRISM will work to maximize the program's unique strengths and contributions to a unified federal vaccine safety enterprise.

  5. 76 FR 45818 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...,000 die from food borne diseases, according to recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and... there ways to alleviate any burden on small business other than a fee reduction? Please explain. B. How... announcing the establishment of a docket to obtain information that will be used to formulate a proposed...

  6. 77 FR 44256 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Safety Considerations for 510...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...-Bore Connectors Intended for Enteral Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Misconnections with Small- bore Connectors Intended for Enteral Applications.'' The use of common connector... Risks of Misconnections With Small-Bore Connectors Intended for Enteral Applications'' to the...

  7. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... many of us call "food poisoning" -- the experts call it foodborne illness. We'll look at: How Times Have Changed Why Some People Face Special Risks Recognizing Foodborne Illness Food Safety at Home A Cooking Temperature Chart Refrigerator Storage Chart Special Foods, Special Advice ...

  8. Regulatory use of computational toxicology tools and databases at the United States Food and Drug Administration's Office of Food Additive Safety.

    PubMed

    Arvidson, Kirk B; Chanderbhan, Ronald; Muldoon-Jacobs, Kristi; Mayer, Julie; Ogungbesan, Adejoke

    2010-07-01

    Over 10 years ago, the Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS) in the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition implemented the formal use of structure-activity relationship analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in the premarket review of food-contact substances. More recently, OFAS has implemented the use of multiple QSAR software packages and has begun investigating the use of metabolism data and metabolism predictive models in our QSAR evaluations of food-contact substances. In this article, we provide an overview of the programs used in OFAS as well as a perspective on how to apply multiple QSAR tools in the review process of a new food-contact substance.

  9. Statistical, epidemiological, and risk-assessment approaches to evaluating safety of vaccines throughout the life cycle at the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Ball, Robert; Horne, Dale; Izurieta, Hector; Sutherland, Andrea; Walderhaug, Mark; Hsu, Henry

    2011-05-01

    The public health community faces increasing demands for improving vaccine safety while simultaneously increasing the number of vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases. The passage of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendment Act of 2007 formalized the concept of life-cycle management of the risks and benefits of vaccines, from early clinical development through many years of use in large numbers of people. Harnessing scientific and technologic advances is necessary to improve vaccine-safety evaluation. The Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is working to improve the FDA's ability to monitor vaccine safety by improving statistical, epidemiologic, and risk-assessment methods, gaining access to new sources of data, and exploring the use of genomics data. In this article we describe the current approaches, new resources, and future directions that the FDA is taking to improve the evaluation of vaccine safety.

  10. Food safety knowledge retention study.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Nyall; Shaw, Keara

    2009-02-01

    Foodborne illness in Canada is an ongoing burden for public health and the economy. Many foodborne illnesses result from improper food handling practices. If food handlers had a greater knowledge of what causes foodborne illness, perhaps these illnesses would have less of an impact on society. This study gave researchers the opportunity to examine the current food safety knowledge of food handlers by using a standardized questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed by environmental health officers to food handlers working in the food service industry during on-site inspections, and responses were used to evaluate immediate knowledge of key food safety issues. Both certified and noncertified food handlers were evaluated. Information also was collected on the number of years since food safety certification was achieved and the number of years experience noncertified food handlers had in the food service industry. Results indicated that certified food handlers had a greater knowledge of food safety information than did noncertified food handlers. The highest failure rates were observed among noncertified food handlers with more than 10 years of experience and less than 1 year of experience. The results support the need for mandatory food safety certification for workers in the food service industry and for recertification at least every 10 years. Although the study was not sufficiently rigorous to evaluate existing food safety courses, data collected provided valuable insight into what issues should be emphasized in existing food safety courses and which should be targeted by future food safety initiatives.

  11. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  12. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  13. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart.

  14. [Dioxins and food safety].

    PubMed

    Struciński, Paweł; Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Jadwiga; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Warenik-Bany, Małgorzata; Maszewski, Sebastian; Czaja, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Among numerous potential chemical food contaminants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, collectively referred as dioxins, are commonly considered as bearing substantial risk for human health due to their toxicological properties, persistency and ability to bioaccumulate in food chains. The results of epidemiological studies suggest that environmental exposure to these compounds may affect multiple physiological processes in humans, mainly by the mechanism of endocrine disruption. Adverse health effects linked to the long-term exposure to dioxins include the increase of cancer risk, reproductive and developmental impairment as well as effects on immune functions. Exposure through food (mainly of animal origin) is the major source of dioxin exposure for humans, estimated to account for about 95% of the total intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. Recent studies showed that a consistent part of the European population has an intake exceeding internationally agreed "safe" doses as the Tolerable Daily or Weekly Intake (TDI, TWI). It is worthy to note that percentage of persons with estimated dioxin intake above tolerable limits is much higher among children than in adults. Since the "Belgian dioxin crisis" that occurred in 1999, the estimation of human exposure to these compounds and related consumer risk assessment has been recognized in the European Union as one of the priority activities in the field of food safety. Among activities undertaken by the European Commission during implementation of the Community Strategy for dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls the maximum and action levels have been established with random monitoring by Member States. The legislation on the requirements for sampling and methods of analysis used in the official control laboratories has been set up as well. Member States are obliged to measure background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in defined food

  15. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU.

  16. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reportable Food Registry Report an Emergency Report Suspected Criminal Activity For Industry: Drugs and Therapeutic Biologics News & ... FDA Organization FDA Basics Advisory Committees International Programs Criminal Investigations Emergency Preparedness & Response Working at FDA Training/ ...

  17. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  18. [Nanotechnology and food safety].

    PubMed

    Baltes, Muriel H

    2008-03-01

    Nanotechnology has a very broad scope with numerous opportunities. This is particularly true as far as the food sector is concerned. In addition to being used to enhance the safety and attractiveness of foodstuffs as well as their health value, nanotechnology can be imple mented to increase their shelf life and to create new flavours. The appearance of this new technology and its use raise the question of the risks involved in exposing the body to nanoparticles. In this report, the Superior Health Council discusses the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. It also looks at the evaluation of these risks as well as the recommendations that need to be made whilst awaiting in-depth studies on the subject, especially in the field of metrology.

  19. Food Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clostridium Perfringens (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Games Food Detectives: Fight Bac (Partnership for Food Safety Education) Also in Spanish Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) ...

  20. Evolution of the Food and Drug Administration approach to liver safety assessment for new drugs: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Senior, John R

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by approval in 1997 of troglitazone and bromfenac, two drugs that promptly began to show serious and sometimes fatal liver toxicity, we began at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a series of annual conferences in 1999 to consider issues of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). First inviting reviewers of new drug applications we opened the audiences in 2001 to pharmaceutical industry and academic consultants to industry and FDA, and slides shown at the meetings were posted on the internet to be available at the website of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)-go to ( http://www.aasld.org/dili/Pages/default.aspx ). Observations by Dr. Hyman J. Zimmerman that "drug-induced hepatocellular jaundice is a serious lesion" with possible mortality formed a basis for developing a computer program to plot peak serum values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TBL) in an x-y log-log graph for all subjects enrolled in clinical trials. This program had the capability to show the time course of all liver tests for individuals who had both hepatocellular injury and reduced whole liver function, plus clinical narratives to diagnose the severity and most likely cause of the abnormalities. We called the program eDISH (for evaluation of Drug-Induced Serious Hepatotoxicity), and began in 2004 to use it to assess DILI in clinical trial subjects. From 2008, comments made by the presenters at the conferences about their slides and ensuing discussions have been added to the website. All this has raised awareness of the problem, and since 1997, the FDA has not had to withdraw a single drug because of post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Many issues still remain to be resolved; among the most controversial is the best method to estimate likelihood that a given liver injury was actually caused by the drug in question. On November 9, 2012, a workshop was convened to discuss the best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury

  1. Introduction to Preharvest Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Torrence, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies. Examples include Escherichia coli and cattle, Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry, and interventions and prevention and control programs. The section on "nontraditional" preharvest food safety areas brings attention to potential emerging food safety issues and to future food safety research directions. These include organic production, the FDA's Produce Rule (water and manure), genomic sequencing, antimicrobial resistance, and performance metrics. The concluding section emphasizes important themes such as strategic planning, coordination, epidemiology, and the need for understanding food safety production as a continuum. Food safety research, whether at the pre- or postharvest level, will continue to be a fascinating complex web of foodborne pathogens, risk factors, and scientific and policy interactions. Food safety priorities and research must continue to evolve with emerging global issues, emerging technologies, and methods but remain grounded in a multidisciplinary, collaborative, and systematic approach.

  2. Economic Issues on Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Felice; Di Pasquale, Jorgelina; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-18

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  3. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  4. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

  5. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  6. Food safety: revising the statute.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A

    1984-03-09

    There is increasing recognition that federal food safety laws and policies need to be revised. Congressional debate on proposed amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has generated several different perspectives on how the food safety laws should be changed. Before a consensus can be reached, scientists, regulators, the food industry, and consumers will have to review such complex and controversial issues as the level of acceptable risk, the value of risk-benefit analysis, the proper role of independent scientific review, and the reliability of quantitative risk assessment.

  7. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  8. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  9. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... consumption under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety and... (HFS-009), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... Compliance (HFS-607), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  10. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  11. Food safety training for nutritionists.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. S.; Cox, L. J.; Gross, R.; Käferstein, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. PMID:10083718

  12. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

  13. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... thousands of callers to the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline aren't sure about the safety of ... mayonnaise, cream sauce and lettuce. Raw meat and poultry maintain their quality longer than their cooked counterparts ...

  14. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... refrigerated. A large cut of meat or whole poultry should be divided into smaller pieces or placed ... safe for storage of any food. Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be in a sealed container ...

  15. 78 FR 37228 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Western Center for Food Safety (WCFS). FDA regards the continued support of WCFS as crucial to...

  16. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  17. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety Tips for College Students Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  18. US Food and Drug Administration-mandated trials of long-acting β-agonists safety in asthma: will we know the answer?

    PubMed

    Suissa, Samy; Ariel, Amnon

    2013-05-01

    For 2 decades, long-acting β-agonists (LABAs) have been associated with increased asthma-related death risks in several randomized trials, even when added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). In reaction, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated that the manufacturers of LABAs conduct five large, noninferiority, randomized trials of the LABA+ICS combination in 53,000 patients with asthma. Three methodologic issues in these trials could lead to masking of or falsely detecting elevated risks. First, the effect of LABA discontinuation among the many patients already using these drugs at enrollment can result in an underestimation of the relative risk by a factor of around 20%. This effect will bias downward the upper bound of the resulting CI away from the preset noninferiority margin of 2.0 for the relative risk, artificially making it more difficult to detect a risk increase. Second, the composite asthma outcome will be dominated by asthma hospitalization, possibly dwarfing an increased risk of asthma-related death, with differences as wide as seven deaths under the LABA+ICS combination vs one death under ICS alone remaining statistically uncertain. Finally, because of the multiple identical trials being requested from the different manufacturers of LABAs, even if each trial is powered at 90%, there is a 41% likelihood that at least one of the trials will not rule out a risk increase when, in truth, there is no risk increase. In view of these impediments, the FDA should preempt such complexities by establishing decision rules regarding the interpretation of the results from these momentous safety trials before their completion, expected in 2017.

  19. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed.

  20. Risk control and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms of the Joint Panel on Toxic Microorganisms, US-Japan Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources (UJNR), was held March 4-9, 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. Having the theme "Risk Control and Food Safety," it was the most re...

  1. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laws & Regulations Information For Parents & Caregivers Importing a Vehicle Vehicle Manufacturers Distracted Driving Kills You’ve got one ... driving safely. Safe cars save lives. Check your vehicle safety. Also find safety information on car seats ...

  3. 78 FR 35937 - Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... revised and is being reissued for comment because the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Investigations; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

  4. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  5. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  7. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  8. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  9. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS.

  10. Food safety considerations for innovative nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cohn, Marjorie Nolan; Farber, Jeffrey M; Harris, Linda J; Roberts, Tanya; Salin, Victoria; Singh, Manpreet; Jaferi, Azra; Sperber, William H

    2015-07-01

    Failure to secure safe and affordable food to the growing global population leads far too often to disastrous consequences. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. It is an open question whether future food safety concerns will shift in priority given the imperatives to supply sufficient food. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition.

  11. Food Safety: Is Your Kitchen Clean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jastrow, Susie; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes the safety of the U.S. food supply, discusses the causes of food-borne illness, and provides a food-safety checklist for child-care centers that covers safe food shopping, storage, preparation, serving, and clean-up. (KB)

  12. Microbial food safety - modeling and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety is a key issue for the food processing industry, and enhancing food safety is everyone’s responsibility from food producers to consumers. Financial losses to the economy due to foodborne illness are in the billions of dollars, annually. Foodborne illness can be caused by patho...

  13. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  14. Ethnic-food safety concerns: an online survey of food safety professionals.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Whitney A; Kaneene, John B; DeArman, Vanessa T; Roberts, Cynthia A; Miller, Roseann; Pong, Lawrence; Dickey, Thomas E

    2006-06-01

    As ethnic foods become increasingly available in food establishments across the United States, food safety professionals are increasingly required to evaluate the safety of foods unfamiliar to them. The purpose of the study reported here was to conduct an online survey of food safety professionals that would 1) identify the types of ethnic foods with which food safety professionals were unfamiliar and for which they lacked adequate food safety information, 2) describe ethnic-food safety concerns related to food establishments, and 3) describe the ethnic-food resources currently used by food safety professionals. The study found that food safety professionals throughout the United States encountered a variety of ethnic-food establishments and ethnic foods for which they lacked ethnic-food safety resources, especially at the local level. Therefore, it will be important to identify unsafe food-handling practices in ethnic-food establishments, develop science-based guidelines for ethnic-food safety inspections, and distribute culturally appropriate educational materials for ethnic-food safety inspections.

  15. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    PubMed

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods-a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  16. 77 FR 26287 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, JIFSAN (U01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds...

  17. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  18. 76 FR 45820 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  19. Relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of omecamtiv mecarbil following administration of different modified-release formulations in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Palaparthy, Rameshraja; Banfield, Christopher; Alvarez, Paco; Yan, Lucy; Smith, Brian; Johnson, Jessica; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Malik, Fady

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel small molecule that directly activates cardiac myosin and increases cardiac contractility without increasing cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of several modified-release (MR) formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. Methods: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover, incomplete block-design study evaluating 5 MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil vs. an immediate-release (IR) formulation. Materials: Healthy subjects were randomized to 1 of 30 possible sequences: within each sequence, subjects were assigned to receive a single 25-mg dose of 2 of the 6 possible formulations in the fasting and/or fed states. Results: 65 subjects were screened and enrolled; 5 were replacement subjects. Pharmacokinetic and safety data were analyzed from 62 and 63 subjects in the fasting and fed states, respectively. Compared with the IR formulation, median tmax was longer (0.5 vs. 2 – 10 hours), and mean Cmax was lower for all 5 MR formulations (262 vs. 34 – 78 ng/mL); t1/2,z was similar (18 – 21 hours). The relative bioavailability was high (> 75%) for three MR formulations but lower (< 65%) for the other two. Overall, the effect of food on omecamtiv mecarbil pharmacokinetics was minimal for four of the MR formulations. The pharmacokinetics of the inactive metabolites M3 and M4 were similar across all formulations. Conclusions: The relative bioavailability of omecamtiv mecarbil was high (> 75%) for 3 of the five MR formulations. Food had a marginal, nonclinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of the MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. PMID:26709596

  20. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  1. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  2. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:28367259

  3. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  4. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  5. 75 FR 21632 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Total Product Life Cycle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... safety and effectiveness of these devices. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at...

  6. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  7. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  8. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  9. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  10. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  11. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  12. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  13. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  14. Study Finds Consumer Food Safety Knowledge Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Sandria; Coppings, Richard; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Pearson, Lou

    2005-01-01

    Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…

  15. A Dividend in Food Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When NASA faced the problem of how and what to feed an astronaut in a sealed capsule under weightless conditions while planning for manned space mission, they enlisted the aid of The Pillsbury Company. There were two principal concerns: barring crumbs of food that might contaminate the spacecraft's atmosphere or float their way into sensitive instruments; and assuring absolute freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria and toxins. Pillsbury quickly solved the first concern, but the other part of the problem was not as easy. They found that with using standard methods, there was no way to be assured there would not be any bacteria. It was concluded that the only way to succeed was to establish control over the entire process, the raw materials, the processing environment and the people involved. Pillsbury developed the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. The HACCP is designed to prevent food safety problems rather than to catch them after they have occurred. Three other government agencies are taking preliminary steps toward extending HACCP to meat/poultry and seafood inspection operations. Today, Pillsbury plants are still operating under HACCP.

  16. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  17. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  18. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.

  19. 76 FR 82311 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Food and Drug Administration Report on Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... and Drug Administration Report on Good Guidance Practices: Improving Efficiency and Transparency... announcing the availability of a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Report on Good Guidance... Office of the Commissioner prepared a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Report on...

  20. Food Safety Education Using Music Parodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.; Fraser, Angela M.; Gleason, Jeanne B.; Hovey, Susan K.; McCurdy, Sandra M.; Snider, O. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Musical parodies of contemporary songs with their lyrics altered to address current food safety issues were incorporated into a variety of food safety educational programs and the effectiveness of the music was evaluated by semiquantitative and qualitative measures. Audiences receiving the music-enriched curricula included school foodservice…

  1. 76 FR 45332 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is...

  2. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  3. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-08

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain.

  4. Nanotechnology: its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Dingman, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in the food safety industry is here-and if projections are correct, it will continue to grow rapidly over the next few years. Its potential for providing safer and more nutritious foods is important; however, there are still many uncertainties about the technology and its applications. We must make sure that the technology is safe and properly regulated to ensure maximum food safety and personal health protection.

  5. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  6. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  7. Evaluation of food safety education for consumers.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L; Hillers, V; Kendall, P; Mason, A

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, nutrition educators have used a fairly global approach to teach food safety by teaching a broad range of safe food handling behaviors in the expectation that this will lead to the avoidance of foodborne illness. This approach can be confusing and lead to evaluation data that are difficult to interpret. This article suggests that food safety education and evaluation in the future be organized around five behavioral constructs: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid food from unsafe sources. These five constructs are derived from data on actual outbreaks and estimated incidences of foodborne illness. Research is needed to establish reliable and valid evaluation measures for these five behavioral constructs. Evaluation instruments can be tailored to fit specific education programs. If evaluation instruments focus on these five behavior areas, the result will be meaningful evaluation data that can be more easily summarized across food safety education programs for consumers.

  8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0575 N5-95-1 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support...SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. Sp-5 Safety and Health Final Report Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee Task No

  9. 75 FR 22599 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and Industry Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  10. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the types of food drying? Why is temperature important when drying meat and poultry jerky? Why ... first? Is jerky safe when stored at room temperature? How is salt used to make food shelf ...

  11. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    PubMed

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  12. Food and Drug Administration regulation and evaluation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie; Baylor, Norman W

    2011-05-01

    The vaccine-approval process in the United States is regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the US Food and Drug Administration. Throughout the life cycle of development, from preclinical studies to after licensure, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight. Manufacturers must adhere to good manufacturing practices and control procedures to ensure the quality of vaccines. As mandated by Title 21 of the Code of Regulations, licensed vaccines must meet stringent criteria for safety, efficacy, and potency.

  13. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match ...

  14. [State surveillance and control of food quality and safety in USA].

    PubMed

    Berman, V A

    2003-01-01

    The article is dealt with organization of agencies of U.S. federal government responsible for control of food safety and quality. An organizational chart of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Department of Health and Human services is shown in great details. The U.S. federal legislation on food safety and quality is also described. Legal terms and definitions set by Federal Food, Drug and Safety Act for food safety and quality as well as basis requirements set in U.S.A. for food operation facilities are also discussed.

  15. Future challenges to microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Brul, Stanley; de Jong, Aarieke; de Jonge, Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2010-05-30

    Despite significant efforts by all parties involved, there is still a considerable burden of foodborne illness, in which micro-organisms play a prominent role. Microbes can enter the food chain at different steps, are highly versatile and can adapt to the environment allowing survival, growth and production of toxic compounds. This sets them apart from chemical agents and thus their study from food toxicology. We summarize the discussions of a conference organized by the Dutch Food and Consumer Products Safety Authority and the European Food Safety Authority. The goal of the conference was to discuss new challenges to food safety that are caused by micro-organisms as well as strategies and methodologies to counter these. Management of food safety is based on generally accepted principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points and of Good Manufacturing Practices. However, a more pro-active, science-based approach is required, starting with the ability to predict where problems might arise by applying the risk analysis framework. Developments that may influence food safety in the future occur on different scales (from global to molecular) and in different time frames (from decades to less than a minute). This necessitates development of new risk assessment approaches, taking the impact of different drivers of change into account. We provide an overview of drivers that may affect food safety and their potential impact on foodborne pathogens and human disease risks. We conclude that many drivers may result in increased food safety risks, requiring active governmental policy setting and anticipation by food industries whereas other drivers may decrease food safety risks. Monitoring of contamination in the food chain, combined with surveillance of human illness and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks and sporadic cases continue to be important sources of information. New approaches in human illness surveillance include the use of molecular markers for

  16. Food safety objectives for Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish food sampled in cafeterias and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Doménech, E; Amorós, J A; Escriche, I

    2011-09-01

    To gain more insight into the context of food safety management by public administrations, food safety objectives must be studied. The Valencian administration quantified the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in cafeterias and restaurants in this region of Spain between 2002 and 2010. The results obtained from this survey are presented here for 2,262 samples of fish, salad, egg, cold meat, and mayonnaise dishes. Microbiological criteria defined for L. monocytogenes were used to differentiate acceptable and unacceptable samples; more than 99.9% of the samples were acceptable. These findings indicate that established food safety objectives are achievable, consumer health at the time of consumption can be safeguarded, and food safety management systems such as hazard analysis critical control point plans or good manufacturing practices implemented in food establishments are effective. Monitoring of foods and food safety is an important task that must continue to reduce the current L. monocytogenes prevalence of 0.1% in restaurant or cafeteria dishes, which could adversely affect consumer health.

  17. Big data in food safety; an overview.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Hans J P; Janssen, Esmée M; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Staats, Martijn

    2016-11-07

    Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects. This policy opens new opportunities for stakeholders dealing with food safety to address issues which were not possible before. Application of mobile phones as detection devices for food safety and the use of social media as early warning of food safety problems are a few examples of the new developments that are possible due to big data.

  18. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you are out on the water, the direct sunlight can be an even bigger food safety ... can become dangerous after only 1 hour. In direct sunlight, temperatures can climb even higher than that. ...

  19. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  20. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices.

  1. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  2. College Students and Awareness of Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald; Forsythe, William A., III

    2007-01-01

    Microbial foodborne illnesses are a public health problem in the United States. Americans are patronizing restaurants three or more times a week and college students are frequently employed in food service; therefore, this study assessed compliance with and awareness of food safety recommendations among 460 college students. Compliance was…

  3. 78 FR 24309 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications Delayed... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  4. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  5. Pet food safety: a shared concern.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large-scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade, this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  6. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  7. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... lettuce. previous continue Preparing and Cooking Raw Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Egg Products Wash your hands with ... before preparing foods and after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, or egg products. Keep raw meats and ...

  8. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk from clones of cattle, swine (pigs), and goats, and the offspring of clones from any species ... composition of food products from cattle, swine, and goat clones, or the offspring of any animal clones, ...

  9. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a guide for retailers. Although many products bear "Sell-By" dates, product dating is not a ... law requiring that package labels of certain foods bear the names of the country or countries where ...

  10. Food Safety for Transplant Recipients

    MedlinePlus

    ... available, wrap it securely, label it to say “DANGER,” and freeze it. • The remaining food may be ... illness and in preventing others from becoming ill. DANGER 3. Save all the packaging materials, such as ...

  11. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... foodborne illnesses from bacteria such as E. coli , Salmonella , Campylobacter , and Listeria (which can cause diarrhea, fever, ... than 2 hours to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection. Thoroughly cook eggs. Never serve foods that ...

  12. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F; Abdussalam, M

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  13. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  14. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs.

  15. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107... Administration manuals. (a) Food and Drug Administration administrative staff manuals and instructions that affect a member of the public are available for public disclosure. An index of all such manuals...

  17. Genetic technologies. Bioengineered food--safety and labeling.

    PubMed

    Goldman, K A

    2000-10-20

    The safety and labeling of genetically engineered foods are two areas that have elicited considerable public concern and debate. This Policy Forum provides a legal analysis of these issues in the context of two bills that have been recently proposed in The U.S. Congress, the Genetically Engineered Food Safety Act and the Genetically Engineered Food Right to Know Act. Most transgenic components of foods currently on the market are plant-incorporated protectants or their inert ingredients. Therefore, they have been evaluated for safety by the Environmental Protection Agency (as well as the Food and Drug Administration), and their disclosure in labeling should not be required. If plant-incorporated protectants are considered safer than chemical pesticides, and chemical pesticides do not have to be disclosed in labels, then bioengineered foods should not be subject to stricter regulation, nor should they be required to be labeled. The two bills are inconsistent, in many respects, with well-established principles of food regulation.

  18. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  1. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  2. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product—the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers’ training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  3. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  5. Food safety--who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2006-01-01

    Though scientists believe that issues of risk can be handled without appeal to values in general or ethics in particular, this is demonstrably false. The very notion of risk is enmeshed in a complex of social ethics. This is clearly true with regard to food safety. With this in mind, it is plausible to affirm that responsibility for food safety at a given point in the chain from producer to consumer rests with the person or entity under whose control the management of that risk most plausibly lies. This principle is illustrated with various examples and with clear cases of industry shouldering and avoiding responsibility. An additional ethical concern relevant to food safety arises from genetically modified foods. Given that the situation here is uncertain and risk unknown, it is hard to see who is responsible for managing such risks. It is arguable that this situation militates in favor of labeling, since consumers are in effect research subjects. The reasonable moral approach to risk we have outlined is jeopardized by the societal tendency towards "victimology" and abrogation of personal responsibility. In such a world, it is incumbent on industry to educate the public with regard to consumer minimization of food safety risks, the impossibility of zero-risk situations, and the economic costs to freedom of protectionism.

  6. Bioluminescence lights the way to food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-07-01

    The food industry is increasingly adopting food safety and quality management systems that are more proactive and preventive than those used in the past which have tended to rely on end product testing and visual inspection. The regulatory agencies in many countries are promoting one such management tool, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), as a way to achieve a safer food supply and as a basis for harmonization of trading standards. Verification that the process is safe must involve microbiological testing but the results need not be generated in real-time. Of all the rapid microbiological tests currently available, the only ones that come close to offering real-time results are bioluminescence-based methods. Recent developments in application of bioluminescence for food safety issues are presented in the paper. These include the use of genetically engineered microorganisms with bioluminescent and fluorescent phenotypes as a real time indicator of physiological state and survival of food-borne pathogens in food and food processing environments as well as novel bioluminescent-based methods for rapid detection of pathogens in food and environmental samples. Advantages and pitfalls of the methods are discussed.

  7. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  8. South Carolina Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Administrator and Instructor Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This administrator and instructor section of a South Carolina industrial arts safety guide includes sections on responsibility for school safety, safety programming for the teacher, emergency action, suggested forms and outlines, and facility design and layout. School board and superintendent, administrator, and teacher responsibilities for school…

  9. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  10. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  11. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  12. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When students pack up for college, they take along the basics-- TV, laptop, MP3 player, and cell phone. Many students will arrive at school with a microwave oven, tabletop grill, mini fridge, and toaster oven in tow. Most students, however, don't know there are food safety considerations when cooking with these appliances. The USDA Meat and…

  13. Modeling and applications in microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is a scientific and systematic approach to study and describe the recurrent events or phenomena with successful application track for decades. When models are properly developed and validated, their applications may save costs and time. For the microbial food safety concerns, ...

  14. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  15. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  16. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined.

  17. Food safety. Federal inspection programs. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Concern about the safety of the US food supply has stimulated criticism of the present system for assuring safe food in American markets. This report was prepared in response to resolutions introduced at the American Medical Association House of Delegates' December 1990 Interim Meeting. The resolutions requested the AMA to study the plans and procedures needed to improve the federal inspection of meat, poultry, and shellfish. To put these issues into perspective, an overview of food safety is presented. This report is not intended, however, to be a broad review of the Food and Drug Administration's and the US Department of Agriculture's responsibilities for food safety.

  18. 77 FR 41418 - Statement of Cooperation Between the Food and Drug Administration and the Secretaria of Health of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Statement of Cooperation Between the Food and Drug Administration and the Secretaria of Health of the United Mexican States: Safety and Sanitary Quality of Fresh and Frozen Molluscan Shellfish Exported From Mexico to the United States AGENCY: Food and...

  19. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  20. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  1. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  2. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  3. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  4. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  5. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  6. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... remove Subpart C--General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation and Subpart F--Food... quality of the human environment, health, or safety. Therefore, neither an Environmental Assessment nor...

  7. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor.

  8. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  9. Bacteriophages and Their Role in Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sillankorva, Sanna M.; Oliveira, Hugo; Azeredo, Joana

    2012-01-01

    The interest for natural antimicrobial compounds has increased due to alterations in consumer positions towards the use of chemical preservatives in foodstuff and food processing surfaces. Bacteriophages fit in the class of natural antimicrobial and their effectiveness in controlling bacterial pathogens in agro-food industry has led to the development of different phage products already approved by USFDA and USDA. The majority of these products are to be used in farm animals or animal products such as carcasses, meats and also in agricultural and horticultural products. Treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases and ultimately promote safe environments in animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. This is an overview of recent work carried out with phages as tools to promote food safety, starting with a general introduction describing the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and bacteriophages and a more detailed discussion on the use of phage therapy to prevent and treat experimentally induced infections of animals against the most common foodborne pathogens, the use of phages as biocontrol agents in foods, and also their use as biosanitizers of food contact surfaces. PMID:23316235

  10. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration's Response.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Valerie; Throckmorton, Douglas C

    2015-08-07

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential.

  11. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  12. Systematic Approach to Food Safety Education on the Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Food safety education from farm to end user is essential in the mitigation of food safety concerns associated with fresh produce. Iowa State University developed a multi-disciplinary three-level sequential program ("Know," "Show," "Go") to provide a holistic approach to food safety education. This program provides…

  13. Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge.

  14. Quantitative microbiology: a basis for food safety.

    PubMed Central

    McMeekin, T. A.; Brown, J.; Krist, K.; Miles, D.; Neumeyer, K.; Nichols, D. S.; Olley, J.; Presser, K.; Ratkowsky, D. A.; Ross, T.; Salter, M.; Soontranon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because microorganisms are easily dispersed, display physiologic diversity, and tolerate extreme conditions, they are ubiquitous and may contaminate and grow in many food products. The behavior of microbial populations in foods (growth, survival, or death) is determined by the properties of the food (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and atmosphere). The effect of these properties can be predicted by mathematical models derived from quantitative studies on microbial populations. Temperature abuse is a major factor contributing to foodborne disease; monitoring temperature history during food processing, distribution, and storage is a simple, effective means to reduce the incidence of food poisoning. Interpretation of temperature profiles by computer programs based on predictive models allows informed decisions on the shelf life and safety of foods. In- or on-package temperature indicators require further development to accurately predict microbial behavior. We suggest a basis for a "universal" temperature indicator. This article emphasizes the need to combine kinetic and probability approaches to modeling and suggests a method to define the bacterial growth/no growth interface. Advances in controlling foodborne pathogens depend on understanding the pathogens' physiologic responses to growth constraints, including constraints conferring increased survival capacity. PMID:9366608

  15. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials – such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:25763176

  16. Safety of nanotechnology in food industries.

    PubMed

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it's farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials - such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns.

  17. Restaurant inspection frequency and food safety compliance.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie; Hart, Robert; Hall, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Although food premises are regularly inspected, little information is available on the effect of inspections on compliance records, particularly with respect to the impact of the frequency of inspection on compliance. The following presents the outcome of a study designed to assess the impact of increased inspection frequency on compliance measures in Hamilton, Ontario, in the absence of any other changes to food handler/safety programs or legislation. High-risk food inspection premises were randomly assigned three, four, or five inspections per year. Results indicate that no statistical difference existed in outcome measures based on frequency of inspection. When premises were grouped based on the average time between inspections, premises with greater time between inspections scored better compliance measures relative to premises that were inspected more frequently. The study was also unique for the level of consultation and collaboration sought from the public health inspectors (PHIs) assigned to the Food Safety Program. Their knowledge and experience with respect to the critical variables associated with compliance were a complementary component to the literature review conducted by the research team.

  18. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... shopping cart, bags, and fridge. • Do not reuse marinades used on raw foods unless you bring them ... the fridge - Under cold water - In the microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety ...

  19. A Legislative Reform for the Food Safety System of China: A Regulatory Paradigm Shift and Collaborative Governance.

    PubMed

    Han, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    After describing the historical development of China's food safety system from the perspectives of legislation and administration, this article discusses progress in its food law (The Draft Amendments to Food Safety Law). As a further legislative reform for China's food safety system, the Draft Amendments to the Food Safety Law contain innovative institutional designs and manifest a regulatory paradigm shift from government-centered governance to collaborative governance. However, the Draft Amendments face challenges in their implementation. This article argues that developing collaborative governance for food safety in China can be a solution to these challenges. Based on theoretical and empirical studies of collaborative governance, this article proposes that the institutional design of collaborative governance should focus on providing obligations for administrative agencies in the process of food safety rule-making and standard-setting, increasing the independence of nongovernmental organizations, and building two-way electronic platforms for public participation.

  20. 75 FR 14448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practices; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Los...

  1. 77 FR 49448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Baltimore District Office,...

  2. 77 FR 10537 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in cosponsorship with...

  3. 77 FR 20826 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This... Section 513(g) Requests for Information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' to the...

  4. [Assuring food safety and nutritional quality].

    PubMed

    E, Alonzo; V, Pontieri; V, Cannizzaro; R, La Carrubba; P, Pisana; M, Raiti; M, Fardella

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition needs increasingly integration between Food Safety and Nutritional Prevention, duties, in Italy, since I 998 the Food Hygiene and Nutrition services (SIAN) do. Furthermore, working in Evidence Based Prevention (EBP) is necessary to improve the prevention and make it more useful to people health, so it must be used tested efficacy methods, above all in a unsuitable economic and human sources contest. In order to improve the prevention and working in EBP, SIAN have devised and achieved some Nutritional Prevention Projects, interregional, regional and local wide net-working, by using process and efficacy indicators, in some projects also user's satisfaction indicators are used. Project's results will be used to work in EBP ever more in order to improve the prevention and make it repeatable and sustainable to prevent the gradual and constant increase of chronic-degenerative diseases an consequently health costs.

  5. [Scientific policy advice on food safety provided by the Senate Commission on Food Safety].

    PubMed

    Guth, S; Habermeyer, M; Kochte-Clemens, B; Eisenbrand, G

    2010-06-01

    The Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM, Senatskommission zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Lebensmitteln) of the German Research Foundation (DFG, Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft) is a transdisciplinary expert committee, providing advice on food safety to the government, parliament, and authorities. Consultation is based on a scientific assessment with the aim to give expert advice to authorities, so that they can make appropriate decisions. The SKLM is independent in its scientific deliberations and under no directive in the selection of issues to work on. Topics considered may result from requests of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Consumer Protection (BMELV, Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz). Other issues may be raised by the SKLM, if they are regarded to be of particular importance for consumer health protection. Issues encompass the scientific assessment of safety and nutritional benefit of food ingredients and additives, of novel and functional food, as well as of novel food technologies. The SKLM identifies gaps in knowledge, research needs, and need for action.

  6. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  7. Food Safety and Quality. Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Concerned about the effectiveness of the federal food safety inspection system, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House...federal resources for inspection, and (3) agencies are effectively coordinating their food safety and quality inspection efforts.

  8. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... and help FDA/CFSAN ] promote effective city and county regulatory programs responsible for retail food... establishments, or supermarkets, grocery stores, and other food outlets regulated by almost 3,000 States,...

  9. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  10. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  11. Optical sensing technologies for rapid food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concerns for food safety and foodborne illness have risen in recent years. There is a need to expand efforts to prevent and mitigate any food contamination that can potentially be harmful to human health. Researchers at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one...

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  13. 77 FR 22358 - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preparations for the 23rd Session of the UN Sub-Committee of... Stakeholder Input for the Regulatory Coordination Council (RCC) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... classification of chemicals according to their health, physical, and environmental effects. It also...

  14. Casting a global safety net--a framework for food safety in the age of globalization.

    PubMed

    Chyau, James

    2009-01-01

    In mid-March 2007, Ontario-based Menu Foods Inc. started recalling its "cuts and gravy" style pet food, after receiving information that pets that had eaten the product had fallen ill. Within a week, the company was inundated with complaints and expressions of concern from about 200,000 of its customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined in late March 2007 that the most likely culprit in the illness, and in some cases death of the pet animals, was contaminated wheat gluten, a vegetable protein imported from China. One of the FDA identified contaminants was an industrial chemical called melamine. Reports of widespread adulteration of animal feed with melamine in China raised concern of similar contamination in the human food supply. In response, on April 27, 2007, FDA announced the detention of all vegetable proteins imported from China, whether for animal or for human consumption. But, FDA's action came too late. On May 1, 2007, officials from FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicated that between 2.5 to 3 million people in the United States had consumed chickens that had been fed with contaminated vegetable proteins imported from China. The 2007 pet food recall incident provided an ominous early warning that, unless the international community can come up with a better food safety mechanism, more such food contamination disasters could happen in the future.

  15. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  16. The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A I; Hathaway, S C

    2006-08-01

    Both national Veterinary Services and international standard-setting organisations have now embraced risk assessment as an essential tool for achieving their goals. Veterinarians have key roles in all aspects of the control of food-borne hazards of animal origin, but additional specialist skills are necessary for assessing, managing and communicating risk. Further, the deployment of Veterinary Services must reflect the multi-functional aspects of public and animal health activities. A generic risk management framework provides a systematic process whereby food safety standards and other measures are chosen and implemented on the basis of knowledge of risk and evaluation of other factors relevant to protecting human health and promoting non-discriminatory trade practices. In this context, a number of countries are exploring new administrative and structural arrangements for competent authorities. The traditional focus of veterinary involvement in food safety has been in meat hygiene at the level of the slaughterhouse. While this role continues, the emerging 'risk-based' approach to food control requires increased involvement in other segments of the meat food chain, as well as other areas such as production of milk and fish. This more extensive role requires a wider skill base and establishment of effective networks with a different range of stakeholders.

  17. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  18. Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  19. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative... announcing the availability of a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative... Transparency Initiative. This report includes eight initiatives adopted by the Commissioner of Food and...

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Bonnie L; Perkin, Judy E

    2003-09-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among dietetics professionals, academics, representatives of the agriculture and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technologic innovation and applications, and supporting further research. Numerous bacterial, viral, and chemical food and water threats exist with certain populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, those in institutionalized settings, and the immune compromised being at high risk. Recent outbreaks of food and waterborne disease and threats of bioterrorism have focused attention on the safety of US food and water systems. The US government and other entities have developed programs to address challenges associated with maintaining food and water safety. Safety initiatives such as the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Point (HACCP), revisions to the Food Code, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations provide a framework to evaluate current and future challenges to the safety of food and water systems. Dietetics professionals should take a proactive role in ensuring that appropriate food and water safety practices are followed and can also assume major roles in food and water safety education and research.

  1. Ensuring and promoting food safety during the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    PubMed

    Moy, Gerald G; Han, Fanfan; Chen, Junshi

    2010-08-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Chinese authorities undertook a range of measures to strengthen food safety along the entire food supply continuum from production to consumption to protect the large number of athletes and spectators anticipated. In addition, food safety promotion campaigns targeting Olympic visitors as well as Beijing residents were carried out. Based on an assessment of various indicators, these efforts were successful in reducing the risk of foodborne disease during the Beijing Olympics and promoting safer food for Beijing residents. The food safety experiences of the 2008 Beijing Olympics might be usefully applied to major sporting events and mass gatherings in the future.

  2. Strategies to evaluate the safety of bioengineered foods.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    A number of genetically modified (GM) crops bioengineered to express agronomic traits including herbicide resistance and insect tolerance have been commercialized. Safety studies conducted for the whole grains and food and feed fractions obtained from GM crops (i.e., bioengineered foods) bear similarities to and distinctive differences from those applied to substances intentionally added to foods (e.g., food ingredients). Similarities are apparent in common animal models, route of exposure, duration, and response variables typically assessed in toxicology studies. However, because of differences in the nutritional and physical properties of food ingredients and bioengineered foods and in the fundamental goals of the overall safety assessment strategies for these different classes of substances, there are recognizable differences in the individual components of the safety assessment process. The fundamental strategic difference is that the process for food ingredients is structured toward quantitative risk assessment whereas that for bioengineered foods is structured for the purpose of qualitative risk assessment. The strategy for safety assessment of bioengineered foods focuses on evaluating the safety of the transgenic proteins used to impart the desired trait or traits and to demonstrate compositional similarity between the grains of GM and non-GM comparator crops using analytical chemistry and, in some cases, feeding studies. Despite these differences, the similarities in the design of safety studies conducted with bioengineered foods should be recognized by toxicologists. The current paper reviews the basic principles of safety assessment for bioengineered foods and compares them with the testing strategies applied to typical food ingredients. From this comparison it can be seen that the strategies used to assess the safety of bioengineered foods are at least as robust as that used to assess the safety of typical food ingredients.

  3. Food safety: current situation, unaddressed issues and the emerging priorities.

    PubMed

    Elmi, M

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of food safety with reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The differing views of food safety and the current situation with regard to ensuring food safety are presented. Also discussed are some of the unaddressed issues and challenges related to food safety. The new conditions that have arisen in the modern world which have facilitated the emergence of pathogens are presented, such as changes in animal husbandry, changes in international trade and travel, lifestyle and consumer changes. The urgent need for action in order to reduce the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases is emphasized. The food chain starts from farm and ends at fork; controlling this complex process requires an integrated approach and a responsible authority to oversee it in order to protect and promote food safety.

  4. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... learned through equivalence determinations. In addition, there will be a separate discussion of FDA's... President's Food Safety Working Group (FSWG) has recommended that food regulators shift towards prioritizing... comparability determination? Lessons Learned Through Equivalence The Agency recognizes that...

  5. Food safety in home kitchens: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-09-02

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

  6. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  7. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits.

  8. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  9. 78 FR 48691 - Food and Drug Administration Patient Network Annual Meeting; Demystifying Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...; Demystifying Food and Drug Administration: An Exploration of Drug Development Hosted by the Food and Drug... registration fee for this conference. Early registration is suggested because space is limited. The...

  10. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.

  11. The Food and Drug Administration and pragmatic clinical trials of marketed medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique L; Griffin, Joseph; Goldkind, Sara F; Zeitler, Emily P; Wing, Liz; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sherman, Rachel E

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials can help answer questions of comparative effectiveness for interventions routinely used in medical practice. Pragmatic clinical trials may examine outcomes of one or more marketed medical products, and they are heterogeneous in design and risk. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with protecting the rights, safety, and welfare of individuals enrolled in clinical investigations, as well as assuring the integrity of the data upon which approval of medical products is made. The Food and Drug Administration has broad jurisdiction over drugs and medical devices (whether or not they are approved for marketing), and as such, clinical investigations of these products are subject to applicable Food and Drug Administration regulations. While many pragmatic clinical trials will meet the criteria for an exemption from the requirements for an investigational new drug application or investigational device exemption, in general, all clinical investigations of medical products that fall under Food and Drug Administration jurisdiction must adhere to regulations for informed consent and review by an institutional review board. We are concerned that current Food and Drug Administration requirements for obtaining individual informed consent may deter or delay the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials intended to develop reliable evidence of comparative safety and effectiveness of approved medical products that are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Under current regulations, there are no described mechanisms to alter or waive informed consent to make it less burdensome or more practicable for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials. We recommend that the Food and Drug Administration establish a risk-based approach to obtaining informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials that would facilitate the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials without compromising the protection of enrolled individuals or the integrity of the resulting data.

  12. Development and Implementation of a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wheatley, Virginia; Schaffner, Donald; Bruhn, Christine; Blalock, Lydia; Maurer, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledge questionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…

  13. Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne Illness Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS (PDF - 2.46MB) - En español (Spanish) (PDF - 2. ...

  14. Ch. 7: Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A safe and nutritious food supply is a vital component of food security. Food security, in a public health context, can be summarized as permanent access to a sufficient, safe, and nutritious food supply needed to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. The impacts of climate change on food produc...

  15. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  16. 49 CFR 1.53 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline... to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. The Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration is delegated authority for...

  17. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  18. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  19. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... affect a member of the public are available for public disclosure. An index of all such manuals is... Information Public Reading Room, located in rm. 1050, at the same address. The index and all manuals...

  20. Consumer confidence in the safety of food and newspaper coverage of food safety issues: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; Van Trijp, Hans; Renes, Reint Jan; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The monitoring instrument assesses consumer confidence together with its determinants. Model and measurement invariance were validated rigorously before developments in consumer confidence in the safety of food and its determinants were investigated over time. The results from the longitudinal analysis show that across four waves of annual data collection (2003-2006), the framework was stable and that the relative importance of the determinants of confidence was, generally, constant over time. Some changes were observed regarding the mean ratings on the latent constructs. The second study explored how newspaper coverage of food safety related issues affects consumer confidence in the safety of food through subjective consumer recall of food safety incidents. The results show that the newspaper coverage on food safety issues is positively associated with consumer recall of food safety incidents, both in terms of intensity and recency of media coverage.

  1. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  2. Building food safety into the company culture: a look at Maple Leaf Foods.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jespersen; Huffman, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Maple Leaf Foods learned a hard lesson following its tragic 2008 Listeria outbreak that ended up taking the lives of 23 Canadians. The organization has since 2008 transformed its commitment to food safety with a strong drive and manifest in embedding sustainable food safety behaviours into the existing company culture. Its focus on combining technical risk analysis with behavioural sciences has led to the development and deployment of a food safety strategy deeply rooted in the company values and management commitment. Using five tactics described in this article the organization has been on a journey towards food safety transformation through adoption of best practices for people and systems. The approach to food safety has been one where food safety is treated as a non-competitive issue and Maple Leaf Foods have been open to sharing learning about what happened and how the organization will continue to take a leadership position in food safety to continuously raise the bar for food safety across the industry. Maple Leaf Foods has benefited tremendously by learning about best practice from numerous companies in North America and around the world. The authors believe this brief story will bring value to others as we continue to learn and improve.

  3. A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leon, Marco A; Paz, Esmeralda

    2014-08-01

    Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety.

  4. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  5. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety.

  6. Meta-analysis of food safety training on hand hygiene knowledge and attitudes among food handlers.

    PubMed

    Soon, Jan Mei; Baines, Richard; Seaman, Phillip

    2012-04-01

    Research has shown that traditional food safety training programs and strategies to promote hand hygiene increases knowledge of the subject. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of food safety training on food handlers' attitudes about good hand hygiene practices. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to assess the extent to which food safety training or intervention strategies increased knowledge of and attitudes about hand hygiene. A systematic review of food safety training articles was conducted. Additional studies were identified from abstracts from food safety conferences and food science education conferences. Search terms included combinations of "food safety," "food hygiene," "training," "education," "hand washing," "hand hygiene," "knowledge," "attitudes," "practices," "behavior," and "food handlers." Only before- and after-training approaches and cohort studies with training (intervention group) and without training (control group) in hand hygiene knowledge and including attitudes in food handlers were evaluated. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects model. Meta-analysis values for nine food safety training and intervention studies on hand hygiene knowledge among food handlers were significantly higher than those of the control (without training), with an effect size (Hedges' g) of 1.284 (95% confidence interval [CI] ∼ 0.830 to 1.738). Meta-analysis of five food safety training and intervention studies in which hand hygiene attitudes and self-reported practices were monitored produced a summary effect size of 0.683 (95% CI ∼ 0.523 to 0.843). Food safety training increased knowledge and improved attitudes about hand hygiene practices. Refresher training and long-term reinforcement of good food handling behaviors may also be beneficial for sustaining good hand washing practices.

  7. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  8. RAPID NONDESTRUCTIVE SPECTRAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ONLINE FOOD SAFETY INSPECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness presents a public health challenge in the United States. There is an urgent need for the federal government and food industries to expand efforts to prevent any food contamination that potentially could be harmful to human health. The Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of t...

  9. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    PubMed

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  10. 77 FR 23485 - Food and Drug Administration Patient Network Annual Meeting; Input Into Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... perspective is discussed outside of a specific product's marketing application review. The medical product... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Patient Network Annual Meeting... regulatory process related to the medical product life cycle, analyze where in the process patient input...

  11. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  12. 77 FR 49449 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... drugs, devices, and biologics; as well as inspections of clinical investigators, IRBs, and research... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  13. 76 FR 56770 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Outsourcing Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in cosponsorship with Xavier University, is announcing a public conference entitled ``FDA/Xavier University Global Outsourcing...

  14. 76 FR 72951 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Differentiation of Human Papillomaviruses; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Differentiation of Human Papillomaviruses.'' This guidance document provides industry and Agency staff...

  15. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  16. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  17. Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Juskevich, J C; Guyer, C G

    1990-08-24

    Scientists in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after reviewing the scientific literature and evaluating studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies, have concluded that the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) in dairy cattle presents no increased health risk to consumers. Bovine GH is not biologically active in humans, and oral toxicity studies have demonstrated that rbGH is not orally active in rats, a species responsive to parenterally administered bGH. Recombinant bGH treatment produces an increase in the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in cow's milk. However, oral toxicity studies have shown that bovine IGF-I lacks oral activity in rats. Additionally, the concentration of IGF-I in milk of rbGH-treated cows is within the normal physiological range found in human breast milk, and IGF-I is denatured under conditions used to process cow's milk for infant formula. On the basis of estimates of the amount of protein absorbed intact in humans and the concentration of IGF-I in cow's milk during rbGH treatment, biologically significant levels of intact IGF-I would not be absorbed.

  18. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  19. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  20. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    PubMed

    Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment.

  1. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  2. 76 FR 789 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Section 905(j) Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products.'' In general, the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  3. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... six of them from the premarket notification requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  4. 76 FR 61103 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), also known as the de novo classification process. FDA...

  5. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft...

  6. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  7. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  11. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  12. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  13. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  14. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  15. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  16. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  17. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Further Provide Food Safety Information to Consumers Mar 24, 2017 Lakes Farm Raised Catfish, Inc. Recalls ... Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling Mar 31, 2017 FSIS Notice 20-17 Raw Pork ...

  18. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

  19. Proteomics in food: Quality, safety, microbes, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Piras, Cristian; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Bonizzi, Luigi; Soggiu, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Food safety and quality and their associated risks pose a major concern worldwide regarding not only the relative economical losses but also the potential danger to consumer's health. Customer's confidence in the integrity of the food supply could be hampered by inappropriate food safety measures. A lack of measures and reliable assays to evaluate and maintain a good control of food characteristics may affect the food industry economy and shatter consumer confidence. It is imperative to create and to establish fast and reliable analytical methods that allow a good and rapid analysis of food products during the whole food chain. Proteomics can represent a powerful tool to address this issue, due to its proven excellent quantitative and qualitative drawbacks in protein analysis. This review illustrates the applications of proteomics in the past few years in food science focusing on food of animal origin with some brief hints on other types. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this science as a valuable tool to assess food quality and safety. Emphasis is also posed in food processing, allergies, and possible contaminants like bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens.

  20. The Pacific Family and Food Safety: A Food Guide into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mary Elaine; Aguon, Jane M.

    The Food Safety First Program in Guam and the Marianas, sponsored in part by the United States Department of Agriculture, assesses the food safety behavior of the local population, and uses the results to develop educational programs. The thriving of bacteria in the local climate places extra importance on educating the population on the necessity…

  1. [Safety of health foods and importance of their origin].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-06-01

    The safety guideline for voluntary inspections on the ingredients used for capsulated or pellet food, announced by the director of the department of food safety of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on February 1, 2008 states that "how to guarantee the origin" is the top priority to ensure safety. However, in the course of our continuous investigation of the origin of natural products, the ingredients of some health food products such as chondroitin sulfate, white kwao keur (Pueraria candollei var. mirifica) and black cohosh did not originate from the labeled material. The usage of the correct origin is the fist step for the quality assurance of "health food". Therefore, we believe that regulatory requirements for accurately indicating the origin of "health foods" and effective enforcement of these requirements are needed.

  2. High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

    2009-12-01

    Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

  3. The Food and Drug Administration's initiative for safe design and effective use of home medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Weick-Brady, Mary; Singh, Simran

    2014-06-01

    Although home-use medical devices provide significant benefits, including improved quality of life and cost savings, they are associated with unique risks. These risks result from interactions among the user, the use environment, and the device, and they can greatly impact user and patient safety. This article describes measures being taken by the Food and Drug Administration to address safe use of medical equipment by trained and untrained people outside of clinical facilities.

  4. Biomarker qualification pilot process at the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Goodsaid, Federico; Frueh, Felix

    2007-03-23

    New biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming powerful tools in drug development. Their application can be accelerated if a consensus can be reached about their qualification for regulatory applications. This consensus requires a review structure within the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that can evaluate qualification data for these biomarkers and determine whether these biomarkers can be qualified. A pilot process and corresponding Biomarker Qualification Review Team have been developed to test how the FDA can work on biomarker qualification.

  5. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  6. Food Safety for Healthy Missouri Families: Evaluation of Program Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Marcus M.

    2002-01-01

    The food safety knowledge of 22 inner-city Missouri youth from low-income families was assessed before and after a 4-week summer program. Posttest results showed dramatic changes in beliefs. However, topics such as irradiation, eating raw cookie dough, and safety of produce in grocery stores showed little change. (SK)

  7. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  8. An Open and Scalable Learning Infrastructure for Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouselis, Nikos; Thanopoulos, Charalampos; Vignare, Karen; Geith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, a variety of approaches and tools have been developed for giving access to open educational resources (OER) related to food safety, security, and food standards, as well to various targeted audiences (e.g., farmers, agronomists). The aim of this paper is to present a technology infrastructure currently in demonstration…

  9. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  10. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  11. Management of microbial food safety in the Arab countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety remains a major economical and public health concern in the Arab countries. Over the several past years, many of these countries have attempted to revise and upgrade food quality control and surveillance programs. However, these systems vary in scope and effectiveness. This rev...

  12. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    PubMed

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  13. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  14. The Contribution of Food Safety Management Systems to the Prevention of Deliberate Food Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Madeleine

    Food Safety Management systems such as HACCP can help to prevent deliberate contamination of food. These systems are widely used already by the food industry to prevent accidental contamination. This makes them an attractive and cost effective way to address the issue of deliberate contamination.

  15. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  16. 77 FR 18828 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Factors To Consider When Making...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Novo Classifications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance document... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  17. 77 FR 71803 - Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  18. 75 FR 25271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Smokeless Tobacco; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled...

  19. 76 FR 38666 - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island Sea Lab Collaboration (U19) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  20. 77 FR 26768 - Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Cosponsorship...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/International Society for..., and Sustaining a Culture of Compliance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,...

  1. 75 FR 73951 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 14, and 17 RIN 0910-AG55 Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain of its...

  2. 75 FR 73984 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 14, and 17 RIN 0910-AG55 Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend certain of its...

  3. 76 FR 570 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Antibodies to Borrelia Burgdorferi; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft...

  4. 76 FR 27331 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Trachomatis and/or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Screening and Diagnostic Testing; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  5. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  6. 75 FR 47603 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Recommendations for Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... zonisamide assays. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time. DATES: Although you...

  7. 76 FR 36542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: The Content of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Glucose Suspend Device Systems; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft...

  8. 77 FR 67379 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Highly Multiplexed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled...

  9. 75 FR 57963 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Helicobacter pylori; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance...

  10. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), procedural information on how to fulfill section...

  11. 76 FR 43689 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  12. 75 FR 73106 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Clostridium difficile; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance...

  13. 76 FR 40921 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Radiology Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance...

  14. 76 FR 569 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Staphylococcus aureus; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance...

  15. 78 FR 13348 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Science Board to the Food and... that a meeting of the Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration would be held on February...

  16. 78 FR 4417 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Submissions for Postapproval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Marketing Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry...

  17. 76 FR 37820 - Proyecto Informar: Food and Drug Administration Hispanic Outreach Initiative (U01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Proyecto Informar: Food and Drug Administration Hispanic Outreach Initiative (U01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and... cooperative agreement for the National Alliance for Hispanic Health. The goal of the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Industry Responsibilities § 7.45 Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. (a) The Commissioner of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.30 Food and Drug Administration Freedom...

  20. 75 FR 17418 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug... Health AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is providing notice of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 5.1105 - Chief Counsel, Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chief Counsel, Food and Drug Administration. 5.1105 Section 5.1105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ORGANIZATION Organization § 5.1105 Chief Counsel, Food and Drug Administration. The...

  4. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  5. Clinical use of intravenous iron: administration, efficacy, and safety.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Michael; Ballard, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This section reviews the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and toxicity of intravenous iron. Intravenous iron offers advantages over oral iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia across a wide range of disease states associated with absolute and functional iron deficiency. However, there remain concerns about the acute safety profiles of the available preparations and the potential for long-term toxicity with their repeated administration. Seven intravenous iron formulations are available. Confusion concerning the relative toxicities of the different formulations abounds. The similarities and differences are discussed. Iron repletion has been associated with adverse outcomes in infections. The relationship, if any, between intravenous iron administration and infections is reviewed. The potential advantages of total dose infusion (TDI), complete repletion in a single setting, are highlighted. A new paradigm for iron replacement therapy in iron deficiency anemia is presented.

  6. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-02-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned "Pusztai affair" and the recent "Seralini case." These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food.

  7. Food Safety for Moms-to-Be

    MedlinePlus

    ... under running water. 2. Separate Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from ready-to-eat foods. If possible, use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and another one for fresh fruits ...

  8. Food Safety for People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... water Unpasteurized (“raw”) milk Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or shellfish Symptoms and Potential Impact Fever, headache, ... and/or temperature abused foods. Meats, meat products, poultry, poultry products , and gravy Symptoms and Potential Impact ...

  9. Food Safety for People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... available, wrap it securely, label it to say “DANGER,” and freeze it. • The remaining food may be ... illness and in preventing others from becoming ill. DANGER 3. Save all the packaging materials, such as ...

  10. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  11. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Gareth . E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  12. Food safety concerns in the U.S. and research on Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., there are several government agencies that deal with food safety. Under the Department of Health and Human Services, there are the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC collaborates with state agencies, private organizatio...

  13. 75 FR 71133 - Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of the Term `Lead Free' in the Labeling of Pottery; and Proper Identification of Ornamental and Decorative Ceramicware.'' FDA is issuing the guidance in response to recent findings of lead......

  14. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khairuzzaman, Md.; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md. Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. PMID:26904635

  15. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khairuzzaman, Md; Chowdhury, Fatema Moni; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes.

  16. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Administration records shall be made available for public disclosure. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  17. A Study in Iowa. Teaching Food Safety in Secondary FCS Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason D.; Henroid, Daniel H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a significant issue in the United States and yet minimal research has been done on the inclusion of food safety in secondary school curricula. This study examined the feasibility of including food safety in Iowa FCS middle and secondary classes. Teachers reported food safety was important; only a few believed students were…

  18. What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety?

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charmaine; Gauci, Andrew Amato

    2005-05-01

    Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to poor food safety practices in the home. Consumer awareness studies have shown that, in general, consumers are aware of the recommended food safety precautions, yet still adopt high-risk behaviours. Three focus groups and a small case control group were formed to gather information on local consumer knowledge and attitudes towards safe food handling in the home. The responses from the three focus groups were analysed and grouped into general themes. The information obtained from these results was then used to plan a local food safety health promotion strategy. The results show that individuals who had been exposed to salmonellosis, or who had a dependant who had been exposed, had developed a higher level of food safety knowledge and awareness. Variations between knowledge and self-reported practices make it apparent that persons have to be convinced that food safety measures are effective before they take action to change their behaviour. In conclusion, consumer education strategies need to emphasise the burden of illness, making safe food handling meaningful to consumers. Continuous reinforcement of the messages may be effective in empowering the consumer to foster behaviour change.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

  20. We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity.

  1. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0576 N5-97-3 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support

  2. [Food safety warnings in public health].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castellanos, María S

    2004-05-01

    One of the mechanisms for food alerts management is the rapid interchange of information so that the response takes place the sooner and the impact of the risk can be diminished. The structure of information transmitted, the priority and categorization of the risk, the differentiated treatment of the information, the decision on who must be informed, the confidentiality of information transmitted, and evaluations of it, the reduction of the abuse or the use of precautionary principle are questions that can serve as guidelines for an analysis of the different systems and provide a comparison perspective that can help to improve the exchange of information on risks in the present day global market of foods. The main goal of this article is to provide a proposal for improvement in the food alerts management system in our country through an analysis and comparison of the essential elements of different systems in our context.

  3. Food safety attitudes in college students: a structural equation modeling analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter

    2013-01-30

    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  4. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  5. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  6. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  7. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  8. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  9. Microbiological food safety: a dilemma of developing societies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Hossain, Ashfaque

    2014-11-01

    Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth.

  10. Zohydro approval by food and drug administration: controversial or frightening?

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Atluri, Sairam; Candido, Kenneth D; Boswell, Mark V; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Grider, Jay S; Falco, Frank J E; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    The actions and regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are crucial to the entire population of the U.S., specifically the public who take a multitude of drugs and providers who prescribe drugs and devices. Further, the FDA is relevant to investors, specifically in regards to biotech and pharmaceutical companies involved in developing new drugs. The FDA has been criticized for a lack of independence on the one hand and excessive regulatory and expanding authority without evidence and consistency of the actions on the other hand. The FDA approved a single-entity, long-acting, hydrocodone product (Zohydro, Zogenix, San Diego, CA) on October 25, 2013, against the recommendation of the FDA's own appointed scientific advisory panel, which voted 11 to 2 against the approval of Zohydro. Subsequent to the approval, multiple consumer safety organizations, health care agencies, addiction treatment providers, professional organizations, and other groups on the frontline of the opioid addiction epidemic have expressed concern. In addition, the US Congress and various state attorneys general raised serious concerns about the approval of Zohydro, which is highly addictive and may enhance the opioid addiction epidemic. Supporters of Zohydro contend that it is necessary and essential to manage chronic pain and improve functional status with no additional risk. Over the past 15 years, prescriptions for opioids have skyrocketed with the United States consuming more than 84% of the global oxycodone and more than 99% of the hydrocodone supply. The sharp increase in opioid prescribing has led to parallel increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths, surpassing motor vehicle injuries in the U.S. Recent studies assessing the trends of medical use and misuse of opioid analgesics from 2000 to 2011 have concluded that the present trend of the continued increase in the medical use of opioid analgesics appears to contribute to increasing misuse, resulting in multiple health

  11. Sensors for Food Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

    Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.

  12. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  13. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  14. A portable array biosensor for food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joel P.; Ngundi, Miriam M.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2004-11-01

    An array biosensor developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples has been utilized to develop assays for toxins and pathogens in a variety of foods. The biochemical component of the multi-analyte biosensor consists of a patterned array of biological recognition elements immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide. A fluorescence assay is performed on the patterned surface, yielding an array of fluorescent spots, the locations of which are used to identify what analyte is present. Signal transduction is accomplished by means of a diode laser for fluorescence excitation, optical filters and a CCD camera for image capture. A laptop computer controls the miniaturized fluidics system and image capture. Results for four mycotoxin competition assays in buffer and food samples are presented.

  15. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  17. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

  18. 75 FR 36425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; In Vitro Diagnostic Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2007D-0387) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; In Vitro Diagnostic Studies--Frequently Asked Questions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  19. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As required... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  20. 75 FR 3238 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Heart Valves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... for heart valves. This draft guidance document is not final, nor is it in effect at this time....

  1. 76 FR 6685 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Recommended Warning for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... about the potential adverse health effects from the use of powder on medical gloves and is...

  2. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  3. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  4. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  5. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-03

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  6. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  7. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People.

    PubMed

    Lund, Barbara M

    2015-08-21

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products.

  8. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia

    2015-08-27

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety.

  9. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  10. 78 FR 14305 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Types of Communication During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... efficiency of the review process. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time. DATES... review process between FDA and industry for specific medical device premarket submissions. Further... recommendations for MDUFA III, Title II of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Public...

  11. 76 FR 41267 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and MEDSCAPE, LLC and WEBMD LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... health care professionals of accurate information on public health and emerging safety issues and... CONTACT: ] Anna Fine, Office of Special Health Issues, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. 75 FR 31450 - Memorandum of Understanding by and Between the United States Food and Drug Administration and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Food and Drug Administration and the International Anesthesia Research Society for the Safety of Key... memorandum of understanding (MOU) between FDA and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS). The... their shared interest of promoting the safe use of anesthetics and sedatives in children. DATES:...

  13. 21 CFR 20.32 - Disclosure of Food and Drug Administration employee names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of Food and Drug Administration employee names. 20.32 Section 20.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.32 Disclosure of Food and...

  14. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term.

  15. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  16. Food safety and epidemiology: new database of functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shaw; Zhuo, Xing Gang; Kimira, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    More than 600 functional non-nutrient food factors (FFFs) in vegetables and fruits are considered to be effective for health promotion and disease prevention. However, phytochemicals studied thus far have failed to yield predicted results in randomized intervention studies. To assess the health effects of phytochemicals, a breakthrough in epidemiological methods was necessary. We constructed a database of non-nutrient FFFs to estimate the chemical classes and total amount of FFF-intake in order to facilitate estimation and calculation for nutritional research. So far, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and sulfur compounds are included in our FFF database. We calculated the intake of various phytochemicals per capita from 79 subjects' dietary records by FFF database, and estimated that subjects ingested more than 10 micromole per day of phytochemicals such as catechin, isoflavones, isothiocyanate, ferulic acid, quercetin, cinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid. Chief component analysis yielded 12 factors (80%), of which only a few factors showed negative associations with serum cholesterol and LDL concentration. Many factors showed adverse relationships with liver function and serum triacylglycerol concentration. Weekly self-reported daily dietary records including name of dish, constituent foods and their amounts were separately collected for 6 months and analyzed in Kyoto women. Seasonal changes of phytochemical intake showed significant variation according to the seasonal consumption of fruits and vegetables. Lycopene increased in the summer due to watermelon and tomato intake in this season. Seasonal variation of FFF was quite large compared to the variation of macro- and micronutrients. Careful evaluation of the effects of FFF intake on health is necessary, especially when supplements are also consumed. The most effective combinations of FFF intake for human health could be elucidated by using our FFF-DB in conjunction with population-based cohort studies.

  17. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  18. Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Haghiri, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118

  19. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  20. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  1. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  2. Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

  3. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  4. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  5. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program regarding the... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  6. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  7. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis in meat and poultry products; (G) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C... cooperative agreements to further research programs in the agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 3318). (2) Related....C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements. (6) Related to compliance with...

  8. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C. 427); and (H) Conduct an education program... (21 U.S.C. 120). (iv) Enter into contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements to further research... excluding section 122(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements....

  9. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... analysis in meat and poultry products; (G) Administer and conduct a Food Safety Research Program (7 U.S.C... cooperative agreements to further research programs in the agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 3318). (2) Related....C. 9622(b)(1)), related to mixed funding agreements. (6) Related to compliance with...

  10. An overview of food safety issues relative to animal products.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A

    1990-06-01

    Presently, strategies for discovering new factors for enhancing animal productivity allow for greater assurance of food safety. A high degree of assurance of food safety is provided by the use of natural growth factors. This is especially true when these factors are proteins which, when ingested, are digested to inactive peptides and amino acids and are, in addition, inactive in human tissues. Knowing the mechanisms of activity of such factors also allows for the assurance that known mediators of the growth factors can also be shown to be inactivated by intestinal barriers. The design of nonpeptide molecules with highly selective activity will be possible with the large amount of progress expected in understanding the structure of the active components of natural molecules and the availability of specific receptor systems. Food safety concerns may be met by the demonstration that these molecules are inactive in comparable human receptor systems. These drug discovery strategies can ensure with a high degree of confidence the development of new productivity enhancers that meet food safety requirements.

  11. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  12. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  13. Information system equality for food security--implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaun C; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Chiu, Chihwei P

    2009-01-01

    Food security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the illegal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as foodborne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present report demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with international standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade.

  14. A strategy to establish Food Safety Model Repositories.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-07-02

    Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain.

  15. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and other entities about how the FDA intends to apply its regulatory authorities to select...

  16. Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, F

    2001-08-01

    Genetic modification involves the insertion of genes from other organisms (within or between species) into host cells to select for desirable qualities. Potential benefits of GM foods include increased nutritional value; reduced allergenicity; pest and disease-resistance; and enhanced processing value. Possible detrimental outcomes include producing foods with novel toxins, allergens or reduced nutritional value, and development of antibiotic resistance or herbicide-resistant weeds. Benefits to individuals or populations need to be weighed against adverse health and environmental risks, and may differ between developing and Westernised countries. Whether testing and monitoring should exceed requirements for conventional foods is under debate. While not necessarily scientifically justifiable, consumer concerns have resulted in Australian and New Zealand requirements to label foods containing GM-produced proteins. Dissatisfied consumer advocacy groups are calling for all foods involving GM technology to be labelled, irrelevant of whether the final product contains novel protein. Goals to improve the quantity, quality and safety of foods are laudable; however, the primary aim of the bio-food industry is financial gain. GM foods may be as safe as conventional foods but public distrust runs high. It is important that discussion is informed by science and that claims of both benefits and risks are evidence-based, to ensure that the process is driven neither by the vested interest of the bio-technical multinational companies on the one hand, nor ill-informed public fears on the other.

  17. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  18. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-12-05

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology.

  20. Caregivers' perception of drug administration safety for pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nariman; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Saab, Raya; Khalidi, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    Medication errors (MEs) are reported to be between 1.5% and 90% depending on many factors, such as type of the institution where data were collected and the method to identify the errors. More significantly, the risk for errors with potential for harm is 3 times higher for children, especially those receiving chemotherapy. Few studies have been published on averting such errors with children and none on how caregivers perceive their role in preventing such errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric oncology patient's caregivers' perception of drug administration safety and their willingness to be involved in averting such errors. A cross-sectional design was used to study a nonrandomized sample of 100 caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. Ninety-six of the caregivers surveyed were well informed about the medications their children receive and were ready to participate in error prevention strategies. However, an underestimation of potential errors uncovered a high level of "trust" for the staff. Caregivers echoed their apprehension for being responsible for potential errors. Caregivers are a valuable resource to intercept medication errors. However, caregivers may be hesitant to actively communicate their fears with health professionals. Interventions that aim at encouraging caregivers to engage in the safety of their children are recommended.

  1. FDA reform signed into law. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1997-12-05

    The laws under which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) operates have been changed by bipartisan Congressional efforts. The FDA Modernization Act of 1997, signed into law on November 21, 1997 modifies the mission of the FDA to include a goal of speeding research, innovation and access to care. The legislation allows fast track review for the most important drugs. It also allows drug companies to promote off label use of already-approved pharmaceuticals for other purposes. The controversial issue allows drug companies to provide physicians with documentation on the effectiveness of their drugs in treating other conditions. The industry supports the change since the revenue growth for off label use of drugs is especially important for smaller biotechnical companies, while consumer groups fear that it is a loophole for selling unproven drugs. The bill also renews the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), regulating the current practice of compounding, and monitoring medical devices and health care claims for foods.

  2. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  3. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  4. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  5. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  6. 76 FR 36543 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Applying Human Factors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineering to...

  7. 75 FR 22412 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Outsourcing Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Cincinnati District, in co-sponsorship with Xavier University, is announcing a public conference entitled ``FDA/Xavier University Global Outsourcing...

  8. 78 FR 76842 - Food and Drug Administration/American Academy of Ophthalmology Workshop on Developing Novel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/American Academy of Ophthalmology Workshop on Developing Novel Endpoints for Premium Intraocular Lenses; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  9. 76 FR 68767 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28766] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0689] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De...

  10. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned “Pusztai affair” and the recent “Seralini case.” These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food. PMID:23444254

  11. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    PubMed

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics.

  12. 21 CFR 20.31 - Retention schedule of requests for Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention schedule of requests for Food and Drug Administration records. 20.31 Section 20.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.31 Retention schedule of requests for...

  13. 21 CFR 20.29 - Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files. 20.29 Section 20.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.29 Prohibition...

  14. 75 FR 17423 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug... Profession Schools, Inc. AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and... opportunities for socio-economically disadvantaged students. DATES: The agreement became effective January...

  15. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C Act...

  16. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  17. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  18. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  20. Superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads toward food safety insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    In this work, superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads (SPM-NIBs) based on conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with specific antibodies have been developed toward food safety insurance. The resultant SPM-NIBs exhibits excellent colloidal stability and reversible magnetic response. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a main foodborne pathogenes from contaminated seafood, can be separated specifically and efficiently by the resultant SPM-NIBs. The results of bacteria separation demonstrate that the SPM-NIBs have a higher specific activity and sensitivity toward V. parahaemolyticus. About 80 % of V. parahaemolyticus cells can be captured when the concentration of the broth reaches 103 CFU/mL. Thus, the SPM-NIBs can effectively enhance the efficiency for target bacteria inspections by shortening the period of culture time. This work holds the promise of development of general technique to prepare effective SPM-NIBs toward food safety inspections and other bio-related applications for target analyte separation and collection.

  1. Mathematical Modeling Tools to Study Preharvest Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lanzas, Cristina; Chen, Shi

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of the emerging field of mathematical modeling in preharvest food safety. We describe the steps involved in developing mathematical models, different types of models, and their multiple applications. The introduction to modeling is followed by several sections that introduce the most common modeling approaches used in preharvest systems. We finish the chapter by outlining potential future directions for the field.

  2. Microbiological safety of food in hospitals and other healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lund, Barbara M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-10-01

    Cases and outbreaks of foodborne infection in healthcare settings can result in serious illness, wastage of expensive medical treatments, spread of infection to other patients and staff and disruption of services. Providing nutritious meals for vulnerable people in healthcare settings involves a systematic approach to microbiological safety, as provided by hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. The types of food served in healthcare settings should be selected to minimise the risk of foodborne infection.

  3. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Food Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy...

  4. Identification of Core Competencies for an Undergraduate Food Safety Curriculum Using a Modified Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynette M.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Oliver, Haley F.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Moore, Christina M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Identification of core competencies for undergraduates in food safety is critical to assure courses and curricula are appropriate in maintaining a well-qualified food safety workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify and refine core competencies relevant to postsecondary food safety education using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-nine…

  5. Reliability of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Arnout R H; Frewer, Lynn J

    2009-10-01

    A reduced version of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale [Fischer, A. R. H., Frewer, L. J., & Nauta, M. J. (2006). Towards improving food safety in the domestic environment: a multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food handling practices. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1323-1338] was investigated to establish its reliability and robustness. A second set of survey data were collected using the reduced Rasch scale. We discuss the reliability and robustness of the original Rasch scale in terms of the second analysis. In general, the results of the reduced scale provided results that were very similar to those obtained in the original study. In both studies the goodness of fit of the different items was stable. The range of the difficulty parameters was smaller in this study than in the previous one, which may be attributed to methodological causes. The high level of similarity of the key parameters shows that the Rasch scale is reliable and robust.

  6. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R.; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California’s Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California’s Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  7. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California's Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California's Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland.

  8. Impact of new Food and Drug Administration regulations on college, university, and experiment station researchers.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B

    1981-09-01

    The Good Laboratory Practice regulations adopted by the Food and Drug Administration describe specific procedures to assure the integrity of the research results. Those studies conducted with the intent to provide data on the safety of drugs and chemicals will be required to comply with the published relations. The process of bringing research laboratories into compliance with the regulations may be either arduous or fairly routine depending on the organization, goals, and type of research. Typically, the Good Laboratory Practice regulations will increase sharply the cost of health safety information. Hiring more and better trained technical and professional personnel will be much of this expense. If university and experiment station researchers choose to avoid compliance with these regulations, then agricultural research science may not continue to be recognized as an authority on the safety of products used for production of human food. Irrespective of whether universities choose to conduct regulated research or delegate this role to other segments of society, academic institutions must assume the role of training those individuals needed to conduct toxicity research.

  9. Food safety in Vietnam: where we are at and what we can learn from international experiences.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Unger, Fred; Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Grace, Delia

    2017-02-16

    Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers. In turn, the shortfall in ethical behaviours around food can be attributed to a lack of incentives or motivating factors.Although food safety causes panic in the population, it is unclear how much contaminated food contributes to the burden of food-borne diseases and food poisonings in Vietnam. However, globally, the biggest health problem associated with food are infections from consuming food contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites. A major food safety challenge is the inappropriate way of communicating food risks to the public. Another key constraint is the inherent difficulty in managing food in wet markets and from smallholder production. On the other hand, local foods, and local food production and processing are an important cultural asset as well as being essential to food safety, and these aspects can be put at risk if food safety concerns motivate consumers to purchase more imported foods.In this paper, we also discuss good experiences in food safety management from other countries and draw lessons learnt for Vietnam on how to better deal with the current food safety situation.

  10. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  11. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  12. New food safety law: effectiveness on the ground.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christa A; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2015-01-01

    The demand for safety in the US food supply from production to consumption necessitates a scientific, risk-based strategy for the management of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in food. The key to successful management is an increase in systematic collaboration and communication and in enforceable procedures with all domestic and international stakeholders. The enactment of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to prevent or reduce large-scale food-borne illness outbreaks through stricter facility registration and records standards, mandatory prevention-based controls, increased facility inspections in the United States and internationally, mandatory recall authority, import controls, and increased consumer communication. The bill provisions are expected to cost $1.4 billion over the next four years. Effective implementation of the FSMA's 50 rules, reports, studies, and guidance documents in addition to an increased inspection burden requires further funding appropriations. Additional full-time inspectors and unprecedented foreign compliance is necessary for the full and effective implementation of the FSMA.

  13. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments.

    PubMed

    Wolde, Tesfaye; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm(3). The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  14. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended. PMID:27840819

  15. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juming

    2015-08-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation.

  16. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juming

    2015-01-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  17. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  18. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  19. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  20. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  1. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  3. 76 FR 22903 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing That a Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Request AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... February 15, 2007'' to the Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate...

  4. 78 FR 9701 - Draft Joint Food and Drug Administration/Health Canada Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Joint Food and Drug Administration/Health Canada... and Canada AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the availability of a draft ``Joint Food and Drug...

  5. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  6. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies research: cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  7. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  8. The corporate assault on the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R

    1996-01-01

    Current "regulatory reform" in the U.S. Congress is seeking to eliminate the Food and Drug Administration. The author discusses the forces behind this reform and traces the impact of campaign contributions from various industries opposed to FDA regulations, stock held by members of Congress in companies regulated by the FDA, and a variety of organizations with ties to House Speaker Newt Gingrich that have received donations from industries that Gingrich has helped in their efforts to loosen FDA regulations. The article also examines the myth that the FDA is an overzealous watchdog imposing unnecessary burdens on the companies that it regulates. The controversy over the cow hormone rBGH is given as an example.

  9. US Food and Drug Administration Perspectives on Clinical Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Julia Tait; Jeffery, Douglas A; Shea, Yvonne R; Scholl, Peter F; Chan, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based in vitro diagnostic devices that measure proteins and peptides are underutilized in clinical practice, and none has been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for marketing or for use in clinical trials. One way to increase their utilization is through enhanced interactions between the FDA and the clinical mass spectrometry community to improve the validation and regulatory review of these devices. As a reference point from which to develop these interactions, this article surveys the FDA's regulation of mass spectrometry-based devices, explains how the FDA uses guidance documents and standards in the review process, and describes the FDA's previous outreach to stakeholders. Here we also discuss how further communication and collaboration with the clinical mass spectrometry communities can identify opportunities for the FDA to provide help in the development of mass spectrometry-based devices and enhance their entry into the clinic.

  10. Recent Cases: Administrative Law--Occupational Safety and Health Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 are described in two cases: Brennan v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (Underhill Construction Corp.), and Anning-Johnson Co. v. United States Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. (LBH)

  11. A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Manes, Mindi R; Kuganantham, Paraswami; Jagadeesan, Murugesan; Laxmidevi, M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors' study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.

  12. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  13. Shifting responsibilities for food safety in Europe: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Halkier, Bente; Holm, Lotte

    2006-09-01

    Following the BSE crisis in 1996, the European food sector underwent profound regulatory and institutional change. The present introductory article introduces, and sketches the background to, seven studies of the institutional reactions and initiatives that were part of, or prompted by, this reorganisation. The studies analyse the way in which the division of responsibilities for food safety has changed both across the EU as a whole and, more specifically, in six European countries. Prepared as part of the comparative research project, Trust in Food, the studies attempt to go beyond traditional policy network analysis and work on regulation. They ask which constellations of societal actors and logics are important in the shifting responsibilities of public and private actors; and they treat this as an empirical question. It emerges that, at EU level, the main strategy for restoring consumer confidence in food was to enhance the institutional independence, transparency and consumer agency. In the countries covered by the remaining six studies, by contrast, institutional reactions in the food sector varied depending on the particular configurations of state, market and civil society.

  14. 77 FR 11553 - Draft Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... good manufacturing practices (CGMP) for PET drugs. The procedures were finalized and an implementation... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  15. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which... No: 2012-12592] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the...

  16. 76 FR 61366 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to Increase Transparency By Promoting Greater Access to the Agency's Compliance... availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of the Transparency Initiative, the Food and...

  17. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes.

  18. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  19. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  20. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  1. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  2. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  3. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  4. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  5. 77 FR 43846 - Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Medical Devices Workshop; Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Medical Devices... Administration's (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development is announcing the following workshop: FDA Pediatric Medical Devices Workshop. This meeting is intended to focus on challenges in pediatric device...

  6. Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2012-05-07

    05/07/2012 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 389. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3187, which became Public Law 112-144 on 7/9/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from Separate Calculation Requirement; (6) Section 131(b)(2) and (c)(1), Plug-in Electric Drive Vehicle... National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.). (b) Carry out... Highway Traffic Safety Administrator pertaining to highway, traffic and motor vehicle safety. (e)...

  8. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude, Self-Reported Practices, and Microbiological Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Key; Abdul Halim, Hishamuddin; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2017-01-01

    Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP) of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67) was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85) were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7%) with good attitude (51.9/60) and self-reported practices (53.2/60). It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.

  9. Enterococci as probiotics and their implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-12-02

    Enterococci belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and they are of importance in foods due to their involvement in food spoilage and fermentations, as well as their utilisation as probiotics in humans and slaughter animals. However, they are also important nosocomial pathogens that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis and other infections. Some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and possess virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, pili and haemolysin. The role of enterococci in disease has raised questions on their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. Studies on the incidence of virulence traits among enterococcal strains isolated from food showed that some can harbour virulence traits, but it is also thought that virulence is not the result of the presence of specific virulence determinants alone, but is rather a more intricate process. Specific genetic lineages of hospital-adapted strains have emerged, such as E. faecium clonal complex (CC) 17 and E. faecalis CC2, CC9, CC28 and CC40, which are high risk enterococcal clonal complexes. These are characterised by the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and/or virulence factors, often located on pathogenicity islands or plasmids. Mobile genetic elements thus are considered to play a major role in the establishment of problematic lineages. Although enterococci occur in high numbers in certain types of fermented cheeses and sausages, they are not deliberately added as starter cultures. Some E. faecium and E. faecalis strains are used as probiotics and are ingested in high numbers, generally in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. Such probiotics are administered to treat diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome, to lower cholesterol levels or to improve host immunity. In animals, enterococcal probiotics are mainly used to treat or prevent diarrhoea, for immune stimulation or to improve growth. From a food microbiological point of view, the safety of the

  10. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  11. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  12. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  13. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  14. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  15. Obama Administration to Partner with 27 Communities to Boost Neighborhood Revitalization through Local Food Enterprises

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Local Foods, Local Places helps people access healthy local food and supports new businesses in neighborhoods that need investment, said EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy. The program is good for the environment, public health and the economy. By helping

  16. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  17. Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    plague (Yersinia pestis), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), brucellosis ( Brucella abortus, B. melitensis , B. suis, B. canis), Q fever (Coxiella...Special Issue 20011029 090 Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Kathryn C...Zoon U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA In regards to bioterrorism, the goal of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA

  18. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  19. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases.

  20. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  1. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... subject to comment in accordance with the Agency's good guidance practices. DATES: Submit...

  2. 78 FR 102 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  3. 78 FR 101 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for Premarket Approval Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  4. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational Conference in Irvine, California: New Regulatory Challenges AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  5. 78 FR 9928 - Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: To assist the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) in drafting a strategic...

  6. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  7. 77 FR 52744 - Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. The Food and Drug Administration's...

  8. 76 FR 44935 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 510(k) Device Modifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18923] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0453] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 510(k... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  9. 76 FR 20688 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Supplements for Manufacturing Method or Process Changes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  10. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15025] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA 2012-D-0304] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  11. 77 FR 41413 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices: The Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time. DATES: Although you can comment on...

  12. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Class...

  13. 77 FR 63837 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  14. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  15. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  16. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  17. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  18. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... regulations issued under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) relating to tobacco products...

  19. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach.

  20. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted.

  1. Inside the black box of food safety: a qualitative study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses.

    PubMed

    Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection. Results Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers. Conclusions The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant. So what? Armed with a deeper understanding of the social context surrounding food safety practice, it is anticipated that a more balanced, collaborative mode of food safety health promotion could develop, which could add to the current model of regulation.

  2. 77 FR 28566 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign-Post-Wave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... seeking approval of a new information collection to help evaluate the impact of the Food Safety Education... Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign--Post-Wave Tracking Survey) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... tracking survey associated with the Food Safety Education Campaign. The post-wave survey is conducted...

  3. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  4. Food Safety Education for Students and Workers in School Gardens and University Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubak, John; Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The number of school gardens and university farms is increasing in the United States. Produce grown in these venues is often sampled in the classroom or incorporated into the food chain. Food safety education for students and workers is needed to ensure that produce is safe. Two 1-hr food safety curricula were developed to inform K-12 students and…

  5. Development, Dissemination, and Preimplementation Evaluation of Food Safety Educational Materials for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Adrienne E. H.; Snider, O. Sue; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2013-01-01

    With the persistence of microbiological foodborne illness and anticipated future shortage of scientists with agricultural and food science expertise in the United States, it is imperative to educate youth on microbiological food safety and enhance their awareness of opportunities to become engaged in finding solutions to food safety challenges. To…

  6. 77 FR 28602 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety Evaluation of New Non-Pesticidal Proteins Produced by New... collection provisions of FDA's procedures for early food safety evaluation of new non-pesticidal proteins... Proteins Produced by New Plant Varieties Intended for Food Use.'' DATES: Submit either electronic...

  7. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  8. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  9. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  10. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  11. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  12. Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

    2015-01-01

    Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ≥ 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ≥ 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ≥ 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ≥ 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs.

  13. Food safety in the workplace: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Ross, Peggy; Kemerer, Sharon; Taylor, Liza

    2006-12-01

    The occupational health nurse in a large manufacturing facility arrives at work early one Monday morning to find three ill employees in the clinic waiting room and a message from several plant supervisors that multiple employees have called in sick. The supervisors are concerned. The employees have reported similar symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever Furthermore, two supervisors who rarely miss work have also called in sick and other employees are complaining of stomach cramps and diarrhea. The occupational health nurse promptly begins completing a nursing assessment and health history. She discovers that all sick employees attended the company picnic, catered by the facility's food service vendor, the day before. After notifying the local public health department, the occupational health nurse begins to investigate further. The occupational health nurse visits the cafeteria to speak with the manager and inquire about the food served at the picnic. The menu included ham and cheese sandwiches with mayonnaise, hamburgers, potato salad, and cake. The beverages were milk, non-bottled water, and lemonade. All leftover food was discarded, so nothing is available for testing. The manager mentions that yesterday was particularly hot, with a high of 93 degrees F. He states the local health department conducts regular, stringent food inspections. However, he admits they have been short staffed recently and, although he tries to provide adequate training and oversee all food service operations, a few new employees worked at the company picnic. He also mentions his holding temperature logs are "not exactly up-to-date." While talking to the manager the occupational health nurse notices one of the food service employees cutting raw vegetables on a wooden cutting board just used to cut raw chicken. The cutting board was wiped with a damp, visibly soiled sponge, rather than washed, after cutting the meat. It is abundantly clear that food safety training

  14. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  15. Relationship of hospital organizational culture to patient safety climate in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christine W; Meterko, Mark; Rosen, Amy K; Shibei Zhao; Shokeen, Priti; Singer, Sara; Gaba, David M

    2009-06-01

    Improving safety climate could enhance patient safety, yet little evidence exists regarding the relationship between hospital characteristics and safety climate. This study assessed the relationship between hospitals' organizational culture and safety climate in Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals nationally. Data were collected from a sample of employees in a stratified random sample of 30 VA hospitals over a 6-month period (response rate = 50%; n = 4,625). The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations (PSCHO) and the Zammuto and Krakower surveys were used to measure safety climate and organizational culture, respectively. Higher levels of safety climate were significantly associated with higher levels of group and entrepreneurial cultures, while lower levels of safety climate were associated with higher levels of hierarchical culture. Hospitals could use these results to design specific interventions aimed at improving safety climate.

  16. Ecophysiology of food-borne pathogens: Essential knowledge to improve food safety.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Hill, C; Wagner, M; Dahl, A; Ross, T

    2010-05-30

    The term ecophysiology suggests that a natural connection exists between microbial ecology and microbial physiology, the former being concerned with the responses of microbial populations to environmental influences, and the latter with activities within individual cells. In this contribution we choose to integrate these as far as possible and also indicate how understanding of both is benefiting from advances in molecular biology and informatics. We consider how microbial dispersal relates to microbial survival, recovery and proliferation, including the significance of random factors (stochasticity) in continuation of bacterial lineages, observing that minor environmental changes, can greatly influence the potential for food-borne disease. Homeostasis and membrane transport are identified as potential targets to control food-borne pathogens and the role of compatible solutes in stress protection is presented. Phenotypic variation in genetically homogeneous populations is highlighted as a major component of the overall microbial survival strategy. The marked influence and potential of predictive microbiology as an aid to food safety management is discussed, as is the need for greater knowledge of the ecophysiology of microbes in the growth/no growth region. The application of fundamental scientific principles, including thermodynamics, chemistry and microbial physiology is advocated as the basis for development of theory underpinning microbial ecophysiology. Advancing microbial food safety continues to require development of rapid, quantitative methods as an early warning system and mechanism to curtail microbial food-borne disease outbreaks. However, advances made by technologists and molecular biologists must be combined with knowledge of ecophysiology: e.g. biological rates will continue to constrain resolution of the recalcitrant problem of reducing the time required for enrichment processes. The discussion presented leads to the conclusion that microbial and

  17. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-06-15

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs.

  18. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  19. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  20. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...