Science.gov

Sample records for administration food safety

  1. 76 FR 30727 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a...

  2. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... importers currently rely to help manage the safety of their global food supply chains. The purpose of these... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1 and 16 Food and Drug Administration Food... of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies; Public Meetings AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  3. 78 FR 49988 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... importers currently rely to help manage the safety of their global food supply chains. The purpose of the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1 and 16 Food and Drug Administration Food... of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  4. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2... Secretary for Food Safety § 2.53 Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (a) Delegations. Pursuant to § 2.18, the following delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food...

  5. 77 FR 70166 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a...

  6. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII--Drug Supply Chain; Standards for Admission of Imported Drugs, Registration of...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public meeting; request for...

  7. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or her authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR... to the Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service: (1) Exercise the functions of the Secretary... and other products. (2) Exercise the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture contained in...

  8. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or her authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR... to the Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service: (1) Exercise the functions of the Secretary... and other products. (2) Exercise the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture contained in...

  9. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or her authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR... to the Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service: (1) Exercise the functions of the Secretary... and other products. (2) Exercise the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture contained in...

  10. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2.53 Section 2.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the...

  11. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., December 18, 1995) and for juice (21 CFR part 120) in 2001 (66 FR 6138, January 19, 2001). Similarly, in... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice...

  12. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer.

  13. 78 FR 35155 - Establishing a List of Qualifying Pathogens Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is proposing a regulation to establish a list of ``qualifying pathogens'' that have the potential to pose a serious threat to public health. The proposed rule would implement a provision of the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). GAIN is intended to encourage......

  14. 76 FR 64354 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ...'' that appeared in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45818). In that document, FDA announced.... Background In the Federal Register of August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45818), FDA published a notice with a 78-day... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food...

  15. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  16. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  17. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  18. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing raw eggs. Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Cook foods to safe minimum internal ... seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your ...

  19. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  20. MedlinePlus: Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture Start Here 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety ... Spanish Basics for Handling Food Safely (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) - PDF Be Food ...

  1. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Energy and... these new sections. On November 23, 2012 (77 FR 70166), FDA issued a Federal Register...

  2. Statistical, epidemiological, and risk-assessment approaches to evaluating safety of vaccines throughout the life cycle at the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Ball, Robert; Horne, Dale; Izurieta, Hector; Sutherland, Andrea; Walderhaug, Mark; Hsu, Henry

    2011-05-01

    The public health community faces increasing demands for improving vaccine safety while simultaneously increasing the number of vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases. The passage of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendment Act of 2007 formalized the concept of life-cycle management of the risks and benefits of vaccines, from early clinical development through many years of use in large numbers of people. Harnessing scientific and technologic advances is necessary to improve vaccine-safety evaluation. The Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is working to improve the FDA's ability to monitor vaccine safety by improving statistical, epidemiologic, and risk-assessment methods, gaining access to new sources of data, and exploring the use of genomics data. In this article we describe the current approaches, new resources, and future directions that the FDA is taking to improve the evaluation of vaccine safety.

  3. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  4. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  5. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  6. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart.

  7. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  8. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-02-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  10. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  11. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... systems used by other countries for importation of ingredients used in processed food as well as the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and Import Practices of Foreign Countries; Public Hearing; Request...

  12. Economic Issues on Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Felice; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work. PMID:27800432

  13. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  14. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  15. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  16. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and unwashed fresh produce. Place cooked food on ... Check the temperature with a food thermometer. Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm. Don' ...

  17. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  18. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  19. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from clones and their offspring out of the food chain until CVM could further evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM ... evaluate the safety of food from these animals. The resulting report, called a ...

  20. Food safety training for nutritionists.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. S.; Cox, L. J.; Gross, R.; Käferstein, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. PMID:10083718

  1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

  2. 78 FR 35937 - Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Investigations; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... revised and is being reissued for comment because the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  3. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containers like cardboard and screw-topped jars and bottles. Canned goods and cookware exposed to chemicals can ... handling for foods other than meat, poultry, or egg products, call FDA's toll-free information line at ...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  5. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  6. 78 FR 37228 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Western Center for Food Safety (WCFS). FDA regards the continued support of WCFS as crucial to...

  7. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... information pertaining to FDA's authority to order the administrative detention of food for human or animal... (HFS-009), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... Compliance (HFS-607), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  8. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  9. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  10. 78 FR 21085 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Establishment of a Public Docket for Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing the establishment of a public docket for comments pertaining to...

  11. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  12. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  15. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  16. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  17. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  18. Food safety considerations for innovative nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cohn, Marjorie Nolan; Farber, Jeffrey M; Harris, Linda J; Roberts, Tanya; Salin, Victoria; Singh, Manpreet; Jaferi, Azra; Sperber, William H

    2015-07-01

    Failure to secure safe and affordable food to the growing global population leads far too often to disastrous consequences. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. It is an open question whether future food safety concerns will shift in priority given the imperatives to supply sufficient food. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition.

  19. Food safety considerations for innovative nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cohn, Marjorie Nolan; Farber, Jeffrey M; Harris, Linda J; Roberts, Tanya; Salin, Victoria; Singh, Manpreet; Jaferi, Azra; Sperber, William H

    2015-07-01

    Failure to secure safe and affordable food to the growing global population leads far too often to disastrous consequences. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. It is an open question whether future food safety concerns will shift in priority given the imperatives to supply sufficient food. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition. PMID:25943305

  20. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS. PMID:27373012

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS.

  2. Food Safety: Is Your Kitchen Clean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jastrow, Susie; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes the safety of the U.S. food supply, discusses the causes of food-borne illness, and provides a food-safety checklist for child-care centers that covers safe food shopping, storage, preparation, serving, and clean-up. (KB)

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  6. 78 FR 65661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Safety Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Safety Survey AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing an opportunity for public comment...

  7. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match Food Safety ...

  8. Relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of omecamtiv mecarbil following administration of different modified-release formulations in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Palaparthy, Rameshraja; Banfield, Christopher; Alvarez, Paco; Yan, Lucy; Smith, Brian; Johnson, Jessica; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Malik, Fady

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel small molecule that directly activates cardiac myosin and increases cardiac contractility without increasing cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of several modified-release (MR) formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. Methods: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover, incomplete block-design study evaluating 5 MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil vs. an immediate-release (IR) formulation. Materials: Healthy subjects were randomized to 1 of 30 possible sequences: within each sequence, subjects were assigned to receive a single 25-mg dose of 2 of the 6 possible formulations in the fasting and/or fed states. Results: 65 subjects were screened and enrolled; 5 were replacement subjects. Pharmacokinetic and safety data were analyzed from 62 and 63 subjects in the fasting and fed states, respectively. Compared with the IR formulation, median tmax was longer (0.5 vs. 2 – 10 hours), and mean Cmax was lower for all 5 MR formulations (262 vs. 34 – 78 ng/mL); t1/2,z was similar (18 – 21 hours). The relative bioavailability was high (> 75%) for three MR formulations but lower (< 65%) for the other two. Overall, the effect of food on omecamtiv mecarbil pharmacokinetics was minimal for four of the MR formulations. The pharmacokinetics of the inactive metabolites M3 and M4 were similar across all formulations. Conclusions: The relative bioavailability of omecamtiv mecarbil was high (> 75%) for 3 of the five MR formulations. Food had a marginal, nonclinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of the MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. PMID:26709596

  9. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  10. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China. PMID:26343705

  11. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  12. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  13. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  14. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  15. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  16. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment under... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT...

  17. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia. PMID:26598886

  18. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  19. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  20. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  1. Study Finds Consumer Food Safety Knowledge Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Sandria; Coppings, Richard; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Pearson, Lou

    2005-01-01

    Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…

  2. A Dividend in Food Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When NASA faced the problem of how and what to feed an astronaut in a sealed capsule under weightless conditions while planning for manned space mission, they enlisted the aid of The Pillsbury Company. There were two principal concerns: barring crumbs of food that might contaminate the spacecraft's atmosphere or float their way into sensitive instruments; and assuring absolute freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria and toxins. Pillsbury quickly solved the first concern, but the other part of the problem was not as easy. They found that with using standard methods, there was no way to be assured there would not be any bacteria. It was concluded that the only way to succeed was to establish control over the entire process, the raw materials, the processing environment and the people involved. Pillsbury developed the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. The HACCP is designed to prevent food safety problems rather than to catch them after they have occurred. Three other government agencies are taking preliminary steps toward extending HACCP to meat/poultry and seafood inspection operations. Today, Pillsbury plants are still operating under HACCP.

  3. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.

  4. Food Safety Education Using Music Parodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.; Fraser, Angela M.; Gleason, Jeanne B.; Hovey, Susan K.; McCurdy, Sandra M.; Snider, O. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Musical parodies of contemporary songs with their lyrics altered to address current food safety issues were incorporated into a variety of food safety educational programs and the effectiveness of the music was evaluated by semiquantitative and qualitative measures. Audiences receiving the music-enriched curricula included school foodservice…

  5. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  6. The safety of foods developed by biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, D.A.; Taylor, M.R.; Maryanski, J.H.; Flamm, E.L.; Kahl, L.S. )

    1992-06-26

    Recombinant DNA techniques are now being used to develop new plant varieties that will be sources of foods, such as fruits, vegetables, grains, and their by-products. These techniques enable developers to make specific genetic modifications in plants, including modifications that introduce substances into plants that could not be introduced by traditional methods. To ensure the safety of the resulting foods and to foster innovation, the FDA is taking the initiative, before foods from such plants are ready to enter the market, to see that there is an agreed upon scientific basis to evaluate the safety of whole foods and animal feeds derived from new plant varieties. Here, the authors summarize their regulatory framework and their approach to safety assessment and discuss its scientific basis. Their safety assessment approach addresses new varieties of food crops developed by both traditional and newer methods of genetic modification and provides guidance on how safety issues should be addressed.

  7. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  8. 76 FR 45332 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is...

  9. 78 FR 14309 - Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Provision Requiring FDA To Establish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    .... Conduct two food product tracing pilot projects--one in coordination with the processed food sector and... points of service; 6. Demonstrate the tracking and tracing of: (a) A selected processed food and its key... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization...

  10. 76 FR 82311 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Food and Drug Administration Report on Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 4685, January 26, 2009)). In response, the following June FDA launched its Transparency... Register (75 FR 76011, December 7, 2010) online at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-30623.pdf... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative:...

  11. Food and Drug Administration regulation and evaluation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie; Baylor, Norman W

    2011-05-01

    The vaccine-approval process in the United States is regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the US Food and Drug Administration. Throughout the life cycle of development, from preclinical studies to after licensure, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight. Manufacturers must adhere to good manufacturing practices and control procedures to ensure the quality of vaccines. As mandated by Title 21 of the Code of Regulations, licensed vaccines must meet stringent criteria for safety, efficacy, and potency.

  12. Importance of international cooperation in food safety.

    PubMed

    Canet, C

    1993-01-01

    All countries need to ensure that national food supplies are safe, of good quality and available in adequate amounts at affordable prices to ensure good nutrition and health for all population groups. The enforcement of food standards by efficient national food control authorities in domestic markets and at the points of import and export has been increasingly recognized as a means of raising the value of exported goods by reducing the number of rejected or reconditioned consignments, and of ensuring the safety of the food and its acceptability by the final consumer. However, those national efforts have sometimes induced some non-tariff barriers to food trade and distribution. In addition, new developments in the technologies of food production, processing and marketing pose a new challenge to ensure safety of food. The strengthening of national food control infrastructures in particular in developing countries including the strengthening of staff capabilities, the need for harmonization of food at international levels, the need for collection and exchange of data on food control and food contamination issues are essential elements to ensure food safety in the world. International cooperation has an important role to play in achieving these essential elements.

  13. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  14. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  15. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices.

  16. Food Safety and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Food hygiene and a sufficient food supply are essential requirements to stay healthy. However, this can be hindered by foodborne infections, which are known to be prevalent throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that, annually, diarrheal disease is responsible for the deaths of over 2 million people worldwide. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries, following the ingestion of pathogen-contaminated food and water. In the developed world, outbreaks of foodborne diseases are also frequently documented, reflecting the global importance of following good food hygiene practices. PMID:26598904

  17. College Students and Awareness of Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald; Forsythe, William A., III

    2007-01-01

    Microbial foodborne illnesses are a public health problem in the United States. Americans are patronizing restaurants three or more times a week and college students are frequently employed in food service; therefore, this study assessed compliance with and awareness of food safety recommendations among 460 college students. Compliance was…

  18. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  19. Food Safety for Transplant Recipients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 300 types) Associat ed Foods • Raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat • Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juice • ... made with raw milk; and raw or undercooked eggs, raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, raw shellfish ...

  20. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be used to check food temperature. Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  1. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and...

  2. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  3. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department...

  4. 78 FR 24309 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications Delayed... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  5. Food safety knowledge and behavior of emergency food relief organization workers: effects of food safety training intervention.

    PubMed

    Finch, Cristin; Daniel, Eileen

    2005-05-01

    The food safety knowledge and food-handling behaviors of 267 volunteer and staff workers in emergency food relief organizations in western New York State were assessed before and after food safety training. Training was voluntary and emphasized basic food safety and prevention of foodborne illness. Results from the pre-test showed major gaps in the knowledge and behaviors of those working with physically vulnerable populations in emergency food services. These gaps, particularly failure to use food thermometers and unsafe use of hands, could lead to outbreaks of foodborne disease. Independent-samples t-tests, used to compare pre- and post-test scores, indicated that workers' knowledge and reported behaviors significantly improved followin good safety training (p < .0001). There is a need for relevant and ongoing food safety education in this group.

  6. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107... Administration manuals. (a) Food and Drug Administration administrative staff manuals and instructions that affect a member of the public are available for public disclosure. An index of all such manuals...

  7. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  10. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs. PMID:23678729

  11. Can -omics inform a food safety assessment?

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-12-01

    Omic technologies can in principle allow visualization of the all of changes that take place when the genetics, nutrition or environment of an organism is altered. Targeted compositional analysis is today a key component of the food safety assessment paradigm in which known nutrients, anti-nutrients, toxicants, allergens, and other molecules of potential biological importance to humans or animals are quantitatively analyzed. This allows safety assessors to compare the composition and safety of one food with closely related counterparts. Omic technologies measure many analytes-some of which are unidentified-but the analysis often sacrifices one or more of the characteristics of validated analytical methods currently used for food analysis. Databases that would allow the safety assessor to interpret differences are not currently available. There is also no reason to believe that the targeted compositional analysis in use today does not provide the evidence needed to ensure food safety, nor is there any current reason to believe that omics can add value to the safety assessment process. The regulation of transgenic crops is far more rigorous than is justified since they present no new risks compared with traditional breeding, and are more precisely defined and better understood than their non-transgenic equivalent.

  12. Genetic technologies. Bioengineered food--safety and labeling.

    PubMed

    Goldman, K A

    2000-10-20

    The safety and labeling of genetically engineered foods are two areas that have elicited considerable public concern and debate. This Policy Forum provides a legal analysis of these issues in the context of two bills that have been recently proposed in The U.S. Congress, the Genetically Engineered Food Safety Act and the Genetically Engineered Food Right to Know Act. Most transgenic components of foods currently on the market are plant-incorporated protectants or their inert ingredients. Therefore, they have been evaluated for safety by the Environmental Protection Agency (as well as the Food and Drug Administration), and their disclosure in labeling should not be required. If plant-incorporated protectants are considered safer than chemical pesticides, and chemical pesticides do not have to be disclosed in labels, then bioengineered foods should not be subject to stricter regulation, nor should they be required to be labeled. The two bills are inconsistent, in many respects, with well-established principles of food regulation.

  13. Safety considerations of DNA in food.

    PubMed

    Jonas, D A; Elmadfa, I; Engel, K H; Heller, K J; Kozianowski, G; König, A; Müller, D; Narbonne, J F; Wackernagel, W; Kleiner, J

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques. This review discusses whether the consumption of DNA in approved novel foods and novel food ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be regarded as being as safe as the consumption of DNA in existing foods. It concludes that DNA from GMOs is equivalent to DNA from existing food organisms that has always been consumed with human diets. Any risks associated with the consumption of DNA will remain, irrespective of its origin, because the body handles all DNA in the same way. The breakdown of DNA during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract reduces the likelihood that intact genes capable of encoding foreign proteins will be transferred to gut microflora. The review does not specifically address food safety issues arising from the consumption of viable genetically modified microorganisms but it shows that the likelihood of transfer and functional integration of DNA from ingested food by gut microflora and/or human cells is minimal. Information reviewed does not indicate any safety concerns associated with the ingestion of DNA per se from GMOs resulting from the use of currently available recombinant DNA techniques in the food chain. PMID:11786646

  14. Safety considerations of DNA in food.

    PubMed

    Jonas, D A; Elmadfa, I; Engel, K H; Heller, K J; Kozianowski, G; König, A; Müller, D; Narbonne, J F; Wackernagel, W; Kleiner, J

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques. This review discusses whether the consumption of DNA in approved novel foods and novel food ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be regarded as being as safe as the consumption of DNA in existing foods. It concludes that DNA from GMOs is equivalent to DNA from existing food organisms that has always been consumed with human diets. Any risks associated with the consumption of DNA will remain, irrespective of its origin, because the body handles all DNA in the same way. The breakdown of DNA during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract reduces the likelihood that intact genes capable of encoding foreign proteins will be transferred to gut microflora. The review does not specifically address food safety issues arising from the consumption of viable genetically modified microorganisms but it shows that the likelihood of transfer and functional integration of DNA from ingested food by gut microflora and/or human cells is minimal. Information reviewed does not indicate any safety concerns associated with the ingestion of DNA per se from GMOs resulting from the use of currently available recombinant DNA techniques in the food chain.

  15. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  16. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

  17. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product—the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers’ training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  18. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443205

  19. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  20. Food safety--who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2006-01-01

    Though scientists believe that issues of risk can be handled without appeal to values in general or ethics in particular, this is demonstrably false. The very notion of risk is enmeshed in a complex of social ethics. This is clearly true with regard to food safety. With this in mind, it is plausible to affirm that responsibility for food safety at a given point in the chain from producer to consumer rests with the person or entity under whose control the management of that risk most plausibly lies. This principle is illustrated with various examples and with clear cases of industry shouldering and avoiding responsibility. An additional ethical concern relevant to food safety arises from genetically modified foods. Given that the situation here is uncertain and risk unknown, it is hard to see who is responsible for managing such risks. It is arguable that this situation militates in favor of labeling, since consumers are in effect research subjects. The reasonable moral approach to risk we have outlined is jeopardized by the societal tendency towards "victimology" and abrogation of personal responsibility. In such a world, it is incumbent on industry to educate the public with regard to consumer minimization of food safety risks, the impossibility of zero-risk situations, and the economic costs to freedom of protectionism.

  1. Bioluminescence lights the way to food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-07-01

    The food industry is increasingly adopting food safety and quality management systems that are more proactive and preventive than those used in the past which have tended to rely on end product testing and visual inspection. The regulatory agencies in many countries are promoting one such management tool, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), as a way to achieve a safer food supply and as a basis for harmonization of trading standards. Verification that the process is safe must involve microbiological testing but the results need not be generated in real-time. Of all the rapid microbiological tests currently available, the only ones that come close to offering real-time results are bioluminescence-based methods. Recent developments in application of bioluminescence for food safety issues are presented in the paper. These include the use of genetically engineered microorganisms with bioluminescent and fluorescent phenotypes as a real time indicator of physiological state and survival of food-borne pathogens in food and food processing environments as well as novel bioluminescent-based methods for rapid detection of pathogens in food and environmental samples. Advantages and pitfalls of the methods are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... world; support safety efforts by States, localities, and businesses at home; and utilize data to...

  3. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  4. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  5. Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Martens, M A

    2000-06-01

    The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the GM crop. Basically, three categories of GM crops can be considered (FAO/WHO 1996; EU 1997): (a) GM crops which have the same composition as the parent crop, (b) GM crops which have the same composition as the parent crop with the exception of a well-defined trait, and (c) GM crops which are different from the parent crop. For the safety assessment of the first category of GM foods only a molecular characterisation of the genetic insert is sufficient, whereas for the second category a safety assessment of the expressed protein(s) is also required. For the last category an extensive evaluation including bioavailability and wholesomeness studies are required, beside the molecular characterisation and safety assessment of the expressed protein(s) and their products. By molecular characterisation is meant the position, nature, stability and number of copies of the inserted DNA. Substantial equivalence is established by the determination of the phenotypic characteristics (e.g. resistance against diseases, agronomic properties) and the complete chemical composition of the plant including nutrients, toxicants, antinutrients, and allergens. The toxicity of the expressed protein(s) is assessed by their homology with known protein toxins, degradation in the gastro-intestinal tract, stability to food processing and acute toxicity in rodents. The possible allergenicity of the expressed proteins is evaluated by comparison of their amino acid sequence with that of known allergens and determination of their stability to digestion and food processing. If the source of the genetic insert is allergenic

  6. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  7. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  8. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  9. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  10. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined.

  11. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  12. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  13. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When students pack up for college, they take along the basics-- TV, laptop, MP3 player, and cell phone. Many students will arrive at school with a microwave oven, tabletop grill, mini fridge, and toaster oven in tow. Most students, however, don't know there are food safety considerations when cooking with these appliances. The USDA Meat and…

  14. Educating Veterinary Students in Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genigeorgis, Constantin A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of domestic and foreign schools of veterinary medicine is analyzed, revealing a general trend toward deemphasis and/or loss of identity in teaching food safety and regulated veterinary public health subjects. It is suggested that minimal standards need to be set for curricula of U.S. schools. (Author/MLW)

  15. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  16. Safety assessment of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2003-06-01

    Often the main criticism of foods derived from biotechnology is concerns about food safety. Whereas most present-day biotechnology-derived foods are approximately 99% similar to their non-biotechnology counterparts, the scientific community must ensure the safety of the novel aspects of these foods. The three phases of safety assessment are discussed and the concept of substantial equivalence is explained.

  17. Freezing: an underutilized food safety technology?

    PubMed

    Archer, Douglas L

    2004-01-15

    Freezing is an ancient technology for preserving foods. Freezing halts the activities of spoilage microorganisms in and on foods and can preserve some microorganisms for long periods of time. Frozen foods have an excellent overall safety record. The few outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with frozen foods indicate that some, but not all human pathogens are killed by commercial freezing processes. Freezing kills microorganisms by physical and chemical effects and possibly through induced genetic changes. Research is needed to better understand the physical and chemical interactions of various food matrices with the microbial cell during freezing and holding at frozen temperatures. The literature suggests that many pathogenic microorganisms may be sublethally injured by freezing, so research should be done to determine how to prevent injured cells from resuscitating and becoming infectious. Studies on the genetics of microbial stress suggest that the induction of resistance to specific stresses may be counteracted by, for example, simple chemicals. Research is needed to better understand how resistance to the lethal effect of freezing is induced in human pathogens and means by which it can be counteracted in specific foods. Through research, it seems possible that freezing may in the future be used to reliably reduce populations of food-borne pathogens as well as to preserve foods.

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume O: Planning and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    As the introductory volume to the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices), the document concentrates on aspects of planning and administration of a statewide highway safety program. Topics discussed are: the purpose of planning and administration,…

  19. South Carolina Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Administrator and Instructor Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This administrator and instructor section of a South Carolina industrial arts safety guide includes sections on responsibility for school safety, safety programming for the teacher, emergency action, suggested forms and outlines, and facility design and layout. School board and superintendent, administrator, and teacher responsibilities for school…

  20. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Coppens, Patrick; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more aware of this and are increasing their efforts to ensure the safety of PFS. The present review describes an overview of the general framework for the safety assessment of PFS, focusing on the different approaches currently in use to assess the safety of botanicals and/or botanical compounds, including their history of safe use, the tiered approach proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and the Margin of Exposure (MOE) concept. Moreover, some examples of botanical compounds in PFS that may be of concern are discussed. Altogether, it is clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that PFS may contain compounds of concern at levels far above those found in the regular diet. In addition, the traditional use of a PFS compound as a herb or tea does not guarantee its safety when used as a supplement. This points at a need for stricter regulation and control of botanical containing products, especially given their expanding market volume. PMID:21804969

  1. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  2. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety. PMID:26408141

  3. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  4. Monitoring adverse reactions to food additives in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1988-12-01

    Technological advances in food science have resulted in the development of numerous food additives, most of which require premarket approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Concomitant with the benefits of these additives, such as extending the shelf life of certain food commodities, is the potential for various risks. These potential risks include the possibility of the consumer experiencing an adverse reaction to the additive. In order to ascertain the character and the gravity of alleged adverse reactions to food products which it regulates, the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has developed the Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARMS). This postmarketing surveillance system for food additives is designed to analyze consumer reports of adverse reactions in order to alert FDA officials about any potential public health hazard associated with an approved food additive, and to delineate specific syndromes which may lead to focused clinical investigations. To date, among the products routinely monitored in the ARMS, sulfiting agents and the artificial sweetener aspartame have generated the largest volume of consumer reports describing adverse reactions. An overview of the analyses of the sulfite and aspartame adverse reaction reports is presented, along with a description of the mechanics of the postmarketing surveillance system, and a detailed discussion of its limitations.

  5. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor.

  6. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration's Response.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Valerie; Throckmorton, Douglas C

    2015-08-01

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential. PMID:25896999

  7. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration's Response.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Valerie; Throckmorton, Douglas C

    2015-08-01

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential.

  8. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  9. Systematic Approach to Food Safety Education on the Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Food safety education from farm to end user is essential in the mitigation of food safety concerns associated with fresh produce. Iowa State University developed a multi-disciplinary three-level sequential program ("Know," "Show," "Go") to provide a holistic approach to food safety education. This program provides…

  10. Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge.

  11. Quantitative microbiology: a basis for food safety.

    PubMed Central

    McMeekin, T. A.; Brown, J.; Krist, K.; Miles, D.; Neumeyer, K.; Nichols, D. S.; Olley, J.; Presser, K.; Ratkowsky, D. A.; Ross, T.; Salter, M.; Soontranon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because microorganisms are easily dispersed, display physiologic diversity, and tolerate extreme conditions, they are ubiquitous and may contaminate and grow in many food products. The behavior of microbial populations in foods (growth, survival, or death) is determined by the properties of the food (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and atmosphere). The effect of these properties can be predicted by mathematical models derived from quantitative studies on microbial populations. Temperature abuse is a major factor contributing to foodborne disease; monitoring temperature history during food processing, distribution, and storage is a simple, effective means to reduce the incidence of food poisoning. Interpretation of temperature profiles by computer programs based on predictive models allows informed decisions on the shelf life and safety of foods. In- or on-package temperature indicators require further development to accurately predict microbial behavior. We suggest a basis for a "universal" temperature indicator. This article emphasizes the need to combine kinetic and probability approaches to modeling and suggests a method to define the bacterial growth/no growth interface. Advances in controlling foodborne pathogens depend on understanding the pathogens' physiologic responses to growth constraints, including constraints conferring increased survival capacity. PMID:9366608

  12. 78 FR 15957 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in cosponsorship with...

  13. 77 FR 10537 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in cosponsorship with...

  14. Challenges in Developing Competency-based Training Curriculum for Food Safety Regulators in India

    PubMed Central

    Thippaiah, Anitha; Allagh, Komal Preet; Murthy, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1) Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2) Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3) Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level), II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing) were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting. PMID:25136155

  15. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The level of microbial contaminants in frozen ground zoo meat was found to be similar to that in frozen ground beef and higher than that in frozen ground turkey meat. Sixty percent of the frozen zoo meat samples were Salmonella positive, and all of the samples were L. monocytogenes positive. Dry zoo food was documented to have microbial levels lower than those in frozen zoo meat; the pathogen levels were less than 1/25 g of food. Defrosting zoo meat at 10, 25, and 37 degrees C for 24 h showed that 10 degrees C is the best temperature for defrosting frozen ground zoo meat loaves (length, 9 in. [22.8 cm]; radius, 2 in. [5.1 cm]) without affecting the microbiological quality or safety of the product. PMID:2111115

  16. 75 FR 22599 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance is not final...) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' to the Division of...

  17. 77 FR 41418 - Statement of Cooperation Between the Food and Drug Administration and the Secretaria of Health of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Statement of Cooperation Between the Food and Drug Administration and the Secretaria of Health of the United Mexican States: Safety and Sanitary Quality of...

  18. Bacteriophage endolysins: applications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins (peptidoglycan hydrolases) have emerged as a new class of antimicrobial agents useful for controlling bacterial infection or other unwanted contaminations in various fields, particularly in the light of the worldwide increasing frequency of drug-resistant pathogens. This review summarizes and discusses recent developments regarding the use of endolysins for food safety. Besides the use of native and engineered endolysins for controlling bacterial contamination at different points within the food production chain, this also includes the application of high-affinity endolysin-derived cell wall binding domains for rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria. Novel approaches to extend the lytic action of endolysins towards Gram-negative cells will also be highlighted.

  19. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  20. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  1. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 8301.104 Additional rules for employees of...

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  3. Casting a global safety net--a framework for food safety in the age of globalization.

    PubMed

    Chyau, James

    2009-01-01

    In mid-March 2007, Ontario-based Menu Foods Inc. started recalling its "cuts and gravy" style pet food, after receiving information that pets that had eaten the product had fallen ill. Within a week, the company was inundated with complaints and expressions of concern from about 200,000 of its customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined in late March 2007 that the most likely culprit in the illness, and in some cases death of the pet animals, was contaminated wheat gluten, a vegetable protein imported from China. One of the FDA identified contaminants was an industrial chemical called melamine. Reports of widespread adulteration of animal feed with melamine in China raised concern of similar contamination in the human food supply. In response, on April 27, 2007, FDA announced the detention of all vegetable proteins imported from China, whether for animal or for human consumption. But, FDA's action came too late. On May 1, 2007, officials from FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicated that between 2.5 to 3 million people in the United States had consumed chickens that had been fed with contaminated vegetable proteins imported from China. The 2007 pet food recall incident provided an ominous early warning that, unless the international community can come up with a better food safety mechanism, more such food contamination disasters could happen in the future.

  4. High-pressure processing--effects on microbial food safety and food quality.

    PubMed

    Considine, Kiera M; Kelly, Alan L; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Sleator, Roy D

    2008-04-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal process capable of inactivating and eliminating pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. This novel technology has enormous potential in the food industry, controlling food spoilage, improving food safety and extending product shelf life while retaining the characteristics of fresh, preservative-free, minimally processed foods. As with other food processing methods, such as thermal processing, HPP has somewhat limited applications as it cannot be universally applied to all food types, such as some dairy and animal products and shelf-stable low-acid foods. Herein, we discuss the effects of high-pressure processing on microbial food safety and, to a lesser degree, food quality.

  5. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness. PMID:27497133

  6. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  7. Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.

    PubMed

    Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2008-01-01

    he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology.

  8. The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A I; Hathaway, S C

    2006-08-01

    Both national Veterinary Services and international standard-setting organisations have now embraced risk assessment as an essential tool for achieving their goals. Veterinarians have key roles in all aspects of the control of food-borne hazards of animal origin, but additional specialist skills are necessary for assessing, managing and communicating risk. Further, the deployment of Veterinary Services must reflect the multi-functional aspects of public and animal health activities. A generic risk management framework provides a systematic process whereby food safety standards and other measures are chosen and implemented on the basis of knowledge of risk and evaluation of other factors relevant to protecting human health and promoting non-discriminatory trade practices. In this context, a number of countries are exploring new administrative and structural arrangements for competent authorities. The traditional focus of veterinary involvement in food safety has been in meat hygiene at the level of the slaughterhouse. While this role continues, the emerging 'risk-based' approach to food control requires increased involvement in other segments of the meat food chain, as well as other areas such as production of milk and fish. This more extensive role requires a wider skill base and establishment of effective networks with a different range of stakeholders.

  9. 77 FR 20826 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 22599), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance. Comments on the draft... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.''...

  10. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  11. Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  12. 77 FR 22358 - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657), 29 CFR part 1911, and Secretary's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preparations for the 23rd Session of the UN Sub-Committee of... Stakeholder Input for the Regulatory Coordination Council (RCC) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and...

  13. Safety assessment of castoreum extract as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, G A

    2007-01-01

    Castoreum extract (CAS NO. 8023-83-4; FEMA NO. 2261) is a natural product prepared by direct hot-alcohol extraction of castoreum, the dried and macerated castor sac scent glands (and their secretions) from the male or female beaver. It has been used extensively in perfumery and has been added to food as a flavor ingredient for at least 80 years. Both the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regard castoreum extract as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that castoreum extract is nontoxic by both oral and dermal routes of administration and is not irritating or phototoxic to skin. Skin sensitization has not been observed in human subject tests. Castoreum extract possesses weak antibacterial activity. A long historical use of castoreum extract as a flavoring and fragrance ingredient has resulted in no reports of human adverse reactions. On the basis of this information, low-level, long-term exposure to castoreum extract does not pose a health risk. The objective of this review is to evaluate the safety-in-use of castoreum extract as a food ingredient.

  14. Strategies to evaluate the safety of bioengineered foods.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    A number of genetically modified (GM) crops bioengineered to express agronomic traits including herbicide resistance and insect tolerance have been commercialized. Safety studies conducted for the whole grains and food and feed fractions obtained from GM crops (i.e., bioengineered foods) bear similarities to and distinctive differences from those applied to substances intentionally added to foods (e.g., food ingredients). Similarities are apparent in common animal models, route of exposure, duration, and response variables typically assessed in toxicology studies. However, because of differences in the nutritional and physical properties of food ingredients and bioengineered foods and in the fundamental goals of the overall safety assessment strategies for these different classes of substances, there are recognizable differences in the individual components of the safety assessment process. The fundamental strategic difference is that the process for food ingredients is structured toward quantitative risk assessment whereas that for bioengineered foods is structured for the purpose of qualitative risk assessment. The strategy for safety assessment of bioengineered foods focuses on evaluating the safety of the transgenic proteins used to impart the desired trait or traits and to demonstrate compositional similarity between the grains of GM and non-GM comparator crops using analytical chemistry and, in some cases, feeding studies. Despite these differences, the similarities in the design of safety studies conducted with bioengineered foods should be recognized by toxicologists. The current paper reviews the basic principles of safety assessment for bioengineered foods and compares them with the testing strategies applied to typical food ingredients. From this comparison it can be seen that the strategies used to assess the safety of bioengineered foods are at least as robust as that used to assess the safety of typical food ingredients.

  15. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  16. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

  17. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  18. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.

  19. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks. PMID:26934423

  20. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... Society of Clinical Research Associates (SOCRA). The conference on FDA's clinical trial requirements is... relationships among FDA and clinical trial staff, investigators, and institutional review boards...

  1. The Food and Drug Administration and pragmatic clinical trials of marketed medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique L; Griffin, Joseph; Goldkind, Sara F; Zeitler, Emily P; Wing, Liz; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sherman, Rachel E

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials can help answer questions of comparative effectiveness for interventions routinely used in medical practice. Pragmatic clinical trials may examine outcomes of one or more marketed medical products, and they are heterogeneous in design and risk. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with protecting the rights, safety, and welfare of individuals enrolled in clinical investigations, as well as assuring the integrity of the data upon which approval of medical products is made. The Food and Drug Administration has broad jurisdiction over drugs and medical devices (whether or not they are approved for marketing), and as such, clinical investigations of these products are subject to applicable Food and Drug Administration regulations. While many pragmatic clinical trials will meet the criteria for an exemption from the requirements for an investigational new drug application or investigational device exemption, in general, all clinical investigations of medical products that fall under Food and Drug Administration jurisdiction must adhere to regulations for informed consent and review by an institutional review board. We are concerned that current Food and Drug Administration requirements for obtaining individual informed consent may deter or delay the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials intended to develop reliable evidence of comparative safety and effectiveness of approved medical products that are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Under current regulations, there are no described mechanisms to alter or waive informed consent to make it less burdensome or more practicable for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials. We recommend that the Food and Drug Administration establish a risk-based approach to obtaining informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials that would facilitate the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials without compromising the protection of enrolled individuals or the integrity of the resulting data.

  2. 21 CFR 20.3 - Certification and authentication of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification and authentication of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.3 Section 20.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... authentication of Food and Drug Administration records. (a) Upon request, the Food and Drug Administration...

  3. 21 CFR 20.29 - Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drug Administration files. 20.29 Section 20.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files. No person may withdraw records submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. All Food and Drug Administration records shall be retained by...

  4. Ch. 7: Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A safe and nutritious food supply is a vital component of food security. Food security, in a public health context, can be summarized as permanent access to a sufficient, safe, and nutritious food supply needed to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. The impacts of climate change on food produc...

  5. Development and Implementation of a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wheatley, Virginia; Schaffner, Donald; Bruhn, Christine; Blalock, Lydia; Maurer, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledge questionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…

  6. 76 FR 62073 - Guidance for Industry on Implementation of the Fee Provisions of the FDA Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Implementation of the Fee... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food Safety... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food...

  7. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57 Section 2.57 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services...

  8. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  9. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014-present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  10. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  11. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  12. [Food safety viewed from the registration and inspection agencies].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    When food safety is mentioned, people would think about food which is in compliance with Food Sanitation Act and standard, and edible food. Because there is difference in terms of food and additives standards between Japan and other countries, a variety of food cannot be imported from foreign countries to Japan. In addition, in 2006, with the introduction of the Positive List, which takes a close-up of pesticide remained in food and anti-biotic, we adopted an effective policy towards imported food which does not reach the national standards. On one hand, in order to ensure food safety, domestic producers, hotels, fast food stores, and restaurants all try to strengthen management on food quality and employees health. However, food poisoning happens frequently. Chemicals and natural poisoning play a part but the major part is played by micro-organism (bacteria). So it become more and more important to develop food safety policies to avoid harm from bad food. Therefore, as an authority with the responsibility of quarantine, inspection and registration, it is important to conduct food inspection and it is even more important to provide comprehensive suggestions. PMID:21720130

  13. Building food safety into the company culture: a look at Maple Leaf Foods.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jespersen; Huffman, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Maple Leaf Foods learned a hard lesson following its tragic 2008 Listeria outbreak that ended up taking the lives of 23 Canadians. The organization has since 2008 transformed its commitment to food safety with a strong drive and manifest in embedding sustainable food safety behaviours into the existing company culture. Its focus on combining technical risk analysis with behavioural sciences has led to the development and deployment of a food safety strategy deeply rooted in the company values and management commitment. Using five tactics described in this article the organization has been on a journey towards food safety transformation through adoption of best practices for people and systems. The approach to food safety has been one where food safety is treated as a non-competitive issue and Maple Leaf Foods have been open to sharing learning about what happened and how the organization will continue to take a leadership position in food safety to continuously raise the bar for food safety across the industry. Maple Leaf Foods has benefited tremendously by learning about best practice from numerous companies in North America and around the world. The authors believe this brief story will bring value to others as we continue to learn and improve.

  14. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  15. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  16. The safety and social acceptance of novel foods.

    PubMed

    Moseley, B E

    1999-09-15

    The regulatory processes employed in the UK and the European Union to assess the safety of novel foods and novel food ingredients, including those resulting from the application of recombinant DNA technology (genetically modified foods), are described. Examples are given of yeasts that have been genetically modified and can be used in food and drink manufacture and food enzymes derived from genetically modified microorganisms that have been deemed safe for use by the UK regulatory system. Social acceptance of such novel foods or food ingredients is not uniform in countries of the developed world. Consumer concerns can be based on ethical considerations (scientists "playing God") or safety worries ("more testing needs to be done"). The general acceptance of such foods and food ingredients in Europe is still unclear.

  17. 78 FR 44574 - Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Third Annual Food and Drug Administration Health.... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  18. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Health Professional... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of...

  19. 76 FR 50484 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for Pivotal Clinical Investigations for Medical Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 76 FR 61366 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to Increase Transparency By Promoting Greater Access to the Agency's Compliance and Enforcement Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice...

  1. Food Safety-Related Aspects of Parasites in Foods.

    PubMed

    Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2015-01-01

    As natural foods derive from soil or water environments, they may contain the infective stages of parasites endemic to these environments. Infective stages may enter the human food supply via infected animal hosts so there is a need for increased awareness of the impact of parasites on the food supply. Safe handling of food and good kitchen hygiene can prevent or reduce the risk posed by contaminated foodstuffs. In addition, parasites cannot cause a health problem in any thoroughly cooked foods.

  2. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  3. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  4. A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leon, Marco A; Paz, Esmeralda

    2014-08-01

    Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety.

  5. A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leon, Marco A; Paz, Esmeralda

    2014-08-01

    Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety. PMID:24122602

  6. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  7. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  8. 49 CFR 1.53 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline... to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. The Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration is delegated authority for...

  9. 49 CFR 1.53 - Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to the Administrator of the Pipeline... to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. The Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration is delegated authority for...

  10. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  11. FDA reform floated in DC. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Hodel, D

    1995-06-01

    Legislative proposals to reform the mandate of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are underway in Washington. An ad hoc coalition has been formed by many leading AIDS groups to participate in the debate. The group is drafting principles for evaluating FDA reform proposals from the standpoint of people with life-threatening disease. Items under discussion for the reform include shifting more efficacy studies to a post-marketing setting. This would enable drugs to reach the market much faster; however, the risks are greater because more people will be taking the drugs with less data about hazards. Another measure would utilize local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to review proposals for the early human testing (phase I clinical trials) on drugs. In addition, a measure was proposed that would privatize certain drug safety reviews, by relegating them to independent testing or accrediting institutions. Another measure would permit the promotion of FDA-approved drugs for off-label uses. A measure to impose statutory time limits on FDA review is also under discussion. Finally, the possible removal of export barriers for non-FDA-approved drugs is under review.

  12. Agency perspectives on food safety for the products of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Howard, H J; Jones, K M; Rudenko, L

    2012-08-01

    Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a comprehensive risk assessment to identify potential food consumption or animal health risks associated with animal cloning, an emerging ART. At that time, FDA concluded that animal cloning posed no unique risks either to animal health or to food consumption, and food from animal clones and their sexually reproduced offspring required no additional federal regulation beyond that applicable to conventionally bred animals of the species examined. At this time, no new information has arisen that would necessitate a change in FDA's conclusions on food from animal clones or their sexually reproduced offspring. Use of recombinant DNA technologies to produce genetically engineered (GE) animals represents another emerging technology with potential to impact food animal production. In its regulation of GE animals, FDA follows a cumulative, risk-based approach to address scientific questions related to the GE animals. FDA evaluates data and information on the safety, effectiveness and stability of the GE event. FDA carries out its review at several levels (e.g. molecular biology, animal safety, food safety, environmental safety and claim validation). GE animal sponsors provide data to address risk questions for each level. This manuscript discusses FDA's role in evaluation of animal cloning and GE animals.

  13. Practice-specific risk perceptions and self-reported food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alan S; Choinière, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between risk perception and risk avoidance is typically analyzed using self-reported measures. However, in domains such as driving or food handling, the validity of responses about usual behavior is threatened because people think about the situations in which they are self-aware, such as when they encounter a hazard. Indeed, researchers have often noted a divergence between what people say about their behavior and how they actually behave. Thus, in order to draw conclusions about risk perceptions and risk avoidance from survey data, it is important to identify particular cognitive elements, such as those measured by questions about risk and safety knowledge, risk perceptions, or information search behavior, which may be effective antecedents of self-reported safety behavior. It is also important to identify and correct for potential sources of bias that may exist in the data. The authors analyze the Food and Drug Administration's 1998 Food Safety Survey to determine whether there are consistent cognitive antecedents for three types of safe food practices: preparation, eating, and cooling of foods. An assessment of measurement biases shows that endogeneity of food choices affects reports of food preparation. In addition, response bias affects reports of cooling practices as evidenced by its relation to knowledge and information search, a pattern of cognitive effects unique to cooling practices. After correcting for these biases, results show that practice-specific risk perceptions are the primary cognitive antecedents of safe food behavior, which has implications for the design of effective education messages about food safety.

  14. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  15. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  17. cDNA microarray screening in food safety.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-04-01

    The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests.

  18. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  19. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  20. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  1. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    PubMed

    Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment.

  2. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  3. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  4. 77 FR 26287 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... to support public health policy. The goal of JIFSAN is to advance sound strategies that improve... administrative structure and policies of UMCP-JIFSAN offer the flexibility needed to create and operate strategic... outreach programs that foster implementation of effective food safety practices (i.e., Good...

  5. Prerequisite programs and food hygiene in hospitals: food safety knowledge and practices of food service staff in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bas, Murat; Temel, Mehtap Akçil; Ersun, Azmi Safak; Kivanç, Gökhan

    2005-04-01

    Our objective was to determine food safety practices related to prerequisite program implementation in hospital food services in Turkey. Staff often lack basic food hygiene knowledge. Problems of implementing HACCP and prerequisite programs in hospitals include lack of food hygiene management training, lack of financial resources, and inadequate equipment and environment.

  6. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  7. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future.

  8. Proteomics in food: Quality, safety, microbes, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Piras, Cristian; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Bonizzi, Luigi; Soggiu, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Food safety and quality and their associated risks pose a major concern worldwide regarding not only the relative economical losses but also the potential danger to consumer's health. Customer's confidence in the integrity of the food supply could be hampered by inappropriate food safety measures. A lack of measures and reliable assays to evaluate and maintain a good control of food characteristics may affect the food industry economy and shatter consumer confidence. It is imperative to create and to establish fast and reliable analytical methods that allow a good and rapid analysis of food products during the whole food chain. Proteomics can represent a powerful tool to address this issue, due to its proven excellent quantitative and qualitative drawbacks in protein analysis. This review illustrates the applications of proteomics in the past few years in food science focusing on food of animal origin with some brief hints on other types. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this science as a valuable tool to assess food quality and safety. Emphasis is also posed in food processing, allergies, and possible contaminants like bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens.

  9. The Pacific Family and Food Safety: A Food Guide into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mary Elaine; Aguon, Jane M.

    The Food Safety First Program in Guam and the Marianas, sponsored in part by the United States Department of Agriculture, assesses the food safety behavior of the local population, and uses the results to develop educational programs. The thriving of bacteria in the local climate places extra importance on educating the population on the necessity…

  10. Food Safety Should Come 1st on The 4th

    MedlinePlus

    ... for food safety at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). "This is likely because people are spending ... degrees, the USDA says. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, news release, June 27, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  11. High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

    2009-12-01

    Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

  12. Consumer food safety perceptions and practices in a Turkish community.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Kaptan, Meltem

    2011-11-01

    Research has shown that most reported foodborne outbreaks are caused by food prepared and consumed at home, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer food safety knowledge. In this study, 2,000 randomly selected residents from Çanakkale, Turkey, participated in face-to-face interviews to assess their food safety perceptions and practices. Questions covered the attention given to expiration dates, safety certificates, and food additives during shopping; consumption of high-risk foods; safe food handling; storage knowledge; and their source of food safety knowledge. Statistical analyses were done to clarify the differences according to three main aspects: gender, age, and educational level. Results showed that women and middle-aged respondents were significantly more careful during shopping and more interested in food safety issues than men and younger individuals. A significant relationship was found between gender and consumption of high-risk foods, with men consuming more of these foods than women. Furthermore, high-risk foods were more frequently consumed by young participants than by older participants, with more highly educated consumers shopping more consciously. Although most respondents appeared to know proper food handling and storage practices, almost all participants lacked some information on some issues. In order to remove these deficiencies, a brochure was prepared and distributed to people in various parts of the city. In addition, public seminars were organized. However, to ensure that this information results in positive attitude and behavioral changes, seminars should be repeated at specific intervals, and education procedures and processes should be controlled regularly. PMID:22054195

  13. FDA publishes conflict of interest rules for clinical trials. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published new rules defining conflict of interests between drug companies and medical researchers and clinicians. Certain financial arrangements will need to be disclosed, although the FDA estimates that only one to ten percent of pharmaceutical companies will need to submit disclosures for one or more of their investigators. The purpose of the new rule is to prevent bias in safety and efficacy studies of drugs and medical devices. The full rule is published in the Federal Register.

  14. The Food and Drug Administration's initiative for safe design and effective use of home medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Weick-Brady, Mary; Singh, Simran

    2014-06-01

    Although home-use medical devices provide significant benefits, including improved quality of life and cost savings, they are associated with unique risks. These risks result from interactions among the user, the use environment, and the device, and they can greatly impact user and patient safety. This article describes measures being taken by the Food and Drug Administration to address safe use of medical equipment by trained and untrained people outside of clinical facilities.

  15. Safety assessment of food products from r-DNA animals.

    PubMed

    Lema, Martin A; Burachik, Moises

    2009-03-01

    Recombinant-DNA (transgenic) animals intended for food production are approaching the market. Among them, recombinant-DNA fishes constitute the most advanced case. As a result, intergovernmental organizations are working on guidelines which would eventually become international standards for national food safety assessments of these products. This article reviews the emerging elements for the food safety assessment of products derived from recombinant-DNA animals. These elements will become highly relevant both for researchers and regulators interested in developing or analyzing recombinant-DNA animals intended to be used in the commercial elaboration of food products. It also provides references to science-based tools that can be used to support food safety assessments. Finally, it proposes recommendations for the further development of biosafety assessment methodologies in this area.

  16. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  17. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  18. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations. PMID:27357041

  19. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  20. Improving the safety of street-vended food.

    PubMed

    Moy, G; Hazzard, A; Käferstein, F

    1997-01-01

    An integrated plan of action for improving street food involving health and other regulatory authorities, vendors and consumers should address not only food safety, but also environmental health management, including consideration of inadequate sanitation and waste management, possible environmental pollution, congestion and disturbances to traffic. However, WHO cautions that, in view of their importance in the diets of urban populations, particularly the socially disadvantaged, every effort should be made to preserve the benefits provided by varied, inexpensive and often nutritious street food. Therefore, authorities concerned with street food management must balance efforts aimed at reducing the negative aspects on the environment with the benefits of street food and its important role in the community. Health authorities charged with responsibility for food safety control should match risk management action to the level of assessed risk. The rigorous application of codes and enforcement of regulations more suited to larger and permanent food service establishments is unlikely to be justifiable. Such rigorous application of codes and regulations may result in disappearance of the trade with consequent aggravation of hunger and malnutrition. Moreover, most codes and regulations have not been based on any systematic identification and assessment of health hazards associated with different types of foods and operations as embodied in the HACCP approach which has been recognized by Codex as the most cost-effective means for promoting food safety. WHO encourages the development of regulations that empower vendors to take greater responsibility for the preparation of safe food, and of codes of practice based on the HACCP system.

  1. The food safety perspective of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    McDermott, P F; Zhao, S; Wagner, D D; Simjee, S; Walker, R D; White, D G

    2002-05-01

    Bacterial antimicrobial resistance in both the medical and agricultural fields has become a serious problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria are an increasing threat to animal and human health, with resistance mechanisms having been identified and described for all known antimicrobials currently available for clinical use. There is currently increased public and scientific interest regarding the administration of therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antimicrobials to animals, due primarily to the emergence and dissemination of multiple antibiotic resistant zoonotic bacterial pathogens. This issue has been the subject of heated debates for many years, however, there is still no complete consensus on the significance of antimicrobial use in animals, or resistance in bacterial isolates from animals, on the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among human bacterial pathogens. In fact, the debate regarding antimicrobial use in animals and subsequent human health implications has been going on for over 30 years, beginning with the release of the Swann report in the United Kingdom. The latest report released by the National Research Council (1998) confirmed that there were substantial information gaps that contribute to the difficulty of assessing potential detrimental effects of antimicrobials in food animals on human health. Regardless of the controversy, bacterial pathogens of animal and human origin are becoming increasingly resistant to most frontline antimicrobials, including expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and even fluoroquinolones. The lion's share of these antimicrobial resistant phenotypes is gained from extra-chromosomal genes that may impart resistance to an entire antimicrobial class. In recent years, a number of these resistance genes have been associated with large, transferable, extra-chromosomal DNA elements, called plasmids, on which may be other DNA mobile elements, such as transposons and integrons

  2. Food Safety for People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... long periods in steam tables or at room temperature and time and/or temperature abused foods. • Meats, meat products, poultry, poultry products, ... rarely. Listeria monocytogenes Can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures Associ at ed Food s Symptoms and Potential Impact • ...

  3. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health.... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a conference for representatives of health.... Contact Person: Janelle Derbis, Office of Special Health Issues, Food and Drug Administration, 10903...

  4. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  5. 75 FR 74063 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration... Supplemental Application AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a program expansion of its Conference...

  6. 76 FR 70150 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Investigational Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration..., Including Certain First in Human Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  7. 78 FR 13348 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Science Board to the Food and... that a meeting of the Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration would be held on February...

  8. 75 FR 15439 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in co-sponsorship with...

  9. 75 FR 11893 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Task Force; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Task Force; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is soliciting comments from interested persons on ways...

  10. 77 FR 39498 - Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Computer-Assisted Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Approval and Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  11. 78 FR 30317 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be...

  12. 21 CFR 19.10 - Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board. 19.10 Section 19.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST General Provisions § 19.10 Food and Drug Administration Conflict of...

  13. 21 CFR 19.10 - Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board. 19.10 Section 19.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST General Provisions § 19.10 Food and Drug Administration Conflict of...

  14. 21 CFR 20.28 - Food and Drug Administration determinations of confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration determinations of confidentiality. 20.28 Section 20.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.28 Food and Drug Administration determinations of confidentiality. A...

  15. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  16. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  17. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  18. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  19. 21 CFR 20.111 - Data and information submitted voluntarily to the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data and information submitted voluntarily to the Food and Drug Administration. 20.111 Section 20.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Records § 20.111 Data and information submitted voluntarily to the Food and Drug Administration. (a)...

  20. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  1. An Open and Scalable Learning Infrastructure for Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouselis, Nikos; Thanopoulos, Charalampos; Vignare, Karen; Geith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, a variety of approaches and tools have been developed for giving access to open educational resources (OER) related to food safety, security, and food standards, as well to various targeted audiences (e.g., farmers, agronomists). The aim of this paper is to present a technology infrastructure currently in demonstration…

  2. Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Gasson, M; Burke, D

    2001-03-01

    Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

  3. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    PubMed

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  4. Enhancing food-safety education through shared teaching resources.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    The American public is concerned about food safety, and there is a growing realization that we are ill equipped to handle major food-borne illness outbreaks and bioterrorism. Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring the safety of our nation's food supply, we would like to present to veterinary and public health educators a newly emerging resource for food-safety educational materials. This article describes an integrative collaborative approach for the creation and dissemination of engaging food-safety teaching resources for veterinary faculty. This USDA-funded project, Design to Dissemination: Developing Materials and Repository for Integrative Veterinary Food Safety Education, involves expert teachers in diverse fields and from many veterinary schools. The purpose of the project is to create materials that teach students food safety from farm to fork, and it offers teachers clinically relevant teaching resources that are difficult to create or locate. The educational materials are being created as smaller "building blocks" of content, commonly referred to as "learning objects" (LOs), focused on individual learning objectives. These learning objects are placed in the Veterinary Food Safety Education Learning Object Repository, where they are catalogued, stored, and kept accessible and where faculty can search, evaluate, and download teaching materials to use in their courses. In this way the learning objects can be more easily shared and reused or repurposed for other courses and applications. With this article we hope to excite faculty in veterinary schools and public-health programs and encourage them to use the repository and participate in piloting the educational materials.

  5. Food safety and inspection service update on food safety of animals derived from biotechnology experiments.

    PubMed

    Basu, P; Masters, B; Patel, B; Urban, O

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of biotechnology and the production of transgenic livestock has raised a question regarding the need for the regulation of these animals. There is also the need to regulate nontransgenic animals resulting from transgenic animal research. It is anticipated that several governmental agencies will be involved in regulatory issues pertaining to these animals. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) will ultimately be responsible for ensuring that transgenic animals intended for human consumption are wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled. The FSIS has implemented a program for the regulation of slaughtering nontransgenic animals resulting from transgenic animal experiments. However, the FSIS has not yet approved any transgenic livestock for slaughter. Scientists from the FSIS, in conjunction with other government agencies, are currently developing guidelines for the slaughter of transgenic animals.

  6. Food safety educational intervention positively influences college students' food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and self-reported practices.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Linda; Remig, Valentina M; Higgins, Mary Meck

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated college students' food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and self-reported practices and explored whether these variables were positively influenced by educational intervention. Students (n=59), were mostly seniors, health or non-health majors, and responsible for meal preparation. Subjects completed a food safety questionnaire (FSQ) prior to educational intervention, which consisted of three interactive modules. Subjects completed module pre-, post-, and post-posttests. The FSQ was also administered after exposure to intervention and five weeks later to determine changes in food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and self-reported practices. Students' FSQ attitude scores increased from 114 to 122 (p < or = .001); FSQ belief and knowledge scores improved from 86 to 98 (p < or = .001) and from 11 to 13 (p < or = .001), respectively. Food safety knowledge was also measured by module pre- and posttests, and improved significantly after intervention for all students, with health majors having the greatest increase. Intervention resulted in improved food safety self-reported practices for health majors only. The educational intervention appeared effective in improving food safety beliefs and knowledge. For health majors, attitudes and some self-reported practices improved. For all areas, the strongest effects were seen in health majors.

  7. Food Safety for People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,300 types) Associated Foods Raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juice ... made with raw milk; and raw or undercooked eggs, raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, raw shellfish ...

  8. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not refrigerated or frozen and will stay fresh without refrigeration for about 18 months. Canned meats ... dish is empty or nearly empty, replace with fresh container of food, removing the previous container. Place ...

  9. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where to Place the Food Thermometer Recommended Internal Temperatures Is egg cookery affected at high altitudes? Is ... atmospheric pressure — affects both the time and the temperature of most everything that's cooked. Where the altitude ...

  10. Food safety concerns in the U.S. and research on Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., there are several government agencies that deal with food safety. Under the Department of Health and Human Services, there are the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC collaborates with state agencies, private organizatio...

  11. 78 FR 55728 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... workshop regarding FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research professional... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  12. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-02-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned "Pusztai affair" and the recent "Seralini case." These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food.

  13. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khairuzzaman, Md.; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md. Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. PMID:26904635

  14. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

    2007-04-01

    Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population.

  15. The safety and regulatory status of food, drug and cosmetics colour additives exempt from certification.

    PubMed

    Hallagan, J B; Allen, D C; Borzelleca, J F

    1995-06-01

    Colour additives exempt from certification (also known as 'natural colour additives') are commonly used in the United States to colour foods, drugs and cosmetics. The US Food and Drug Administration established regulations governing the use of these colour additives, and the labelling of the products that contain them. The safety of these colour additives has been demonstrated by safety testing programs that have yielded a significant amount of toxicology data, and also by a long and well documented history of safe use in the United States and elsewhere. In this report we review the data supporting the safety of the colour additives that are exempt from certification and approved for use in the USA, and conclude that the safety of these colour additives is well supported by the available data. Relevant aspects of the regulation of these colour additives are also described. PMID:7797179

  16. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  17. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  18. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  19. 21 CFR 170.105 - The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.105 The Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) determination that a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN) is no longer effective....

  20. [Global trends of food safety information associated with chemicals in food].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Uneyama, Chikako; Toda, Miou; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a number of food safety problems have frequently arisen and consumer concerns have drastically increased. In order to meet these concerns, we have been publishing a biweekly bulletin called "Food Safety Information" since April 2003, monitoring the latest information from overseas on food safety. In this paper, we analyze the recent trends of information on food chemicals in the bulletin published between April 2003 and March 2005 in order to clarify the problems that need to be followed up. Among the 1,199 entries on food chemicals included in the bulletin, about 50% were from the EU and European organizations such as the FSA (UK). Approximately 20% of the total information focused on food contaminants such as heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs and mycotoxins. Scientific evidence-based information on dietary supplements and herb products was also suggested to be important to protect public health as well as food contaminants. We monitor the latest information on food safety constantly and continuously, which is important for long-term follow up of food safety issues of concern. We also provide the bulletin to the general public through the website as well as to researchers and risk managers. PMID:16541754

  1. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods.

  2. We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Food safety and sanitation during an extended mission.

    PubMed

    Hentges, D L

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for future Lunar/Mars habitats, a food system is being developed at NASA-JSC to provide Advanced Life Support for long-duration missions. As much as 90% of the food consumed on these missions is expected to be grown, processed, and prepared in space. Conversion of crops to edible foods will require extensive food processing within the closed environment of the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support System Test Complex (BIO-Plex). Identification of hazards and critical control points associated with water recycling, biomass management, use of multifunctional equipment, and possible concentration of toxic substances in the closed system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A food safety analysis, using a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, was conducted to identify potential hazards and critical control points during food processing of BIO-Plex-produced lettuce and wheat.

  4. Food safety and sanitation during an extended mission.

    PubMed

    Hentges, D L

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for future Lunar/Mars habitats, a food system is being developed at NASA-JSC to provide Advanced Life Support for long-duration missions. As much as 90% of the food consumed on these missions is expected to be grown, processed, and prepared in space. Conversion of crops to edible foods will require extensive food processing within the closed environment of the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support System Test Complex (BIO-Plex). Identification of hazards and critical control points associated with water recycling, biomass management, use of multifunctional equipment, and possible concentration of toxic substances in the closed system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A food safety analysis, using a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, was conducted to identify potential hazards and critical control points during food processing of BIO-Plex-produced lettuce and wheat. PMID:11541545

  5. Demystifying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: I. Understanding agency structure and function.

    PubMed

    Levi, Benjamin; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Rubin, Peter; D'Amico, Richard A; Hume, Keith M; Seward, Bill; Cederna, Paul S

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for oversight of the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and devices, including biologics and devices that combine biologics with other materials. Within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is specifically responsible for the evaluation and approval of biological products. This department of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a series of mechanisms in place to aid researchers in the process of developing new biologics. This article outlines the study phases involved in developing new biologics and how the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and investigators can work together to facilitate this process. It also discusses issues specific to biologics that have been encountered in the past and that investigators should consider when developing and obtaining approval for new biologics. The equivalent center within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approving medical devices is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The equivalent process of development and approval of medical devices is similarly discussed. Finally, essential contacts for investigators within the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health are provided.

  6. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  7. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided. PMID:23489044

  8. Food reformulations for improved health: A potential risk for microbial food safety?

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2007-01-01

    While much information is available concerning the health promoting benefits associated with dietary reformulations (e.g. replacing sugar with aspartame and salt (NaCl) with KCl), to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease, potential food safety risks arising from such reformulations have received considerably less attention. Reformulation inevitably changes the intrinsic physico-chemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of food-borne pathogens and ultimately their ability to cause disease. Thus, a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation for increased health are required. PMID:17452083

  9. Food reformulations for improved health: A potential risk for microbial food safety?

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2007-01-01

    While much information is available concerning the health promoting benefits associated with dietary reformulations (e.g. replacing sugar with aspartame and salt (NaCl) with KCl), to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease, potential food safety risks arising from such reformulations have received considerably less attention. Reformulation inevitably changes the intrinsic physico-chemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of food-borne pathogens and ultimately their ability to cause disease. Thus, a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation for increased health are required.

  10. Zohydro approval by food and drug administration: controversial or frightening?

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Atluri, Sairam; Candido, Kenneth D; Boswell, Mark V; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Grider, Jay S; Falco, Frank J E; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    The actions and regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are crucial to the entire population of the U.S., specifically the public who take a multitude of drugs and providers who prescribe drugs and devices. Further, the FDA is relevant to investors, specifically in regards to biotech and pharmaceutical companies involved in developing new drugs. The FDA has been criticized for a lack of independence on the one hand and excessive regulatory and expanding authority without evidence and consistency of the actions on the other hand. The FDA approved a single-entity, long-acting, hydrocodone product (Zohydro, Zogenix, San Diego, CA) on October 25, 2013, against the recommendation of the FDA's own appointed scientific advisory panel, which voted 11 to 2 against the approval of Zohydro. Subsequent to the approval, multiple consumer safety organizations, health care agencies, addiction treatment providers, professional organizations, and other groups on the frontline of the opioid addiction epidemic have expressed concern. In addition, the US Congress and various state attorneys general raised serious concerns about the approval of Zohydro, which is highly addictive and may enhance the opioid addiction epidemic. Supporters of Zohydro contend that it is necessary and essential to manage chronic pain and improve functional status with no additional risk. Over the past 15 years, prescriptions for opioids have skyrocketed with the United States consuming more than 84% of the global oxycodone and more than 99% of the hydrocodone supply. The sharp increase in opioid prescribing has led to parallel increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths, surpassing motor vehicle injuries in the U.S. Recent studies assessing the trends of medical use and misuse of opioid analgesics from 2000 to 2011 have concluded that the present trend of the continued increase in the medical use of opioid analgesics appears to contribute to increasing misuse, resulting in multiple health

  11. Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety?

    PubMed

    Franz, C M; Holzapfel, W H; Stiles, M E

    1999-03-01

    Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria and fit within the general definition of lactic acid bacteria. Modern classification techniques resulted in the transfer of some members of the genus Streptococcus, notably some of the Lancefield's group D streptococci, to the new genus Enterococcus. Enterococci can be used as indicators of faecal contamination. They have been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness, and they have been ascribed a beneficial or detrimental role in foods. In processed meats, enterococci may survive heat processing and cause spoilage, though in certain cheeses the growth of enterococci contributes to ripening and development of product flavour. Some enterococci of food origin produce bacteriocins that exert anti-Listeria activity. Enterococci are used as probiotics to improve the microbial balance of the intestine, or as a treatment for gastroenteritis in humans and animals. On the other hand, enterococci have become recognised as serious nosocomial pathogens causing bacteraemia, endocarditis, urinary tract and other infections. This is in part explained by the resistance of some of these bacteria to most antibiotics that are currently in use. Resistance is acquired by gene transfer systems, such as conjugative or nonconjugative plasmids or transposons. Virulence of enterococci is not well understood but adhesins, haemolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance and gelatinase are putative virulence factors. It appears that foods could be a source of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. This review addresses the issue of the health risk of foods containing enterococci. PMID:10357269

  12. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. Most bacteria do not grow rapidly at temperatures below 40 °F or above 140 °F. The temperature range in between is known as the "Danger Zone." Bacteria multiply rapidly at these temperatures and can reach dangerous levels after 2 hours ( ...

  13. Sensors for Food Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

    Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.

  14. INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

  15. Food safety attitudes in college students: a structural equation modeling analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter

    2013-01-30

    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  16. High pressure processing for food safety.

    PubMed

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Windyga, B; Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M; Pietrzak, D; Prestamo, G

    2005-01-01

    Food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers numerous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. High pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. The resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type of microorganism. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria are more resistant to pressure than Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts; the most resistant are bacterial spores. The nature of the food is also important, as it may contain substances which protect the microorganism from high pressure. This article presents results of our studies involving the effect of high pressure on survival of some pathogenic bacteria -- Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus hirae -- in artificially contaminated cooked ham, ripening hard cheese and fruit juices. The results indicate that in samples of investigated foods the number of these microorganisms decreased proportionally to the pressure used and the duration of treatment, and the effect of these two factors was statistically significant (level of probability, P

  17. 76 FR 78931 - Food and Drug Administration Rare Disease Patient Advocacy Day; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Rare Disease Patient Advocacy Day; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug... Disease Patient Advocacy Day. This meeting is intended to enhance the awareness of the rare...

  18. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Division of Freedom of Information Public Reading Room...

  19. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Division of Freedom of Information Public Reading Room...

  20. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Freedom of Information Staff's Public Reading Room...

  1. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Division of Freedom of Information Public Reading Room...

  2. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Freedom of Information Staff's Public Reading Room...

  3. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  4. A portable array biosensor for food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joel P.; Ngundi, Miriam M.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2004-11-01

    An array biosensor developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples has been utilized to develop assays for toxins and pathogens in a variety of foods. The biochemical component of the multi-analyte biosensor consists of a patterned array of biological recognition elements immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide. A fluorescence assay is performed on the patterned surface, yielding an array of fluorescent spots, the locations of which are used to identify what analyte is present. Signal transduction is accomplished by means of a diode laser for fluorescence excitation, optical filters and a CCD camera for image capture. A laptop computer controls the miniaturized fluidics system and image capture. Results for four mycotoxin competition assays in buffer and food samples are presented.

  5. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  6. FDA seeks temporary blood donor changes. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested that blood collection agencies exclude donors at risk of Group O HIV, following two cases identified in 1996. Group O is very rare in the United States. Blood donors would be excluded if they were born or lived in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Niger or Nigeria since 1977, or had sexual conduct with anyone traveling to those areas. The number of excluded donors would be minute.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  8. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  9. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  14. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  15. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  16. DNA microarray technology in nutraceutical and food safety.

    PubMed

    Liu-Stratton, Yiwen; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-04-15

    The quality and quantity of diet is a key determinant of health and disease. Molecular diagnostics may play a key role in food safety related to genetically modified foods, food-borne pathogens and novel nutraceuticals. Functional outcomes in biology are determined, for the most part, by net balance between sets of genes related to the specific outcome in question. The DNA microarray technology offers a new dimension of strength in molecular diagnostics by permitting the simultaneous analysis of large sets of genes. Automation of assay and novel bioinformatics tools make DNA microarrays a robust technology for diagnostics. Since its development a few years ago, this technology has been used for the applications of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, cell biology, and clinical investigations addressing the prevention and intervention of diseases. Optimization of this technology to specifically address food safety is a vast resource that remains to be mined. Efforts to develop diagnostic custom arrays and simplified bioinformatics tools for field use are warranted.

  17. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

  18. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  19. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex. PMID:25163209

  20. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  1. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  2. 75 FR 31450 - Memorandum of Understanding by and Between the United States Food and Drug Administration and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Food and Drug Administration and the International Anesthesia Research Society for the Safety of Key... memorandum of understanding (MOU) between FDA and the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS). The... their shared interest of promoting the safe use of anesthetics and sedatives in children. DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 41267 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and MEDSCAPE, LLC and WEBMD LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is providing notice of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between FDA and MEDSCAPE, LLC AND WEBMD LLC. The purpose of the MOU is to complement FDA's capacity to educate and communicate with health care professionals. It will also promote the timely dissemination to health care professionals of accurate information on public health and emerging safety......

  4. 78 FR 14305 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Types of Communication During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... efficiency of the review process. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time. DATES... review process between FDA and industry for specific medical device premarket submissions. Further... recommendations for MDUFA III, Title II of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Public...

  5. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.94 The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) In highway safety, setting uniform guidelines for a coordinated...

  6. US Food and Drug Administration regulations governing label claims for food products, including probiotics.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Leila G

    2008-02-01

    The US Congress has granted the Food and Drug Administration the authority to permit manufacturers to use claims in food labels that fit into the following broad categories: health claims, structure/function claims, nutrient content claims, and dietary guidance messages. This article outlines the scope and evolution of these claims and how they are used in the marketing of probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut.

  7. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  8. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  9. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  10. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-01

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  11. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-01

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  12. Food safety and products from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Reilly, A; Käferstein, F

    1998-12-01

    Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production systems in the world with production increasing at an average rate of 9.6% per year over the past decade. As world fish stocks are reaching the limits of exploitation, we shall rely to a far greater extent on products from aquaculture as food sources of high nutritional value. Approximately 90% of global aquaculture production is based in Asia, where it provides an important source of dietary animal protein of the region and income for millions of small-scale farmers. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many producing countries, where highly valued species are a major source of foreign. Many different aquaculture systems exist world wide, ranging from small family-sized fish ponds to intensive cage culture industries as used in salmon fishing. There has been an expansion in the use of integrated farming systems, especially in Asia, where animal and human faeces are used to fertilise ponds. This paper will review global aquaculture systems used in the production of finfish and crustaceans and will focus on potential hazards arising from biological contamination of products that pose risks to public health.

  13. Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Desmarchelier, P. M.; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Barnes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftover items being stored at ambient temperature until required. In the house that prepared food for distribution, breakfast was prepared during the evening, stored at ambient temperature overnight, and reheated before sale the next morning. There was a local preference for cooking food at temperatures close to boiling point; this reduced the numbers of vegetative cells but not those of spores. In some stored foods the populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and mesophilic aerobic bacteria increased, the last-mentioned reaching spoilage levels. Reheating reduced the populations of proliferating bacteria in most foods to acceptable levels but would not have destroyed heat-resistant enterotoxins. Because of their importance in combating acute bacterial foodborne disease, the control of the temperature and time factors during the cooking and storage of food should receive special attention in education on health and food safety. PMID:7867133

  14. BSE situation and establishment of Food Safety Commission in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong

    2006-01-01

    Eight major policies were implemented by Japanese Government since Oct. 2001, to deal with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). These are; 1) Surveillance in farm by veterinarian, 2) Prion test at healthy 1.3mi cows/yr, by veterinarian, 3) Elimination of specified risk material (SRM), 4) Ban of MBM for production, sale use, 5) Prion test for fallen stocks, 6) Transparent information and traceability, 7) New Measures such as Food Safety Basic Law, and 8) Establish of Food Safety Commission in the Cabinet Office. At this moment, the extent of SRM risk has only been indicated by several reports employing tests with a limited sensitivity. There is still a possibility that the items in the SRM list will increase in the future, and this indiscriminately applies to Japanese cattle as well. Although current practices of SRM elimination partially guarantee total food safety, additional latent problems and imminent issues remain as potential headaches to be addressed. If the index of SRM elimination cannot guarantee reliable food safety, we have but to resort to total elimination of tissues from high risk-bearing and BSE-infected animals. However, current BSE tests have their limitations and can not yet completely detect high-risk and/or infected animals. Under such circumstances, tissues/wastes and remains of diseased, affected fallen stocks and cohort animals have to be eliminated to prevent BSE invading the human food chain systems. The failure to detect any cohort should never be allowed to occur, and with regular and persistent updating of available stringent records, we are at least adopting the correct and useful approach as a reawakening strategy to securing food safety. In this perspective, traceability based on a National Identification System is required. PMID:16434842

  15. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  16. 5 CFR 5201.105 - Additional rules for Mine Safety and Health Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Health Administration employees. 5201.105 Section 5201.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Mine Safety and Health Administration employees. The rules in this section apply to employees of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and are in addition to §§ 5201.101, 5201.102,...

  17. Hyperspectral imaging for safety inspection of food and agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Chen, Yud-Ren

    1999-01-01

    Development of effective food inspection systems is critical in successful implementation of the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) program. Hyperspectral imaging or imaging spectroscopy, which combines techniques of imaging and spectroscopy to acquire spatial and spectral information simultaneously, has great potential in food quality and safety inspection. This paper reviewed the basic principle and features of hyperspectral imaging and its hardware and software implementation. The potential areas of application for hyperspectral imaging in food quality and safety inspection were identified and its limitations were discussed. A hyperspectral imaging system developed for research in food quality and safety inspection was described. Experiments were performed to acquire hyperspectral images from four classes of poultry carcasses: normal, cadaver, septicemia, and tumor. Noticeable differences in the spectra of the relative reflectance and its second difference in the wavelengths between 430 nm and 900 nm were observed between wholesome and unwholesome carcasses. Differences among the three classes of unwholesome carcasses were also observed from their respective spectra. These results showed that hyperspectral imaging can be an effective tool for safety inspection of poultry carcasses.

  18. Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintauro, Stephen J.; Krahl, Augusta G.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for…

  19. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  20. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions... compliance with applicable pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.18 Section...

  1. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  2. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  3. Potential of mass spectrometry metabolomics for chemical food safety.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Chéreau, Sylvain; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to describe the most significant applications of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the field of chemical food safety. A particular discussion of all the different analytical steps involved in the metabolomics workflow (sample preparation, mass spectrometry analytical platform and data processing) will be addressed.

  4. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  5. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  6. Bio-markers: traceability in food safety issues.

    PubMed

    Raspor, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Research and practice are focusing on development, validation and harmonization of technologies and methodologies to ensure complete traceability process throughout the food chain. The main goals are: scale-up, implementation and validation of methods in whole food chains, assurance of authenticity, validity of labelling and application of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) to the entire food chain. The current review is to sum the scientific and technological basis for ensuring complete traceability. Tracing and tracking (traceability) of foods are complex processes due to the (bio)markers, technical solutions and different circumstances in different technologies which produces various foods (processed, semi-processed, or raw). Since the food is produced for human or animal consumption we need suitable markers to be stable and traceable all along the production chain. Specific biomarkers can have a function in technology and in nutrition. Such approach would make this development faster and more comprehensive and would make possible that food effect could be monitored with same set of biomarkers in consumer. This would help to develop and implement food safety standards that would be based on real physiological function of particular food component.

  7. Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, F

    2001-08-01

    Genetic modification involves the insertion of genes from other organisms (within or between species) into host cells to select for desirable qualities. Potential benefits of GM foods include increased nutritional value; reduced allergenicity; pest and disease-resistance; and enhanced processing value. Possible detrimental outcomes include producing foods with novel toxins, allergens or reduced nutritional value, and development of antibiotic resistance or herbicide-resistant weeds. Benefits to individuals or populations need to be weighed against adverse health and environmental risks, and may differ between developing and Westernised countries. Whether testing and monitoring should exceed requirements for conventional foods is under debate. While not necessarily scientifically justifiable, consumer concerns have resulted in Australian and New Zealand requirements to label foods containing GM-produced proteins. Dissatisfied consumer advocacy groups are calling for all foods involving GM technology to be labelled, irrelevant of whether the final product contains novel protein. Goals to improve the quantity, quality and safety of foods are laudable; however, the primary aim of the bio-food industry is financial gain. GM foods may be as safe as conventional foods but public distrust runs high. It is important that discussion is informed by science and that claims of both benefits and risks are evidence-based, to ensure that the process is driven neither by the vested interest of the bio-technical multinational companies on the one hand, nor ill-informed public fears on the other.

  8. A strategy to establish Food Safety Model Repositories.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-07-01

    Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain.

  9. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. PMID:26614817

  10. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-12-05

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed.

  11. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  12. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  13. The safety assessment of foods from transgenic and cloned animals using the comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L

    2005-04-01

    The comparative approach to food safety assessment is based on the idea that the safety of a new food can largely be determined by its comparison to the benchmark of commonly consumed foods already in the food supply (also called the 'conventional counterpart'). Any differences between the new food and its conventional counterpart are evaluated to determine their relevance to human health and safety. In this way it is possible to conclude whether a new food is 'as safe as' conventional food already in the food supply. This approach, first developed primarily for use in the safety assessment of food from transgenic plants, is now generally accepted for food from both transgenic and cloned animals as well. This article outlines the basic principles behind the comparative approach, discusses some of the potential food safety concerns associated with transgenic and cloned animals, and describes important elements of the comparative approach and how these might be applied to assessing the safety of food from animals.

  14. The food safety of transgenic animals: implications from traditional breeding.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, D B

    1993-01-01

    The genetic events associated with traditional selection have implications for the food safety of transgenic animals. Selection has been empirical, relying on the use of the best animals for breeding. Molecular techniques are now being used to identify the genes selected and to describe the differences between alleles that are important in selection to improve quantitative traits. The results of such analyses provide background details of the genetic and physiological effects of the traditional selection of animal lines. Examples of the kinds of genes that may be subject to selection are those coding for peptide hormones, steroid metabolic enzymes, the calcium-channel gating protein, and genes of the major histocompatibility complex. Unselected genes, sometimes with undesirable alleles, may be carried along as "hitchhikers" if they are closely linked to the selected gene. In spite of this potential for physiologically dangerous genetic changes in selected animals, hereditary food toxicity has never been associated with a selected line of the common food animals. This is probably because the allowable physiological range of results of selection is limited by the requirement for healthy, productive animals. Based on these limitations, foods from healthy transgenic animals produced for the purpose of herd improvement are likely to be as safe as the foods from the untransformed parental line. Animals are important indicators of their own food safety.

  15. 78 FR 6824 - Considerations Regarding Food and Drug Administration Review and Regulation of Drugs for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Considerations Regarding Food and Drug Administration Review and Regulation of Drugs for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Public Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public hearing; request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  16. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling.'' FDA is issuing this guidance with labeling recommendations because of concerns that both healthcare providers and patients...

  17. 76 FR 68767 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation); Availability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of...

  18. 77 FR 51031 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  19. 76 FR 72953 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  20. 78 FR 15370 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling Medical Products To Inform Users That the Product or Product Container Is Not Made With Natural Rubber Latex; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  1. 78 FR 6332 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  2. 75 FR 73984 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...'' (62 FR 62466, November 21, 1997). This guidance document may be accessed at http://www.fda.gov... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 14, and 17 RIN 0910-AG55 Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  3. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. METHODS: Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. RESULTS: Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. CONCLUSIONS: Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health. PMID:12941860

  4. 75 FR 17418 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Health AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and...

  5. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    PubMed

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics. PMID:23127716

  6. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices.

  7. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices. PMID:18656574

  8. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned “Pusztai affair” and the recent “Seralini case.” These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food. PMID:23444254

  9. The 'farm to plate' approach to food safety - Everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Allard, Denis G

    2002-05-01

    Food safety is growing in importance as a public health concern for health practitioners and the general public. The Canadian public is exposed more extensively than ever before to exotic foods and pathogens via international travel, changing lifestyles and domestic contact with fresh foodstuff that is imported from faraway lands. Global warming, changing microbial ecology and resistance, and reduced host immunity are also having their effect in increasing the risk. To manage the risk adequately, interventions must be implemented at every point of the food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution, preparation and consumption, at home and in retail food service establishments. The role of government is explained, and the roles of other stakeholders, including physicians, are reviewed briefly.

  10. The 'farm to plate' approach to food safety - Everyone's business

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Denis G

    2002-01-01

    Food safety is growing in importance as a public health concern for health practitioners and the general public. The Canadian public is exposed more extensively than ever before to exotic foods and pathogens via international travel, changing lifestyles and domestic contact with fresh foodstuff that is imported from faraway lands. Global warming, changing microbial ecology and resistance, and reduced host immunity are also having their effect in increasing the risk. To manage the risk adequately, interventions must be implemented at every point of the food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution, preparation and consumption, at home and in retail food service establishments. The role of government is explained, and the roles of other stakeholders, including physicians, are reviewed briefly. PMID:18159390

  11. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  12. Caregivers' perception of drug administration safety for pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nariman; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Saab, Raya; Khalidi, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    Medication errors (MEs) are reported to be between 1.5% and 90% depending on many factors, such as type of the institution where data were collected and the method to identify the errors. More significantly, the risk for errors with potential for harm is 3 times higher for children, especially those receiving chemotherapy. Few studies have been published on averting such errors with children and none on how caregivers perceive their role in preventing such errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric oncology patient's caregivers' perception of drug administration safety and their willingness to be involved in averting such errors. A cross-sectional design was used to study a nonrandomized sample of 100 caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. Ninety-six of the caregivers surveyed were well informed about the medications their children receive and were ready to participate in error prevention strategies. However, an underestimation of potential errors uncovered a high level of "trust" for the staff. Caregivers echoed their apprehension for being responsible for potential errors. Caregivers are a valuable resource to intercept medication errors. However, caregivers may be hesitant to actively communicate their fears with health professionals. Interventions that aim at encouraging caregivers to engage in the safety of their children are recommended.

  13. Effect of a manager training and certification program on food safety and hygiene in food service operations.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S; Baroudi, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities.Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants. PMID:20523880

  14. Effect of a manager training and certification program on food safety and hygiene in food service operations.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S; Baroudi, Karim

    2010-05-06

    Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities.Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

  15. Functional and safety aspects of enterococci in dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Malik, R K; Chauhan, Prashant

    2008-09-01

    The genus Enterococcus like other LAB has also been featured in dairy industry for decades due to its specific biochemical traits such as lipolysis, proteolysis, and citrate breakdown, hence contributing typical taste and flavor to the dairy foods. Furthermore, the production of bacteriocins by enterococci (enterocins) is well documented. These technological applications have led to propose enterococci as adjunct starters or protective cultures in fermented foods. Moreover, enterococci are nowadays promoted as probiotics, which are claimed for the maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, stimulation of the immune system and improvement of nutritional value of foods. At the same time, enterococci present an emerging pool of opportunistic pathogens for humans as they cause disease, possess agents for antibiotic resistance, and are frequently armed with potential virulence factors. Because of this "dualistic" nature, the use of enterococci remains a debatable issue. However, based on a long history of safe association of particular enterococci with some traditional food fermentations, the use of such strains appears to bear no particular risk for human health. Abundance of knowledge as well as progress in molecular techniques has, however, enabled exact characterization and safety assessment of strains. Therefore, a balanced evaluation of both, beneficial and undesirable nature of enterococci is required. A clear understanding of their status may, therefore, allow their safe use as a starter, or a probiotic strain. The present review describes the broader insight of the benefits and risks of enterococci in dairy foods and their safety assessment. PMID:23100728

  16. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  17. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  18. 49 CFR 1.96 - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.96 The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Is responsible for: (a) Pipelines. (1) Administering a national program of safety in natural...

  19. 76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Electronic Healthcare Data Sets; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry and FDA staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting Pharmacoepidemiologic...

  20. 77 FR 14404 - Guidance for the Public, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Advisory Committee Members, and FDA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for the Public, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Advisory Committee Members, and FDA Staff: Public Availability of Advisory Committee Members' Financial Interest Information and Waivers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  1. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality.

  2. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality. PMID:20301012

  3. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  4. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  5. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  6. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  7. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  8. Knowledge and attitudes towards food safety among Canadian dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Rajić, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged <30) and producers with smaller herds were more likely to favour this practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians

  9. Microbiological safety of food in hospitals and other healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lund, Barbara M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-10-01

    Cases and outbreaks of foodborne infection in healthcare settings can result in serious illness, wastage of expensive medical treatments, spread of infection to other patients and staff and disruption of services. Providing nutritious meals for vulnerable people in healthcare settings involves a systematic approach to microbiological safety, as provided by hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. The types of food served in healthcare settings should be selected to minimise the risk of foodborne infection.

  10. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug..., Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm. 4613, Silver Spring, MD...

  11. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California's Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California's Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  12. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California's Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California's Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland.

  13. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R.; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California’s Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California’s Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  14. Network Analytical Tool for Monitoring Global Food Safety Highlights China

    PubMed Central

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003 – August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i) Google's PageRank algorithm and ii) the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. Conclusions/Significance This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios. PMID:19688088

  15. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Food Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy...

  16. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Food Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy...

  17. Identification of Core Competencies for an Undergraduate Food Safety Curriculum Using a Modified Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynette M.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Oliver, Haley F.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Moore, Christina M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Identification of core competencies for undergraduates in food safety is critical to assure courses and curricula are appropriate in maintaining a well-qualified food safety workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify and refine core competencies relevant to postsecondary food safety education using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-nine…

  18. US Food and Drug Administration draft recommendations on radioactive contamination of food

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Recommendations on accidental radioactive contamination of human food were issued in 1982 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommendations provided guidance to State and local government officials in the exercise of their respective authorities, and were applicable to emergency response planning and to the conduct of radiation protection activities associated with the production, processing, distribution, and use of human food accidentally contaminated with radioactive material. Review of the 1982 FDA recommendations, stimulated by the events following the 1986 accident at Chernobyl, indicated that it would be appropriate to update the recommendations to incorporate newer scientific information and radiation protection philosophy, to include experience gained since 1982, and to take into account international advances. This paper presents a brief outline of the FDA`s approach to its draft revision. the most recent draft was circulated for interagency review in November 1994. Modification made in response to the comments received are included in this paper. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  20. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  1. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  2. New food safety law: effectiveness on the ground.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christa A; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2015-01-01

    The demand for safety in the US food supply from production to consumption necessitates a scientific, risk-based strategy for the management of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in food. The key to successful management is an increase in systematic collaboration and communication and in enforceable procedures with all domestic and international stakeholders. The enactment of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to prevent or reduce large-scale food-borne illness outbreaks through stricter facility registration and records standards, mandatory prevention-based controls, increased facility inspections in the United States and internationally, mandatory recall authority, import controls, and increased consumer communication. The bill provisions are expected to cost $1.4 billion over the next four years. Effective implementation of the FSMA's 50 rules, reports, studies, and guidance documents in addition to an increased inspection burden requires further funding appropriations. Additional full-time inspectors and unprecedented foreign compliance is necessary for the full and effective implementation of the FSMA.

  3. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juming

    2015-08-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation.

  4. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juming

    2015-08-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  5. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juming

    2015-01-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  6. Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kok, Esther J; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2003-04-01

    Several strategies have been developed to identify unintended alterations in the composition of genetically modified (GM) food crops that may occur as a result of the genetic modification process. These include comparative chemical analysis of single compounds in GM food crops and their conventional non-GM counterparts, and profiling methods such as DNA/RNA microarray technologies, proteomics and metabolite profiling. The potential of profiling methods is obvious, but further exploration of specificity, sensitivity and validation is needed. Moreover, the successful application of profiling techniques to the safety evaluation of GM foods will require linked databases to be built that contain information on variations in profiles associated with differences in developmental stages and environmental conditions.

  7. Molecular analysis of the microbial food safety implications of food reformulations for improved health.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2008-08-01

    Food reformulation is commonly used as a strategy to produce foods for improved health; for example, replacing sugar with aspartame, and salt (NaCl) with KCl may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease. However, such reformulations will also change the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of foodborne pathogens and ultimately increase the incidence of foodborne disease. Thus, we need a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation. Herein we review the most recent advances in our understanding of how microbial pathogens adapt to changes in the food composition, and how this information may ultimately be used for the design of effective pathogen control measures. PMID:18666862

  8. Molecular analysis of the microbial food safety implications of food reformulations for improved health.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2008-08-01

    Food reformulation is commonly used as a strategy to produce foods for improved health; for example, replacing sugar with aspartame, and salt (NaCl) with KCl may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease. However, such reformulations will also change the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of foodborne pathogens and ultimately increase the incidence of foodborne disease. Thus, we need a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation. Herein we review the most recent advances in our understanding of how microbial pathogens adapt to changes in the food composition, and how this information may ultimately be used for the design of effective pathogen control measures.

  9. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  10. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  11. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  12. A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Manes, Mindi R; Kuganantham, Paraswami; Jagadeesan, Murugesan; Laxmidevi, M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors' study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.

  13. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  14. 77 FR 55845 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration: Request... Administration (FDA) is requesting nominations to serve on the Science Board to FDA (Science Board). FDA seeks to include the views of women and men, members of all racial and ethnic groups, and individuals with...

  15. 77 FR 43846 - Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Medical Devices Workshop; Notice of Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Medical Devices... Administration's (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development is announcing the following workshop: FDA Pediatric Medical Devices Workshop. This meeting is intended to focus on challenges in pediatric device...

  16. [Establishment of standards and specifications for chemical substances in foods and evaluation of exposure to maintain food safety].

    PubMed

    Maitani, Tamio

    2005-01-01

    Currently, consumers are very anxious about many chemical substances contained in foods. To maintain food safety, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan establishes standards and specifications on toxic chemical substances in foods, establishes analytical methods for surveillance, and investigates the daily dietary intake of food contaminants every year. This paper describes what sorts of standards and specifications for toxic chemical substances in foods have been established and what kinds of research on daily dietary intake have been performed. As the subjects for description, pesticide residues, toxic metals, dioxins, acrylamide, food additives, genetically modified food products, so-called health foods, and food allergens are included.

  17. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes.

  18. Consumer food handling recommendations: is thawing of turkey a food safety issue?

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Bonnie Jeannette; Li, Kelly Wing Man; Powell, Douglas Alan

    2003-01-01

    While it is important that dietitians and other health or food professionals provide consistent messages to the public about food safety, it is equally important that the information be evidence-based. Conflicting recommendations are evident when reviewing consumer publications from food safety advisory groups and the scientific literature. In addition, caveats are attached to the various food-handling methods. Pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and contamination of the work area are the major concerns in thawing turkey. While several methods, including thawing on the counter at ambient temperatures, can be employed for thawing turkey, cooking to an adequate internal temperature, validated with a meat thermometer, is the more critical step. The findings indicate that providing clients or consumers with clear, consistent, evidence-based messages is difficult for food and health professionals. Further research is required to corroborate best practices in a kitchen setting. This paper is of interest to professionals who counsel clients at high risk for foodborne illness, or who counsel consumers about safe preparation of foods such as turkey.

  19. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations.

  20. Research on Early Warning of Chinese Food Safety Based on Social Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghuan; Niu, Wenyuan; Li, Qianqian

    Based on social physics, this paper designs the index system of food safety, builds early warning model of food safety, calculates the degree of food safety, and assesses the state of early warning of 2007 in China. The result shows the degree of food safety is near 0.7 in securer state, belonging to slight emergency. It is much lower in eastern areas of developed regions, belonging to insecure state in the mass. That the food safety is ensured in major grain producing areas, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Xinjiang is the prerequisite of realizing the food safety of China. The result also shows four significant indices, grain production capacity, grain circulation order, grain demand and grain supply, which are important indicatio to control food safety.

  1. Efficacy and food safety considerations of poultry competitive exclusion products.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert Doug

    2006-11-01

    Competitive exclusion (CE) products are anaerobic cultures of bacteria that are applied to poultry hatchlings to establish a protective enteric microbiota that excludes intestinal colonization by human food-borne pathogens. For safety of the poultry flock and human consumers, the identities of bacteria in CE products need to be known. A CE product is a culture of intestinal contents from adult chickens. It may be microbiologically defined by analysis of bacteria isolated from the culture, but many bacteria are hard to reliably isolate, identify, and characterize with conventional techniques. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes may be more reliable than conventional techniques to identify CE bacteria. Bacteria in CE products may contain antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence mechanisms that could be transferred to the enteric bacteria of the food animal and to the human consumer. Detection methods for specific antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence genes and the integrase genes of conjugative transposons, mostly utilizing PCR technology, are being developed that can be applied to assess these risks in CE bacteria. With improvements in efficacy, bacterial identification, and detection and control of the possible risks of gene transfer, CE product technology can be made a more effective food safety tool.

  2. Recent Cases: Administrative Law--Occupational Safety and Health Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 are described in two cases: Brennan v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (Underhill Construction Corp.), and Anning-Johnson Co. v. United States Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. (LBH)

  3. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Lakner, Zoltán; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-01

    With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks.

  4. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Lakner, Zoltán; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-01

    With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks. PMID:22701535

  5. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Pediatric Uses of Medical Devices Under Section 515A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' FDA is... information required under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This draft guidance is...

  6. 21 CFR 20.111 - Data and information submitted voluntarily to the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter for OTC drugs. (2) A protocol for a test or study, unless it is shown to fall within the exemption... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data and information submitted voluntarily to the Food and Drug Administration. 20.111 Section 20.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  7. Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2012-05-07

    05/07/2012 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 389. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3187, which became Public Law 112-144 on 7/9/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Report to Congress Food and Drug Administration Safety and ...

    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    ... 2 I 3 15 0 13 8 ~-- ; 'fl.f p - " · ·- lol' 0 3 3 10 0 4 ... 10 I 3 ~\\. J f\\' ~rlt~ ~ •f I t·~I3~ ' ~: J- ' ~~ ~ liB~ 2&'1· ,,C: 11J>~L••!af ~- j i

  9. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Kok, E J; Keijer, J; Kleter, G A; Kuiper, H A

    2008-02-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting plant products. In part of the cases the same crop plant can, however, also be obtained by 'conventional' breeding strategies. The breeder will decide on a case-by-case basis what will be the best strategy to reach the set target and whether genetic modification will form part of this strategy. This article discusses important aspects of the safety assessment of complex products derived from newly bred plant varieties obtained by different breeding strategies. On the basis of this overview, we conclude that the current process of the safety evaluation of GM versus conventionally bred plants is not well balanced. GM varieties are elaborately assessed, yet at the same time other crop plants resulting from conventional breeding strategies may warrant further food safety assessment for the benefit of the consumer. We propose to develop a general screening frame for all newly developed plant varieties to select varieties that cannot, on the basis of scientific criteria, be considered as safe as plant varieties that are already on the market.

  10. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  11. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  12. 78 FR 101 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for Premarket Approval Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  13. 77 FR 63837 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  14. 78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Healthcare Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry and FDA...

  15. 76 FR 77542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  16. 76 FR 20688 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Supplements for Manufacturing Method or Process Changes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  17. 78 FR 102 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  18. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  19. 75 FR 18219 - Drug and Medical Device Forum on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Drug and Medical Device Forum on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements and Supplier Controls; Public Educational Forum AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public educational forum. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  20. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  1. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  2. Consumer selection of food-safety information sources.

    PubMed

    Kornelis, Marcel; de Jonge, Janneke; Frewer, Lynn; Dagevos, Hans

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the preferences of consumers for different information sources when they have a question about food safety. On the basis of a nationally representative survey conducted in the Netherlands, five distinct consumer groups are identified that not only differ on the reported use of information sources but also regarding several personality characteristics and sociodemographic variables. The empirical results show that two-thirds of the consumers are selective in their use of information sources and prefer either institutional or social sources. So, multiple information-acquisition patterns exist among the general public. The study illustrates how these findings can help to develop effective risk communication strategies.

  3. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Manufacturers, International and Consumer Assistance, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  5. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  6. Considering new methodologies in strategies for safety assessment of foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Bas J; Boobis, Alan R; Bradford, Bobbie; Cockburn, Andrew; Constable, Anne; Daneshian, Mardas; Edwards, Gareth; Garthoff, Jossie A; Jeffery, Brett; Krul, Cyrille; Schuermans, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    Toxicology and safety assessment are changing and require new strategies for evaluating risk that are less depending on apical toxicity endpoints in animal models and relying more on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity. This manuscript describes a number of developments that could contribute to this change and implement this in a stepwise roadmap that can be applied for the evaluation of food and food ingredients. The roadmap was evaluated in four case studies by using literature and existing data. This preliminary evaluation was shown to be useful. However, this experience should be extended by including examples where experimental work needs to be included. To further implement these new insights in toxicology and safety assessment for the area of food and food ingredients, the recommendation is that stakeholders take action in addressing gaps in our knowledge, e.g. with regard to the applicability of the roadmap for mixtures and food matrices. Further development of the threshold of toxicological concern is needed, as well as cooperation with other sectors where similar schemes are under development. Moreover, a more comprehensive evaluation of the roadmap, also including the identification of the need for in vitro experimental work is recommended. PMID:26939913

  7. Considering new methodologies in strategies for safety assessment of foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Bas J; Boobis, Alan R; Bradford, Bobbie; Cockburn, Andrew; Constable, Anne; Daneshian, Mardas; Edwards, Gareth; Garthoff, Jossie A; Jeffery, Brett; Krul, Cyrille; Schuermans, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    Toxicology and safety assessment are changing and require new strategies for evaluating risk that are less depending on apical toxicity endpoints in animal models and relying more on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity. This manuscript describes a number of developments that could contribute to this change and implement this in a stepwise roadmap that can be applied for the evaluation of food and food ingredients. The roadmap was evaluated in four case studies by using literature and existing data. This preliminary evaluation was shown to be useful. However, this experience should be extended by including examples where experimental work needs to be included. To further implement these new insights in toxicology and safety assessment for the area of food and food ingredients, the recommendation is that stakeholders take action in addressing gaps in our knowledge, e.g. with regard to the applicability of the roadmap for mixtures and food matrices. Further development of the threshold of toxicological concern is needed, as well as cooperation with other sectors where similar schemes are under development. Moreover, a more comprehensive evaluation of the roadmap, also including the identification of the need for in vitro experimental work is recommended.

  8. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  9. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here. PMID:11890465

  10. 77 FR 48112 - Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... enforcement authority for oil spill response plan compliance under section 4202 of the Oil Pollution Act of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 190, 192, 193, 195, and 199 RIN 2137-AE29 Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections AGENCY: Pipeline...

  11. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  12. Indicators of emerging hazards and risks to food safety.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P

    2009-05-01

    There is a widely felt need to develop methods for the early identification of emerging hazards to food safety with the aim of preventing these hazards from becoming real risks and causing incidents. This paper reviews various activities and previous reports that describe methods to select indicators that can be used for the purpose of early identification of hazards. These indicators have been divided over three different environments, including (i) the environment surrounding food production, (ii) the food production chain from farm to fork, and (iii) consumers. Changes in these indicators are signals that may require follow-up action. Besides indicators that are linked to specific kinds of hazards, the indicators used for vulnerability assessment can help identifying weak spots in the food production system that are sensitive to a broader range of hazards. Based on the various indicators for emerging hazards that have thus been identified in literature, a set of generic indicators is provided that can be useful for the early identification of hazards.

  13. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873

  14. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  15. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  16. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  17. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted.

  18. Inside the black box of food safety: a qualitative study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses.

    PubMed

    Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection. Results Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers. Conclusions The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant. So what? Armed with a deeper understanding of the social context surrounding food safety practice, it is anticipated that a more balanced, collaborative mode of food safety health promotion could develop, which could add to the current model of regulation.

  19. Food safety in the workplace: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Ross, Peggy; Kemerer, Sharon; Taylor, Liza

    2006-12-01

    The occupational health nurse in a large manufacturing facility arrives at work early one Monday morning to find three ill employees in the clinic waiting room and a message from several plant supervisors that multiple employees have called in sick. The supervisors are concerned. The employees have reported similar symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever Furthermore, two supervisors who rarely miss work have also called in sick and other employees are complaining of stomach cramps and diarrhea. The occupational health nurse promptly begins completing a nursing assessment and health history. She discovers that all sick employees attended the company picnic, catered by the facility's food service vendor, the day before. After notifying the local public health department, the occupational health nurse begins to investigate further. The occupational health nurse visits the cafeteria to speak with the manager and inquire about the food served at the picnic. The menu included ham and cheese sandwiches with mayonnaise, hamburgers, potato salad, and cake. The beverages were milk, non-bottled water, and lemonade. All leftover food was discarded, so nothing is available for testing. The manager mentions that yesterday was particularly hot, with a high of 93 degrees F. He states the local health department conducts regular, stringent food inspections. However, he admits they have been short staffed recently and, although he tries to provide adequate training and oversee all food service operations, a few new employees worked at the company picnic. He also mentions his holding temperature logs are "not exactly up-to-date." While talking to the manager the occupational health nurse notices one of the food service employees cutting raw vegetables on a wooden cutting board just used to cut raw chicken. The cutting board was wiped with a damp, visibly soiled sponge, rather than washed, after cutting the meat. It is abundantly clear that food safety training

  20. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  1. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach.

  2. Genomics for food safety and sustainable animal production.

    PubMed

    Harlizius, Barbara; van Wijk, Rik; Merks, Jan W M

    2004-09-30

    There is a growing concern in society about the safety of animal-derived food, the health and welfare of farm animals and the sustainability of current animal production systems. Along farm animal, breeding genomics may contribute to a solution for these concerns. The use of genomic analysis tools, to achieve genetic progress in typical out-bred populations of farm animals, seems to be more difficult compared to 'model' organisms or plants. However, identification of positional candidate genes may be accelerated by linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. Recording of sustainable traits requires a large financial and logistic input and the economic advantages for the market are not as clear as for traditional selection traits. Examples show that the major genes causing variability for similar traits in different species are rarely the same. Therefore, for breeding purposes genomic analysis of the species of interest is needed. The fundamental knowledge obtained on the genetic architecture of complex traits will open new perspectives for the use of DNA tests in selection schemes. For food safety and traceability, DNA-based techniques evolve for monitoring and early warning systems.

  3. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  4. Development, Dissemination, and Preimplementation Evaluation of Food Safety Educational Materials for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Adrienne E. H.; Snider, O. Sue; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2013-01-01

    With the persistence of microbiological foodborne illness and anticipated future shortage of scientists with agricultural and food science expertise in the United States, it is imperative to educate youth on microbiological food safety and enhance their awareness of opportunities to become engaged in finding solutions to food safety challenges. To…

  5. Food Safety Education for Students and Workers in School Gardens and University Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubak, John; Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The number of school gardens and university farms is increasing in the United States. Produce grown in these venues is often sampled in the classroom or incorporated into the food chain. Food safety education for students and workers is needed to ensure that produce is safe. Two 1-hr food safety curricula were developed to inform K-12 students and…

  6. The Administration of Public Safety in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, David, Ed.

    A comprehensive study of public safety in higher education with an emphasis on effective management approaches is provided. An overview of the broad and complex functions that campus public safety performs today is offered by reviewing historical developments, gleaning current literature and research, and presenting innovative campus public safety…

  7. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  8. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  9. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  10. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  11. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  12. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  13. Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Maribel; Martin, Michelle; Pisu, Maria; McCall, Erin; Zuluaga, Alvaro; Glasser, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that there has been an increase in the number of ‘warning letters’ issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) despite the publication of the FDA advertising guidelines. However, limited information is available on the description of warning letters. The objective of this study was to analyse the frequency and content of FDA warning letters in relation to promotional claims and discuss the influence of regulatory and industry constraints on promotion. Methods All warning letters published by the FDA between 5 May 1995 and 11 June 2007 were reviewed. Warning letters related to promotional issues were included and analysed. Information related to the identification number, date of the warning letter, FDA division that issued the letter, drug name, manufacturer, specific warning problem, type of promotional material and requested action was extracted. Two independent investigators reviewed and classified each PDF file, any differences were discussed until a consensus was reached. Results Between May 1995 and June 2007 a total of 8692 warning letters were issued, of which 25% were related to drugs. Of these, 206 warning letters focused on drug promotion and were included in this study: 23% were issued in 2005, 15% in 2004 and 14% in 1998. In total, 47% of the warning letters were issued because of false or misleading unapproved doses and uses, 27% failed to disclose risks, 15% cited misleading promotion, 8% related to misleading labelling and 3% promoted false effectiveness claims. Discussion There is an important variation in the number of warning letters issued in the last decade, probably because of the increasing number of drugs approved by the FDA, drug withdrawal scandals, and the publication of the FDA and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) guidelines. Conclusion We found that benefit-related claims, such as unapproved uses or doses of drugs, and failure to disclose risks, are the

  14. 75 FR 17423 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Memorandum of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Association of Minority...

  15. 21 CFR 19.10 - Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest... and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board. (a) The Commissioner shall establish a permanent five-member Conflict of Interest Review Board, which shall review and make recommendations to...

  16. 21 CFR 19.10 - Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest... and Drug Administration Conflict of Interest Review Board. (a) The Commissioner shall establish a permanent five-member Conflict of Interest Review Board, which shall review and make recommendations to...

  17. 76 FR 17138 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  18. 77 FR 8886 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  19. 76 FR 78933 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  20. 75 FR 14448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... announcing a public workshop entitled ``FDA Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among the FDA and clinical trial staff,...

  1. 76 FR 51040 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  2. 77 FR 49449 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... announcing a public workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the... FDA and clinical trial staff, investigators, and institutional review boards (IRBs). Individual...

  3. 77 FR 49448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  4. 75 FR 51824 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  5. 77 FR 50589 - Agreements and Memoranda of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... significantly from one another, we decided against publishing their full texts in the Federal Register (51 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 20 Agreements and Memoranda of Understanding Between the Food and Drug Administration and Other Departments, Agencies, and Organizations AGENCY:...

  6. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative... and Human Services responding to a January 18, 2011, Presidential Memorandum on Regulatory Compliance, (76 FR 3825, January 21, 2011), FDA recounted the actions it had already implemented, as well as...

  7. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  8. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  9. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  10. Development and validation of nonthermal and advanced thermal food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  11. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  12. 21 CFR 20.110 - Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data and information about Food and Drug... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.110 Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees. (a) The name, title, grade,...

  13. Relationship of hospital organizational culture to patient safety climate in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christine W; Meterko, Mark; Rosen, Amy K; Shibei Zhao; Shokeen, Priti; Singer, Sara; Gaba, David M

    2009-06-01

    Improving safety climate could enhance patient safety, yet little evidence exists regarding the relationship between hospital characteristics and safety climate. This study assessed the relationship between hospitals' organizational culture and safety climate in Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals nationally. Data were collected from a sample of employees in a stratified random sample of 30 VA hospitals over a 6-month period (response rate = 50%; n = 4,625). The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations (PSCHO) and the Zammuto and Krakower surveys were used to measure safety climate and organizational culture, respectively. Higher levels of safety climate were significantly associated with higher levels of group and entrepreneurial cultures, while lower levels of safety climate were associated with higher levels of hierarchical culture. Hospitals could use these results to design specific interventions aimed at improving safety climate.

  14. High-pressure thermal sterilization: food safety and food quality of baby food puree.

    PubMed

    Sevenich, Robert; Kleinstueck, Elke; Crews, Colin; Anderson, Warwick; Pye, Celine; Riddellova, Katerina; Hradecky, Jaromir; Moravcova, Eliska; Reineke, Kai; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-02-01

    The benefits that high-pressure thermal sterilization offers as an emerging technology could be used to produce a better overall food quality. Due to shorter dwell times and lower thermal load applied to the product in comparison to the thermal retorting, lower numbers and quantities of unwanted food processing contaminants (FPCs), for example, furan, acrylamide, HMF, and MCPD-esters could be formed. Two spore strains were used to test the technique; Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, over the temperature range 90 to 121 °C at 600 MPa. The treatments were carried out in baby food puree and ACES-buffer. The treatments at 90 and 105 °C showed that G. stearothermophilus is more pressure-sensitive than B. amyloliquefaciens. The formation of FPCs was monitored during the sterilization process and compared to the amounts found in retorted samples of the same food. The amounts of furan could be reduced between 81% to 96% in comparison to retorting for the tested temperature pressure combination even at sterilization conditions of F₀-value in 7 min.

  15. High-pressure thermal sterilization: food safety and food quality of baby food puree.

    PubMed

    Sevenich, Robert; Kleinstueck, Elke; Crews, Colin; Anderson, Warwick; Pye, Celine; Riddellova, Katerina; Hradecky, Jaromir; Moravcova, Eliska; Reineke, Kai; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-02-01

    The benefits that high-pressure thermal sterilization offers as an emerging technology could be used to produce a better overall food quality. Due to shorter dwell times and lower thermal load applied to the product in comparison to the thermal retorting, lower numbers and quantities of unwanted food processing contaminants (FPCs), for example, furan, acrylamide, HMF, and MCPD-esters could be formed. Two spore strains were used to test the technique; Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, over the temperature range 90 to 121 °C at 600 MPa. The treatments were carried out in baby food puree and ACES-buffer. The treatments at 90 and 105 °C showed that G. stearothermophilus is more pressure-sensitive than B. amyloliquefaciens. The formation of FPCs was monitored during the sterilization process and compared to the amounts found in retorted samples of the same food. The amounts of furan could be reduced between 81% to 96% in comparison to retorting for the tested temperature pressure combination even at sterilization conditions of F₀-value in 7 min. PMID:24547697

  16. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Moreno Switt, Andrea I.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to detection, prevention and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. While practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

  17. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data-mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. Although practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions.

  18. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

  19. Consumer Control Points: Creating a Visual Food Safety Education Model for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Consumer education has always been a primary consideration in the prevention of food-borne illness. Using nutrition education and the new food guide as a model, this paper develops suggestions for a framework of microbiological food safety principles and a compatible visual model for communicating key concepts. Historically, visual food guides in…

  20. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.