Science.gov

Sample records for administration increases muscarinic

  1. Characterization of muscarinic receptor binding and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of tolterodine in mice.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomomi; Maruyama, Shuji; Takagi, Yukiko; Yamamura, Henry I; Yamada, Shizuo

    2006-01-04

    The current study was undertaken to characterize the effects of oral administration of tolterodine on muscarinic receptor binding in the bladder and submaxillary gland and on salivation in mice. In the in vitro experiment, tolterodine and its metabolite (5-hydroxymethyl metabolite: 5-HM) competed concentration-dependently with [N-methyl-(3)H]-scopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart, and the potencies of both agents were greater than that of oxybutynin. After oral administration of tolterodine (6.31, 21.0 micromol/kg) and oxybutynin (76.1 micromol/kg), there was a dose and time-dependent increase in K(d) values for specific [(3)H]NMS binding in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values, suggesting significant muscarinic receptor binding in each tissue. The K(d) increase in each tissue by oral oxybutynin reached a maximum value of 0.5 h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that by tolterodine was greatest 2 h after the administration and it was maintained for at least 6 or 12 h, depending on the dose and on the tissue. Thus, muscarinic receptor binding of oral tolterodine was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. Also, oral oxybutynin showed relatively greater receptor binding in the submaxillary gland as compared with other tissues, but such high selectivity to the exocrine gland muscarinic receptors was not observed by oral tolterodine. Oral administration of tolterodine and oxybutynin reduced significantly the pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice, and the attenuation of oral tolterodine appeared more slowly and it was more persistent than that of oral oxybutynin. The antagonistic effect of oral tolterodine on the dose-response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. These data suggest that oral tolterodine, compared with the case of oral oxybutynin, binds more selectively to muscarinic

  2. Effects of central galanin administration on muscarinic cholinergic and galanin receptor G protein coupling.

    PubMed

    Barreda-Gómez, G; Giralt, M T; Rodríguez-Puertas, R

    2005-06-01

    The neuropeptide galanin is expressed in the mammalian central nervous system and has been implicated in neurotrophic actions. Central galanin administration induces cognitive deficits in rodents and inhibits the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. In addition, a galanin hyperinnervation of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells in Alzheimer's disease patients has been reported. To evaluate the effect of galanin treatment on galanin and muscarinic cholinergic receptor G protein coupling, galanin was administered into the lateral ventricle of rats via an implanted cannula. Galanin or muscarinic receptor functional coupling to G proteins was quantified by galanin or carbachol stimulation of guanosine 5'-(gamma-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding in rat brain slices. Guanosine 5'-(gamma-[35S]thio)triphosphate basal binding in nucleus basalis of Meynert and thalamic nuclei was increased in the vehicle treated group. This effect was reverted by galanin treatment and indicates that the surgery increased receptor functional coupling to G proteins, which is restored by a possible neurotrophic action mediated by galanin. In addition, in galanin administered animals, galanin-stimulated binding was increased in the amygdala but decreased in the diagonal band, whilst binding stimulation mediated by carbachol was found to be increased in the amygdala, thalamic nuclei and diagonal band. These findings indicate that galanin treatment modulates the coupling of galanin and muscarinic cholinergic receptors to G proteins in specific regions of the rat central nervous system.

  3. Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Soheil Keihan; Deli, Alev; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

  4. Comparative characterization of lung muscarinic receptor binding after intratracheal administration of tiotropium, ipratropium, and glycopyrrolate.

    PubMed

    Ogoda, Masaki; Niiya, Ryo; Koshika, Tadatsura; Yamada, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize comparatively the binding of muscarinic receptor in the lung of rats intratracheally administered anticholinergic agents (tiotropium, ipratropium, glycopyrrolate) used clinically to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Binding parameters of [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3)H]NMS) were determined in tissues (lung, bladder, submaxillary gland) of rats intratracheally administered tiotropium, ipratropium, and glycopyrrolate. The in vitro binding affinity of tiotropium for the receptors was 10-11-fold higher than those of ipratropium and glycopyrrolate. Intratracheal administration of tiotropium (0.6-6.4 nmol/kg) caused sustained (lasting at least 24 h) increase in the apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]NMS binding in rat lung compared with the control value. Concomitantly, there was a long-lasting decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]NMS. Similary, ipratropium and glycopyrrolate at 7.3 and 7.5 nmol/kg, respectively, brought about a significant increase in K(d) for [(3)H]NMS binding. The effect by ipratropium was observed at 2 h but not 12 h, and that by glycopyrrolate lasted for 24 h. Both agents had little influence on the muscarinic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland. The present study provides the first evidence that tiotropium, ipratropium, and glycopyrrolate administered intratracheally in rats selectively bound muscarinic receptors of the lung, and tiotropium and glycopyrrolate had a much longer-lasting effect than ipratropium.

  5. Development of tolerance after repeated administration of a selective muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salin-Pascual, R J; Granados-Fuentes, D; Galicia-Polo, L; Nieves, E; Gillin, J C

    1993-02-01

    The muscarinic antagonist biperiden produces a dose-dependent inhibition of (REM) sleep on acute administration. The present study addressed the possibility of pharmacological tolerance after repeated biperiden administration. Six healthy volunteers were studied under sleep laboratory conditions in the following situations: one acclimatization, night, two baseline (that were averaged), 4 nights of biperiden administration, and 4 nights of placebo recovery administration. Six milligrams of biperiden and placebo were administered in identical capsules. Volunteers and technicians were blind to the order of the administration of the capsules. REM sleep time was reduced during the first and the second night, but was not significantly different in comparison with baseline by the third night. During placebo recovery nights, REM sleep time was not different from baseline. REM sleep latency was increased during the first and second nights of biperiden administration, but tolerance to this effect was observed by the third night. On placebo nights a dramatic shortening of REM latency was observed. The present findings support the hypothesis that anticholinergic drugs, even a selective M1 antagonist such as biperiden, induce tolerance soon after administration. A similar effect has been reported with scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, but the main difference is that biperiden withdrawal was not followed by an REM sleep rebound. The observed effect on REM sleep latency during placebo administration may be related to a supersensitivity to muscarinic M-1 receptors that trigger the first REM sleep period. Because short REM latency has been the main finding in the sleep of depressed patients, some implications of the present findings are discussed.

  6. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P; Sørensen, H; Bonne, T C; Zaar, M; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B; Secher, N H; Lundby, C

    2015-06-15

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (fraction of inspired O2 = 12%) after intravenous administration of 1) no drugs (Cont), 2) propranolol (Prop), 3) glycopyrrolate (Glyc), or 4) Prop + Glyc. HR increased with exercise in all drug conditions (P < 0.001) but was always higher at a given workload in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.001). Averaged over all workloads, the difference between hypoxia and normoxia was 19.8 ± 13.8 beats/min during Cont and similar (17.2 ± 7.7 beats/min, P = 0.95) during Prop but smaller (P < 0.001) during Glyc and Prop + Glyc (9.8 ± 9.6 and 8.1 ± 7.6 beats/min, respectively). Cardiac output was enhanced by hypoxia (P < 0.002) to an extent that was similar between Cont, Glyc, and Prop + Glyc (2.3 ± 1.9, 1.7 ± 1.8, and 2.3 ± 1.2 l/min, respectively, P > 0.4) but larger during Prop (3.4 ± 1.6 l/min, P = 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia during exercise partially relies on vagal withdrawal. Conversely, sympathoexcitation either does not contribute or increases heart rate through mechanisms other than β-adrenergic transmission. A potential candidate is α-adrenergic transmission, which could also explain why a tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Increased function of inhibitory neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in diabetic rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Kristen E; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    1997-01-01

    The function of inhibitory neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in diabetic rat lungs was investigated. Neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves. Thus, stimulation of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors with muscarinic agonists, such as pilocarpine, inhibits acetylcholine release and vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In contrast, blockade of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors with selective M2 muscarinic antagonists, such as AF-DX 116, potentiates acetylcholine release and vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Rats were made diabetic by streptozotocin (65 mg kg−1, i.v.). After 7–14 days the rats were anaesthetized with urethane (1.5 g kg−1, i.p.), tracheostomized, vagotomized, ventilated and paralysed with suxamethonium (30 mg kg−1, i.v.). Some 7 day diabetic rats were treated with low doses of long acting (NPH) insulin (2 units day−1, s.c.) for 7 days before experimentation. This dose of insulin was not sufficient to restore normoglycaemia in diabetic rats. Thus, insulin-treated diabetic rats remained hyperglycaemic. Distal electrical stimulation (5–70 Hz, 6 s, 40 V, 0.4 ms) of the vagi caused bronchoconstriction, measured as an increase in inflation pressure and bradycardia. In diabetic rats, vagally induced bronchoconstriction was significantly depressed vs controls. In contrast, bronchoconstriction caused by i.v. acetylcholine was similar in diabetic and control animals. The function of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors was tested with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (0.001–100.0 μg kg−1, i.v.) and the antagonist AF-DX 116 (0.01–3.0 mg kg−1, i.v.). Pilocarpine inhibited vagally-induced bronchoconstriction (30 Hz, 20–40 V, 0.4 ms at 6 s) and AF-DX 116 potentiated vagally-induced bronchoconstriction (20 Hz, 20–40 V, 0.4 ms at 6 s) to a significantly greater degree in diabetic rats compared to controls. Both frequency-dependent vagally

  8. The character of sleep disturbances produced by multiple administrations of atropine the antagonist of brain muscarinic cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Maglakelidze, N T; Chkhartishvili, E V; Mchedlidze, O M; Dzadzamiia, Sh Sh; Nachkebiia, N G

    2012-03-01

    Modification of brain muscarinic cholinergic system normal functioning can be considered as an appropriate strategy for the study of its role in sleep-wakefulness cycle basic mechanisms in general and in the course/maintenance of PS in particular. For this aim systemic application of muscarinic cholinoreceptors antagonists is significant because it gives possibility to modify functioning all of known five sub-types of muscarinic cholinoreceptors and to study the character of sleep disturbances in these conditions. Problem is very topical because the question about the intimate aspects of BMChS involvement in PS maintaining mechanisms still remains unsolved. In cats Atropine systemic administration was made once daily at 10:00 a.m. and continuous EEG registration of sleep-wakefulness cycle ultradian structure, lasting for 10 hour daily, was started immediately. In sum each animal received anti-muscarinic drugs for 12 times. Thereafter drug administrations were ceased and EEG registration of sleep-wakefulness cycle ultradian structure was continued during 10 consecutive days. On the basis of results obtained in these conditions we can conclude that brain muscarinic cholinergic system normal functioning is significant for basic mechanisms of sleep-wakefulness cycle. During wakefulness, at the level of neocortex and hippocampus, MChS supports only EEG activation, while it is one of the main factors in PS triggering and maintaining mechanisms.

  9. Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma concentration and inhibition of salivation after oral administration of a novel antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin succinate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Tomomi; Sato, Shuichi; Miyata, Keiji; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-01-01

    A novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, solifenacin succinate, inhibited specific binding of [N-methyl-3H]-scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in the mouse bladder, submaxillary gland and heart in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was greatest in the submaxillary gland, followed by the bladder and heart. After oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 μmol kg−1) or solifenacin (62.4, 208 μmol kg−1), a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in KD values for specific [3H]-NMS binding was seen in the bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart, colon and lung, compared with control values. The increase in KD induced by oxybutynin in each tissue reached a maximum 0.5 h after oral administration and then rapidly declined, while that induced by solifenacin was greatest 2 h after administration and was maintained for at least 6 or 12 h, depending on the dose. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral solifenacin was slower in onset and of a longer duration than that of oxybutynin. Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its active metabolite (N-desethyl-oxybutynin, DEOB) were maximum 0.5 h after its oral administration and then declined rapidly. Oral solifenacin persisted in the blood for longer than oxybutynin. Pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion in mice was significantly reduced by oral administration of solifenacin and was completely abolished 0.5 h after oral oxybutynin. Although the suppression induced by solifenacin was more persistent than that due to oxybutynin, the antagonistic effect of solifenacin on the dose–response curves to pilocarpine was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. It is concluded that oral solifenacin persistently binds to muscarinic receptors in tissues expressing the M3 subtype, such as the bladder. PMID:15753946

  10. M1 muscarinic receptors increase calcium current and phosphoinositide turnover in guinea-pig ventricular cardiocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, M P; Alloatti, G; Eva, C; Oberto, A; Levi, R C

    1993-01-01

    1. Physiological and molecular evidence for the presence and functional role of M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) in adult guinea-pig ventricular cells is presented. 2. Whole-cell clamp measurements of the L-type calcium current (ICa) in isolated myocytes were performed. Caesium was used to suppress potassium currents. ICa was increased by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin which blocked the M2 mAChR-triggered cascade of intracellular signalling, while it was not changed in untreated cells. 3. If the M2-mediated regulation of ICa was blocked by directly saturating the cell with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) through the patch pipette, application of carbachol induced a further small increase of the current above the level reached after cAMP perfusion. This increase was more pronounced in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin. 4. The carbachol-induced increase of ICa was blocked by the selective M1 mAChR antagonist pirenzepine. 5. The application of high concentrations of carbachol increased the accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate up to 240% above control levels. This increase was reduced by application of pirenzepine. 6. The expression of M1 receptor mRNA in ventricular cardiocytes was shown by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. 7. These results suggest that M1 mAChR regulation of ICa can be a component of the paradoxical positive inotropism induced by high concentrations of muscarinic agonists. Images Fig. 11 PMID:8120813

  11. Methylphenidate-Induced Increases in Vesicular Dopamine Sequestration and Dopamine Release in the Striatum: The Role of Muscarinic and Dopamine D2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Trent J.; Farnsworth, Sarah J.; Rowley, Shane D.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) administration alters the subcellular distribution of vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2)-containing vesicles in rat striatum. This report reveals previously undescribed pharmacological features of MPD by elucidating its receptor-mediated effects on VMAT-2-containing vesicles that co-fractionate with synaptosomal membranes after osmotic lysis (referred to herein as membrane-associated vesicles) and on striatal dopamine (DA) release. MPD administration increased DA transport into, and decreased the VMAT-2 immunoreactivity of, the membrane-associated vesicle subcellular fraction. These effects were mimicked by the D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and blocked by the D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride. Both MPD and quinpirole increased vesicular DA content. However, MPD increased, whereas quinpirole decreased, K+-stimulated DA release from striatal suspensions. Like MPD, the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine, increased K+-stimulated DA release. Both eticlopride and the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, blocked MPD-induced increases in K+-stimulated DA release while the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801, was without effect. This suggests that D2 receptors mediate both the MPD-induced redistribution of vesicles away from synaptosomal membranes and the MPD-induced upregulation of vesicles remaining at the membrane. This results in a redistribution of DA within the striatum from the cytoplasm into vesicles, leading to increased DA release. However, D2 receptor activation alone is not sufficient to mediate the MPD-induced increases in striatal DA release as muscarinic receptor activation is also required. These novel findings provide insight into the mechanism of action of MPD, regulation of DA sequestration/release, and treatment of disorders affecting DA disposition including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:18591219

  12. Chronic administration of anticholinergics in rats induces a shift from muscarinic to purinergic transmission in the bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Uvin, Pieter; Boudes, Mathieu; Menigoz, Aurélie; Franken, Jan; Pinto, Sílvia; Gevaert, Thomas; Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan; Vennekens, Rudi; Voets, Thomas; De Ridder, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    First-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder consists of anticholinergics. However, patient compliance is exceptionally low, which may be due to progressive loss of effectiveness. To decipher the involved molecular mechanisms and to evaluate the effects of chronic systemic administration of anticholinergics on bladder function and on muscarinic and purinergic receptors expression in rats. Female Wistar rats were implanted with an osmotic pump that chronically administered vehicle (Vehc), 0.36 mg/kg per day oxybutynin (Oxyc), or 0.19 mg/kg per day fesoterodine (Fesoc) for 28 d. For cystometry experiments, a small catheter was implanted in the bladder. Urologic phenotype was evaluated by the analysis of the micturition pattern and urodynamics. Expression of muscarinic and purinergic receptors was assessed by Western blot analysis of detrusor membrane protein. Functional responses to carbachol and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were evaluated using muscle-strip contractility experiments. The number of voided spots was transiently decreased in Oxyc rats. In Oxyc rats, the effect of an acute high dose of oxybutynin (1mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) on the intermicturition interval was abolished. Expression experiments revealed a decrease of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M2 (mAChR2) and M3 (mAChR3), whereas the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 1 (P2X1) was enhanced in Oxyc and Fesoc rats compared to Vehc rats. In concordance with the modification of the expression pattern in Oxyc rats, the force generated by carbachol and ATP in muscle-strip contractility experiments was, respectively, lower and higher. Urodynamics revealed that the effects of systemic administration of the purinergic blocker pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (50mg/kg IP) were enhanced in Oxyc rats. As rat bladder physiology is different from that of humans, it is difficult to directly extrapolate our findings to human patients. Chronic administration of

  13. Muscarinic receptor plasticity in the brain of senescent rats: down-regulation after repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; Volpe, M.T.; Michalek, H.

    1988-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of Fischer 344 rats to subchronic treatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in terms of brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and muscarinic receptor sites. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were sc injected with sublethal doses of DFP for 2 weeks and killed 48 hrs after the last treatment. In the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of control rats a significant age-related reduction of ChE and of maximum number of /sup 3/H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) was observed. The administration of DFP to senescent rats resulted in more pronounced and longer lasting syndrome of cholinergic stimulation, with marked body weight loss and 60% mortality. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE induced by DFP did not differ between young and senescent rats. As expected, in young rats DFP caused a significant decrease of Bmax, which in the cerebral cortex reached about 40%. In the surviving senescent rats, the percentage decrease of Bmax due to DFP with respect to age-matched controls was very similar to that of young animals, especially in the cerebral cortex. Thus there is great variability in the response of aged rats to DFP treatment, from total failure of adaptive mechanisms resulting in death to considerable muscarinic receptor plasticity.

  14. M1 muscarinic activation induces long-lasting increase in intrinsic excitability of striatal projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Rook, Jerri M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu

    2017-05-15

    The dorsolateral striatum is critically involved in movement control and motor learning. Striatal function is regulated by a variety of neuromodulators including acetylcholine. Previous studies have shown that cholinergic activation excites striatal principal projection neurons, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and this action is mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine subtype 1 receptors (M1) through modulating multiple potassium channels. In the present study, we used electrophysiology techniques in conjunction with optogenetic and pharmacological tools to determine the long-term effects of striatal cholinergic activation on MSN intrinsic excitability. A transient increase in acetylcholine release in the striatum by optogenetic stimulation resulted in a long-lasting increase in excitability of MSNs, which was associated with hyperpolarizing shift of action potential threshold and decrease in afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude, leading to an increase in probability of EPSP-action potential coupling. The M1 selective antagonist VU0255035 prevented, while the M1 selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) VU0453595 potentiated the cholinergic activation-induced persistent increase in MSN intrinsic excitability, suggesting that M1 receptors are critically involved in the induction of this long-lasting response. This M1 receptor-dependent long-lasting change in MSN intrinsic excitability could have significant impact on striatal processing and might provide a novel mechanism underlying cholinergic regulation of the striatum-dependent motor learning and cognitive function. Consistent with this, behavioral studies indicate that potentiation of M1 receptor signaling by VU0453595 enhanced performance of mice in cue-dependent water-based T-maze, a dorsolateral striatum-dependent learning task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated.

  16. Stress and re-stress increases conditioned taste aversion learning in rats: possible frontal cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Brand, Linda; Groenewald, Ilse; Stein, Dan J; Wegener, Gregers; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-05-31

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are often precipitated by sensory cues in the form of visual, auditory, olfactory and gustatory "flashbacks" resulting in enhanced fear-memory consolidation and the characteristic symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and hyper-arousal. Single prolonged stress with and without re-stress have been used to explore the neurobiology of this disorder, particularly with respect to contextual conditioning and spatial memory impairment. However, less work has been done regarding associative sensory-related memories linked to aversive events. Although growing evidence supports a role for cholinergic pathways in stress, this has not been studied in the above animal models. We studied the effects of single prolonged stress with and without re-stress on conditioned taste aversion learning in rats, together with differential analysis of frontal cortical and hippocampal [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]-QNB) muscarinic receptor binding. Single prolonged stress with and without re-stress both enhanced associative sensory aversion learning 7 days after stressor-taste pairing, although re-stress did not strengthen this response. Increased cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor density (Bmax) was found 7 days after single prolonged stress with re-stress, although receptor affinity remained unaltered. Frontal cortical and hippocampal muscarinic receptor changes may thus underlie conditioned taste aversion learning in rats exposed to stress and re-stress. These data suggest that it may be useful to study the role of cholinergic pathways in mediating associative memory in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Extracellular GABA in globus pallidus increases during the induction of oral tremor by haloperidol but not by muscarinic receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Podurgiel, Samantha J; Kovner, Rotem; Randall, Patrick A; Salamone, John D

    2012-09-01

    Tremulous jaw movements in rats can be induced by several conditions associated with parkinsonism and tremorogenesis, including dopamine depletion, dopamine antagonism, and cholinomimetic drugs. Previous research indicates that neostriatal mechanisms are involved in the generation of tremulous jaw movements, but the striatal output pathways involved in these movements remain uncertain. One important pathway for striatal output is the GABAergic striatopallidal system. The present studies were undertaken to determine if extracellular levels of GABA in globus pallidus are associated with the induction of tremulous jaw movements by either a dopamine D2 antagonist (haloperidol) or a cholinomimetic (the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine). The first experiment studied the effects of both acute and repeated (i.e. 8 days) administration of the D2 antagonist haloperidol. In the second experiment, the effect of acute administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine on GABA levels in the globus pallidus was examined. In both experiments, behavioral observations of tremulous jaw movements were conducted in parallel with the collection of microdialysis samples. Acute and repeated haloperidol treatment induced tremulous jaw movements, and significantly elevated extracellular GABA in globus pallidus. Pooling across all treatment groups, there was a significant positive correlation between pallidal GABA levels and the number of tremulous jaw movements induced during the first three samples collected after injection. However, injection of 4.0mg/kg pilocarpine had no effect on pallidal GABA release, despite the robust induction of tremulous jaw movements. These results indicate that the tremulous jaw movements induced by dopamine D2 antagonism and those induced through muscarinic receptor stimulation may be generated via distinct mechanisms.

  18. Systemic administration of arecoline reduces ethanol-induced sleeping through activation of central muscarinic receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qing; Luo, Juan; Guo, Ping; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of co-use of alcohol and areca nuts suggests a potential central interaction between arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca and a muscarinic receptor agonist, and ethanol. Moreover, the central cholinergic system plays an important role in the depressant action of ethanol and barbiturates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of arecoline on pentobarbital- and ethanol-induced hypnosis in mice. Male ICR mice were tested for locomotor activity following acute systemic administration of ethanol alone, arecoline alone, or ethanol plus arecoline. For the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) induced by pentobarbital and ethanol, sleep latency and sleeping duration were evaluated in mice treated with arecoline alone or the combination of arecoline and scopolamine or methscopolamine. Ethanol (1.0 to 3.0 g/kg, i.p.) reduced locomotor activity significantly and a declining trend was observed after treatment with arecoline (0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), but there were no synergistic effects of ethanol and arecoline on locomotor activity. The experiments on LORR demonstrated that arecoline (0.125 to 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) shortened the duration of sleeping induced by ethanol (4.0 g/kg, i.p.), but not pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, alterations of sleep latency were not obvious in both pentobarbital- and ethanol-induced LORR. Statistical analyses revealed that scopolamine (centrally acting), but not methscopolamine (peripherally acting), could antagonize the effect of arecoline on the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in mice. These results suggest that central muscarinic receptor is a pharmacological target for the action of arecoline to modulate ethanol-induced hypnosis.

  19. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  20. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation increases transcellular transport of macromolecules across mouse and human intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cameron, H L; Perdue, M H

    2007-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium acts as a barrier restricting uptake of luminal macromolecules such as dietary antigens and microbes. Here, we examined the role of cholinergic signalling in the regulation of permeability to macromolecules. Mouse jejunum was mounted in Ussing chambers and permeability was determined by measuring the flux of the antigen-sized protein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), across the tissue. Baseline HRP permeability was significantly reduced by neural blockade with tetrodotoxin or cholinergic muscarinic antagonism with atropine, suggesting that ongoing release of endogenous acetylcholine from enteric nerves regulates barrier function. Exogenous addition of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol caused significant increases in both HRP flux and the area of HRP-containing endosomes in enterocytes. Bethanechol-enhanced HRP flux was abrogated by the M3 receptor antagonist, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor quinacrine, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Complementary in vitro studies showed direct effects of bethanechol on T84 epithelial cells, where increased HRP uptake was associated with increased F-actin, and increased cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) phosphorylation. Taken together, these results provide evidence for cholinergic regulation of transepithelial transport of macromolecules, mainly mediated by activation of M3 receptors with subsequent involvement of phospholipase A(2) and cyclooxygenase products.

  1. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma and appears to be the major reversible component of airway obstruction. Therefore, treatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists is an effective bronchodilator therapy in COPD and also in asthmatic patients. In recent years, the accumulating evidence that the cholinergic system controls not only contraction by airway smooth muscle but also the functions of inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells has suggested that muscarinic receptor antagonists could exert other effects that may be of clinical relevance when we must treat a patient suffering from COPD or asthma. There are currently six muscarinic receptor antagonists licenced for use in the treatment of COPD, the short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (SAMAs) ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) aclidinium bromide, tiotropium bromide, glycopyrronium bromide and umeclidinium bromide. Concerns have been raised about possible associations of muscarinic receptor antagonists with cardiovascular safety, but the most advanced compounds seem to have an improved safety profile. Further beneficial effects of SAMAs and LAMAs are seen when added to existing treatments, including LABAs, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. The importance of tiotropium bromide in the maintenance treatment of COPD, and likely in asthma, has spurred further research to identify new LAMAs. There are a number of molecules that are being identified, but only few have reached the clinical development.

  2. Decreased microRNA levels lead to deleterious increases in neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in Spinal Muscular Atrophy models

    PubMed Central

    O'Hern, Patrick J; do Carmo G. Gonçalves, Inês; Brecht, Johanna; López Soto, Eduardo Javier; Simon, Jonah; Chapkis, Natalie; Lipscombe, Diane; Kye, Min Jeong; Hart, Anne C

    2017-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by diminished Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, leading to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) dysfunction and spinal motor neuron (MN) loss. Here, we report that reduced SMN function impacts the action of a pertinent microRNA and its mRNA target in MNs. Loss of the C. elegans SMN ortholog, SMN-1, causes NMJ defects. We found that increased levels of the C. elegans Gemin3 ortholog, MEL-46, ameliorates these defects. Increased MEL-46 levels also restored perturbed microRNA (miR-2) function in smn-1(lf) animals. We determined that miR-2 regulates expression of the C. elegans M2 muscarinic receptor (m2R) ortholog, GAR-2. GAR-2 loss ameliorated smn-1(lf) and mel-46(lf) synaptic defects. In an SMA mouse model, m2R levels were increased and pharmacological inhibition of m2R rescued MN process defects. Collectively, these results suggest decreased SMN leads to defective microRNA function via MEL-46 misregulation, followed by increased m2R expression, and neuronal dysfunction in SMA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20752.001 PMID:28463115

  3. Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

  4. Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

  5. Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Haruo . E-mail: hk1664@iwate-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sakamoto, Maki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Kashiwada, Keiko; Sato, Itaru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [{sup 3}H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [{sup 3}H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [{sup 3}H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected.

  6. Increased efflux of amyloid-β peptides through the blood-brain barrier by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor inhibition reduces pathological phenotypes in mouse models of brain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Paganetti, Paolo; Antoniello, Katia; Devraj, Kavi; Toni, Nicolas; Kieran, Dairin; Madani, Rime; Pihlgren, Maria; Adolfsson, Oskar; Froestl, Wolfgang; Schrattenholz, André; Liebner, Stefan; Havas, Daniel; Windisch, Manfred; Cirrito, John R; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The formation and accumulation of toxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain may drive the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders could result from treatments regulating Aβ homeostasis. Examples are the inhibition of production, misfolding, and accumulation of Aβ or the enhancement of its clearance. Here we show that oral treatment with ACI-91 (Pirenzepine) dose-dependently reduced brain Aβ burden in AβPPPS1, hAβPPSL, and AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice. A possible mechanism of action of ACI-91 may occur through selective inhibition of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on endothelial cells of brain microvessels and enhanced Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain barrier. One month treatment with ACI-91 increased the clearance of intrathecally-injected Aβ in plaque-bearing mice. ACI-91 also accelerated the clearance of brain-injected Aβ in blood and peripheral tissues by favoring its urinal excretion. A single oral dose of ACI-91 reduced the half-life of interstitial Aβ peptide in pre-plaque mhAβPP/PS1d mice. By extending our studies to an in vitro model, we showed that muscarinic AChR inhibition by ACI-91 and Darifenacin augmented the capacity of differentiated endothelial monolayers for active transport of Aβ peptide. Finally, ACI-91 was found to consistently affect, in vitro and in vivo, the expression of endothelial cell genes involved in Aβ transport across the Blood Brain Brain (BBB). Thus increased Aβ clearance through the BBB may contribute to reduced Aβ burden and associated phenotypes. Inhibition of muscarinic AChR restricted to the periphery may present a therapeutic advantage as it avoids adverse central cholinergic effects.

  7. Effects of ovarian hormones on beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Klangkalya, B.; Chan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of estrogen and progesterone on muscarinic and ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cardiac tissue were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The binding assay for muscarinic receptors was performed under a nonequilibrium condition; whereas the binding assay for ..beta..-adrenergic receptors, under an equilibrium condition. Estrogenic compounds and progesterone were found to have no effect on the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol, to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in vitro. However, progestins but not estrogenic compounds inhibited the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate, to muscarinic receptors in vitro, with progesterone as the most potent inhibitor. Progesterone was found to decrease the apparent affinity of muscarinic receptors for (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB in vitro. Daily treatment of OVX rats with estradiol benzoate or progesterone for 4 days had no effect on the muscarinic or ..beta..-adrenergic receptors with respect to the binding affinity and receptor density. However, administrations of these hormones together for 4 days caused an increase in the receptor density of muscarinic receptors without a significant effect on their apparent binding affinity; also these hormones induced a decrease in the binding affinity and an increase in the receptor density of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors.

  8. Impaired recovery of brain muscarinic receptor sites following an adaptive down-regulation induced by repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; De Angelis, S.; Michalek, H. )

    1990-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the recovery rate of brain cholinesterase activity (ChE) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites (mAChRs) following reduction induced by repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were s.c. injected with DFP on alternate days for 2 weeks and killed 48 hr and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the last treatment. In the hippocampus and striatum, but not in the cerebral cortex, of control rats there as a significant age-related decline of ChE activity and maximal density of 3H-QNB binding sites (Bmax). The repeated administration of DFP during the first week caused a syndrome of cholinergic stimulation both in aged and young rats. The syndrome was more pronounced, in terms of intensity and duration in aged than in young animals resulting in 40 and 12% mortality, respectively; during the second week the syndrome attenuated in the two age-groups. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE at the end of DFP treatment did not differ between young and surviving aged rats. The down-regulation of mACRs was present in the three brain regions of both young and age rats (from 20 to 40%). Factorial analysis of variance showed significant differences for age, recovery rate, and significant interaction between age and recovery rate, both for ChE and mAChRs in young rats the three brain areas.

  9. Increase of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor gene expression in type-1 but not in type-2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Cheng Kuei; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Kou, Dai-Huang; Liu, I-Min; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-08-22

    Changes of cardiac M2-muscarinic receptor (M2-mAChR) gene expression was investigated in type-1 like diabetic rats induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and type-2 like diabetic rats induced by fed with fructose-rich chow. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in STZ-diabetic rats was significantly lower than that in age-matched non-diabetic rats, while the SBP in type-2 like diabetic rats was higher than in non-diabetic rats. Also, the mRNA or protein level of cardiac M2-mAChR in STZ-diabetic rats was markedly higher than non-diabetic rats, but it was not observed in type-2 like diabetic rats as compared to age-matched non-diabetic rats. Arecaidine propargyl ester (APE), the agonist of M2-mAChR, produced a marked reduction of heart rate in STZ-diabetic rats but made less influence on heart rate in fructose-fed rats or non-diabetic rats. The results suggest that cardiac M2-mAChR gene expression is raised in type-1 like diabetic rats but not in type-2 like diabetic rats, this difference mainly due to hyperglycemia, for the production of hypotension in diabetic disorders.

  10. Comparative evaluation of central muscarinic receptor binding activity by oxybutynin, tolterodine and darifenacin used to treat overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomomi; Kageyama, Aiko; Takagi, Yukiko; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-02-01

    We characterized muscarinic receptor binding in the mouse cerebral cortex after oral administration of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder. Muscarinic receptors in the mouse cerebral cortex and bladder after oral administration of anticholinergic agents were measured using [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine. In vitro binding affinities of tolterodine and its metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite in the mouse cerebral cortex and bladder were considerably greater than those of oxybutynin and darifenacin. Also, muscarinic receptor binding affinity of oxybutynin and its metabolite N-desethyl-oxybutynin in the cerebral cortex compared with that in the bladder was 2 to 3 times higher, whereas that of tolterodine and 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite was approximately 2 times lower. Oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 micromol/kg), tolterodine (6.31 micromol/kg) and darifenacin (59.1 micromol/kg) showed binding activity that was approximately equal to that of bladder muscarinic receptors. Oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 micromol/kg) showed significant binding of cerebral cortical muscarinic receptors in mice, as indicated by about a 2-fold increase in K(d) values for specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding 0.5 and 2 hours later. On the other hand, tolterodine and darifenacin given at oral doses that would exert a similar extent of bladder receptor binding activity as oxybutynin showed only a low level of binding activity of central muscarinic receptors in mice. Significant binding of brain muscarinic receptors in mice was observed by the oral administration of oxybutynin but not tolterodine and darifenacin.

  11. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  12. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  13. Repeated effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Kee; Wong, Erik H F; Henry, Brian; Shahid, Mohammed; Tarazi, Frank I

    2010-04-01

    Adrenergic (alpha1 and alpha2) and cholinergic muscarinic (M1-M5) receptor binding in rat forebrain was quantified after 4 wk of twice-daily subcutaneous administration of asenapine or vehicle. Asenapine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) produced increases in [3H]prazosin binding to alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: 30%, 39%, 57%) and dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC: 27%, 37%, 53%) and increased [3H]RX821002 binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in mPFC (36%, 43%, 50%) and DFC (41%, 44%, 52%). Despite showing no appreciable affinity for muscarinic receptors, asenapine produced regionally selective increases in binding of [3H]QNB to M1-M5 receptors in mPFC (26%, 31%, 43%), DFC (27%, 34%, 41%), and hippocampal CA1 (40%, 44%, 42%) and CA3 (25%, 52%, 48%) regions. These regionally selective effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtypes may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell contribute to cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Judy; Famous, Katie R.; Hopkins, Thomas J.; McMullen, Michael C.; Pierce, R. Christopher; Schmidt, Heath D.

    2011-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens play an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the role of accumbal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. The goal of these experiments was to assess the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in cocaine and sucrose priming-induced reinstatement. Rats were initially trained to self-administer cocaine or sucrose on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Lever-pressing behavior was then extinguished and followed by a subsequent reinstatement phase during which operant responding was induced by either a systemic injection of cocaine in cocaine-experienced rats or non-contingent delivery of sucrose pellets in subjects with a history of sucrose self-administration. Results indicated that systemic administration of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated cocaine, but not sucrose, reinstatement. Furthermore, administration of scopolamine (36.0 μg) directly into the nucleus accumbens shell or core attenuated cocaine-priming induced reinstatement. In contrast, infusion of scopolamine (36.0 μg) directly into the accumbens core, but not shell, attenuated sucrose reinstatement, which suggests that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in these two subregions of the nucleus accumbens have differential roles in sucrose seeking. Taken together, these results indicate that cocaine-priming induced reinstatement is mediated, in part, by increased signaling through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the core of the accumbens, in contrast, appear to play a more general (i.e. not cocaine specific) role in motivated behaviors. PMID:21034738

  15. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  16. The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Sean P; Gurvich, Caroline T; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence has implicated the central muscarinic system as contributing to a number of symptoms of schizophrenia and serving as a potential target for pharmaceutical interventions. A theoretical review is presented that focuses on the central muscarinic system's contribution to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim is to bridge the void between pertinent neuropsychological and neurobiological research to provide an explanatory account of the role that the central muscarinic system plays in the symptoms of schizophrenia. First, there will be a brief overview of the relevant neuropsychological schizophrenia literature, followed by a concise introduction to the central muscarinic system. Subsequently, we will draw from animal, neuropsychological and pharmacological literature, and discuss the findings in relation to cognition, schizophrenia and the muscarinic system. Whilst unifying the multiple domains of research into a concise review will act as a useful line of enquiry into the central muscarinic systems contribution to the symptoms of schizophrenia, it will be made apparent that more research is needed in this field.

  17. Pharmacological characteristics of catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of histamine in mice: the importance of muscarinic step in central cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Onodera, K; Shinoda, H

    1991-05-01

    Histamine-induced catalepsy was antagonized potently by scopolamine, an antimuscarinic drug, and partially blocked by sparteine. Neither methylatropine nor antinicotinic drugs could reverse histamine-induced catalepsy. These results indicate the greater importance of muscarinic receptors rather than their nicotinic counterparts in histamine-induced catalepsy. Various antiparkinson drugs, i.e. biperiden and trihexyphenidyl, which have antimuscarinic activity or dopamine agonists, i.e. L-dopa, amantadine and bromocriptine, could antagonize the histamine-induced catalepsy to various degrees. Thus, catalepsy induced by icv histamine can be evoked not only by an activation of the histamine receptor, but also indirectly due to cholinergic and dopaminergic imbalance.

  18. A selective allosteric potentiator of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor increases activity of medial prefrontal cortical neurons and restores impairments in reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Jana K; Brady, Ashley E; Jones, Paulianda J; Davis, Albert A; Bridges, Thomas M; Kennedy, J Phillip; Jadhav, Satyawan B; Menon, Usha N; Xiang, Zixiu; Watson, Mona L; Christian, Edward P; Doherty, James J; Quirk, Michael C; Snyder, Dean H; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Nicolle, Michelle M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2009-11-11

    M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) may represent a viable target for treatment of disorders involving impaired cognitive function. However, a major limitation to testing this hypothesis has been a lack of highly selective ligands for individual mAChR subtypes. We now report the rigorous molecular characterization of a novel compound, benzylquinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), which acts as a potent, highly selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the rat M(1) receptor. This compound does not directly activate the receptor, but acts at an allosteric site to increase functional responses to orthosteric agonists. Radioligand binding studies revealed that BQCA increases M(1) receptor affinity for acetylcholine. We found that activation of the M(1) receptor by BQCA induces a robust inward current and increases spontaneous EPSCs in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal cells, effects which are absent in acute slices from M(1) receptor knock-out mice. Furthermore, to determine the effect of BQCA on intact and functioning brain circuits, multiple single-unit recordings were obtained from the mPFC of rats that showed BQCA increases firing of mPFC pyramidal cells in vivo. BQCA also restored discrimination reversal learning in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and was found to regulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing in vitro, suggesting that M(1) receptor PAMs have the potential to provide both symptomatic and disease modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease patients. Together, these studies provide compelling evidence that M(1) receptor activation induces a dramatic excitation of PFC neurons and suggest that selectively activating the M(1) mAChR subtype may ameliorate impairments in cognitive function.

  19. Activation of muscarinic receptors increases the activity of the granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus--a calcium imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Vincze, János; Rusznák, Zoltán; Fu, Yuhong; Paxinos, George; Csernoch, László; Szücs, Géza

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine modulates the function of the cochlear nucleus via several pathways. In this study, the effects of cholinergic stimulation were studied on the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Ca(2+) transients were recorded in Oregon-Green-BAPTA 1-loaded brain slices using a calcium imaging technique. For the detection, identification and characterisation of the Ca(2+) transients, a wavelet analysis-based method was developed. Granule cells were identified on the basis of their size and localisation. The action potential-coupled character of the Ca(2+) transients of the granule cells was established by recording fluorescence changes and electrical activity simultaneously. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbamyl-choline (CCh) significantly increased the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients (from 0.37 to 6.31 min(-1), corresponding to a 17.1-fold increase; n = 89). This effect was antagonised by atropine, whereas CCh could still evoke an 8.3-fold increase of the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients when hexamethonium was present. Using immunolabelling, the expression of both type 1 and type 3 muscarinic receptors (M1 and M3 receptors, respectively) was demonstrated in the granule cells. Application of 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (an M3-specific antagonist) prevented the onset of the CCh effect, whereas an M1-specific antagonist (pirenzepine) was less effective. We conclude that cholinergic stimulation increases the activity of granule cells, mainly by acting on their M3 receptors. The modulation of the firing activity of the granule cells, in turn, may modify the firing of projection neurones and may adjust signal processing in the entire DCN.

  20. Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gronier, B; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular single-unit recording and iontophoresis were used to examine the effects of different cholinoceptor agonists and antagonists on the firing rate and firing pattern of A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones in the anaesthetized rat.Administration of low currents (1–5 nA) of the selective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine M (Oxo M) and muscarine and of the non-selective muscarinic/nicotinic agonist carbamylcholine (CCh) produced a dose-dependent increase in firing rate in most of the A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones tested. Oxo M-induced activation could be completely blocked by iontophoretic application of the muscarinic antagonist butyl-scopolamine or systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.).Iontophoretic application of the selective nicotinic agonist methylcarbamylcholine (MCCh), but not nicotine, induced a consistent increase in firing rate. Surprisingly, the excitatory effect of MCCh was significantly reduced by the selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.), but not by the selective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (2.2 mg kg−1, i.v.). Mecamylamine (3 mg kg−1, i.v.) was also ineffective in reducing the CCh-induced activation of presumed dopamine neurones, suggesting that both CCh and MCCh increased the activity of dopamine neurones via an interaction with muscarinic receptors.Iontophoretic application of the endogenous agonist acetylcholine (ACh) had no or little effect on the firing activity of A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones. However, concomitant application of neostigmine, a potent cholinesterase inhibitor, with acetylcholine induced a substantial activation of these neurones. This activation consisted of two components; one, which was prevalent, was scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive, and the other was mecamylamine (2 mg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive.In addition to their effect on firing activity, Oxo M, muscarine and

  1. The facilitating effect of systemic administration of Kv7/M channel blocker XE991 on LTP induction in the hippocampal CA1 area independent of muscarinic activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming-Ke; Cui, Yong-Yao; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Liang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2009-09-11

    A large amount of in vitro studies demonstrate suppression of M-current in hippocampal neurons by Kv7/M channel blocker results in depolarization of membrane potential and release of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and glutamate, suggesting that Kv7/M channel may play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity. In the present study, we examined the in vivo effect of Kv7/M channel inhibition on the long-term potentiation (LTP) induction at basal dendrites in hippocampal CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats. The Kv7/M channel was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of XE991 (10mg/kg) and the LTP of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) was induced by supra-threshold high frequency stimulation (S1 HFS). A weak protocol which was just below the threshold for evoking LTP was used as sub-threshold high frequency stimulation (S2 HFS). XE991 did not significantly alter the slope of fEPSP and the magnitude of LTP induced by S1 HFS, suggesting that Kv7/M channel inhibition had little or no effect on glutamatergic transmission under basal conditions. However, XE991 could make S2 HFS evoke LTP even after the application of the muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptor antagonist scopolamine, suggesting that Kv7/M channel inhibition lowered the threshold for LTP induction and the effect was independent of muscarinic activation. Based on the above findings, we concluded that the facilitating effect of XE991 on LTP induction is not mediated by its ability to enhance the release of acetylcholine; therefore, Kv7/M channel blockers may provide a therapeutic benefit to cholinergic deficiency-related cognitive impairment, e.g., Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  3. Increases in Serum Growth Hormone Concentrations Associated with GHB Administration.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Bartlett, Christiaan; Kicman, Andrew T; Cowan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration. The serum concentrations of GHB were measured by GC-MS and GH by immunometric assay. Following GHB administration, volunteers exhibited effects consistent with mild sedation, i.e., relaxed with normal responses to verbal stimuli. Despite none being asleep, an increase in serum GH concentration occurred in 11 out of the 12 volunteers (5 women and 6 men). In these volunteers, peak GH concentrations occurred 45-60 min post-administration compared with a mean serum tmax for GHB of 23 min (SD = 5.4 min). The absolute increase in GH was similar for men and women, averaging 3.4 and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean intra-individual increase in GH was much greater in males (29 times) compared with females (2 times), as males had (as expected) smaller basal GH concentrations (mean = 0.26 ng/mL) compared with females (mean = 5.4 ng/mL). After maximizing, the GH concentration decreased rapidly (in agreement with GHB concentrations), returning to basal concentrations at ~90-120 min post-administration. GHB administration at a small therapeutic dose results in increases in serum GH concentrations in healthy male and female volunteers in the absence of sleep onset.

  4. Aripiprazole maintenance increases smoked cocaine self-administration in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Partial dopamine receptor agonists have been proposed as candidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Objective This 42-day, within-subject, human laboratory study assessed how maintenance on aripiprazole, a partial D2 receptor agonist, influenced smoked cocaine self-administration, cardiovascular measures, subjective effects, and cocaine craving in nontreatment-seeking, cocaine-dependent volunteers. Methods In order to achieve steady-state concentrations, participants (n=8 men) were administered placebo and aripiprazole (15 mg/day) capsules in counter-balanced order for 21 days. A smoked cocaine dose–response curve (0, 12, 25, 50 mg) was determined twice under placebo and aripiprazole maintenance. Sessions comprised a “sample” trial, when participants smoked the cocaine dose available that session, and five choice trials, when they responded on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement to receive the cocaine dose or receive $5.00. Results Cocaine’s reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects were dose-dependent. Aripiprazole significantly increased cocaine (12, 25 mg) self-administration. Following a single administration of cocaine (25 mg), aripiprazole decreased ratings of how much participants would pay for that dose. Following repeated cocaine (50 mg) self-administration, aripiprazole decreased ratings of cocaine quality, craving, and good drug effect as compared to placebo. Conclusions These data suggest that aripiprazole may have increased self-administration to compensate for a blunted subjective cocaine effect. Overall, the findings do not suggest aripiprazole would be useful for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:21373790

  5. The ICES Model: Increasing Women's Participation in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A.; Bailey, Jerry D.

    The study assesses the feasibility of implementing a specific model designed to increase women's participation in the administration of a state's public school systems. The model intervenes to affect the structure of opportunity, the structure of power, and the social composition of peer groups in a state's educational system. The researchers use…

  6. Chronic treatment with simvastatin upregulates muscarinic M1/4 receptor binding in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zengin, A; Ying, W; Newell, K A; Wang, P; Yeo, W; Wong, P T-H; Yenari, M A; Huang, X-F

    2008-06-26

    Statins are increasingly being used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original indication for cholesterol lowering. We previously reported that simvastatin affected the dopaminergic system in the rat brain. This study aims to investigate regional changes of muscarinic M1/4 receptors in the rat brain after 4-week administration of simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day). M1/4 receptor distribution and alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [(3)H]pirenzepine binding autoradiography. Simvastatin (1 mg/kg/day) increased [(3)H]pirenzepine binding, predominantly in the prefrontal cortex (171%, P<0.001), primary motor cortex (153%, P=0.001), cingulate cortex (109%, P<0.001), hippocampus (138%, P<0.001), caudate putamen (122%, P=0.002) and nucleus accumbens (170%, P<0.001) compared with controls; while lower but still significant increases of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding were observed in the examined regions following simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) treatment. Our results also provide strong evidence that chronic simvastatin administration, especially at a low dosage, up-regulates M1/4 receptor binding, which is likely to be independent of its muscarinic agonist-like effect. Alterations in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in the examined brain areas may represent the specific regions that mediate the clinical effects of simvastatin treatment on cognition and memory via the muscarinic cholinergic system. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of simvastatin in treating neurodegenerative disorders, via muscarinic receptors.

  7. Increased serotonin platelet uptake after tianeptine administration in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Chamba, G; Lemoine, P; Flachaire, E; Ferry, N; Quincy, C; Sassard, J; Ferber, C; Mocaër, E; Kamoun, A; Renaud, B

    1991-09-15

    Tianeptine is a new antidepressant drug reported to enhance serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) uptake in rat brain. The effect of tianeptine on 5-HT platelet uptake was studied in 10 depressed patients treated for 28 days. Tianeptine increases Vmax of 5-HT platelet uptake during treatment without inducing any change in Km. As early as 2 hr after the first administration, Vmax increased significantly (+23%, alpha = 0.01). Although of a lesser magnitude, 5-HT platelet uptake remains increased after chronic administration (+14% on day 10 and +13% on day 28). This suggests that tianeptine affects 5-HT platelet uptake sites, either directly or via an action on modulators of 5-HT uptake. These results, in contrast with the action of other tricyclic antidepressants, confirm the original action of tianeptine on 5-HT platelet metabolism.

  8. Comparison of muscarinic receptor selectivity of solifenacin and oxybutynin in the bladder and submandibular gland of muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Yoshida, Akira; Fujino, Tomomi; Noguchi, Yukiko; Yuyama, Hironori; Ohtake, Akiyoshi; Suzuki, Masanori; Sasamata, Masao; Matsui, Minoru; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-08-01

    Solifenacin is a novel selective antagonist of M(3) muscarinic receptor developed for the treatment of overactive bladder. The current study was undertaken to characterize in vivo muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity of solifenacin in the bladder and submandibular gland by using muscarinic receptor subtype knockout (KO) mice. Muscarinic receptors in the bladder and submandibular gland of wild type, M(2)R KO and M(3)R KO mice under in vitro and after oral administration of solifenacin and oxybutynin were measured by radioligand binding assay using [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine ([(3)H]NMS). There was little difference between the bladder and submandibular gland of M(2)R KO mice in the receptor binding activities of oxybutynin and solifenacin in vitro, suggesting equal affinity for residual (predominantly M(3) subtype) muscarinic receptors in both tissues. In contrast, compared with oral oxybutynin, oral administration of solifenacin exerted a significantly greater activity to bind muscarinic receptors in the bladder of M(2)R KO mice, while exhibiting a significantly less activity to bind those in the submandibular gland. In the bladder and submandibular gland of M(3)R KO mice, the binding activity of solifenacin and oxybutynin showed no significant difference. Plasma concentrations of solifenacin and oxybutynin after oral administration differed little among wild type, M(2)R KO and M(3)R KO mice. The results indicate that oral solifenacin, unlike oral oxybutynin, may selectively bind to the muscarinic M(3) subtype in the bladder compared with such receptors in the submandibular gland in vivo. Oral solifenacin may be advantageous for the treatment of overactive bladder, in terms of high affinity for M(3) receptors in the bladder.

  9. Comparative evaluation of exocrine muscarinic receptor binding characteristics and inhibition of salivation of solifenacin in mice.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yamada, Shizuo

    2006-07-01

    Anticholinergic agents such as oxybutynin are clinically useful in the treatment of overactive bladder. However, oral administration of oxybutynin is frequently accompanied by side effects such as dry mouth, and novel bladder-selective anticholinergic agents such as solifenacin and tolterodine are now under development. The aim of the present study was to characterize the suppression of cholinergic salivation and exocrine muscarinic receptor binding of solifenacin on oral administration to mice in comparison with those of oxybutynin. Results showed that both drugs produced a significant increase in K(d) values for specific [N-Methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3)H]NMS) binding in the mouse submaxillary gland, compared with control values. However, this enhancement in K(d) values was significantly smaller with solifenacin than with oxybutynin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of solifenacin on pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion was significantly weaker than that of oxybutynin. Solifenacin dissociated more readily from muscarinic receptors in the mouse submaxillary gland than oxybutynin. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the weak suppression of cholinergic salivation by solifenacin compared with oxybutynin may be partially attributed to its relatively fast dissociation kinetics from exocrine muscarinic receptors.

  10. Pharmacological doses of Zn2+ induce a muscarinic cholinergic supersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bonfante-Cabarcas, R; Bravo, I; Nello, C; Gutiérrez-Reyes, E; Loureiro Dos Santos, N E; Moreno-Yanes, J A

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic Zn2+ administration (1 mg/kg/day for 1 month) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11) on motility and rearing behaviors (number of events/10 min measured in motility cage), on memory (percentage of failures using a foot-shock double T maze), on the number of muscarinic receptors (using [(3)H]-QNB as a marker) and on the cholinacetyltransferase (Chat) activity (determined by Fonnun's method) in various brain areas (striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex), as compared with saline-treated rats (n = 10). Our results showed that Zn2+ induced a decrease in rearing (control: 24.6 +/- 3; Zn2+: 15.91 +/- 2.19) and in locomotor activity (control: 37 +/- 3.79; Zn2+: 25 +/- 4.37), a decrease in failures during memory trials (control: 26.12 +/- 5.6; Zn2+: 5.33 +/- 2.71) and an increase in muscarinic receptor density (fmol/mg) in the striatum (control: 539 +/- 6.18; Zn2+: 720 +/- 14.69), hippocampus (control: 396 +/- 7.41; Zn 2+: 458 +/- 5.05) and frontal cortex (control: 506 +/- 10.28; Zn2+: 716 +/- 16.54). Chat activity (pmol/mg/min) was decreased only in the striatum (control: 4240 +/- 158; Zn2+: 2311 +/- 69). We conclude that Zn 2+ induces a cholinergic functional supersensitivity which is related to receptor upregulation. Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde

  12. Muscarinic contribution to the acute cortical effects of vagus nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Justin A.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) has been used to treat more than 60,000 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and is under investigation as a treatment for several other neurological disorders and conditions. Among these, VNS increases memory performance and enhances recovery of motor and cognitive function in animal models of traumatic brain injury. Recent research indicates that pairing brief VNS with tones multiple-times a day for several weeks induces long-term, input specific cortical plasticity, which can be used to re-normalize the pathological cortical reorganization and eliminate a behavioral correlate of chronic tinnitus in noise exposed rats. Despite the therapeutic potential, the mechanisms of action of VNS remain speculative. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, the acute effects of VNS on cortical synchrony, excitability, and temporal processing are examined. In anesthetized rats implanted with multi-electrode arrays, VNS increased and decorrelated spontaneous multi-unit activity, and suppressed entrainment to repetitive noise burst stimulation at 6 to 8 Hz, but not after systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Chapter 3 focuses on VNS-tone pairing induced cortical plasticity. Pairing VNS with a tone one hundred times in anesthetized rats resulted in frequency specific plasticity in 31% of the auditory cortex sites. Half of these sites exhibited a frequency specific increase in firing rate and half exhibited a frequency specific decrease. Muscarinic receptor blockade with scopolamine almost entirely prevented the frequency specific increases, but not decreases. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the capacity for VNS to not only acutely influence cortical synchrony, and excitability, but to also influence temporal and spectral tuning via muscarinic receptor activation. These results strengthen the hypothesis that acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors are involved in the mechanisms of action of VNS and

  13. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  14. Down regulation of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor of the rat prostate following castration

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Miller, A.R.; Lepor, H.

    1985-07-01

    Prostatic secretion is dependent upon the integrity of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems and is dramatically influenced by muscarinic cholinergic analogs. In this study, the authors have used radioligand receptor binding methods on whole tissue homogenates and slide mounted tissue sections of rat prostate to determine whether androgens regulate the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the prostate. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding affinities (Kd) of (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine in prostatic homogenates obtained from intact, castrate, and castrate rats receiving testosterone replacement (castrate + T) were similar (0.07 to 0.10 nM). The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding capacity decreased 73 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in castrate rats to intact levels. In order to ensure that the loss of receptor density was not due to a decrease in the epithelial: stromal cell ratio, the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors per unit area of epithelium was determined in the 3 treatment groups using autoradiography on slide mounted tissue sections. The density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in a unit area of epithelium was decreased 91 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the castrate rats to intact levels. The modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by steroid hormones may be a mechanism by which sex steroids regulate biological responsiveness of target tissues.

  15. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor X-ray structures: potential implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Andrew C; Hu, Jianxin; Kobilka, Brian K; Wess, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists are widely used as bronchodilating drugs in pulmonary medicine. The therapeutic efficacy of these agents depends on the blockade of M3 muscarinic receptors expressed on airway smooth muscle cells. All muscarinic antagonists currently used as bronchodilating agents show high affinity for all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, thus increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies have provided detailed structural information about the nature of the orthosteric muscarinic binding site (the conventional acetylcholine binding site) and an 'outer' receptor cavity that can bind allosteric (non-orthosteric) drugs. These new findings should guide the development of selective M3 receptor blockers that have little or no effect on other muscarinic receptor subtypes.

  16. Muscarinic agonists and antagonists: effects on the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Donna J; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2012-01-01

    Voiding of the bladder is the result of a parasympathetic muscarinic receptor activation of the detrusor smooth muscle. However, the maintenance of continence and a normal bladder micturition cycle involves a complex interaction of cholinergic, adrenergic, nitrergic and peptidergic systems that is currently little understood. The cholinergic component of bladder control involves two systems, acetylcholine (ACh) released from parasympathetic nerves and ACh from non-neuronal cells within the urothelium. The actions of ACh on the bladder depend on the presence of muscarinic receptors that are located on the detrusor smooth muscle, where they cause direct (M₃) and indirect (M₂) contraction; pre-junctional nerve terminals where they increase (M₁) or decrease (M₄) the release of ACh and noradrenaline (NA); sensory nerves where they influence afferent nerve activity; umbrella cells in the urothelium where they stimulate the release of ATP and NO; suburothelial interstitial cells with unknown function; and finally, other unidentified sites in the urothelium from where prostaglandins and inhibitory/relaxatory factors are released. Thus, the actions of muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists on the bladder may be very complex even when considering only local muscarinic actions. Clinically, muscarinic antagonists remain the mainstay of treatment for the overactive bladder (OAB), while muscarinic agonists have been used to treat hypoactive bladder. The antagonists are effective in treating OAB, but their precise mechanisms and sites of action (detrusor, urothelium, and nerves) have yet to be established. Potentially more selective agents may be developed when the cholinergic systems within the bladder are more fully understood.

  17. Muscarinic presynaptic modulation in GABAergic pallidal synapses of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Aceves, José J; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Hernández-Flores, Teresa; Hernández-González, Omar; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-02-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is central for basal ganglia processing. It expresses muscarinic cholinergic receptors and receives cholinergic afferents from the pedunculopontine nuclei (PPN) and other regions. The role of these receptors and afferents is unknown. Muscarinic M1-type receptors are expressed by synapses from striatal projection neurons (SPNs). Because axons from SPNs project to the GPe, one hypothesis is that striatopallidal GABAergic terminals may be modulated by M1 receptors. Alternatively, some M1 receptors may be postsynaptic in some pallidal neurons. Evidence of muscarinic modulation in any of these elements would suggest that cholinergic afferents from the PPN, or other sources, could modulate the function of the GPe. In this study, we show this evidence using striatopallidal slice preparations: after field stimulation in the striatum, the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine significantly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from synapses that exhibited short-term synaptic facilitation. This inhibition was associated with significant increases in paired-pulse facilitation, and quantal content was proportional to IPSC amplitude. These actions were blocked by atropine, pirenzepine, and mamba toxin-7, suggesting that receptors involved were M1. In addition, we found that some pallidal neurons have functional postsynaptic M1 receptors. Moreover, some evoked IPSCs exhibited short-term depression and a different kind of modulation: they were indirectly modulated by muscarine via the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Thus pallidal synapses presenting distinct forms of short-term plasticity were modulated differently. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Ventral tegmental area muscarinic receptors modulate depression and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Small, Keri M.; Nunes, Eric; Hughley, Shannon; Addy, Nii A.

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms within the mesolimbic dopamine system are suggested to play a role in the manifestation of depression and anxiety-related disorders. However, despite the fact that cholinergic mechanisms in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) highly regulate dopamine activity, the role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in depression-related behaviors is relatively unknown. Here we sought to determine whether enhancing cholinergic tone in the VTA would alter depression and anxiety-related behavior in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and sucrose preference test (SPT). Adult Sprague Dawley male rats received VTA infusion of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (0, 1, 2 μg/side), immediately prior to the FST, EPM, or SPT. Physostigmine administration increased immobility time in the FST, decreased time spent on open arms in the EPM, and decreased sucrose preference. In a separate cohort of rats, we also examined whether activation of VTA muscarinic receptors was sufficient to alter behavior in the FST and EPM. Similar to physostigmine, VTA infusion of the muscarinic receptor agonist, pilocarpine (0, 3, 30 μg/side), increased immobility time in the FST and decreased time spent on open arms in the EPM. These data suggest that enhanced VTA cholinergic tone promotes pro-depressive and anxiogenic-like effects and demonstrate that specific activation of VTA muscarinic receptors is also sufficient to induce pro-depressive and anxiogenic responses. Together, these findings reveal a novel role of VTA cholinergic, and specifically muscarinic receptor, mechanisms in mediating responses to stress and anxiety. PMID:26828299

  19. Ventral tegmental area muscarinic receptors modulate depression and anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Small, Keri M; Nunes, Eric; Hughley, Shannon; Addy, Nii A

    2016-03-11

    Cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms within the mesolimbic dopamine system are suggested to play a role in the manifestation of depression and anxiety-related disorders. However, despite the fact that cholinergic mechanisms in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) highly regulate dopamine activity, the role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in depression-related behaviors is relatively unknown. Here we sought to determine whether enhancing cholinergic tone in the VTA would alter depression and anxiety-related behavior in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and sucrose preference test (SPT). Adult Sprague Dawley male rats received VTA infusion of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (0, 1, 2μg/side), immediately prior to the FST, EPM, or SPT. Physostigmine administration increased immobility time in the FST, decreased time spent on open arms in the EPM, and decreased sucrose preference. We also examined whether activation of VTA muscarinic receptors was sufficient to alter behavior in the FST and EPM. Similar to physostigmine, VTA infusion of the muscarinic receptor agonist, pilocarpine (0, 3, 30μg/side), increased immobility time in the FST and decreased time spent on open arms in the EPM. These data suggest that enhanced VTA cholinergic tone promotes pro-depressive and anxiogenic-like effects and demonstrate that specific activation of VTA muscarinic receptors is also sufficient to induce pro-depressive and anxiogenic responses. Together, these findings reveal a novel role of VTA cholinergic, and specifically muscarinic receptor, mechanisms in mediating responses to stress and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obama Administration Proposes Increases for NASA and Energy Department Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Despite a tough economy, the Obama administration's proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011, which was released on 1 February, calls for funding increases for NASA, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, and other federal science agencies. NASA's FY 2011 budget would increase to US$19 billion, up 1.5% from $18.7 billion. In addition, the budget would set the agency on a trajectory to increase by about $6 billion between FY 2011 and FY 2015. Within the overall budget, the Science account would increase to $5 billion (up from $4.5 billion), with Earth Science receiving $1.8 billion (up a whopping 29% from $1.4 billion) in FY 2011 and approximately an additional $1.8 billion between FY 2011 and FY 2014. Planetary Science would get $1.49 billion (up from $1.34 billion), Heliophysics would increase slightly to $642 million from $627 million, and Astrophysics would dip to $1.08 billion from $1.1 billion.

  1. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases envy and schadenfreude (gloating).

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Fischer, Meytal; Dvash, Jonathan; Harari, Hagai; Perach-Bloom, Nufar; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2009-11-01

    Humans have a strong social tendency to compare themselves with others. We tend to feel envious when we receive less valuable rewards and may rejoice when our payoffs are more advantageous. Envy and schadenfreude (gloating over the other's misfortune) are social emotions widely agreed to be a symptom of the human social tendency to compare one's payoffs with those of others. Given the important social components of envy and gloating, we speculated that oxytocin may have a modulating effect on the intensity of these emotions. Fifty-six participants participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following the administration of oxytocin or a placebo, participants played a game of chance with another (fake) participant who either won more money (envy manipulation), lost more money (schadenfreude manipulation), or won/lost equal amounts of money. In comparison with the placebo, oxytocin increased the envy ratings during unequal monetary gain conditions involving relative loss (when the participant gained less money than another player). Oxytocin also increased the ratings of gloating during relative gain conditions (when the participant gained more money than the other player). By contrast, oxytocin had no effect on the emotional ratings following equal monetary gains nor did it affect general mood ratings. These results suggest that the oxytocinergic system is involved in modulating envy and gloating. Thus, contrary to the prevailing belief that this system is involved solely in positive prosocial behaviors, it probably plays a key role in a wider range of social emotion-related behaviors.

  2. Muscarinic receptors of the albino rabbit ciliary process.

    PubMed

    Mallorga, P; Babilon, R W; Buisson, S; Sugrue, M F

    1989-04-01

    Muscarinic receptor binding sites were identified in membranes prepared from albino rabbit ciliary processes, using the muscarinic antagonist [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate as the radioligand. Analysis of saturation binding experiments demonstrated that [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate bound to an apparent homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd value of 6.4 pm and a Bmax value of 155 fmol mg-1 protein. Seventy percent (70%) of binding sites showed high affinity for pirenzepine, i.e. belonged to the M1 subtype. In contrast, AF-DX 116 was unable to discriminate between subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in this tissue. Carbachol caused a dose-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover (EC50 = 154 microM) in ciliary processes. A maximum stimulation of 652% of basal activity was obtained following a 45 min incubation with 10 mM carbachol. The potency of muscarinic antagonists to block the carbachol-induced response was comparable to that found for M1 receptors in other tissues. Oxotremorine and pilocarpine behaved like partial agonists in this assay. The carbachol-induced increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover was also observed in a suspension of epithelial cells from ciliary processes and it was blocked by atropine; thus, indicating the presence of muscarinic receptors functionally coupled to phosphatidylinositol turnover in these cells.

  3. Water Reallocation - Increasing Opportunities for Cooperation, Administration and Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Marston, L.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays utilizable water in many regions around the world has been allocated among the various users. Increasing demands and limited water supplies necessitates water reallocation given that the existing allocation is economically inefficient, socially unfair, and environmentally unsustainable. Water reallocation, a dynamic adaptation strategy to changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions, offers a flexible water management approach to mitigate water scarcity under changing socioeconomic, climatic, and environmental conditions. Water reallocation can be implemented via collective cooperation, administration, and/or market-based approaches. In spite of the numerous benefits of reallocating water between users, examples of successful water transfers are relatively sparse and the expected benefits are rarely met in full due to several complex impediments. This study discusses the key barriers to wider implementation of water reallocation based on overview of the current body of water reallocation literature. Many examples of water transfers from around the world illustrate both the benefits and challenges associated with reallocation. To overcome the obstacles for more effective reallocation, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to water reallocation that couples developments in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines with current water reallocation scholarship, which is predominately rooted in the social sciences. We conclude by calling for an integrated research platform that focuses on supporting both voluntary and nonvoluntary forms of water reallocation; however, a greater emphasis should be on nonmarket means of water transfer since it is more feasible for many regions where water rights are not well defined and institutional capacity is insufficient.

  4. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in cilia-driven transport and airway epithelial development

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Maike K.; Haberberger, Rainer V.; Hartmann, Petra; Faulhammer, Petra; Lips, Katrin S.; Krain, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Kummer, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary beating of airway epithelial cells drives the removal of mucus and particles from the airways. Mucociliary transport and possibly airway epithelial development are governed by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but the precise roles of the subtypes involved are unknown. This issue was addressed by determining cilia-driven particle transport, ciliary beat frequency, and the composition and ultrastructural morphology of the tracheal epithelium in M1–M5 muscarinic receptor gene-deficient mice. Knockout of M3 muscarinic receptors prevented an increase in particle transport speed and ciliary beat frequency in response to muscarine. Furthermore, the ATP response after application of muscarine was blunted. Pretreatment with atropine before application of muscarine restored the response to ATP. Additional knockout of the M2 receptor in these mice partially restored the muscarine effect most likely through the M1 receptor and normalized the ATP response. M1, M4, and M5 receptor deficient mice exhibited normal responses to muscarine. None of the investigated mutant mouse strains had any impairment of epithelial cellular structure or composition. In conclusion, M3 receptors stimulate whereas M2 receptors inhibit cilia-driven particle transport. The M1 receptor increases cilia-driven particle transport if the M3 and M2 receptor are missing. None of the receptors is necessary for epithelial development. PMID:19213795

  5. Synthesis and muscarinic activity of quinuclidinyl- and (1-azanorbornyl)pyrazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Street, L J; Baker, R; Book, T; Reeve, A J; Saunders, J; Willson, T; Marwood, R S; Patel, S; Freedman, S B

    1992-01-24

    The synthesis and cortical muscarinic activity of a novel series of pyrazine-based agonists is described. Quinuclidine and azanorbornane derivatives were prepared either by reaction of lithiated pyrazines with azabicyclic ketones, followed by chlorination and reduction, or by reaction of the lithium enolate of the azabicyclic ester with 2-chloropyrazines followed by ester hydrolysis and decarboxylation. Substitution at all three positions of the heteroaromatic ring has been explored. Optimal muscarinic agonist activity was observed for unsubstituted pyrazines in the azanorbornane series. The exo-1-azanorbornane 18a is one of the most efficacious and potent centrally active muscarinic agonists known. Studies on the 3-substituted derivatives have provided evidence of the preferred conformation of these ligands for optimal muscarinic activity. Substitution at C6 gave ligands with increased affinity and reduced efficacy. Moving the position of the diazine ring nitrogens to give pyrimidine and pyridazine derivatives resulted in a significant loss of muscarinic activity.

  6. The role of muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cost-benefit decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobbs, Wambura

    Animals regularly face decisions that affect both their immediate success and long term survival. Such decisions typically involve some form of cost-benefit analysis and engage a number of high level cognitive processes, including learning, memory and motivational influences. While decision making has been a focus of study for over a century, it's only in the last 20 years that researchers have begun to identify functional neural circuits that subserve different forms of cost-benefit decision making. Even though the cholinergic system is both functionally and anatomically positioned to modulate cost-benefit decision circuits, the contribution of the cholinergic system to decision making has been little studied. In this thesis, I investigated the cognitive and neural contribution of muscarinic cholinergic signaling to cost-benefit decision making. I, first, re-examined the effects of systemic administration of 0.3 mg/kg atropine on delay and probability discounting tasks and found that blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by atropine induced suboptimal choices (impulsive and risky) in both tasks. Since the effect on delay discounting was restricted to the No Cue version of the delay discounting task, I concluded that muscarinic cholinergic signaling mediates both forms of cost-benefit decision making and is selectively engaged when decisions require valuation of reward options whose costs are not externally signified. Second, I assessed the impact of inactivating the nucleus basalis (NBM) on both forms decision making and the effect of injecting atropine locally into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), or nucleus accumbens (NAc) core during the No Cue version of the delay discounting task. I discovered that although NBM inactivation failed to affect delay discounting, it induced risk aversion in the probability discounting task; and blockade of intra- NAc core, but not intra-OFC or intra-BLA, muscarinic cholinergic signaling lead to

  7. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  8. Intracellular observations on the effects of muscarinic agonists on rat sympathetic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. A.; Constanti, A.

    1980-01-01

    1 Responses of single neurones in isolated superior cervical ganglia of the rat to muscarinic agonists were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes. 2 (+/-)-Muscarine (1 to 10 microM) and methylfurmethide (1 to 3 microM) produced reversible membrane depolarizations (less than or equal to 15 mV) accompanied by a fall in input conductance and an increased tendency toward repetitive spike discharges. The spike configuration was unchanged. 3 Analysis of steady-state current/voltage curves revealed the most consistent muscarinic effect to be a large reduction (approximately 50% at 10 microM muscarine) in input slope conductance around rest potential. This conductance decrease diminished as the membrane was hyperpolarized, and the normal increase in slope conductance with membrane depolarization was depressed. The current/voltage curves in the between -65 and -88 mV (i.e. 9 to 28 mV hyperpolarized to rest potential). 4 Divalent cations (10 mM [Ca2+] or [Mg2+]) showed a small muscarine-like effect on the current/voltage and slope conductance/voltage curves, but did not affect the action of muscarine itself. 5 Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5 mM) also had a small muscarine-like effect, and depressed or reversed the action of muscarine. However, TEA differed from muscarine in blocking orthodromic transmission and prolonging direct spike repolarization. 6 It is concluded that the primary effect of muscarinic agonists is to alter the rectifying properties of the cell within the potential range -80 to -40 mV. PMID:7470731

  9. Modified expression of peripheral blood lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptors in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Emanuela; Tabbì, Luca; Scozzi, Davide; Mariotta, Salvatore; Galli, Elena; Carello, Rossella; Avitabile, Simona; Tayebati, Seyed Koshrow; Amenta, Francesco; De Vitis, Claudia; Mancini, Rita; Ricci, Alberto

    2015-07-15

    Lymphocytes possess an independent cholinergic system. We assessed the expression of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in lymphocytes from 49 asthmatic children and 10 age matched controls using Western blot. We demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors which density were significantly increased in asthmatic children in comparison with controls. M2 and M4 receptor increase was strictly related with IgE and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements and with impairment in objective measurements of airway obstruction. Increased lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression may concur with lung cholinergic dysfunction and with inflammatory molecular framework in asthma.

  10. Increased aggressive responding in male volunteers following the administration of gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate.

    PubMed

    Kouri, E M; Lukas, S E; Pope, H G; Oliva, P S

    1995-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on aggressive responding in a controlled laboratory setting. Eight male subjects received gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate (150 mg/week for two weeks, 300 mg/week for two weeks, and 600 mg/week for two weeks) or placebo using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Subjects were tested both before and after the series of injections. During the experimental session subjects could press a button to accumulate points exchangeable for money (non-aggressive response) or press another button to subtract points from a fictitious opponent (aggressive response). Aggressive responding was instigated by subtracting points from the subject which was attributable to the fictitious opponent. Testosterone administration resulted in a significantly higher number of aggressive responding compared to placebo.

  11. AE9C90CB: a novel, bladder-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, S; Gupta, S; Malhotra, S; Krishna, NS; Meru, AV; Babu, V; Bansal, V; Garg, M; Kumar, N; Chugh, A; Ray, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: AE9C90CB (N- [(1R, 5S, 6R)-3-azabicyclo [3.1.0] hex-6-ylmethyl]-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-2, 2-diphenylacetamide), a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, was synthesized for the treatment of overactive bladder. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo profiles of AE9C90CB for action in bladder over salivary gland and compare it with four agents already in clinical use (tolterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin and darifenacin). Experimental approach: Radioligand binding assay and isolated tissue-based functional assay were used to evaluate affinity, potency, and receptor subtype selectivity of compounds. Inhibition of carbachol-induced increase in intravesicular pressure and salivary secretion were measured in anaesthetized rabbits to assess the functional selectivity. Key results: In vitro radioligand binding study using human recombinant muscarinic receptors showed that AE9C90CB had greater affinity for M3 muscarinic receptors with pKi of 9.90 ± 0.11 and was 20-fold more selective for M3 than for M2 muscarinic receptors. AE9C90CB exhibited an unsurmountable antagonism on rat bladder strips (pKB, 9.13 ± 0.12). In anaesthetized rabbits after intravenous administration, AE9C90CB dose dependently inhibited carbachol-induced increase in intravesicular pressure and salivary secretion, and exhibited functional selectivity for urinary bladder over salivary gland which was ninefold better than that of oxybutynin. Conclusions and implications: We have identified AE9C90CB, a compound exhibiting moderate selectivity for M3 over M2 receptors but greater selectivity for urinary bladder over salivary gland than oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and darifenacin. Therefore, AE9C90CB may be a promising compound for the treatment of overactive bladder with reduced potential to cause dry mouth than currently available antimuscarinic drugs. PMID:20590605

  12. Cardiac Muscarinic Receptor Overexpression in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Livolsi, Angelo; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Rambaud, Caroline; Olexa, Catherine; Mokni, Walid; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Bousquet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled Bmax value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls). On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls). Conclusions In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism. PMID:20209124

  13. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women

    PubMed Central

    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion—the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers’ views regarding the target’s vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in ‘tend-and-befriend’ behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants’ responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals. PMID:24711542

  14. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants' responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals.

  15. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    PubMed Central

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  16. Anti-Muscarinic Adjunct Therapy Accelerates Functional Human Oligodendrocyte Repair

    PubMed Central

    Abiraman, Kavitha; Pol, Suyog U.; O'Bara, Melanie A.; Chen, Guang-Di; Khaku, Zainab M.; Wang, Jing; Thorn, David; Vedia, Bansi H.; Ekwegbalu, Ezinne C.; Li, Jun-Xu; Salvi, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic repair of myelin disorders may be limited by the relatively slow rate of human oligodendrocyte differentiation. To identify appropriate pharmacological targets with which to accelerate differentiation of human oligodendrocyte progenitors (hOPCs) directly, we used CD140a/O4-based FACS of human forebrain and microarray to hOPC-specific receptors. Among these, we identified CHRM3, a M3R muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, as being restricted to oligodendrocyte-biased CD140a+O4+ cells. Muscarinic agonist treatment of hOPCs resulted in a specific and dose-dependent blockade of oligodendrocyte commitment. Conversely, when hOPCs were cocultured with human neurons, M3R antagonist treatment stimulated oligodendrocytic differentiation. Systemic treatment with solifenacin, an FDA-approved muscarinic receptor antagonist, increased oligodendrocyte differentiation of transplanted hOPCs in hypomyelinated shiverer/rag2 brain. Importantly, solifenacin treatment of engrafted animals reduced auditory brainstem response interpeak latency, indicative of increased conduction velocity and thereby enhanced functional repair. Therefore, solifenacin and other selective muscarinic antagonists represent new adjunct approaches to accelerate repair by engrafted human progenitors. PMID:25716865

  17. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding increases muscarinic receptor (mAChR) density in esophagus without parallel change in dose response (D-R) to cholinergic agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gordon, J.H.; Urban, G.; Fields, J.Z. VA Hospital, Hines, IL )

    1991-03-11

    The mAChR/effector pathway for signal transduction is important in the physiology of esophagus and mAChR alterations are involved in EtOH induced changes in several organs. To see if EtOH-induced increases in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) are due to upregulation of mAChR, the authors evaluated mAChR binding and D-R curves for bethanechol (IV) induced increases in LESP, and compared these values to changes in LESP after acute and chronic EtOH. EtOH was given to cats acutely or chronically. The number of mAChR sites (Bmax) in esophagus was lowered by acute EtOH, withdrawal from chronic EtOH raised Bmax. Acute injection of EtOH to cats in withdrawal reversed this increase in mAChR density. These changes correlated with the earlier data on EtOH-induced changes in LESP. In contrast, the D-R curve for bethanechol shifted to the right. Thus, the withdrawal-associated increase in Bmax is more likely to be a compensatory response to deficits distal to the receptor recognition site than to proximal deficits and doesn't cause LESP hyperactivity. Also, receptor binding changes do not necessarily translate into physiological changes.

  18. Cadmium-induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor blockade, increase in GSK-3β enzyme, β-amyloid and tau protein levels.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadón, María José; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, María Jesús; García, José Manuel; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a neurotoxic compound which induces cognitive alterations similar to those produced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism through which cadmium induces this effect remains unknown. In this regard, we described in a previous work that cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain which is partially mediated by AChE overexpression. Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as happens in AD, results in memory deficits attributable to the loss of cholinergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic circuits. Moreover, cadmium has been described to activate GSK-3β, induce Aβ protein production and tau filament formation, which have been related to a selective loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and development of AD. The present study is aimed at researching the mechanisms of cell death induced by cadmium on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. For this purpose, we evaluated, in SN56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line from basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability through muscarinic M1 receptor, AChE splice variants, GSK-3β enzyme, Aβ and tau proteins. This study proves that cadmium induces cell death on cholinergic neurons through blockade of M1 receptor, overexpression of AChE-S and GSK-3β, down-regulation of AChE-R and increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated tau protein levels. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on cholinergic neurons and suggest that cadmium could mediate these mechanisms by M1R blockade through AChE splices altered expression.

  19. Muscarinic receptors modulate the intrinsic excitability of infralimbic neurons and consolidation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Santini, Edwin; Sepulveda-Orengo, Marian; Porter, James T

    2012-08-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying pharmacological compounds that could be used to facilitate fear extinction. Recently, we showed that the modulation of M-type K(+) channels regulates the intrinsic excitability of infralimbic (IL) neurons and fear expression. As muscarinic acetylcholine receptors inhibit M-type K(+) channels, cholinergic inputs to IL may have an important role in controlling IL excitability and, thereby, fear expression and extinction. To test this model, we combined whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and auditory fear conditioning. In prefrontal brain slices, muscarine enhanced the intrinsic excitability of IL neurons by reducing the M-current and the slow afterhyperpolarization, resulting in an increased number of spikes with shorter inter-spike intervals. Next, we examined the role of endogenous activation of muscarinic receptors in fear extinction. Systemic injected scopolamine (Scop) (muscarinic receptor antagonist) before or immediately after extinction training impaired recall of extinction 24-h later, suggesting that muscarinic receptors are critically involved in consolidation of extinction memory. Similarly, infusion of Scop into IL before extinction training also impaired recall of extinction 24-h later. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic injections of the muscarinic agonist, cevimeline (Cev), given before or immediately after extinction training facilitated recall of extinction the following day. Taken together, these findings suggest that cholinergic inputs to IL have a critical role in modulating consolidation of fear extinction and that muscarinic agonists such as Cev might be useful for facilitating extinction memory in patients suffering from anxiety disorders.

  20. Administration of nicotinamide does not increase platelet levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Iwona M.; Panuganti, Swapna; DeLuca, Teresa A.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry; Eklund, Elizabeth A.; Miller, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating ways to enhance megakaryopoiesis in vivo would have therapeutic applications for thrombocytopenia and transfusion medicine. Nicotinamide has been shown to enhance endomitosis in megakaryocytes cultured in vitro, suggesting that it may be beneficial for the production of platelets in culture. We hypothesized that regular injections of nicotinamide in mice would also increase platelets in vivo. However, we found that platelet counts were reduced by about 25% with daily injections of nicotinamide. Altering the schedule, duration, or nicotinamide dose did not improve platelet production. Consistent with lower platelet levels, nicotinamide also tended to decrease megakaryocyte frequency in sternum and spleen sections, as well as colony formation in vitro by bone marrow progenitor cells. However, there was no effect on the fraction or ploidy of CD41+ cells harvested from bone marrow. Together, our results suggest that, although nicotinamide increases polyploidization of megakaryocytes in culture, it does not have translatable effects in vivo. PMID:23265740

  1. Two muscarinic depolarizing mechanisms in mammalian sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, T; Kobayashi, H; Tosaka, T; Libet, B

    1982-06-24

    A voltage-sensitive outward membrane current ('M') and a consequent change in conductance (delta G) appear with a slow time-constant, in principal neurons of rabbit superior cervical ganglion (SCG), only when membrane potentials (Vm) are depolarized to less than -60 mV. Effects of muscarine on the voltage-current curves indicate that, in this depolarized range of less than -60 mV, suppression of M-current could contribute a muscarinic depolarization accompanied by a decrease in G; but that, at all Vms tested (about -90 to -40 mV), there is an additional larger muscarinic depolarization with no delta G. Thus, the muscarinic depolarizing response and the equivalent slow excitatory postsynaptic potential in the rabbit SCG may consist of two different components: one is due to the suppression of M-current and is substantial only in the depolarized range; the other is probably mediated via an intracellular increase in cyclic GMP and can account for most or all of the response at Vms more negative than -55 mV.

  2. Molecular alteration of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system during synaptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Large, T.H.; Cho, N.J.; De Mello, F.G.; Klein, W.L.

    1985-07-25

    Biochemical properties of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system of the avian retina were found to change during the period when synapses form in ovo. Comparison of ligand binding to membranes obtained before and after synaptogenesis showed a significant increase in the affinity, but not proportion, of the high affinity agonist-binding state. There was no change in receptor sensitivity to antagonists during this period. Pirenzepine binding, which can discriminate muscarinic receptor subtypes, showed the presence of a single population of low affinity sites (M2) before and after synaptogenesis. The change in agonist binding was not due to the late development of receptor function. However, detergent-solubilization of membranes eliminated differences in agonist binding between receptors from embryos and hatched chicks, suggesting a developmental change in interactions of the receptor with functionally related membrane components. A possible basis for altered interactions was obtained from isoelectric point data showing that the muscarinic receptor population underwent a transition from a predominantly low pI form (4.25) in 13 day embryos to a predominantly high pI form (4.50) in newly hatched chicks. The possibility that biochemical changes in the muscarinic receptor play a role in differentiation of the system by controlling receptor position on the surface of nerve cells is discussed.

  3. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  4. Functional characterization of muscarinic receptors in murine airways.

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, J.; Van Loveren, H.; Gierveld, C. M.; Van der Vliet, H.; Nijkamp, F. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists considered to be selective for M1 receptors (pirenzepine; PZ), M2 receptors (AFDX-116), and for M3 receptors (4-diphenyl acetoxy N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP)) were used to investigate the existence of muscarinic receptors subtypes in murine airways. Atropine was used as a nonselective antagonist. The effects of these antagonists were studied upon tracheal contractions induced either by EFS (electric field stimulation) or by application of an exogenous cholinoceptor agonist (arecoline). 2. The muscarinic receptor antagonists tested inhibited arecoline-induced tracheal contractions with the following rank order of potency: 4-DAMP = atropine > pirenzepine = AFDX-116. The rank order of potency of the muscarinic antagonists used in inhibiting EFS-induced tracheal contractions was: 4-DAMP = atropine > PZ > AFDX-116. The pA2 values for these antagonists were similar when compared to the pA2 values determined in guinea-pig and bovine airway smooth muscle. 3. In addition to in vitro studies, the effects of inhalation of the different muscarinic antagonists on lung function parameters in vivo were investigated. Inhalation of 4-DAMP induced a decrease in airway resistance and an increase in lung compliance. In contrast, inhalation of AFDX-116 induced an increase in airway resistance and almost no change in lung compliance. Apart from some minor effects of atropine on airway resistance, atropine, PZ, and pilocarpine failed to induce changes in lung mechanics as determined by in vivo lung function measurements. 4. The results provide evidence for the existence of M3 receptors on murine tracheae that are involved in the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8495246

  5. Muscarinic receptor antagonists, from folklore to pharmacology; finding drugs that actually work in asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Bart C; Fryer, Allison D

    2011-01-01

    In the lungs, parasympathetic nerves provide the dominant control of airway smooth muscle with release of acetylcholine onto M3 muscarinic receptors. Treatment of airway disease with anticholinergic drugs that block muscarinic receptors began over 2000 years ago. Pharmacologic data all indicated that antimuscarinic drugs should be highly effective in asthma but clinical results were mixed. Thus, with the discovery of effective β-adrenergic receptor agonists the use of muscarinic antagonists declined. Lack of effectiveness of muscarinic antagonists is due to a variety of factors including unwanted side effects (ranging from dry mouth to coma) and the discovery of additional muscarinic receptor subtypes in the lungs with sometimes competing effects. Perhaps the most important problem is ineffective dosing due to poorly understood differences between routes of administration and no effective way of testing whether antagonists block receptors stimulated physiologically by acetylcholine. Newer muscarinic receptor antagonists are being developed that address the problems of side effects and receptor selectivity that appear to be quite promising in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21198547

  6. Alkylating derivative of oxotremorine interacts irreversibly with the muscarinic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlert, F.J.; Jenden, D.J.; Ringdahl, B.

    1984-03-05

    A 2-chloroethylamine derivative of oxotremorine was studied in pharmacological experiments and muscarinic receptor binding assays. The compound, N-(4-(2-chloroethylmethylamino)-2-butynyl)-2-pyrrolidone (BM 123), forms an aziridinium ion in aqueous solution at neutral pH that stimulates contractions of guinea pig ileum with a potency similar to that of oxotremorine. Following the initial stimulation, there is a long lasting period of lack of sensitivity of the guinea pig ileum to muscarinic agonists. BM 123 also produces muscarinic effects in vivo. When homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex were incubated with BM 123 and assayed subsequently in muscarinic receptor binding assays, a loss of binding capacity for the muscarinic antagonist, (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/H)NMS), was noted without a change in affinity. Similar observations were made in (/sup 3/H)1-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)-QNB) binding assays on the forebrains of mice that had been injected with BM 123 24 hr earlier. The loss in receptor capacity for both (/sup 3/H)NMS and (/sup 3/H)-QNB was prevented by atropine treatment. Kinetic studies of the interaction of BM 123 with homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex in vitro showed that the half-time for the loss of (/sup 3/H)-QNB binding sites increased from 10 to 45 min as the concentration of BM 123 decreased from 10 to 1 ..mu..M. In contrast to the aziridinium ion, the parent 2-chloroethylamine compound and the alcoholic hydrolysis product were largely devoid of pharmacological and binding activity.

  7. Muscarinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Michiko; Ogata, Masanori; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of the membrane excitability of rat parasympathetic intracardiac ganglion neurons by muscarinic receptors was studied using an amphotericin B-perforated patch-clamp recording configuration. Activation of muscarinic receptors by oxotremorine-M (OxoM) depolarized the membrane, accompanied by repetitive action potentials. OxoM evoked inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions at a holding potential of -60 mV. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) markedly increased the OxoM-induced current (IOxoM). The inward IOxoM in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) was fully inhibited by removal of extracellular Na(+), indicating the involvement of non-selective cation channels. The IOxoM was inhibited by organic cation channel antagonists including SKF-96365 and ML-204. The IOxoM was antagonized by muscarinic receptor antagonists with the following potency: 4-DAMP > pirenzepine = darifenacin > methoctramine. Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7), a highly selective inhibitor for M1 receptor, produced partial inhibition of the IOxoM. In the presence of MT-7, concentration-inhibition curve of the M3-preferring antagonist darifenacin was shifted to the left. These results suggest the contribution of M1 and M3 receptors to the OxoM response. The IOxoM was inhibited by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. The membrane-permeable IP3 receptor blocker xestospongin C also inhibited the IOxoM. Furthermore, pretreatment with thapsigargin and BAPTA-AM inhibited the IOxoM, while KN-62, a blocker of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, had no effect. These results suggest that the activation mechanism involves a PLC pathway, release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and calmodulin. The cation channels activated by muscarinic receptors may play an important role in neuronal membrane depolarization in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.

  8. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  9. [Muscarinic modulation of cardiac activity].

    PubMed

    Sauviat, M P

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to report information concerning cardiac innervation or more precisely to approach the modulation of cardiac electrical and mechanical activity by parasympathetic innervation. Acetylcholine (ACh) release by nerve endings from the vagus nerve hyperpolarizes the membrane, shortens action potential (AP) duration and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac muscle. Toxins are usefull tools in the study of membrane signals. The Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) has a muscarinic effect on frog atrial fibres. The toxin evokes the release of ACh from motoneuron nerve terminals innervating this tissue which allows us to propose a model, similar to the one of the neuromuscular junction (nmj), to describe the events occurring during the triggering and release of ACh. Trachynilysin (TLY) is a proteic toxin which causes an influx of Ca2+ into the cells and releases ACh from nmj synaptic vesicles. TLY has a muscarinic effect on atrial fibres which is explicated in the release of neurotransmitter from the nerve endings generated by the TLY-induced Ca2+ influx. It is known that ACh release from nmj is known to be due to exocytosis of synaptic vesicles via the activation of a proteic complex blocked by botulinum toxins. One of these proteins SNAP-25 is the target of type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A). The study of hearts isolated from BoNT/A poisoned frogs show that atrial AP is lengthened and reveals the presence of SNAP-25 in nerve endings of this tissue. Moreover, the electrical activity of ventricular muscle is markedly altered; in BoNT/A treated frog, an important outward current activated by internal Ca2+ develops. ACh released from nerve terminals binds to a G protein coupled membrane receptor and activates a K+ channel and other effectors. Five subtypes of muscarinic receptors have been cloned from different tissue (M1, M2, M3, M4) subtypes have been identified in cardiac tissues throughout many species. These receptors coupled with different G

  10. Role of specific muscarinic receptor subtypes in cholinergic parasympathomimetic responses, in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and pilocarpine-induced seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Bymaster, Frank P; Carter, Petra A; Yamada, Masahisa; Gomeza, Jesus; Wess, Jürgen; Hamilton, Susan E; Nathanson, Neil M; McKinzie, David L; Felder, Christian C

    2003-04-01

    Muscarinic agonist-induced parasympathomimetic effects, in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis and seizures were evaluated in wild-type and muscarinic M1-M5 receptor knockout mice. The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine induced marked hypothermia in all the knockout mice, but the hypothermia was reduced in M2 and to a lesser extent in M3 knockout mice. Oxotremorine-induced tremor was abolished only in the M2 knockout mice. Muscarinic agonist-induced salivation was reduced to the greatest extent in M3 knockout mice, to a lesser degree in M1 and M4 knockout mice, and was not altered in M2 and M5 knockout mice. Pupil diameter under basal conditions was increased only in the M3 knockout mice. Pilocarpine-induced increases in in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis were completely absent in hippocampus and cortex of M1 knockout mice, but in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis was unaltered in the M2-M5 knockout mice. A high dose of pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) caused seizures and lethality in wild-type and M2-M5 knockout mice, but produced neither effect in the M1 knockout mice. These data demonstrate a major role for M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in mediating parasympathomimetic effects. Muscarinic M1 receptors activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in cortex and hippocampus of mice, consistent with the role of M1 receptors in cognition. Muscarinic M1 receptors appear to be the only muscarinic receptor subtype mediating seizures.

  11. In vitro functional interactions of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and muscarinic receptor antagonists in the urinary bladder of the rat.

    PubMed

    Killi, Uday K; Wsol, Vladimir; Soukup, Ondrej; Kuca, Kamil; Winder, Michael; Tobin, Gunnar

    2014-02-01

    Obidoxime, a weak acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) inhibitor, exerts muscarinic receptor antagonism with a significant muscarinic M2 receptor selective profile. The current examinations aimed to determine the functional significance of muscarinic M2 receptors in the state of AChE inhibition, elucidating muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor interaction. In the in vitro examinations, methacholine evoked concentration-dependent bladder contractile and atrial frequency inhibitory responses. Although atropine abolished both, methoctramine (1 μmol/L) only affected the cholinergic response in the atrial preparations. However, in the presence of methoctramine, physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, increased the basal tension of the bladder strip preparations (+68%), as well as the contractile responses to low concentrations of methacholine (< 5 μmol/L; +90-290%). In contrast to physostigmine, obidoxime alone raised the basal tension (+58%) and the responses to low concentrations of methacholine (< 5 μmol/L; +80-450%). Physostigmine concentration-dependently increased methacholine-evoked responses, similarly to obidoxime at low concentrations. However, at large concentrations (> 5 μmol/L), obidoxime, because of its unselective muscarinic receptor antagonism, inhibited the methacholine bladder responses. In conclusion, the current results show that muscarinic M2 receptors inhibit muscarinic M3 receptor-evoked contractile responses to low concentrations of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. The muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor crosstalk could be a counteracting mechanism in the treatment of AChE inhibition when using reactivators, such as obidoxime.

  12. Maternal exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke primes the lung for induction of phosphodiesterase-4D5 isozyme and exacerbated Th2 responses: rolipram attenuates the airway hyperreactivity and muscarinic receptor expression but not lung inflammation and atopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi P; Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-Sima-Ah, Jules; Campen, Mathew; Kurup, Viswanath; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Sopori, Mohan L

    2009-08-01

    Airway hyperreactivity (AHR), lung inflammation, and atopy are clinical signs of allergic asthma. Gestational exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) markedly increases the risk for childhood allergic asthma. Muscarinic receptors regulate airway smooth muscle tone, and asthmatics exhibit increased AHR to muscarinic agonists. We have previously reported that in a murine model of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, maternal exposure to mainstream CS increases AHR after acute intratracheal administration of Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, the mechanism by which gestational CS induces allergic asthma is unclear. We now show for the first time that, compared with controls, mice exposed prenatally to secondhand CS exhibit increased lung inflammation (predominant infiltration by eosinophils and polymorphs), atopy, and airway resistance, and produce proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13, but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma). These changes, which occur only after an allergen (A. fumigatus extract) treatment, are correlated with marked up-regulated lung expression of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptors and phosphodiesterase (PDE)4D5 isozyme. Interestingly, the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram attenuates the increase in AHR, muscarinic receptors, and PDE4D5, but fails to down-regulate lung inflammation, Th2 cytokines, or serum IgE levels. Thus, the fetus is extraordinarily sensitive to CS, inducing allergic asthma after postnatal exposure to allergens. Although the increased AHR might reflect increased PDE4D5 and muscarinic receptor expression, the mechanisms underlying atopy and lung inflammation are unrelated to the PDE4 activity. Thus, PDE4 inhibitors might ease AHR, but are unlikely to attenuate lung inflammation and atopy associated with childhood allergic asthma.

  13. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  14. Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; Hu, Ruilong; DeSouza, Andre; Eberly, Christian L.; Krahe, Krista; Chan, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation of olfactory circuits by acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in odor discrimination and learning. Early processing of chemosensory signals occurs in two functionally and anatomically distinct regions, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB), which receive extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. Here, we explore the regulation of AOB and MOB circuits by ACh, and how cholinergic modulation influences olfactory-mediated behaviors in mice. Surprisingly, despite the presence of a conserved circuit, activation of muscarinic ACh receptors revealed marked differences in cholinergic modulation of output neurons: excitation in the AOB and inhibition in the MOB. Granule cells (GCs), the most abundant intrinsic neuron in the OB, also exhibited a complex muscarinic response. While GCs in the AOB were excited, MOB GCs exhibited a dual muscarinic action in the form of a hyperpolarization and an increase in excitability uncovered by cell depolarization. Furthermore, ACh influenced the input–output relationship of mitral cells in the AOB and MOB differently showing a net effect on gain in mitral cells of the MOB, but not in the AOB. Interestingly, despite the striking differences in neuromodulatory actions on output neurons, chemogenetic inhibition of cholinergic neurons produced similar perturbations in olfactory behaviors mediated by these two regions. Decreasing ACh in the OB disrupted the natural discrimination of molecularly related odors and the natural investigation of odors associated with social behaviors. Thus, the distinct neuromodulation by ACh in these circuits could underlie different solutions to the processing of general odors and semiochemicals, and the diverse olfactory behaviors they trigger. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT State-dependent cholinergic modulation of brain circuits is critical for several high-level cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Here, we provide new evidence that cholinergic

  15. Genetic deletion of muscarinic M4 receptors is anxiolytic in the shock-probe burying model.

    PubMed

    Degroot, Aldemar; Nomikos, George G

    2006-02-15

    We used muscarinic M2 and M4 receptor knockout (KO) mice to further explore the role of the cholinergic system in anxiety. Using the shock-probe burying model we were able to both assess anxiety and cognition. In this paradigm, an anxiolytic response is reflected by decreased burying behavior. In addition, retention latency depicts long-term memory performance. Whereas muscarinic M2 receptor KO mice did not differ behaviorally from wild-type mice, muscarinic M4 receptor KO mice showed increased anxiolysis, but normal long-term memory compared to wild-type mice. Therefore, muscarinic M4 receptors are of particular significance in anxiety modulation that seems dissociated from changes in long-term memory.

  16. Midlevel Administrators' Pay Increases Slightly but Doesn't Match Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Salaries for midlevel administrators rose by a median of 2 percent this year over last year, matching the median pay increase for senior administrators and coming in slightly higher than the 1.9-percent median increase for faculty members, says an annual report released by the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources.…

  17. Midlevel Administrators' Pay Increases Slightly but Doesn't Match Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Salaries for midlevel administrators rose by a median of 2 percent this year over last year, matching the median pay increase for senior administrators and coming in slightly higher than the 1.9-percent median increase for faculty members, says an annual report released by the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources.…

  18. Role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in an experimental model of epilepsy-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2004-10-01

    The blockade of GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used in the present work to induce seizures in animals. The neurotransmission in the postictal period has been the focus of many studies, and there is evidence suggesting antinociceptive mechanisms following tonic-clonic seizures in both animals and men. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of acetylcholine in the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). Analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in eight albino Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by significant increases in tail-flick latencies (TFLs) at least for 120 min of the postictal period. Peripheral administration of atropine (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls. These data were corroborated by peripheral administration of mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker, at the same doses (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) used for the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist. The recruitment of the muscarinic receptor was made 10 min postconvulsions and in subsequent periods of postictal analgesia, whereas the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor was implicated only after 30 min postseizures. The cholinergic antagonists caused a minimal reduction in body temperature, but did not impair baseline TFL, spontaneous exploration or motor coordination in the rotarod test at the maximal dose of 4 mg/kg. These results indicate that acetylcholine may be involved as a neurotransmitter in postictal analgesia.

  19. Ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and loss of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, A H; Bassett, D J; Fryer, A D

    1994-03-01

    The effect of acute ozone exposure on the function of efferent parasympathetic nerves, M3 muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle, and inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on the parasympathetic nerves was studied. Immediately after exposure to 2.0 ppm ozone for 4 h, guinea pigs became hyperresponsive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves. The normal airway response to intravenous cholinergic agonists at this time demonstrates normal M3 receptor function. M2 muscarinic receptors on the nerves, which normally inhibit release of acetylcholine, were dysfunctional after ozone exposure, as demonstrated by the failure of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine to inhibit, and the failure of the M2 antagonist gallamine to potentiate, vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. Thus, loss of inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptor function after ozone exposure potentiates release of acetylcholine from the vagus nerves, increasing vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. By 14 days, postozone responses to vagal nerve stimulation were not different from those of air-exposed animals and the function of the neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor was normal, confirming that ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness is reversible.

  20. Comparison of muscarine- and vasopressin-stimulated inositol phospholipid metabolism in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, J.; Anderson, C.; Perlman, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    Both muscarine and vasopressin have previously been shown to increase the accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (/sup 3/H-IP) in superior cervical ganglia in which the phospholipids were labeled with /sup 3/H-inositol. They have compared the effects of muscarine and vasopressin on phospholipid metabolism in the ganglion. The effects of these agents on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation are additive. The response to muscarine plateaus after approximately 10 min whereas the response to vasopressin increases for at least 30 min. Decentralization and maintenance in organ culture appear to potentiate the effect of muscarine on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation but do not effect the response of the ganglia to vasopressin. Muscarine and vasopressin also increase the incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into phospholipids in the ganglion. Autoradiographic techniques were used to localize the inositol-containing phospholipids in the ganglion. Muscarine increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the cell bodies of the principal ganglionic neurons, whereas vasopressin increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the neuropil. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that muscarine and vasopressin stimulate the metabolism of different pools of phospholipids.

  1. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients.

  2. Extension Master Gardener Intranet: Automating Administration, Motivating Volunteers, Increasing Efficiency, and Facilitating Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy K.; Cook, Jonneen; Cook, Chris

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina State University has incorporated many aspects of volunteer program administration and reporting into an on-line solution that integrates impact reporting into daily program management. The Extension Master Gardener Intranet automates many of the administrative tasks associated with volunteer management, increasing efficiency, and…

  3. Extension Master Gardener Intranet: Automating Administration, Motivating Volunteers, Increasing Efficiency, and Facilitating Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy K.; Cook, Jonneen; Cook, Chris

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina State University has incorporated many aspects of volunteer program administration and reporting into an on-line solution that integrates impact reporting into daily program management. The Extension Master Gardener Intranet automates many of the administrative tasks associated with volunteer management, increasing efficiency, and…

  4. Muscarinic receptors and ligands in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirish; Khurana, Sandeep; Cheng, Kunrong; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that muscarinic receptors and ligands play key roles in regulating cellular proliferation and cancer progression. Both neuronal and nonneuronal acetylcholine production results in neurocrine, paracrine, and autocrine promotion of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and other features critical for cancer cell survival and spread. The present review comprises a focused critical analysis of evidence supporting the role of muscarinic receptors and ligands in cancer. Criteria are proposed to validate the biological importance of muscarinic receptor expression, activation, and postreceptor signaling. Likewise, criteria are proposed to validate the role of nonneuronal acetylcholine production in cancer. Dissecting cellular mechanisms necessary for muscarinic receptor activation as well as those needed for acetylcholine production and release will identify multiple novel targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19036940

  5. 20 CFR 641.870 - Under what circumstances may the administrative cost limitation be increased?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative cost limitation be increased? 641.870 Section 641.870 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... increased? (a) SCSEP recipients may request that the Department increase the amount available for... increases are being incurred in necessary program components, including liability insurance, payments for...

  6. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  7. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. The M1 muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine reduces myopia and eye enlargement in the tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Cottriall, C L; McBrien, N A

    1996-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, in preventing experimentally induced myopia in a mammalian model, the tree shrew. Tree shrews were monocularly deprived (MD) using translucent goggles or negative lenses for a period of 12 days. In two of the MD groups, tree shrews received daily subconjunctival administration of either pirenzepine (17.7 mumol; n = 9) or vehicle control (n = 6). Control groups (n = 6) were used to assess the effects of MD, injection regimen, and drug effects. In sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD produced-13.2 D +/- 0.8 D and -14.1 D +/- 0.5 D of axial myopia, respectively. In pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD induced an axial myopia of only -2.1 D +/- 1.4 D. The significant reduction in myopia in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation of the deprived eye (0.05 mm +/- 0.04 mm) relative to the contralateral control eye when compared to sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews (0.24 mm +/- 0.02 mm and 0.29 mm +/- 0.01 mm). Mean equatorial enlargement and increased eye weight were prevented in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews (P < 0.01). Pirenzepine also was found to reduce myopia and ocular enlargement in lens defocus-induced myopia. Control experiments demonstrated that pirenzepine did not cause a significant reduction in amplitude of carbachol-induced accommodation. Findings demonstrate that chronic administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, prevents experimentally induced myopia in this mammalian model by a nonaccommodative mechanism.

  9. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders.

  10. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    receptors in nociception also is over-viewed. In fact, muscarinic agonists such as vedaclidine, CMI-936 and CMI-1145 have been demonstrated to have analgesic effects in animal models comparable or more pronounced to those produced by morphine or opiates. Likewise, the crucial role of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butirylcholinesterase) in neural transmission is discussed, as large number of drugs inhibiting cholinesterase activity have become of increasing relevance particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Herein we summarize the current knowledge of the cholinesterase inhibitors with particular attention to recent patents for Alzheimer's disease drugs.

  11. Inactivation of muscarinic receptors impairs place and response learning: implications for multiple memory systems.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Ferreira, Tatiana Lima

    2013-10-01

    Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus and striatum have dissociable roles in memory and are necessary for place and response learning, respectively. Additional evidence indicates that muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus and striatum exert an important role in the modulation of these memory systems. In our experiments, we assessed whether intact hippocampal and striatal muscarinic cholinergic transmission may be essential and/or necessary for place and response learning. We addressed these questions using administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, on both place and response learning in a food-rewarded T-maze task. The administration of scopolamine (15 μg or 30 μg) directly into the dorsal hippocampus impaired the performance of rats subjected to both place and cue-rich response version of the task, but did not affect the response version, when the task was performed under cue-poor conditions. However, the administration of scopolamine in the dorsolateral striatum impaired the cue-poor response version of the T-maze task without interfering with the place version or cue-rich response version. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus and striatum facilitate the use of different strategies of learning, thus strengthening the hypothesis of multiple memory systems. Additionally, these results emphasize the importance of the environmental conditions under which tasks are performed.

  12. 5-HT1A and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors jointly regulate passive avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Riekkinen, P

    1994-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of combined stimulation of 5-HT1A or 5-HT2 receptors and blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on passive avoidance behavior. Administration of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, impaired passive avoidance acquisition (pre-training injections) and consolidation (post-training injections) performance. Ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, blocked the performance-impairing effect of DOI on passive avoidance consolidation. Interestingly, 5-HT receptor agonists may affect passive avoidance consolidation only during the immediate post-training period, as passive avoidance testing performance was not modulated by 8-OH-DPAT or DOI injected 30 min after the training trial. Furthermore, passive avoidance retention (pre-testing injections) performance was impaired only by the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT, and DOI had no effect on passive avoidance retention. Next, the effects of combined 5-HT and acetylcholine receptor manipulations on passive avoidance behavior were studied. The effects on passive avoidance behavior of a combination of subthreshold doses of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, and 8-OH-DPAT were compared to those of a single high dose of scopolamine. A combination of small doses of scopolamine and 8-OH-DPAT impaired acquisition and consolidation of passive avoidance performance, but a single high dose of scopolamine impaired only acquisition performance. The small dose of 8-OH-DPAT also aggravated medial septal lesion-induced passive avoidance acquisition and consolidation failure. The combination of small doses of scopolamine and DOI had no effect on passive avoidance behavior. Peripherally acting scopolamine methylbromide alone or in combination with 8-OH-DPAT had no effect on passive avoidance performance. Motor activity in a swimming pool

  13. M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors mediate excitation and inhibition of guinea-pig intracardiac neurones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T G; Burnstock, G

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of muscarine upon intracardiac neurones cultured from ganglia within the atria and interatrial septum of the newborn guinea-pig heart were studied using intracellular recording techniques. 2. Muscarine applied to the neuronal soma typically produced a biphasic change in membrane potential which consisted of a small hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. In addition, muscarine (0.01-10 microM) inhibited the calcium-dependent, after-hyperpolarization (AHP) and greatly increased the number of action potentials that could be evoked by a given depolarizing current. 3. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in input resistance and it reversed to become a depolarization at a potential of -86.5 mV. This response was antagonized by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP; 100 nM) and AF-DX 116 (500 nM), but was unaffected by pirenzepine (0.1-5 microM). 4. Two types of slow depolarization were observed in the presence of muscarine. The most common was associated with an increase in input resistance in the potential range -70 to -40 mV. Pirenzepine (100 nM) selectively antagonized this response, 4-DAMP (100 nM) similarly antagonized the response, but was non-selective. AF-DX 116 (0.5-5 microM) showed no antagonist effect. The less common depolarization (5% of cells) had a long latency and was associated with a decrease in input resistance. 5. Muscarine reduced the duration of the action potential and inhibited the AHP. Cadmium chloride (100 microM) mimicked these actions of muscarine. Application of muscarine immediately following a train of action potentials did not inhibit the AHP, suggesting that muscarine did not directly inhibit the calcium-activated potassium current (IK(Ca)). Muscarine-induced depression of the slow AHP was antagonized by 4-DAMP (100 nM) but was not antagonized by either pirenzepine (0.1-0.5 microM) or AF-DX 116 (0.5-5 microM). 6. It is concluded that the muscarine-induced depolarization of guinea

  14. Stimulation of acid secretion and phosphoinositol production by rat parietal cell muscarinic M sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, A.; Rochlitz, H.; Herz, A.; Paumgartner, G. )

    1988-04-01

    The muscarinic receptor system involved in hydrogen production by enriched rat gastric parietal cells was investigated. Muscarinic receptor density determined by (N-methyl-{sup 3}H)scopolamine binding was 8,100/cell. The receptor appeared to be of the M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtype, since it had a low affinity (K{sub d} 189 nM) for the M{sub 1} receptor antagonist pirenzepine compared with atropine. Receptor activation by carbachol rapidly augmented levels of polyphosphoinositides, indicating an activation of phospholipase C. The dose-response relations for the increase in inositol phosphates closely paralleled the binding of carbachol to muscarinic receptors. The inositol phosphate response was antagonized by pirenzepine with a K{sub i} of 177 nM. the stimulation of inositol phosphate levels by carbachol correlated well with the stimulation of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake, determine as an index of acid secretion. The muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, pilocarpine, and bethanechol elicited partial increases in inositol phosphates at maximal drug concentrations, and these partial increases correlated with their ability to stimulate ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake. These data indicate that inositolpolyphosphates may be a second messenger of M{sub 2} receptors stimulating acid secretion.

  15. Increased in vitro phosphorylation of rat liver nucleolar proteins following triiodothyronine administration.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, E; Gallo, G; Pertica, M

    1976-11-15

    It has been shown that triiodothyronine (Ta) administration to thyroidectomized rats induces an increase in the in vitro net 32P uptake into liver nucleolar proteins. Such an increase depends on a stimulation of the nucleolus-associated protein kinase activity and not on a lower dephosphorylation rate.

  16. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  17. Increase of histidine decarboxylase activity in mice hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Niimi, M; Mochizuki, T; Cacabelos, R; Yamatodani, A

    1993-10-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of lipopolysaccharide on histidine decarboxylase activity and histamine content in the hypothalamus were investigated in male mice of ddY strain in vivo. Two-fold increase in histidine decarboxylase activity (HDC) was observed 4 h after administration of 50 mcg lipopolysaccharide, and HDC activity returned to the basal level within 12 h after injection. Furthermore, histamine contents showed a slight decrease at 1 and 2 h and a mild increase at 12 h after administration. However, changes in histamine content were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the increase of HDC activity in the hypothalamus by lipopolysaccharide may be involved in the central neuroimmune responses.

  18. Current excitement from insect muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, B A

    1995-02-01

    Recent electrophysiological, pharmacological and molecular studies suggest that muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) in insects are related to, but distinct from, their mammalian counterparts. Insect mAChRs perform two primary roles that are distinguished by their locations. Presynaptic mAChRs, present on sensory terminals, inhibit transmitter release, thereby reducing the effectiveness of specific afferent inputs. In contrast, postsynaptic mAChRs depolarize and increase the excitability of motoneurons and interneurons, thereby acting as dynamic-gain controls. This postsynaptic modulation is achieved in different ways in specific neurons but generally results from the activation of persistent inward and outward currents. At the level of neural processing, these distinct roles enable insect mAChRs to regulate the transfer of sensory information, and modulate the contributions of central neurons to central pattern generators and reflexes. Because these phenomena can be studied in identified neurons, a combination of physiological and molecular studies of mAChRs in insects should help to elucidate some of their behavioral roles. Furthermore, such studies could lead to the identification of general mechanisms of functional plasticity in neuronal networks.

  19. Testosterone Administration Inhibits Hepcidin Transcription and is Associated with Increased Iron Incorporation into Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Li, Michelle; Roy, Cindy N.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wong, Siu; Chan, Stephen Y.; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Travison, Thomas G.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferring saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound 58Fe, the amount of 58Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to BMP-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. Conclusion: Testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP-Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron

  20. Extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation increases immature neurons in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ami; Soleiman, Matthew T.; Talia, Reneta; Koob, George F.; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Limited access nicotine self-administration decreases hippocampal neurogenesis, providing a mechanism for the deleterious effects of nicotine on hippocampal neuronal plasticity. However, recent studies have shown that limited access nicotine self-administration does not exhibit key features of nicotine dependence such as motivational withdrawal and increased motivation for nicotine after deprivation. Objectives The present study used extended access nicotine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, 21h/day (d), 4d) with intermittent periods of deprivation (3d) for 14 weeks, to test the hypothesis that this model enhances nicotine seeking and produces distinct responses in hippocampal neurogenesis when compared with limited access (1h/day, 4d) intake. Animals in the extended access group were either perfused prior to or following their final deprivation period, whereas animals in the limited access group were perfused after their last session. Results Limited access nicotine self-administration and extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation did not affect proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Conversely, extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation enhanced proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitors. Furthermore, in the hippocampus, the number of differentiating NeuroD-labeled cells strongly and positively correlated with enhanced nicotine seeking in rats that experienced extended access nicotine self-administration. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that extended access versus limited access to nicotine self-administration differentially affects the generation of new oligodendroglia and new neurons during adulthood. The increases in the number of differentiating cells in extended access nicotine self-administering rats may consequently contribute to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis and may contribute to

  1. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  2. Molecular mechanics calculations on muscarinic agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, Huub; Kanters, Jan A.; Kroon, Jan

    1990-10-01

    Molecular mechanics calculations have been performed on the conformation freedom with respect to the torsion angles OCCN and COCC of acetylcholine, α( R-methylacetylcholine,β( S)-methylacetylcholine, α( R),β( S)-diemthylacetylcholine and muscarine, in order to obtain information about the active conformation and its interaction with the muscarinic cholinergic receptor. Muscarine has a rather flexible ring system, which makes modelling of the receptor site on the active conformation of this particular ligand a difficult problem. A common minimum for these compounds was found at {+ gauche,anti}), which is identified with the active conformation. However, OCCN angles of up to 120° can be accommodated in the receptor site. The reduced cholinergic activity of the α-methyl derivatives is probably caused by unfavourable interactions between the α-methyl group and the receptor site. The apparent contradictory high activity of the 2-acetyloxycyclopropylammonium ion can be explained by the distorted geometry of α substitution.

  3. Increased protein and mRNA expression of resistin after dexamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Sasayama, D; Hori, H; Nakamura, S; Yamamoto, N; Hattori, K; Teraishi, T; Ota, M; Kunugi, H

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, but they may induce adverse events including hyperglycemia. To shed light on the effect and action mechanism of dexamethasone, we examined the alterations of gene expression levels caused by dexamethasone.Microarray analysis was performed on whole blood collected from 24 physically healthy subjects at baseline and after dexamethasone administration. The expression levels of resistin mRNA were found to be significantly increased after the dexamethasone administration. In a separate sample of 12 subjects, we examined plasma resistin protein levels and found that they were increased after dexamethasone administration. Furthermore, the plasma mRNA and protein levels of resistin were significantly higher in individuals who carried the A allele of RETN single nucleotide polymorphism rs3219175 than in those who did not carry the allele. There was no significant interaction between the genotype and dexamethasone administration. No significant correlation was found between plasma levels of cortisol and resistin. Consistent with previous studies, the genotype of RETN rs3219175 was a strong determinant of resistin levels. The present study showed that oral administration of dexamethasone increases the protein and mRNA levels of resistin irrespective of the rs3219175 genotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Muscarinic modulation of erg potassium current

    PubMed Central

    Hirdes, Wiebke; Horowitz, Lisa F; Hille, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    We studied modulation of current in human embryonic kidney tsA-201 cells coexpressing rat erg1 channels with M1 muscarinic receptors. Maximal current was inhibited 30% during muscarinic receptor stimulation, with a small positive shift of the midpoint of activation. Inhibition was attenuated by coexpression of the regulator of G-protein signalling RGS2 or of a dominant-negative protein, Gq, but not by N-ethylmaleimide or C3 toxin. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of Gq (but not of G13 or of Gs) abolished the erg current. Hence it is likely that Gq/11, and not Gi/o or G13, mediates muscarinic inhibition. Muscarinic suppression of erg was attenuated by chelating intracellular Ca2+ to < 1 nm free Ca2+ with 20 mm BAPTA in the pipette, but suppression was normal if internal Ca2+ was strongly clamped to a 129 nm free Ca2+ level with a BAPTA buffer and this was combined with numerous other measures to prevent intracellular Ca2+ transients (pentosan polysulphate, preincubation with thapsigargin, and removal of extracellular Ca2+). Hence a minimum amount of Ca2+ was necessary for the inhibition, but a Ca2+ elevation was not. The ATP analogue AMP-PCP did not prevent inhibition. The protein kinase C (PKC) blockers staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide I did not prevent inhibition, and the PKC-activating phorbol ester PMA did not mimic it. Neither the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein nor the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor dephostatin prevented inhibition by oxotremorine-M. Hence protein kinases are not needed. Experiments with a high concentration of wortmannin were consistent with recovery being partially dependent on PIP2 resynthesis. Wortmannin did not prevent muscarinic inhibition. Our studies of muscarinic inhibition of erg current suggest a role for phospholipase C, but not the classical downstream messengers, such as PKC or a calcium transient. PMID:15235086

  5. Darifenacin: a novel M3 muscarinic selective receptor antagonist for the treatment of overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Christopher R

    2004-11-01

    Darifenacin is a novel M3 muscarinic selective receptor antagonist for once-daily treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), a highly prevalent, chronic and debilitating disease defined by urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with increased frequency of micturition and nocturia. In vitro, darifenacin is a potent and specific muscarinic receptor antagonist with muscarinic M3 receptors relative to other muscarinic receptor subtypes. This profile may, therefore, confer clinical efficacy in the treatment of OAB, with a lower propensity for adverse effects and safety issues related to blockade of other muscarinic receptor subtypes. Indeed, consistent with its low relative affinity for M1 and M2 receptors, no effects on cognitive function and heart-rate variability, respectively, have been observed with darifenacin. Subsequent large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that darifenacin (at doses of 7.5 and 15 mg/day) results in central nervous system and cardiac adverse events comparable to placebo, and provides early and meaningful improvement across a range of OAB symptoms including incontinence episodes, urgency and urinary frequency. On the basis of such findings, darifenacin would appear to meet the current need for an effective OAB pharmacotherapy that is efficacious, well-tolerated and, more importantly, minimises the risk of safety-related adverse effects.

  6. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit (/sup 3/H)-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M/sub 1/ subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M/sub 2/ subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M/sub 1/ selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function.

  7. Muscarinic presynaptic inhibition of neostriatal glutamatergic afferents is mediated by Q-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Barral, J; Galarraga, E; Bargas, J

    1999-07-01

    Cholinergic presynaptic inhibition was investigated on neostriatal glutamatergic transmission. Paired pulse facilitation (PPF) of orthodromic population spikes (PS) were used to construct a concentration-response relationship for muscarine on presynaptic inhibition. Muscarine had an effect proportional to its extracellular concentration with an EC50 (mean +/- standard estimation error) of: 2.5 +/- 1.5 nM, and a maximal effect (saturation) of 245 +/- 16%. Several peptidic toxins against some voltage-gated Ca2+-channels increased PPF indicating that the Ca2+-channels they block participate in transmitter release. However, neither 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, a specific blocker of N-type Ca2+-channels, nor 10-30 nM omega-agatoxinTK, a selective blocker of P-type Ca2+-channels, were able to occlude muscarine's effect on presynaptic inhibition. Nevertheless, 100-400 nM omega-agatoxinTK occluded muscarine's action on PPF in a dose-dependent manner. These results are consistent with Q-type Ca2+-channels mediating muscarinic presynaptic inhibition of neostriatal afferents.

  8. Folate administration increases n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat plasma and tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Pita, M L; Delgado, M J

    2000-09-01

    It has been shown that folic acid deficiency can modify polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism and thus could contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. We have studied the effect of folate administration on fatty acid composition of plasma, platelet, erythrocyte, intestinal and liver lipids. Two groups of rats were daily injected with either saline solution (control group) or 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) solution (MTHF group) for 15 days. Changes induced by folate treatment on n-6 PUFA were not very significant. Linoleic acid only decreased in liver and intestinal phospholipids of MTHF rats whereas arachidonic acid was unaffected by folate administration. However, n-3 PUFA significantly increased in plasma lipid fractions and in platelet, erythrocyte and intestinal phospholipids. It is well known that n-3 PUFA show antithrombotic properties. Thus, the increase of n-3 PUFA observed after MTHF administration might contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders.

  9. Anti-tau antibody administration increases plasma tau in transgenic mice and patients with tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Yanamandra, Kiran; Patel, Tirth K; Jiang, Hong; Schindler, Suzanne; Ulrich, Jason D; Boxer, Adam L; Miller, Bruce L; Kerwin, Diana R; Gallardo, Gilbert; Stewart, Floy; Finn, Mary Beth; Cairns, Nigel J; Verghese, Philip B; Fogelman, Ilana; West, Tim; Braunstein, Joel; Robinson, Grace; Keyser, Jennifer; Roh, Joseph; Knapik, Stephanie S; Hu, Yan; Holtzman, David M

    2017-04-19

    Tauopathies are a group of disorders in which the cytosolic protein tau aggregates and accumulates in cells within the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. A promising treatment being explored for tauopathies is passive immunization with anti-tau antibodies. We previously found that administration of an anti-tau antibody to human tau transgenic mice increased the concentration of plasma tau. We further explored the effects of administering an anti-tau antibody on plasma tau. After peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody to human patients with tauopathy and to mice expressing human tau in the central nervous system, there was a dose-dependent increase in plasma tau. In mouse plasma, we found that tau had a short half-life of 8 min that increased to more than 3 hours after administration of anti-tau antibody. As tau transgenic mice accumulated insoluble tau in the brain, brain soluble and interstitial fluid tau decreased. Administration of anti-tau antibody to tau transgenic mice that had decreased brain soluble tau and interstitial fluid tau resulted in an increase in plasma tau, but this increase was less than that observed in tau transgenic mice without these brain changes. Tau transgenic mice subjected to acute neuronal injury using 3-nitropropionic acid showed increased interstitial fluid tau and plasma tau. These data suggest that peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody results in increased plasma tau, which correlates with the concentration of extracellular and soluble tau in the brain. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Participation of muscarinic receptors in memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Dobryakova, Yulia V; Gurskaya, Olga; Markevich, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the cholinergic system and the muscarinic cholinergic receptors are associated with cognitive functions. Here we examined whether a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine affects learning performance and/or synaptic plasticity during the memory consolidation period. Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were injected with scopolamine (2 mg/kg) or saline immediately after training in a "passive avoidance" task. Memory retention test was conducted 24 h after training. The changes in the latency of the first entry into a dark compartment of a test chamber was chosen as a criterion of learning. The efficacy of synaptic transmission was estimated by the changes in the basal level of focal potentials (fEPSP amplitude and slope ratio) before training (baseline), 90 min after the training (consolidation period), and 24 hour after the training (retention period). We found that foot-shock presentation by itself had no effect on fEPSP within the first 90 min after training, but in 24 hour fEPSPs were decreased. In untrained rats administration of scopolamine had no effect on the fEPSP amplitude within the first 90 min after the injection, but in 24 h we observed an increase in the fEPSP amplitude. In trained animals, scopolamine decreased the fEPSP amplitude in the hippocampal CA1 area during first 1.5 h after the injection. However, the drug had no effect on the memory retention in the passive avoidance task. Taken together our data suggest that scopolamine modifies the synaptic placticity of the hippocampal network but does not induce significant changes in the retention of the passive avoidance skill.

  11. Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves via Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Proskocil, Becky J.; Bruun, Donald A.; Thompson, Charles M.; Fryer, Allison D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity. PMID:20479945

  12. In vivo characterization of muscarinic receptors in peripheral tissues: evaluation of bladder selectivity of anticholinergic agents to treat overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shuji; Hasuike, Naoki; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shizuo

    2008-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize in vivo muscarinic receptors in peripheral tissues (urinary bladder, submaxillary gland, colon, stomach, heart) of mice, and further to evaluate bladder-selectivity of anticholinergic agents to treat overactive bladder. Following i.v. injection of [3H]QNB in mice, the radioactivity in peripheral tissues was exclusively detected as the unchanged form. The in vivo specific [3H]QNB binding in particulate fraction of tissue homogenates of mice showed a pharmacological specificity which characterized muscarinic receptors. Binding parameters (Kd and Bmax) for in vivo specific [3H]QNB binding differed between mouse tissues. Oral administration of oxybutynin attenuated significantly in vivo specific [3H]QNB binding in all tissues of mice. From ratios of AUCurinary bladder/AUCother tissues of time-dependent muscarinic receptor occupancy, oral oxybutynin has been shown to exert little urinary bladder selectivity. Following oral administration of propiverine, there was a significant reduction of in vivo specific [3H]QNB binding in the urinary bladder, colon and submaxillary gland, but not in the stomach and heart. From the ratios of AUCurinary bladder to AUCsubmaxillary gland or AUCheart, it has been shown that oral propiverine exerts higher selectivity to muscarinic receptors in the urinary bladder than in the submaxillary gland and heart. Similarly, tolterodine displayed high selectivity to muscarinic receptors in the urinary bladder than in the submaxillary gland. Thus, the present study has demonstrated that [3H]QNB may be a useful ligand for in vivo characterization of muscarinic receptor binding of anticholinergic agents to treat overactive bladder. Propiverine and tolterodine have exhibited in vivo selectivity of muscarinic receptor in the mouse urinary bladder rather than in the submaxillary gland, and such receptor binding specificity may be the reason of lower incidence of dry mouth.

  13. The Leadership Roles of Distance Learning Administrators (DLAs) in Increasing Educational Value and Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership roles of distance learning administrators (DLAs) in light of the demand and need for value and quality in educational distance learning programs and schools. The author explores the development of distance learning using available and emerging technologies in relation to increased demand for education, training,…

  14. Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a known antecedent to cocaine relapse. Through associative conditioning, it is hypothesized that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine and thus the salience of cocaine-related cues, which are important in maintaining drug-taking behavior. Cocaine-using individuals display a robust cocaine cue attentional bias as measured by fixation time during the visual probe task. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol administration on cocaine cue attentional bias using eye-tracking technology to directly measure attentional allocation. Methods Twenty current cocaine users completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study that tested the effect of three doses of alcohol (0.00, 0.325, 0.65 g/kg alcohol) on cocaine cue attentional bias using the visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. The participant-rated and physiological effects of alcohol were also assessed. Results Participants displayed a robust cocaine cue attentional bias following both placebo and alcohol administration as measured by fixation time, but not response time. Alcohol administration did not influence cocaine cue attentional bias, but increased craving for cocaine in a dose dependent manner. Alcohol produced prototypic psychomotor and participant-rated effects. Conclusions Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias. Alcohol-induced cocaine craving suggests that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine but not the salience of cocaine-related cues. PMID:26331880

  15. The Leadership Roles of Distance Learning Administrators (DLAs) in Increasing Educational Value and Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership roles of distance learning administrators (DLAs) in light of the demand and need for value and quality in educational distance learning programs and schools. The author explores the development of distance learning using available and emerging technologies in relation to increased demand for education, training,…

  16. The Michigan Model Pilot: Increasing the Number of Female Administrators in Michigan Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Model provides a 3-year plan for school districts to increase the number of women in administration. Nineteen objectives address six key role groups--three external to the school district (professional educational organizations, local community groups, and parent/community members) and three internal to the district…

  17. Nicotine decreases ethanol-induced dopamine signaling and increases self-administration via stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Doyon, William M; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M; Zhang, Tao A; Dani, John A

    2013-08-07

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement.

  18. Nicotine Decreases Ethanol-induced Dopamine Signaling and Increases Self-administration via Stress Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, William M.; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M.; Zhang, Tao A.; Dani, John A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement. PMID:23871233

  19. Acetylcholine stimulates cortical precursor cell proliferation in vitro via muscarinic receptor activation and MAP kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Maric, D; Li, B S; Hu, Q; Andreadis, J D; Grant, G M; Liu, Q Y; Shaffer, K M; Chang, Y H; Zhang, L; Pancrazio, J J; Pant, H C; Stenger, D A; Barker, J L

    2000-04-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that some neurotransmitters act as growth-regulatory signals during brain development. Here we report a role for the classical neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to stimulate proliferation of neural stem cells and stem cell-derived progenitor cells during neural cell lineage progression in vitro. Neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone of the embryonic rat cortex were found to express the m2 subtype of the muscarinic receptor. Neural precursor cells dissociated from the embryonic rat cortical neuroepithelium were expanded in culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of m2, m3 and m4 muscarinic receptor subtype transcripts, while immunocytochemistry demonstrated m2 protein. ACh and carbachol induced an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and membrane currents in proliferating (BrdU+) cells, both of which were abolished by atropine. Exposure of bFGF-deprived precursor cells to muscarinic agonists not only increased both cell number and DNA synthesis, but also enhanced differentiation of neurons. These effects were blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of muscarinic ACh receptors. The growth-stimulating effects were also antagonized by a panel of inhibitors of second messengers, including 1,2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) to chelate cytosolic Ca2+, EGTA to complex extracellular Ca2+, pertussis toxin, which uncouples certain G-proteins, the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. Muscarinic agonists activated MAPK, which was significantly inhibited by atropine and the same panel of inhibitors. Thus, muscarinic receptors expressed by neural precursors transduce a growth-regulatory signal during neurogenesis via pathways involving pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins, Ca2+ signalling, protein kinase C activation, MAPK phosphorylation and DNA synthesis.

  20. Cholinergic impact on neuroplasticity drives muscarinic M1 receptor mediated differentiation into neurons.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Jens; Rauh, Werner; Brantl, Victor; Schloesser, Robert J; Moessner, Rainald; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that canonical neurotransmitters act as regulatory signals during neuroplasticity. Here, we report that muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission stimulates differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vitro. Adult neural stem cells (ANSC) dissociated from the adult mouse hippocampus were expanded in culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Carbachol (CCh), an analog of acetylcholine (ACh) significantly enhanced de novo differentiation into neurons on bFGF- and EGF-deprived stem cells as shown by the percentage of TUJ1 positive cells. By contrast, pirenzepine (PIR), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, reduced the generation of neurons. Activation of cholinergic signaling drives the de novo differentiation of uncommitted stem cells into neurons. These effects appear to be predominantly mediated via the muscarinic M1 receptor subtype.

  1. Intravenous self-administration of amphetamine is increased in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip V; Masini, Cher V; Primeaux, Stefany D; Garrett, Joshua L; Zellner, Andrew; Stogner, Kimberly S; Duncan, Alicia A; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2002-10-01

    Affective disorders and substance abuse frequently coexist, yet few previous studies have examined drug self-administration using animal models of depression. The olfactory-bulbectomized rat is a well-established model that exhibits a high degree of neurochemical similarity to depression. Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) increases dopamine receptor densities in the ventral striatum, which may increase the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that acquisition and stable self-administration of amphetamine would be increased in bulbectomized rats. In the first experiment, rats underwent bilateral OBX or sham surgery and intravenous jugular catheters were implanted 12-14 days later. Acquisition was examined using a standard operant paradigm involving a nose-poke response for a very low dose of D-amphetamine sulfate (12 microg/infusion, IV). A separate group of rats received coinfusions of sulpiride. In a second experiment designed to minimize differences in acquisition and examine stable self-administration, lever pressing for a low (0.10 mg/kg, IV) or high (0.25 mg/kg, IV) dose of D-amphetamine sulfate was measured in rats pretrained to lever press for food. Bulbectomized rats acquired the self-administration of very low dose amphetamine faster than sham-operated rats and this effect was reversed by sulpiride coinfusion. Stable self-administration of the low dose of amphetamine was also markedly increased in bulbectomized rats. The findings reveal the utility of the OBX model for studying the neurobiological basis of depression and drug abuse comorbidity and support the hypothesis that neurochemical abnormalities associated with depression may enhance the addictive properties of some drugs of abuse.

  2. A Single Oral Administration of Theaflavins Increases Energy Expenditure and the Expression of Metabolic Genes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoto; Arai, Yasunori; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Ishii, Takeshi; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Osakabe, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Theaflavins are polyphenols found in black tea, whose physiological activities are not well understood. This study on mice evaluated the influence of a single oral administration of theaflavins on energy metabolism by monitoring the initial metabolic changess in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (EE) were increased significantly in mice treated with theaflavin rich fraction (TF) compared with the group administered vehicle alone. There was no difference in locomotor activity. Fasting mice were euthanized under anesthesia before and 2 and 5, 20-hr after treatment with TF or vehicle. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in BAT were increased significantly 2-hr after administration ofTF. The levels of UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius muscle were increased significantly 2 and 5-hr after administration of TF. The concentration of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) 1α was also increased significantly in the gastrocnemius 2 and 5-hr after treatment with TF. These results indicate that TF significantly enhances systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an increase in expression of metabolic genes.

  3. Role of Parasympathetic Nerves and Muscarinic Receptors in Allergy and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Gregory D.; Fryer, Allison D.

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic nerves control the symptoms and inflammation of allergic diseases primarily by signaling through peripheral muscarinic receptors. Parasympathetic signaling targets classic effector tissues such as airway smooth muscle and secretory glands and mediates acute symptoms of allergic disease such as airway narrowing and increased mucus secretion. In addition, parasympathetic signaling modulates inflammatory cells and non-neuronal resident cell types such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle contributing to chronic allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling. Importantly, muscarinic antagonists are experiencing a rebirth for the treatment of asthma and may be useful for treating other allergic diseases. PMID:22767057

  4. Increased brain and plasma oxytocin after nasal and peripheral administration in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Inga D; Maloumby, Rodrigue; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Lukas, Michael; Landgraf, Rainer

    2013-10-01

    The possibility to improve socio-emotional behaviors in humans by intranasal administration of synthetic oxytocin (OXT) attracts increasing attention, but its uptake into the brain has never been demonstrated so far. Here we used simultaneous microdialysis in both the dorsal hippocampus and amygdala of rats and mice in combination with concomitant blood sampling from the jugular vein to study the dynamics of the neuropeptide in brain extracellular fluid and plasma after its nasal administration. OXT was found to be increased in microdialysates from both the hippocampus and amygdala with peak levels occurring 30-60min after nasal administration. Despite a similar temporal profile of OXT concentrations in plasma, peripheral OXT is unlikely to contribute to dialysate OXT as calculated from in vitro recovery data, indicating a central route of transport. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of synthetic OXT in identical amounts caused rapid peak levels in brain dialysates and plasma during the first 30min after treatment and a subsequent return toward baseline. While the precise route(s) of central transport remain to be elucidated, our data provide the first evidence that nasally applied OXT indeed reaches behaviorally relevant brain areas, and this uptake is paralleled by changes in plasma OXT.

  5. Exogenous t-PA Administration Increases Hippocampal Mature BDNF Levels. Plasmin- or NMDA-Dependent Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling. PMID:24670989

  6. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  7. Batrachotoxin Changes the Properties of the Muscarinic Receptor in Rat Brain and Heart: Possible Interaction(s) between Muscarinic Receptors and Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Armon, Malca; Kloog, Yoel; Henis, Yoav I.; Sokolovsky, Mordechai

    1985-05-01

    The effects of Na+-channel activator batrachotoxin (BTX) on the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in homogenates of rat brain and heart were studied. BTX enhanced the affinity for the binding of the agonists carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine to the muscarinic receptors in brainstem and ventricle, but not in the cerebral cortex. Analysis of the data according to a two-site model for agonist binding indicated that the effect of BTX was to increase the affinity of the agonists to the high-affinity site. Guanyl nucleotides, known to induce interconversion of high-affinity agonist binding sites to the low-affinity state, canceled the effect of BTX on carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine binding. BTX had no effect on the binding of the agonist oxotremorine or on the binding of the antagonist [3H]-N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate. The local anesthetics dibucaine and tetracaine antagonized the effect of BTX on the binding of muscarinic agonists at concentrations known to inhibit the activation of Na+ channels by BTX. On the basis of these findings, we propose that in specific tissues the muscarinic receptors may interact with the BTX binding site (Na+ channels).

  8. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Crystal D; Dey, Debleena; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Araki, Wataru; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2012-01-01

    The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA) or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known. Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2-CDA can have deleterious effects in vivo.

  9. Laminaria japonica increases plasma exposure of glycyrrhetinic acid following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Man; Jiang, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yang; Zhong, Ze-Yu; Wang, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Mian; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Laminaria japonica (Laminaria) on pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats. Following oral administrations of single-dose and multi-dose Liquorice extract and Liquorice-Laminaria extract, respectively, plasma samples were obtained at various times and the concentrations of GA, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin were measured by LC-MS. The effects of Laminaria extract on pharmacokinetics of GA were also investigated, following single-dose and multidose of glycyrrhizic acid (GL). The effects of Laminaria extract on intestinal absorption of GA and GL were studied using the in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. The metabolism of GL to GA in the contents of small and large intestines was also studied. The results showed Liquorice-Laminaria extract markedly increased the plasma concentration of GA, accompanied by a shorter Tmax. Similar alteration was observed following multidose administration. However, pharmacokinetics of neither liquiritigenin nor isoliquiritigenin was affected by Laminaria. Similarly, Laminaria markedly increased concentration and decreased Tmax of GA following oral GL were observed. The data from the intestinal perfusion model showed that Laminaria markedly increased GL absorption in duodenum and jejunum, but did not affect the intestinal absorption of GA. It was found that Laminaria enhanced the metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine. In conclusion, Laminaria increased plasma exposures of GA following oral administration of liquorice or GL, which partly resulted from increased intestinal absorption of GL and metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cocaine self-administration increases the incentive motivational properties of the drug in rats.

    PubMed

    Deroche, V; Le Moal, M; Piazza, P V

    1999-08-01

    A progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of drug use is one of the major behavioural phenomena characterizing the development of addiction. The nature of the drug-induced adaptations involved in this escalating drug intake remains unknown. Some theories propose that this escalation is due to a progressive decrease (tolerance) in the reinforcing or incentive effects of the drug. Alternative views posit that with chronic use the reinforcing or incentive effects of drugs increase, by a sensitization or a learning mechanism. In this report, we address the question of whether escalating cocaine intake is paralleled by an increase or a decrease in the reinforcing and incentive effects of the drug. Using the experimental model of intravenous drug self-administration with a within-session dose-response paradigm, we first studied the course of cocaine intake over 14 sessions in rats. After acquisition of cocaine self-administration, cocaine intake progressively increased at each dose tested. Then rats, previously allowed to self-administer cocaine during either six or 29 sessions, were compared in three different tests of the incentive and reinforcing effects of cocaine: cocaine-induced reinstatement of self-administration, cocaine-induced runway and cocaine-induced place conditioning. As compared with rats briefly exposed to cocaine self-administration (six sessions), rats with the longer experience (29 sessions) exhibited a higher intake of cocaine paralleled by a higher responsiveness in the cocaine-induced reinstatement and runway tests. Both groups of rats were similarly sensitive to the rewarding effects of the drug as evaluated by the threshold dose of cocaine inducing place conditioning. Our results demonstrate that escalating cocaine intake is paralleled by an increase in the motivational properties of the drug in the absence of apparent signs of tolerance to the reinforcing or incentive effects of cocaine.

  11. Oral Administration of Cilostazol Increases Ocular Blood Flow in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Duck Jin; Shin, Joo Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cilostazol on ocular hemodynamics and to determine whether the administration of cilostazol increases the ocular blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods This prospective observational study investigated the effect of orally administered cilostazol on diabetic retinopathy. Before and after administration for 1 week, pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) and retrobulbar hemodynamics were measured using a POBF analyzer and transcranial Doppler imaging, respectively. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and blood pressure were also evaluated before and after treatment. Results Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were included in this study. POBF increased significantly (16.8 ± 4.6 µL/sec vs. 19.6 ± 6.2 µL/sec, p < 0.001) after administration of cilostazol, while no significant change was identified in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and blood pressure. Mean flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery as measured with transcranial Doppler imaging also increased significantly after medication (23.5 ± 5.6 cm/sec vs. 26.0 ± 6.9 cm/sec, p = 0.001). The change in POBF directly correlated with the change in mean flow velocity (r = 0.419, p = 0.007). Conclusions Cilostazol was effective in increasing ocular blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy, possibly by modulating retrobulbar circulation. PMID:28367040

  12. Increase in hepatic expression of SREBP-2 by gemfibrozil administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Roglans, N; Peris, C; Verd, J C; Alegret, M; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Laguna, J C

    2001-09-15

    It is well known that gemfibrozil increases the biliary output of cholesterol and phospholipids, but we have little knowledge about the impact these changes have on liver cholesterol and phospholipid biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, no changes were detected in liver lipids and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase after gemfibrozil administration to rats. On the contrary, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA (9.9-fold) and Rd activity (16.7-fold) and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity (1.7-fold) increased, while plasma apo B-cholesterol (40%) and triglyceride (43%) levels decreased. As a part of a compensatory homeostatic response, we report for the first time that gemfibrozil administration to rats increased the hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) mRNA (2.9-fold) and mature protein (2.2-fold) levels. An early increase in the transcriptional activity of SREBP-2 elicited by gemfibrozil administration might be responsible for the observed changes in HMG-CoA reductase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and SREBP-2 expression.

  13. Rapid antidepressant actions of scopolamine: Role of medial prefrontal cortex and M1-subtype muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Navarria, Andrea; Wohleb, Eric S; Voleti, Bhavya; Ota, Kristie T; Dutheil, Sophie; Lepack, Ashley E; Dwyer, Jason M; Fuchikami, Manabu; Becker, Astrid; Drago, Filippo; Duman, Ronald S

    2015-10-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate that scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) antagonist, produces rapid therapeutic effects in depressed patients, and preclinical studies report that the actions of scopolamine require glutamate receptor activation and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The present study extends these findings to determine the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and specific muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M-AchR) subtypes in the actions of scopolamine. The administration of scopolamine increases the activity marker Fos in the mPFC, including the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PrL) subregions. Microinfusions of scopolamine into either the IL or the PrL produced significant antidepressant responses in the forced swim test, and neuronal silencing of IL or PrL blocked the antidepressant effects of systemic scopolamine. The results also demonstrate that the systemic administration of a selective M1-AChR antagonist, VU0255035, produced an antidepressant response and stimulated mTORC1 signaling in the PFC, similar to the actions of scopolamine. Finally, we used a chronic unpredictable stress model as a more rigorous test of rapid antidepressant actions and found that a single dose of scopolamine or VU0255035 blocked the anhedonic response caused by CUS, an effect that requires the chronic administration of typical antidepressants. Taken together, these findings indicate that mPFC is a critical mediator of the behavioral actions of scopolamine and identify the M1-AChR as a therapeutic target for the development of novel and selective rapid-acting antidepressants.

  14. Evaluation of levetiracetam effects on pilocarpine-induced seizures: cholinergic muscarinic system involvement.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A A; Nogueira, C R A; Nascimento, V S; Aguiar, L M V; Freitas, R M; Sousa, F C F; Viana, G S B; Fonteles, M M F

    2005-09-16

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic drug effective as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures. It displays a unique pharmacological profile against experimental models of seizures, including pilocarpine-induced seizures in rodents. Aiming to clarify if anticonvulsant activity of LEV occurs due to cholinergic alterations, adult male mice received LEV injections before cholinergic agonists' administration. Pretreatment with LEV (30-200 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the latencies of seizures, but decreased status epilepticus and death on the seizure model induced by pilocarpine, 400 mg/kg, s.c. (P400). LEV (LEV200, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment also reduced the intensity of tremors induced by oxotremorine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p). [3H]-N-methylscopolamine-binding assays in mice hippocampus showed that LEV200 pretreatment reverts the downregulation on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), induced by P400 administration, bringing back these density values to control ones (0.9% NaCl, i.p.). However, subtype-specific-binding assays revealed that P400- and LEV-alone treatments result in M1 and M2 subtypes decrease, respectively. The agonist-like behavior of LEV on the inhibitory M2 mAChR subtype, observed in this work, could contribute to explain the reduction on oxotremorine-induced tremors and the delay on pilocarpine-induced seizures, by an increase in the attenuation of neuronal activity mediated by the M1 receptors.

  15. Effects of Selective M1 Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Hippocampal Spatial Representations and Neuronal Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Evan P; Trimper, John B; Hu, Chun; Levey, Allan I; Manns, Joseph R

    2016-10-19

    The muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor is a key target for drugs aimed at treating cognitive dysfunction, including the memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease. The overall question of the current study was to ask how systemic administration of the bitopic M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA, and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (current standard of care for Alzheimer's disease), would impact spatial memory-related hippocampal function in rats. Hippocampal pyramidal neuron spiking and local field potentials were recorded from regions CA1 and CA3 as rats freely foraged in a recording enclosure. To assess the relative stability versus flexibility of the rats' spatial representations, the walls of the recording enclosure were reshaped in 15-m intervals. As compared to the control condition, systemic administration of VU0364572 increased spatial correlations of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron spiking across all enclosure shape comparisons, whereas BQCA and donepezil appeared to decrease these spatial correlations. Further, both VU0364572 and BQCA increased intrahippocampal synchrony as measured by CA3-CA1 field-field coherence in frequency ranges that tended to align with the prominence of those oscillations for the behavioral state (i.e., theta during locomotion and slow gamma during stationary moments). The results indicated that VU0364572 and BQCA influenced hippocampal function differently but in ways that might both be beneficial for treating memory dysfunction.

  16. Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many neuromuscular blockers act as negative allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by decreasing affinity and potency of acetylcholine. The neuromuscular blocker rapacuronium has been shown to have facilitatory effects at muscarinic receptors leading to bronchospasm. We examined the influence of rapacuronium on acetylcholine (ACh) binding to and activation of individual subtypes of muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to determine its receptor selectivity. Results At equilibrium rapacuronium bound to all subtypes of muscarinic receptors with micromolar affinity (2.7-17 μM) and displayed negative cooperativity with both high- and low-affinity ACh binding states. Rapacuronium accelerated [3H]ACh association with and dissociation from odd-numbered receptor subtypes. With respect to [35S]GTPγS binding rapacuronium alone behaved as an inverse agonist at all subtypes. Rapacuronium concentration-dependently decreased the potency of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding at M2 and M4 receptors. In contrast, 0.1 μM rapacuronium significantly increased ACh potency at M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Kinetic measurements at M3 receptors showed acceleration of the rate of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding by rapacuronium. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a novel dichotomy in rapacuronium effects at odd-numbered muscarinic receptors. Rapacuronium accelerates the rate of ACh binding but decreases its affinity under equilibrium conditions. This results in potentiation of receptor activation at low concentrations of rapacuronium (1 μM) but not at high concentrations (10 μM). These observations highlight the relevance and necessity of performing physiological tests under non-equilibrium conditions in evaluating the functional effects of allosteric modulators at muscarinic receptors. They also provide molecular basis for potentiating M3 receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction. PMID:20038295

  17. Muscarinic receptors: their distribution and function in body systems, and the implications for treating overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Paul; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Chapple, Christopher; de Groat, William Chet; Fryer, Alison D; Kay, Gary; Laties, Alan; Nathanson, Neil M; Pasricha, Pankaj Jay; Wein, Alan J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of antimuscarinic agents in the treatment of the overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is thought to arise through blockade of bladder muscarinic receptors located on detrusor smooth muscle cells, as well as on nondetrusor structures. Muscarinic M3 receptors are primarily responsible for detrusor contraction. Limited evidence exists to suggest that M2 receptors may have a role in mediating indirect contractions and/or inhibition of detrusor relaxation. In addition, there is evidence that muscarinic receptors located in the urothelium/suburothelium and on afferent nerves may contribute to the pathophysiology of OAB. Blockade of these receptors may also contribute to the clinical efficacy of antimuscarinic agents. Although the role of muscarinic receptors in the bladder, other than M3 receptors, remains unclear, their role in other body systems is becoming increasingly well established, with emerging evidence supporting a wide range of diverse functions. Blockade of these functions by muscarinic receptor antagonists can lead to similarly diverse adverse effects associated with antimuscarinic treatment, with the range of effects observed varying according to the different receptor subtypes affected. This review explores the evolving understanding of muscarinic receptor functions throughout the body, with particular focus on the bladder, gastrointestinal tract, eye, heart, brain and salivary glands, and the implications for drugs used to treat OAB. The key factors that might determine the ideal antimuscarinic drug for treatment of OAB are also discussed. Further research is needed to show whether the M3 selective receptor antagonists have any advantage over less selective drugs, in leading to fewer adverse events. PMID:16751797

  18. Repeated chlorpromazine administration increases a behavioural response of rats to 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A R

    1977-01-01

    1 The hyperactivity syndrome produced in rats by administration of tranylcypromine (20 mg/kg i.p.) followed 30 min later by L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg i.p.) is generally considered to be due to increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) functional activity. It is inhibited by chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg i.p.) injected 60 min before the tranylcypromine. However, chlorpromazine injection for 4 days either at a dose of 30 mg/kg once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily results in an enhanced hyperactivity response to tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration 24 h after the final dose of chlorpromazine. 2 One injection of chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) did not produce enhancement 24 h later and the inhibition of the tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan hyperactivity observed after acute chlorpromazine injection was seen if the rats were given tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan 1 h after the fourth chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) dose. 3 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily for 4 days resulted in rats displaying enhanced behavioral responses to the suggested 5-HT agonist 5-methoxy N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2 mg/kg) on day 5. 4 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days produces a slight increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration on day 5, but no difference in the rate of brain 5-HT synthesis or the rate of 5-HT accumulation after tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration. 5. There is some evidence that chlorpromazine blocks 5-HT receptors. It has also been observed that several other neuroleptic drugs do not produce enhanced 5-HT responses after repeated administration. It is suggested therefore that the enhanced behavioural response to 5-HT receptor stimulation following repeated chlorpromazine administration may be because this drug blocks 5-HT receptors. PMID:264797

  19. Oral administration of antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from chicken--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, C; Burow, E; Tenhagen, B-A; Käsbohrer, A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials play an important role in animal and human health care. It was the aim of this systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) from chickens. Moreover, the effects of the administration of more than one antimicrobial and of different dosages were studied. Literature was searched in November 2012 from the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and a national literature database (DIMDI) as well as the database ProQuest LLC. The search was updated in March 2014. Original studies describing a treatment (A) and a control group of either non-treatment (C) or initial value (0) and determining AMR in E. coli at different sample points (SP) were included. The literature search resulted in 35 full text articles on the topic, seven (20%) of which contained sufficient information on the administered antimicrobial and the impact of treatment on AMR. Most papers described the use of more than one antimicrobial, several dosages, controls (non-treatment or pre-treatment) and measured AMR at different SPs leading to a total of 227 SPs on the impact of the use of antimicrobials on AMR in chickens. 74% of the SPs (168/227) described a higher AMR-rate in E. coli from treated animals than from controls. After the administration of a single antimicrobial, AMR increased at 72% of the SPs. Administration of more than one antimicrobial increased AMR at 82% of the SPs. Higher dosages were associated with similar or higher AMR rates. The limited number of studies for each antimicrobial agent and the high variability in the resistance effect call for more well designed studies on the impact of oral administration on AMR development and spread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased oxygen administration improves cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing awake carotid surgery.

    PubMed

    Stoneham, Mark D; Lodi, Omer; de Beer, Thearina C D; Sear, John W

    2008-11-01

    During regional anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), 10% to 15% of patients develop signs of cerebral hypoxia after cross-clamping, manifested as changes in speech, cerebration or contralateral motor power. Reversal of such neurological deficits using administration of 100% O2 has been described. We used near-infrared cerebral oximetry to assess whether 100% O2 reliably improves regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) during carotid cross-clamping. Sixteen patients undergoing awake CEA were studied. Bilateral rSO2 optodes were applied before the initiation of sedation and the conduct of the regional blockade. Patients received 28% oxygen by Venturi facemask. Perioperative blood pressure was maintained at or within 10% above the patient's normal limits during carotid cross-clamping. After cross-clamping, 100% O2 was administered for 5 min by a close-fitting anesthetic facemask. The O2 mask was then removed and the patient breathed room air. The effects on rSO2 readings and arterial blood gases were observed after each intervention. Data were analyzed for 15 patients. Ipsilateral rSO2 values decreased by 7.4% +/- 5% after carotid cross-clamping. Administration of 100% O2 resulted in an increase in ipsilateral rSO2 in all patients of 6.9% +/- 3.3% (range, 1%-12%) (paired t-test, P < 0.001) over the cross-clamped value while receiving 28% O2. Hemodynamic variables and arterial PaCO2 values were unaltered. With the carotid cross-clamped, ipsilateral rSO2 was reliably increased by the administration of 100% O(2) compared with 28% O2. The etiology of this increase is unclear, but may relate to the associated increase in O2 content of the blood or to an improvement in cerebral blood flow. Thus administration of 100% O2 during carotid cross-clamping may be beneficial for all patients undergoing CEA.

  1. Muscarinic agonists and potassium currents in guinea-pig myenteric neurones.

    PubMed

    Galligan, J J; North, R A; Tokimasa, T

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained from single neurones of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus in vitro. Using single electrode voltage clamp techniques, four distinct potassium currents were described and the effects of muscarinic agonists on these currents were studied. 2. A calcium-dependent potassium current (gKCa) was present in AH neurones at rest, and was much increased following a brief depolarization (50 ms, to 0 mV). Muscarinic agonists reduced both the resting current and the current evoked by depolarization. Pirenzepine competitively antagonized the suppression by muscarine of the calcium-dependent potassium current (or after-hyperpolarization) following an action potential. The dissociation equilibrium constant for pirenzepine was about 10 nM. 3. The conductance of AH neurones increased two to three fold when they were hyperpolarized negative to -90 mV. This inward rectification was blocked by extracellular caesium (2 mM) or rubidium (2 mM), but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 40 mM), 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) or cobalt (2 mM). The inward rectification was unaffected by muscarinic agonists. 4. When AH neurones were depolarized from very negative holding potentials (less than -80 mV) a brief outward current was recorded with a duration of about 200 ms. This transient or A current was completely blocked by 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) but was not affected by tetrodotoxin (300 nM), TEA (40 mM) or cobalt (2 mM). Muscarinic agonists did not affect the A current. 5. In S neurones, and in AH neurones in calcium-free solutions, the potassium conductance (in TEA and caesium) behaved according to constant field assumptions. This background conductance was suppressed by muscarinic agonists. 6. It is concluded that the depolarization by muscarinic agonists of myenteric AH neurones is due to a suppression of both a calcium-dependent potassium conductance and a background potassium conductance. Muscarinic depolarization of S neurones

  2. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration. Turnover studies.

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, H; MacDonald, A; Giles, G; Orrego, H; Israel, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on rates of synthesis and utilization of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was studied in rats after a pulse of [35S]cysteine. A 35% decrease in hepatic GSH content 5h after administration of 4 g of ethanol/kg body wt. was accompanied by a 33% increase in the rate of GSH utilization. The decrease occurred without increases in hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The rate of non-enzymic condensation of GSH with acetaldehyde could account for only 6% of the rate of hepatic GSH disappearance. The increased loss of [35S]GSH induced by ethanol was not accompanied by an increased turnover; rather, a 30% inhibition of GSH synthesis balanced the increased rate of loss, leaving the turnover rate unchanged. The rate of acetaldehyde condensation with cysteine in vitro occurred at about one-third of the rate of GSH loss in ethanol-treated animals. However, ethanol induced only a minor decrease in liver cysteine content, which did not precede, but followed, the decrease in GSH. The characteristics of 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, the condensation product between acetaldehyde and cysteine, were studied and methodologies were developed to determine its presence in tissues. It was not found in the liver of ethanol-treated animals. Ethanol administration led to a marked increase (47%) in plasma GSH in the post-hepatic inferior vena cava, but not in its pre-hepatic segment. Data suggest that an increased loss of GSH from the liver constitutes an important mechanism for the decrease in GSH induced by ethanol. In addition, an inhibition of GSH synthesis is observed. PMID:3977847

  3. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I.; Cebada, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO. PMID:27635404

  4. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Kasper; Ostergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-12-01

    Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) (1)H-MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization and metabolic fluxes during conditions of poor glycemic control. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control in combination with suboptimal insulin administration accelerates metabolic alterations by increasing both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism resulting in increased utilization of energy substrates. The results demonstrate the importance of tight glycemic control in insulinopenic diabetes, and that insulin, when administered insufficiently, adds an additional burden on top of poor glycemic control.

  5. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model.

    PubMed

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I; Cebada, Jorge; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO.

  6. Allosteric activation of M4 muscarinic receptors improve behavioral and physiological alterations in early symptomatic YAC128 mice

    PubMed Central

    Pancani, Tristano; Foster, Daniel J.; Moehle, Mark S.; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bradley, Emma; Bridges, Thomas M.; Klar, Rebecca; Poslusney, Mike; Rook, Jerri M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Wood, Michael R.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Xiang, Zixiu; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that lead to Huntington’s disease (HD) result in increased transmission at glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses at early presymptomatic stages that have been postulated to set the stage for pathological changes and symptoms that are observed at later ages. Based on this, pharmacological interventions that reverse excessive corticostriatal transmission may provide a novel approach for reducing early physiological changes and motor symptoms observed in HD. We report that activation of the M4 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor reduces transmission at corticostriatal synapses and that this effect is dramatically enhanced in presymptomatic YAC128 HD and BACHD relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, chronic administration of a novel highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) beginning at presymptomatic ages improves motor and synaptic deficits in 5-mo-old YAC128 mice. These data raise the exciting possibility that selective M4 PAMs could provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HD. PMID:26508634

  7. Administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin to rat increases liver mass and hepatocyte volume in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, D; Brosnan, J T

    1996-01-01

    We have established, in vivo, an increase in liver mass and hepatocyte volume after a single intraperitoneal administration, to fasted rats, of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (0127:B8) at 3 mg/kg. The phenomenon was time- and dose-dependent and could be prevented by treatment with polyclonal antiserum against tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) before the endotoxin injection. Endotoxin caused an increase of 26% in the hepatic mass compared with fasted controls at 24 h. An increase of 27% in the hepatic water content underlay the altered hepatic mass which could not be accounted for by a change in the volume of hepatic blood and/or interstitial fluid (measured in vivo), suggesting an expansion in the hepatocellular volume. This is supported by an increase of 25% in the K+ content of the endotoxic livers. Morphometric study confirmed a 15% increase in hepatocyte volume after endotoxin administration. The data are discussed in the light of possible metabolic effects of increased hepatocyte volume. PMID:8573081

  8. Administrative interventions associated with increased initiation on antiretroviral therapy in Irkutsk, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Ogarkov, O B; Ebers, A; Zhdanova, S; Moiseeva, E; Koshcheyev, M E; Zorkaltseva, E; Shugaeva, S; Vitko, S; Lyles, G; Houpt, E R; Heysell, S K

    2016-12-21

    A bundle of initiatives to integrate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) services was assessed for the impact on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at a TB referral hospital in Irkutsk, Russian Federation, from February 2014 to December 2015. The ART initiation rates in 166 ART-naïve patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment (34.1% with multidrug or extensively drug-resistant TB) increased significantly from 14 (17%) pre-intervention to 44 (54%) post-intervention (P < 0.001). A survey of TB hospital staff identified administrative prioritisation as the most important initiative for increasing ART initiation.

  9. Administrative interventions associated with increased initiation on antiretroviral therapy in Irkutsk, Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Ogarkov, O. B.; Ebers, A.; Zhdanova, S.; Moiseeva, E.; Koshcheyev, M. E.; Zorkaltseva, E.; Shugaeva, S.; Vitko, S.; Lyles, G.; Houpt, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    A bundle of initiatives to integrate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) services was assessed for the impact on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at a TB referral hospital in Irkutsk, Russian Federation, from February 2014 to December 2015. The ART initiation rates in 166 ART-naïve patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment (34.1% with multidrug or extensively drug-resistant TB) increased significantly from 14 (17%) pre-intervention to 44 (54%) post-intervention (P < 0.001). A survey of TB hospital staff identified administrative prioritisation as the most important initiative for increasing ART initiation. PMID:28123963

  10. Synaptic muscarinic response types in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depend on different levels of presynaptic activity and different muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bell, L Andrew; Bell, Karen A; McQuiston, A Rory

    2013-10-01

    Depolarizing, hyperpolarizing and biphasic muscarinic responses have been described in hippocampal inhibitory interneurons, but the receptor subtypes and activity patterns required to synaptically activate muscarinic responses in interneurons have not been completely characterized. Using optogenetics combined with whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute slices, we measured muscarinic responses produced by endogenously released acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic medial septum/diagonal bands of Broca inputs in hippocampal CA1. We found that depolarizing responses required more cholinergic terminal stimulation than hyperpolarizing ones. Furthermore, elevating extracellular ACh with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine had a larger effect on depolarizing versus hyperpolarizing responses. Another subpopulation of interneurons responded biphasically, and periodic release of ACh entrained some of these interneurons to rhythmically burst. M4 receptors mediated hyperpolarizing responses by activating inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, whereas the depolarizing responses were inhibited by the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine but were unaffected by M1, M4 or M5 receptor modulators. In addition, activation of M4 receptors significantly altered biphasic interneuron firing patterns. Anatomically, interneuron soma location appeared predictive of muscarinic response types but response types did not correlate with interneuron morphological subclasses. Together these observations suggest that the hippocampal CA1 interneuron network will be differentially affected by cholinergic input activity levels. Low levels of cholinergic activity will preferentially suppress some interneurons via hyperpolarization and increased activity will recruit other interneurons to depolarize, possibly because of elevated extracellular ACh concentrations. These data provide important information for understanding how cholinergic therapies will affect hippocampal network function

  11. Synaptic muscarinic response types in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depend on different levels of presynaptic activity and different muscarinic receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, L. Andrew; Bell, Karen A.; McQuiston, A. Rory

    2013-01-01

    Depolarizing, hyperpolarizing and biphasic muscarinic responses have been described in hippocampal inhibitory interneurons, but the receptor subtypes and activity patterns required to synaptically activate muscarinic responses in interneurons have not been completely characterized. Using optogenetics combined with whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute slices, we measured muscarinic responses produced by endogenously released acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic medial septum/diagonal bands of Broca inputs in hippocampal CA1. We found that depolarizing responses required more cholinergic terminal stimulation than hyperpolarizing ones. Furthermore, elevating extracellular ACh with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine had a larger effect on depolarizing versus hyperpolarizing responses. Another subpopulation of interneurons responded biphasically, and periodic release of ACh entrained some of these interneurons to rhythmically burst. M4 receptors mediated hyperpolarizing responses by activating inwardly rectifying K+ channels, whereas the depolarizing responses were inhibited by the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine but were unaffected by M1, M4 or M5 receptor modulators. In addition, activation of M4 receptors significantly altered biphasic interneuron firing patterns. Anatomically, interneuron soma location appeared predictive of muscarinic response types but response types did not correlate with interneuron morphological subclasses. Together these observations suggest that the hippocampal CA1 interneuron network will be differentially affected by cholinergic input activity levels. Low levels of cholinergic activity will preferentially suppress some interneurons via hyperpolarization and increased activity will recruit other interneurons to depolarize, possibly because of elevated extracellular ACh concentrations. These data provide important information for understanding how cholinergic therapies will affect hippocampal network function

  12. Identification of M(1) muscarinic receptor subtype in rat stomach using a tissue segment binding method, and the effects of immobilization stress on the muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman, Abu Syed Md; Morishima, Shigeru; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Muramatsu, Ikunobu

    2008-12-03

    Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes widely distribute in stomach tissues and are involved in many physiological functions. Although mRNA of M(1) subtype was found in gastric mucosa, the M(1) subtype has not been detected by conventional membrane binding assays. In the present study, muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat stomach were reevaluated by using the tissue segment binding technique recently developed to recognize the inherent/native profiles of receptors without receptor environment perturbation. [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bound to muscarinic receptors in the intact segments of rat gastric mucosa and muscle layers. The muscarinic receptors in the mucosal segments were composed of M(1), M(2) and M(3) subtypes, among which the M(1) subtype selectively showed high affinity for pirenzepine. However, in the membrane preparations, binding sites with high affinity for pirenzepine could not be detected. In the muscle layer, M(2) and M(3) subtypes, but not M(1), were identified in tissue segment and conventional membrane binding assays. Western blotting analysis recognized the M(1) subtype in the membrane preparations of mucosal but not muscle layers. Chronic immobilization stress increased the M(3) subtype in mucosal and muscle layers and decreased the M(2) subtype in the muscle layer, whereas M(1) and M(2) subtypes in mucosal layer did not change after the stress. The current study shows that M(1) subtype occurs as a pirenzepine-high affinity entity in intact segments of rat gastric mucosa, but that it loses the affinity for pirenzepine upon homogenization. Careful identification of native in vivo muscarinic receptors may further elucidate their functions in stomach.

  13. Increased Nicotine Self-Administration Following Prenatal Exposure in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.; Lawrence, Susan; Petro, Ann; Horton, Kofi; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and greater subsequent risk of smoking in female offspring. In animal models, prenatal nicotine exposure causes persistent alterations in cholinergic and monoaminergic systems, both of which are important for nicotine actions underlying tobacco addiction. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to determine if there is a cause-and-effect relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and nicotine self-administration starting in adolescence. Pregnant rats were administered nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) by osmotic minipump infusion throughout gestation and then, beginning in adolescence and continuing into adulthood, female offspring were given access to nicotine via a standard operant IV self-administration procedure (0.03 mg/kg/infusion). Gestational nicotine exposure did not alter the initial rate of nicotine self-administration. However, when animals underwent one week of forced abstinence and then had a second opportunity to self-administer nicotine, the prenatally-exposed animals showed a significantly greater rate of self-administration than did the controls. Prenatal nicotine exposure causes increased nicotine self-administration, which is revealed only when the animals are allowed to experience a period of nicotine abstinence. This supports a cause-and-effect relationship between the higher rates of smoking in the daughters of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy and implicates a role for nicotine in this effect. Our results further characterize the long-term liabilities of maternal smoking but also point to the potential liabilities of nicotine-based treatments for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:17196243

  14. Long-term melatonin administration increases polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage in plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Pita, Maria L; Hoyos, Marta; Martin-Lacave, Inés; Osuna, Carmen; Fernández-Santos, Jose M; Guerrero, Juan M

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the fatty acid composition of plasma and tissue lipids. Melatonin administration to rats fed with a standard diet only increased long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total plasma lipids and liver phospholipids but induced significant changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. In plasma, palmitoleic and oleic acids increased and n-6 and n-3 PUFA decreased in hypercholesterolemic rats; theses changes were reversed by melatonin administration. The analysis of lipid fractions revealed that only the cholesteryl ester fraction was affected by melatonin. Histological studies of the carotid artery intima revealed the appearance, in hypercholesterolemic rats, of fatty streaks produced by a mass of foam cells covered by the endothelium and by a thin layer of mononucleated cells. These changes were prevented by melatonin. We conclude that long-term melatonin administration modifies the fatty acid composition of rat plasma and liver lipids and ameliorates the arterial fatty infiltration induced by cholesterol.

  15. Chronic Central Administration of Ghrelin Increases Bone Mass through a Mechanism Independent of Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Ki, Kyoung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Jang, Bo Young; Song, Jung Ah; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung Hee; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days). Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed), and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system. PMID:23843943

  16. Non-muscarinic therapeutic targets for acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Christopher; Bird, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a broad class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. Current pharmacotherapy for acute OP poisoning includes the use of atropine, an oxime, and benzodiazepines. However, even with such therapy, the mortality from these agents is as high as 40%. It is increasingly recognized that not all OPs are the same. Significant differences exist in their toxicity, lipophilicity, and response to oxime therapy. Other non-muscarinic effects of OP pesticides exist, such as acute and chronic neuromuscular junction failure and central respiratory failure. In part because most of the mortality from these chemicals takes place in the developing world, little National Institutes of Health (NIH) research has been directed towards these agents. However, the similar mechanism of action of OP pesticides and the military nerve agents, along with increasing concerns about chemical terrorism has lead to the formation of the NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Program. As part of the CounterACT Program, the NIH has recently designated six OP pesticides as "threat agents". This concept paper describes some of the knowledge gaps related to non-muscarinic effects of OP pesticides and highlights needed areas of further research. Leveraging the current NIH interest in these chemicals to medical necessities in the developing world offers the possibility of delivering new therapeutics where they are needed on a daily basis.

  17. Increased activity of rat liver nucleolar protein kinase following triiodothyronine administration.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, E; Gallo, G; Pertica, M; Voci, A; Orunesu, M

    1977-12-08

    Triiodothyronine (T3) administration to thyroidectomized rats induces a significant increase in the nucleolus-associated protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) activity. The general properties of the protein kinase solubilized from liver nucleoli have been investigated. Mg2+ (20 mM) is essential for the reaction and an appropriate concentration of NaCl (100 mM) is required to achieve maximal phosphorylation rates. The optimal pH for casein phosphorylation is 7.6. The kinase phosphorylates casein more efficiently than phosvitin and displays an almost undetectable activity towards histones and protamine. No significant stimulation of the kinase activity by cyclic AMP has been detected. The apparent Km values for casein and ATP are 1.5 mg/ml and 1.5-10(-5) M, respectively, and are not affected by the hormone administration.

  18. The effects of naltrexone on cadmium-induced increases in oral ethanol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Nation, J R; Horger, B A; Pugh, C K; Bratton, G R; Rowe, L D

    1990-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to a standard laboratory diet (N = 20), or an adulterated diet containing 100 ppm added cadmium (N = 20), for 60 days. On Day 61, half the animals from each dietary condition received subcutaneous implants of two 30 mg naltrexone pellets, and the remaining half the animals received identical implants of 30 mg placebo pellets. One week later, animals from groups created by this interaction (Groups Control-Placebo, Control-Naltrexone, Cadmium-Placebo, Cadmium-Naltrexone) were tested in an ethanol self-administration paradigm that presented a 10% ethanol solution (v/v) in both a choice and nonchoice format. The results indicated that cadmium exposure increased the oral self-administration of ethanol in the choice setting where water was offered as an alternative, and the opiate antagonist naltrexone failed to attenuate this effect.

  19. Intraamygdaloid administration of BIBO 3304 increases water intake and extends anxiolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Wierońska, Joanna M; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Kłodzińska, Aleksandra; Smiałowska, Maria; Pilc, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of BIBO 3304 in the Vogel's conflict drinking test and in the water intake test in non-deprived rats after injection of the drug into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdaloid complex. BIBO 3304 was given at the doses of 25, 100 and 200 pmol/0.5 microl/site. We investigated also the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), given intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg, which was used as a positive control in the water intake test. Water consumption was measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after drug administration. We found that water intake was increased both after 5-HTP and BIBO 3304 administration.

  20. Muscarinic receptors involved in airway vascular leakage induced by experimental gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong-Yao; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Hao; Advenier, Charles; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Devillier, Philippe

    2008-04-23

    Gastro-oesophageal acid reflux may cause airway responses such as cough, bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthmatic patients. Studies in humans or in animals have suggested that these responses involve cholinergic nerves. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the efferent vagal component on airway microvascular leakage induced by instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the oesophagus of guinea-pigs and the subtype of muscarinic receptors involved. Airway microvascular leakage induced by intra-oesophageal HCl instillation was abolished by bilateral vagotomy or by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. HCl-induced leakage was inhibited by pretreatment with atropine, a non-specific muscarinic receptor antagonist, and also by pretreatment with either pirenzepine, a muscarinic M(1) receptor antagonist, or 4-DAMP, a muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonist. Pirenzepine was more potent than atropine and 4-DAMP. These antagonists were also studied on airway microvascular leakage or bronchoconstriction induced by intravenous administration of acetylcholine (ACh). Atropine, pirenzepine and 4-DAMP inhibited ACh-induced airway microvascular leakage with similar potencies. In sharp contrast, 4-DAMP and atropine were more potent inhibitors of ACh-induced bronchoconstriction than pirenzepine. Methoctramine, a muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist, was ineffective in all experimental conditions. These results suggest that airway microvascular leakage caused by HCl intra-oesophageal instillation involves ACh release from vagus nerve terminals and that M(1) and M(3) receptors play a major role in cholinergic-mediated microvascular leakage, whereas M(3) receptors are mainly involved in ACh-induced bronchoconstriction.

  1. Short-term regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: An assessment utilizing mouse brain and mouse neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cioffi, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of muscarinic agonists and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) on muscarinic receptor density and muscarinic receptor-mediated responses was assessed in mouse brain and mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115). Utilizing the antagonist ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB), there was no difference in the maximal binding capacity (B{sub max}) or equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub d}) between untreated and 24 hour DFP-treated mice. However, one administration of DFP produced a 24% and 33% decrease in B{sub max} measured by ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) after 18 and 24 hours which was rapidly reversible within 36 hours after DFP treatment. The loss of ({sup 3}H)NMS binding sites following acute DFP treatment was not accompanied by a change in a particular muscarinic receptor binding conformation. Furthermore, the magnitude of muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was unchanged following short-term DFP treatment.

  2. Neuromodulatory actions of substance P on the muscarinic receptors of the vas deferens of the rat.

    PubMed

    Silva, W I; Miranda, H F; Wolstenholme, W W; Cuevas, N; Ucros, A

    1988-01-01

    The response of post-synaptic neurokinin receptors to SP were not changed by pirenzepine or N-methyl-scopolamine. Atropine led to a slight increase in the EC50 of SP for its post-synaptic neurokinin (NK-A) receptor. In the presence of neostigmine no changes in the Emax and EC50 values of SP for its post- and pre-synaptic receptor site were observed. Only the muscarinic receptor site were observed. Only the muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and NMS, elicited statistically significant increases in the Emax of SP at its presynaptic receptor (NK-A). Addition of 7.4-740 nM SP resulted in a decrease in the EC50 and Emax values of ACh for its post-synaptic muscarinic receptor (M1). Conversely, 740 nM SP produced an increase in the EC50 and Emax values of ACh at its pre-synaptic muscarinic receptor (M2). Concentrations of 7.4 and 74 nM SP did not produce statistically significant changes in the Emax of ACh for its pre-synaptic M2 receptor.

  3. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Activity Increases Operant Alcohol Self-administration and Cue-Induced Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R.; Durant, Brandon; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptations that contribute to the progression of alcohol abuse disorders. Chronic alcohol consumption results in strengthened excitatory neurotransmission and increased AMPA receptor signaling in animal models. However, the mechanistic role of enhanced AMPA receptor activity in alcohol reinforcement and alcohol-seeking behavior remains unclear. This study examined the role of enhanced AMPA receptor function using the selective positive allosteric modulator, aniracetam, in modulating operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Male alcohol-preferring (P-) rats, trained to self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) versus water were pretreated with aniracetam to assess effects on maintenance of alcohol self-administration. To determine reinforcer specificity, P-rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (0.8%, w/v) versus water, and effects of aniracetam were tested. The role of aniracetam in modulating relapse of alcohol-seeking was assessed using a response-contingent cue-induced reinstatement procedure in P-rats trained to self-administer 15% alcohol. Aniracetam pretreatment significantly increased alcohol-reinforced responses relative to vehicle treatment. This increase was not attributed to aniracetam-induced hyperactivity as aniracetam pretreatment did not alter locomotor activity. AMPA receptor involvement was confirmed because DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist) blocked the aniracetam-induced increase in alcohol self-administration. Aniracetam did not alter sucrose-reinforced responses in sucrose-trained P-rats, suggesting that enhanced AMPA receptor activity is selective in modulating the reinforcing function of alcohol. Finally, aniracetam pretreatment potentiated cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior versus vehicle treated-P-rats. These data suggest that enhanced glutamate activity at AMPA receptors may be key in facilitating alcohol consumption and seeking behavior which could

  4. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative... announcing the availability of a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative... Transparency Initiative. This report includes eight initiatives adopted by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  5. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, T.I.; Buckley, N.J.; Young, A.C.; Brann, M.R.

    1987-07-31

    Complementary DNAs for three different muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were isolated from a rat cerebral cortex library, and the cloned receptors were expressed in mammalian cells. Analysis of human and rat genomic clones indicates that there are at least four functional muscarinic receptor genes and that these genes lack introns in the coding sequence. This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system.

  6. Chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration increases lymphocyte CXCR4 expression in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    LeCapitaine, Nicole J; Zhang, Ping; Winsauer, Peter; Walker, Edith; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Porretta, Constance; Molina, Patricia E

    2011-12-01

    Cannabinoids have been reported to produce various immunomodulatory effects, which could potentially impact the host response to bacterial or viral infection. We have recently demonstrated that chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.32 mg/kg i.m., BID) decreased early mortality in rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the possibility that prolonged THC administration affects lymphocyte counts, phenotype, and proliferation indices has not been addressed. We examined expression of proliferative and phenotypic markers in circulating lymphocytes of male young adult rhesus macaques chronically-treated with THC (i.m. twice daily 0.32 mg/kg) for 12 months. Chronic THC administration did not alter lymphocyte subtypes, naïve and memory subsets, proliferation, or apoptosis of T lymphocytes when compared to time-matched vehicle-treated controls. However, chronic THC increased T lymphocyte CXCR4 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes compared to control. These results show that chronic THC administration produces changes in T cell phenotype, which can potentially contribute to host immunomodulation to infectious challenges.

  7. Ethanol inhibits neuritogenesis induced by astrocyte muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Marina; Moore, Nadia H; Giordano, Gennaro; VanDeMark, Kathryn L; Costa, Lucio G

    2010-09-01

    In utero alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that ethanol alters neuronal development. We have recently shown that stimulation of M(3) muscarinic receptors in astrocytes increases the synthesis and release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, causing neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. As M(3) muscarinic receptor signaling in astroglial cells is strongly inhibited by ethanol, we hypothesized that ethanol may also inhibit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons induced by carbachol-stimulated astrocytes. In the present study, we report that the effect of carbachol-stimulated astrocytes on hippocampal neuron neurite outgrowth was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (25-100 mM) by ethanol. This effect was because of the inhibition of the release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Similar effects on neuritogenesis and on the release of astrocyte extracellular proteins were observed after the incubation of astrocytes with carbachol in the presence of 1-butanol, another short-chain alcohol, which like ethanol is a competitive substrate for phospholipase D, but not by tert-butanol, its analog that is not a substrate for this enzyme. This study identifies a potential novel mechanism involved in the developmental effects of ethanol mediated by the interaction of ethanol with cell signaling in astrocytes, leading to an impairment in neuron-astrocyte communication.

  8. Allosteric binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wess, Jürgen

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology, Tränkle et al. (p. 1597) present new findings regarding the existence of a second allosteric site on the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 mAChR). The M2 mAChR is a prototypic class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has proven to be a very useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the binding of allosteric GPCR ligands. Previous studies have identified several allosteric muscarinic ligands, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tacrine and the bis-pyridinium derivative 4,4'-bis-[(2,6-dichloro-benzyloxy-imino)-methyl]-1,1'-propane-1,3-diyl-bis-pyridinium dibromide (Duo3), which, in contrast to conventional allosteric muscarinic ligands, display concentration-effect curves with slope factors >1. By analyzing the interactions of tacrine and Duo3 with other allosteric muscarinic agents predicted to bind to the previously identified ;common' allosteric binding site, Tränkle et al. provide evidence suggesting that two allosteric agents and one orthosteric ligand may be able to bind to the M2 mAChR simultaneously. Moreover, studies with mutant mAChRs indicated that the M2 receptor epitopes involved in the binding of tacrine and Duo3 may not be identical. Molecular modeling and ligand docking studies suggested that the additional allosteric site probably represents a subdomain of the receptor's allosteric binding cleft. Because allosteric binding sites have been found on many other GPCRs and drugs interacting with these sites are thought to have great therapeutic potential, the study by Tränkle et al. should be of considerable general interest.

  9. External imaging of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelman, W.C.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Hill, T.; Holman, B.L.; Budinger, T.; Conklin, J.J.; Eng, R.; Grissom, M.P.

    1984-01-20

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  10. External Imaging of Cerebral Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, William C.; Reba, Richard C.; Rzeszotarski, Waclaw J.; Gibson, Raymond E.; Hill, Thomas; Holman, B. Leonard; Budinger, Thomas; Conklin, James J.; Eng, Robert; Grissom, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  11. Increase of the seizure threshold in C57BL/6 mice after citicoline administration.

    PubMed

    Karpova, M N; Zin'kovskii, K A; Kuznetsova, L V; Klishina, N V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the dose-dependent effect of preventive intraperitoneal injection of citicoline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) on acute generalized epileptiform activity in C57Bl/6 mice. The duration of citicoline action was also evaluated. Administration of citicoline in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg 1 h before treatment with the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole produced an anticonvulsant effect. This effect was manifested in an increase of the threshold of clonic seizures and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Moreover, the latency of seizure development was elevated under these conditions. The anticonvulsant effect of citicoline persisted for 6 h after its injection.

  12. Differential role of insular cortex muscarinic and NMDA receptors in one-trial appetitive taste learning.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Coutureau, Etienne; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of the neurobiology of taste learning and memory has been greatly facilitated by the use of a reliable behavioural model, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This model has revealed that the insular cortex (IC), specifically muscarinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in the IC, is critical for the formation of aversive taste memories. In contrast, current models of appetitive taste learning are less adequate, relying on the use of neophobic tastes (attenuation of neophobia) or on the integration of appetitive and aversive taste memories (latent inhibition of CTA). While these models have implicated IC muscarinic receptors, the involvement of NMDA receptors in the IC remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of both muscarinic and NMDA receptors in appetitive taste learning using a simple paradigm that is independent of neophobic and aversive components. First, we demonstrated that a single exposure to a novel taste, saccharin 0.1%, is sufficient to promote an appetitive taste memory as revealed by an increase in saccharin consumption during the second presentation. This increase was blocked by bilateral infusion in the IC of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. In contrast, infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, did not block appetitive taste learning but did abolish CTA. Therefore, common and distinct molecular substrates within the IC mediate appetitive versus aversive learning about the same taste.

  13. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, H.V.; Tien, X.Y.; Wallace, L.J.; Cooke, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10/sup -7/ M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response.

  14. THE ANTIPSYCHOTIC POTENTIAL OF MUSCARINIC ALLOSTERIC MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M.; LeBois, Evan P.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Wood, Michael R.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The cholinergic hypothesis of schizophrenia emerged over 50 years ago based on clinical observations with both anticholinergics and pan-muscarinic agonists. Not until the 1990s did the cholinergic hypothesis of schizophrenia receive renewed enthusiasm based on clinical data with xanomeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1/M4-preferring orthosteric agonist. In a clinical trial with Alzheimer’s patients, xanomeline not only improved cognitive performance, but also reduced psychotic behaviors. This encouraging data spurred a second clinical trial in schizophrenic patients, wherein xanomeline significantly improved the positive, negative and cognitive symptom clusters. However, the question remained: Was the antipsychotic efficacy due to activation of M1, M4 or both M1/M4? Classical orthosteric ligands lacked the muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity required to address this key question. More recently, functional assays have allowed for the discovery of ligands that bind at allosteric sites, binding sites distinct from the orthosteric (acetylcholine) site, which are structurally less conserved and thereby afford high levels of receptor subtype selectivity. Recently, allosteric ligands, with unprecedented selectivity for either M1 or M4, have been discovered and have demonstrated comparable efficacy to xanomeline in preclinical antipsychotic and cognition models. These data suggest that selective allosteric activation of either M1 or M4 has antipsychotic potential through distinct, yet complimentary mechanisms. PMID:20520852

  15. Homology modeling of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Trayder; McLean, Kimberley C; McRobb, Fiona M; Manallack, David T; Chalmers, David K; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2014-01-27

    We have developed homology models of the acetylcholine muscarinic receptors M₁R-M₅R, based on the β₂-adrenergic receptor crystal as the template. This is the first report of homology modeling of all five subtypes of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors with binding sites optimized for ligand binding. The models were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between muscarinic antagonists and decoy compounds using virtual screening using enrichment factors, area under the ROC curve (AUC), and an early enrichment measure, LogAUC. The models produce rational binding modes of docked ligands as well as good enrichment capacity when tested against property-matched decoy libraries, which demonstrates their unbiased predictive ability. To test the relative effects of homology model template selection and the binding site optimization procedure, we generated and evaluated a naïve M₂R model, using the M₃R crystal structure as a template. Our results confirm previous findings that binding site optimization using ligand(s) active at a particular receptor, i.e. including functional knowledge into the model building process, has a more pronounced effect on model quality than target-template sequence similarity. The optimized M₁R-M₅R homology models are made available as part of the Supporting Information to allow researchers to use these structures, compare them to their own results, and thus advance the development of better modeling approaches.

  16. Intravenous Ghrelin Administration Increases Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Heavy Drinkers: a Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Edwards, Steven M.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify novel pharmacological targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role of ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory proof-of-concept study. Non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin 1mcg/kg, 3 mcg/kg or 0 mcg/kg (placebo), followed by a cuereactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol cues. The primary outcome variable was the increase in alcohol craving (also called “urge”) for alcohol, assessed by the Alcohol Visual Analogue Scale. Results Out of 103 screenings, 45 individuals received the study drug. Repeated measures of ANCOVA revealed a group effect across ghrelin doses in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05). A dose-specific examination revealed a significant effect of ghrelin 3 mcg/kg vs. placebo in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05) with a large effect size (d = .94). By contrast, no significant ghrelin effect was found in increasing either urge to drink juice or food craving (p: n.s.). No significant differences in side effects were found (p: n.s.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin increased alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals. Although the small sample requires confirmatory studies, these findings provide preliminary evidence that ghrelin may play a role in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, thus demonstrating a novel pharmacological target for treatment. PMID:24775991

  17. In vivo increase in hypothalamic cyclic AMP following 5-hydroxytryptophan administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Bundman, M C; Browning, R A

    1984-09-01

    The administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) consistently increased hypothalamic cyclic AMP levels in rats treated 10 days earlier with the serotonin neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), to produce 5-HT receptor supersensitivity. However 5-HTP (100 mg/kg), failed to cause an increase in hypothalamic cyclic AMP in rats not pretreated with 5,7-DHT. The 5-HTP-induced increase in cyclic AMP was blocked by the decarboxylase inhibitor, benserazide (RO 4-4602, 800 mg/kg) and by the 5-HT antagonist metergoline (5 mg/kg). Other treatments that caused a significant elevation of hypothalamic cyclic AMP included: (a) L-Tryptophan plus the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tranylcypromine, and (b) the serotonin agonist, 1-(m-trifluromethylphenyl)-1-piperazine. The 5-HT antagonist, methysergide, blocked the serotonin receptor mediated behavioral syndrome, but failed to prevent the increase in hypothalamic cyclic AMP. Moreover, the 5-HT agonist, 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine, (5-Me-DMT), induced a strong behavioral syndrome but failed to significantly increase hypothalamic cyclic AMP. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT receptors somewhere in the brain causes an increase in hypothalamic cyclic AMP, but further studies will be needed to determine whether this is a direct result of activation of the 5-HT receptors in the hypothalamus.

  18. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in animals has suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may induce these effects. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled study in 15 healthy volunteers we assessed blood oxytocin and MDMA concentrations and subjective prosocial effects after oral administration of 100 mg MDMA or placebo. MDMA induced a robust increase of blood oxytocin concentrations and an increase of subjective prosocial feelings. Within subjects, the variations in these feelings were significantly and positively correlated with variation in oxytocin levels, and the correlations between these feelings and oxytocin were significantly stronger than those between these feelings and blood MDMA levels. MDMA induces oxytocin release in humans, which may be involved in the characteristic prosocial effects of ecstasy.

  19. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE

    2000-03-15

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  20. M2muscarinic receptors inhibit cell proliferation and migration in urothelial bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Luca; De Falco, Elena; Di Bari, Maria; Coccia, Andrea; Siciliano, Camilla; Ponti, Donatella; Pastore, Antonio Luigi; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Carbone, Antonio; Tata, Ada Maria; Calogero, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The role of muscarinic receptors in several diseases including cancer has recently emerged. To evaluate the hypothesis that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors may play a role in bladder cancer as well as in other tumor types, we investigated their expression in bladder tumor specimens. All examined samples expressed the M1, M2 and M3 receptor subtypes. We also found that the level of M2 transcripts, but not those of M1 or M3, significantly increased with the tumor histologic grade. In view of these results, we proceeded to investigate whether the M2 agonist Arecaidine had any effect on in vitro cell growth and migration of T24 cells, a bladder tumor cell line expressing the muscarinic receptors, including the M2 subtype. We observed that Arecaidine significantly reduced T24 and 5637 cell proliferation and migration in a concentration dependent manner. The silencing of M2 receptor by siRNA in T24 and 5637 cell lines showed the inability of Arecaidine (100 μM) to inhibit cell proliferation after 48 hours, whereas the use of M1 and M3 antagonists in T24 appeared not to counteract the Arecaidine effect, suggesting that the inhibition of cell proliferation was directly dependent on M2 receptor activation. These data suggest that M2 muscarinic receptors may play a relevant role in bladder cancer and represent a new attractive therapeutic target. PMID:25482946

  1. Discrimination of putative M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain by N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ)

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.B.; Creese, I.

    1986-03-01

    The EC/sub 50/ of EEDQ for the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding in vitro was approximately 3 fold lower for homogenates of hippocampus than brainstem (containing predominantly putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes respectively). Furthermore, the time-dependent loss of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding produced by 100 ..mu..M EEDQ was faster in homogenates of hippocampus than brainstem. Administration of EEDQ (20 mg/kg i.p.) irreversibly reduced the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding by 56% and 34% in hippocampus and brainstem respectively. Pirenzepine competition for the remaining (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites following in vitro and in vivo treatment with EEDQ revealed a significant increase in the proportion of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites having low affinity for pirenzepine (M/sub 2/ receptors), indicating that the high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M/sub 1/ receptors) were selectively and irreversibly lost. Thus, EEDQ discriminates the same putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes that are discriminated by pirenzepine. The reduction of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding could be prevented both in vitro and in vivo by atropine or scopolamine. These data may indicate differences in the accessibility of these putative receptor subtypes to EEDQ or, alternatively, differences in the availability of carboxyl groups able to interact with EEDQ at the ligand recognition site of M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptors.

  2. Muscarinic M1 receptor and cannabinoid CB1 receptor do not modulate paraoxon-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kow, Rebecca L; Cheng, Eugene M; Jiang, Kelly; Le, Joshua H; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major signs of severe organophosphate poisoning is seizures. Previous studies have shown that both muscarinic agonist- and organophosphate-induced seizures require activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Seizures induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine require the M1 receptor and are modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In this study, we determined whether M1 and CB1 receptors also regulated seizures induced by the organophosphate paraoxon. We found no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in wild-type (WT) and M1 knockout (KO) mice, indicating that in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, M1 receptors are not required for paraoxon seizures. Furthermore, we found that pilocarpine administration resulted in seizure-independent activation of ERK in the hippocampus in a M1 receptor-dependent manner, while paraoxon did not induce seizure-independent activation of ERK in the mouse hippocampus. This shows that pilocarpine and paraoxon activated M1 receptors in the hippocampus to different extents. There were no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in WT and CB1 KO mice, and neither CB1 agonist nor antagonist administration had significant effects on paraoxon seizures, indicating that, in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, paraoxon seizures are not modulated by CB1 receptors. These results demonstrate that there are fundamental molecular differences in the regulation of seizures induced by pilocarpine and paraoxon. PMID:25692018

  3. Advantages for transdermal over oral oxybutynin to treat overactive bladder: Muscarinic receptor binding, plasma drug concentration, and salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomomi; Toma-Okura, Ayako; Yamada, Shizuo

    2006-03-01

    To clarify pharmacological usefulness of transdermal oxybutynin in the therapy of overactive bladder, we have characterized muscarinic receptor binding in rat tissues with measurement of plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and its metabolite N-desethyl-oxybutynin (DEOB) and salivation after transdermal oxybutynin compared with oral route. At 1 and 3 h after oral administration of oxybutynin, there was a significant increase in apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for specific [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine ([3H]NMS) binding in the rat bladder, submaxillary gland, heart, and colon compared with control values. Concomitantly, submaxillary gland and heart showed a significant decrease in maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for [3H]NMS binding, which lasted until 24 h. Transdermal application of oxybutynin caused dose-dependent increases in Kd values for specific [3H]NMS binding in rat tissues. The increment of Kd values by transdermal oxybutynin was dependent on the application time. Plasma concentrations of oxybutynin and DEOB peaked at 1 h after oral oxybutynin. In contrast, plasma concentrations of oxybutynin increased slowly, depending on the transdermal application time of this drug until 12 h. Suppression of pilocarpine-induced salivation in rats due to transdermal oxybutynin was significantly weaker and more reversible than that by oral oxybutynin, which abolished salivary secretion. The present study has shown that transdermal oxybutynin binds significantly to rat bladder muscarinic receptors without producing both long-lasting occupation of exocrine receptors and cessation of cholinergic salivation evoked by oral oxybutynin. Thus, the present study provides further pharmacological basis for advantage of transdermal over oral oxybutynin in the therapy of overactive bladder.

  4. Grid cell spatial tuning reduced following systemic muscarinic receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ehren L.; Climer, Jason R.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid cells of the medial entorhinal cortex exhibit a periodic and stable pattern of spatial tuning that may reflect the output of a path integration system. This grid pattern has been hypothesized to serve as a spatial coordinate system for navigation and memory function. The mechanisms underlying the generation of this characteristic tuning pattern remain poorly understood. Systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine flattens the typically positive correlation between running speed and entorhinal theta frequency in rats. The loss of this neural correlate of velocity, an important signal for the calculation of path integration, raises the question of what influence scopolamine has on the grid cell tuning as a read out of the path integration system. To test this, the spatial tuning properties of grid cells were compared before and after systemic administration of scopolamine as rats completed laps on a circle track for food rewards. The results show that the spatial tuning of the grid cells was reduced following scopolamine administration. The tuning of head direction cells, in contrast, was not reduced by scopolamine. This is the first report to demonstrate a link between cholinergic function and grid cell tuning. This work suggests that the loss of tuning in the grid cell network may underlie the navigational disorientation observed in Alzheimer's patients and elderly individuals with reduced cholinergic tone. PMID:24493379

  5. Increased excitability of lateral habenula neurons in adolescent rats following cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter A; Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua H; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2014-12-28

    The lateral habenula is a brain region that has been critically implicated in modulating negative emotional states and responses to aversive stimuli. Exposure to addictive drugs such as cocaine negatively impacts affective states, an effect persisting longer than acute drug effects. However, the mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, may contribute to drug-induced negative affective states by altering the firing properties of lateral habenula neurons, thus changing the signaling patterns from the lateral habenula to downstream circuits. Using whole-cell current-clamp recording of acutely prepared brain slices of rats after various periods of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, we characterized an important heterogeneous subregion of the lateral habenula based on membrane properties. We found two major relevant neuronal subtypes: burst firing neurons and regular spiking neurons. We also found that lateral habenula regular spiking neurons had higher membrane excitability for at least 7 days following cocaine self-administration, likely due to a greater membrane resistance. Both the increase in lateral habenula excitability and membrane resistance returned to baseline when tested after a more prolonged period of 45 days of withdrawal. This is the first study to look at intrinsic lateral habenula neuron properties following cocaine exposure beyond acute drug effects. These results may help to explain how cocaine and other drugs negatively impact affect states. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-08-25

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Co-administration of Dalbergia odorifera increased bioavailability of Salvia miltiorrhizae in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xinfeng; Wang, Shixiang; Luo, Kai; Wei, Yinmao; Zheng, Jianbin

    2007-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of Dalbergia odorifera (DO) on the pharmacokinetics of Danshensu in Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) in healthy rabbits and rabbits with qi-stagnancy and blood stasis. Thirty two healthy rabbits were involved in the whole experiment. Qi-stagnancy and blood stasis rabbits were obtained by treating the limbs of 16 adnephrin rabbits in an ice-bath for 6.0 min. The rest of rabbits were equally divided into 2 healthy groups. One healthy group and 8 qi-stagnancy and blood stasis rabbits were orally administrated with SM (5.0 g/kg), and the other 8 healthy rabbits and 8 qi-stagnancy and blood stasis rabbits with SM (5.0 g/kg) coupled with DO (2.5 g/kg). The plasma (Danshensu) concentration-time curve was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-trap mass (MS-MS). Danshensu in plasma was confirmed to be two-compartment open model with a first order absorption phase in all groups. Moreover, the area under curve (0-infinity) of Danshensu was significantly increased both in healthy group and in qi-stagnancy and blood stasis group after administration of SM coupled with DO. This result was in accordance with the "Jun-Shi pairing herbs theory" of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  8. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was p = 0.05. High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003), education (p = 0.004), and income (p = 0.003). The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5%) and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%). Respondents with secondary school education (31.6%) are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%), the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%), people who earn less (34.1%) are inactive almost twice as often. Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers of employers to promote healthy lifestyle

  9. Erythropoietin administration increases splenic erythroferrone protein content and liver TMPRSS6 protein content in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurieva, Iuliia; Frýdlová, Jana; Rychtarčíková, Zuzana; Vokurka, Martin; Truksa, Jaroslav; Krijt, Jan

    2017-02-28

    Erythroferrone (ERFE) and TMPRSS6 are important proteins in the regulation of iron metabolism. The objective of the study was to examine splenic ERFE and liver TMPRSS6 synthesis in rats treated with a combination of iron and erythropoietin (EPO). EPO was administered to female Wistar rats at 600U/day for four days, iron-pretreated rats received 150mg of iron before EPO treatment. Content of ERFE and TMPRSS6 proteins was determined by commercial antibodies. Iron pretreatment prevented the EPO-induced decrease in hepcidin expression. Content of phosphorylated SMAD 1,5,8 proteins was decreased in the liver by both EPO and iron plus EPO treatment. Fam132b expression in the spleen was increased both by EPO and iron plus EPO treatments; these treatments also significantly induced splenic Fam132a expression. ERFE protein content in the spleen was increased both by EPO and iron plus EPO to a similar extent. EPO administration increased TMPRSS6 content in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction of liver homogenate; in iron-pretreated rats, this increase was abolished. The results confirm that iron pretreatment prevents the EPO-induced decrease in liver Hamp expression. This effect probably occurs despite high circulating ERFE levels, since EPO-induced ERFE protein synthesis is not influenced by iron pretreatment.

  10. Increasing Access to Health Administrative Data with ICES Data & Analytic Services.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Saskin, Refik; Vermeulen, Marian J; Yates, Erika; Gunraj, Nadia; Victor, J Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) is one of only a few organizations in Ontario permitted to access, link and analyze health administrative data for the purpose of generating evidence to inform decisions in policy and practice. Although ICES is a leading research institute, its access to the data has historically been restricted to scientists with an ICES affiliation. This requirement, designed to meet ICES' data privacy and security obligations, created barriers with respect to the widespread use of Ontario's data assets. In 2014, as part of the government's commitment to the Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research, ICES launched the Data & Analytic Services platform, which is aimed at increasing access to data and analytic services to investigators external to ICES. In making the data widely available to the broader research community, this initiative engages investigators involved in front-line care, stimulates new avenues of research and fosters collaboration that was previously challenging or unfeasible.

  11. Central administration of metastin increases food intake through opioid neurons in chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Masuda, Naoto; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Metastin, an RFamide peptide, has been isolated from human placenta and possesses several physiological actions in mammals. However, little is known about this bioactive peptide in avian species. This study was conducted to assess the effect of metastin on feeding behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus). The food intake of chicks is significantly increased by the intracerebroventricular injection of metastin. Beta-funaltrexamine, a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuates metastin-induced food intake in chicks. In contrast, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor antagonists did not show any influence on metastin-induced food intake in chicks. In addition, administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not influence metastin-induced food intake. Taken together, this study shows the orexigenic effect of metastin in chicks and suggests that this effect is mediated by mu-opioid receptor.

  12. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge.

    PubMed

    Gancarz-Kausch, Amy M; Adank, Danielle N; Dietz, David M

    2014-11-03

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences.

  13. NOAA Would Receive an 11% Increase Under Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2014 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with 5.45 billion, 11% above the FY 2012 spend plan of 4.91 billion (see Table ). The proposal, which was sent to Congress on 10 April, would increase funding for operations, research, and facilities to 3.41 billion (up 7.97% over FY 2012) and for procurement, acquisition, and construction to 2.12 billion (up 17.51%). The budget proposal uses the FY 2012 spend plan as a comparison because Congress approved the FY 2013 appropriations only a few weeks before the FY 2014 proposal was released.

  14. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells, the role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) to mucosal homeo...

  15. Characterization of the muscarinic cholinoceptors in the human detrusor

    SciTech Connect

    Nilvebrant, L.; Andersson, K.E.; Mattiasson, A.

    1985-08-01

    Contractions of the human detrusor are thought to be mediated mainly via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. In the present study, the authors used a receptor-binding technique with 1-quinuclidinyl(phenyl 4-/sup 3/H)benzilate ((-)/sup 3/H-QNB) as radioligand to directly demonstrate the presence of muscarinic receptors in homogenates of the human detrusor. The binding of (-)/sup 3/H-QNB was of high affinity (KD = (1.2 +/- 0.1) X 10(-10) M), saturable (Ro = 160 +/- 15 fmol./mg. protein) and possessed the pharmacological specificity expected of an interaction with muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic receptor antagonists were bound to a virtually uniform population of sites, whereas muscarinic receptor agonists recognized more than one population of muscarinic binding sites. The affinities of a series of antimuscarinic drugs, determined in competition experiments with (-)/sup 3/H-QNB, were found to correlate with the capacity to inhibit carbachol-induced contractions in isolated human bladder muscle. Binding data together with the functional data indicated that the human detrusor does not contain any significant number of muscarinic spare receptors. The results suggest that a selective effect on the muscarinic receptors of human bladder is not possible to obtain with presently available antimuscarinic agents.

  16. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  17. The interaction of trazodone with rat brain muscarinic cholinoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hyslop, D. K.; Taylor, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor binding of trazodone, a new nontricyclic antidepressant, was compared with established tricyclic antidepressants. The ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate in vitro was used for comparing atropine-like effects. Trazodone was found to have essentially no activity at the muscarinic acetylcholine binding site in comparison to the tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:7470750

  18. Substantially increased sildenafil bioavailability after sublingual administration in children with congenital heart disease: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease of diverse origin with devastating consequences in adults as well as in children. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil successfully lowers pulmonary vascular resistance. However, because of its poor enteral absorption, resulting in ineffective plasma concentrations, responses in infants and children are often erratic. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian boys, one born at term (case 1) and one aged 2.5 years (case 2), who had structural cardiac and pulmonary defects accompanied by symptomatic pulmonary hypertension. They received sildenafil enterally and sublingually and also intravenously in one of them. Plasma samples were taken at various time points to determine the plasma concentrations of sildenafil and its partially active metabolite. Sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil were quantified using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Oxygen partial pressure was determined from routine arterial blood gas samples. Conclusion In agreement with previous observations in adults, we found that sublingual sildenafil was more extensively absorbed in our two pediatric patients. After sublingual administration, sildenafil plasma concentrations increased by 314% to 361% compared to enteral dosing. Concurrently, the metabolic ratio increased, suggesting not only that the overall absorption was enhanced but also that first-pass metabolism was partially bypassed. In case 2, the free fraction of sildenafil was 0.9%, which is considerably less than in adults (4%), suggesting that, in case 2, higher plasma concentration would have been needed to achieve effects similar to those in adults. Sublingual sildenafil appears to be a promising alternative route of administration in children with poor enteral absorption. PMID:24885923

  19. Albumin synthesis in humans increases immediately following the administration of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Barle, Hans; Januszkiewicz, Anna; Hållström, Lars; Essén, Pia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Garlick, Peter J; Wernerman, Jan

    2002-11-01

    In order to investigate the immediate (i.e. within 3 h) response of albumin synthesis to the administration of endotoxin, as a model of a moderate and well controlled catabolic insult, two measurements employing L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine were performed in 16 volunteers. One group ( n =8) received an intravenous injection of endotoxin (4 ng/kg; lot EC-6) immediately after the first measurement of albumin synthesis, whereas the other group received saline. A second measurement was initiated 1 h later. In the endotoxin group, the fractional synthesis rate of albumin was 6.9+/-0.6%/day (mean+/-S.D.) in the first measurement. In the second measurement, a significant increase was observed (9.6+/-1.2%/day; P <0.001). The corresponding values in the control group were were 6.6+/-0.6%/day and 7.0+/-0.6%/day respectively (not significant compared with first measurement and P <0.001 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). The absolute synthesis rates of albumin were 148+/-35 and 201+/-49 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) before and after endotoxin ( P <0.01). In the control group, the corresponding values were 131+/-21 and 132+/-20 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) (not significant compared with the first measurement and P <0.01 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). In conclusion, these results indicate that albumin synthesis increases in the very early phase after a catabolic insult, as represented by the administration of endotoxin.

  20. Fenofibrate administration to arthritic rats increases adiponectin and leptin and prevents oxidative muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Castillero, Estíbaliz; Martín, Ana Isabel; Nieto-Bona, Maria Paz; Fernández-Galaz, Carmen; López-Menduiña, María; Villanúa, María Ángeles; López-Calderón, Asunción

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation induces skeletal muscle wasting and cachexia. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα (PPARA)) agonist, reduces wasting of gastrocnemius, a predominantly glycolytic muscle, by decreasing atrogenes and myostatin. Considering that fenofibrate increases fatty acid oxidation, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether fenofibrate is able to prevent the effect of arthritis on serum adipokines and on soleus, a type I muscle in which oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy. Arthritis was induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant. Four days after the injection, control and arthritic rats were gavaged daily with fenofibrate (300 mg/kg bw) or vehicle over 12 days. Arthritis decreased serum leptin, adiponectin, and insulin (P<0.01) but not resistin levels. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate administration increased serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. Arthritis decreased soleus weight, cross-sectional area, fiber size, and its Ppar α mRNA expression. In arthritic rats, fenofibrate increased soleus weight, fiber size, and Ppar α expression and prevented the increase in Murf1 mRNA. Fenofibrate decreased myostatin, whereas it increased MyoD (Myod1) and myogenin expressions in the soleus of control and arthritic rats. These data suggest that in oxidative muscle, fenofibrate treatment is able to prevent arthritis-induced muscle wasting by decreasing Murf1 and myostatin expression and also by increasing the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and myogenin. Taking into account the beneficial action of adiponectin on muscle wasting and the correlation between adiponectin and soleus mass, part of the anticachectic action of fenofibrate may be mediated through stimulation of adiponectin secretion. PMID:23781298

  1. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  2. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Receptors in Breast Cancer: Their Role in Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, María Gabriela; Negroni, María Pía; Pelegrina, Laura Tatiana; Castro, María Ester; Fiszman, Gabriel L.; Azar, María Eugenia; Morgado, Carlos Cresta; Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autoantibodies in cancer has become relevant in recent years. We demonstrated that autoantibodies purified from the sera of breast cancer patients activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in tumor cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from breast cancer patients in T1N0Mx stage (tumor size≤2 cm, without lymph node metastasis) mimics the action of the muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulating MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Angiogenesis is a central step in tumor progression because it promotes tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the main angiogenic mediator, and its levels have been correlated with poor prognosis in cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of T1N0Mx-IgG on the expression of VEGF-A, and the in vivo neovascular response triggered by MCF-7 cells, via muscarinic receptor activation. We demonstrated that T1N0Mx-IgG (10−8 M) and carbachol (10−9 M) increased the constitutive expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells, effect that was reverted by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. We also observed that T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol enhanced the neovascular response produced by MCF-7 cells in the skin of NUDE mice. The action of IgG or carbachol was reduced in the presence of atropine. In conclusion, T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol may promote VEGF-A production and neovascularization induced by breast tumor cells via muscarinic receptors activation. These effects may be accelerating breast tumor progression. PMID:23460876

  3. Autoantibodies against muscarinic receptors in breast cancer: their role in tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, María Gabriela; Negroni, María Pía; Pelegrina, Laura Tatiana; Castro, María Ester; Fiszman, Gabriel L; Azar, María Eugenia; Morgado, Carlos Cresta; Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autoantibodies in cancer has become relevant in recent years. We demonstrated that autoantibodies purified from the sera of breast cancer patients activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in tumor cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from breast cancer patients in T1N0Mx stage (tumor size≤2 cm, without lymph node metastasis) mimics the action of the muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulating MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Angiogenesis is a central step in tumor progression because it promotes tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the main angiogenic mediator, and its levels have been correlated with poor prognosis in cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of T1N0Mx-IgG on the expression of VEGF-A, and the in vivo neovascular response triggered by MCF-7 cells, via muscarinic receptor activation. We demonstrated that T1N0Mx-IgG (10(-8) M) and carbachol (10(-9) M) increased the constitutive expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells, effect that was reverted by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. We also observed that T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol enhanced the neovascular response produced by MCF-7 cells in the skin of NUDE mice. The action of IgG or carbachol was reduced in the presence of atropine. In conclusion, T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol may promote VEGF-A production and neovascularization induced by breast tumor cells via muscarinic receptors activation. These effects may be accelerating breast tumor progression.

  4. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  5. Muscarinic responses of rat basolateral amygdaloid neurons recorded in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, M S; Moises, H C

    1992-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were obtained from pyramidal-type neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) in slices of rat ventral forebrain and used to compare the actions of exogenously applied cholinomimetics to the effects produced by electrical stimulation of amygdalopetal cholinergic afferents from basal forebrain. 2. Bath application of carbachol depolarized pyramidal cells with an associated increase in input resistance (Ri), reduced the slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP) that followed a series of current-evoked action potentials and blocked spike frequency accommodation. All of these effects were reversed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine but not by the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. 3. Electrical stimulation of amygdaloid afferents within the external capsule evoked a series of synaptic potentials consisting of a non-cholinergic fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), followed by early and late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). Each of these synaptic potentials was reduced by carbachol in an atropine-sensitive manner. 4. Local application of carbachol to pyramidal cells produced a short-latency hyperpolarization followed by a prolonged depolarization. The hyperpolarization and depolarization to carbachol were blocked by atropine but not hexamethonium. 5. The carbachol-induced hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in Ri and had a reversal potential nearly identical to that of the early IPSP. The inhibitory response was blocked by perfusion of medium containing tetrodotoxin (TTX), bicuculline or picrotoxin, while the subsequent depolarization was unaffected. On the basis of these data, it is concluded that the muscarinic hyperpolarization is mediated through the rapid excitation of presynaptic GABAergic interneurons in the slice. 6. The findings that the carbachol-induced depolarization was associated with an increase in Ri, often had a reversal potential below -80 mV, was sensitive to changes in extracellular

  6. Increasing ursodeoxycholic acid in the enterohepatic circulation of pigs through the administration of living bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lepercq, Pascale; Hermier, Dominique; David, Olivier; Michelin, Rachel; Gibard, Clotilde; Beguet, Fabienne; Relano, Purification; Cayuela, Chantal; Juste, Catherine

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of increasing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the enterohepatic circulation of pigs by administering living bacteria capable of epimerising endogenous amidated chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to UDCA. We first demonstrated that combining Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010, as a bile salt-hydrolysing bacterium, and Clostridium absonum ATCC 27555, as a CDCA to UDCA epimerising bacterium, led to the efficient epimerisation of glyco- and tauro-CDCA in vitro, with respective UDCA yields of 55.8 (SE 2.8) and 36.6 (SE 1.5)%. This strain combination was then administered to hypercholesterolaemic pigs over a 3-week period, as two daily preprandial doses of either viable (six experimental pigs) or heat-inactivated bacteria (six controls). The main effects of treatment were on unconjugated bile acids (P=0.035) and UDCA (P<0.0001) absorbed into the portal vein, which increased 1.6-1.7- and 3.5-7.5-fold, respectively, under administration of living compared with inactivated bacteria. In bile, UDCA did not increase significantly, but the increase in biliary lithocholic acid with time in the controls was not observed in the experimental pigs (P=0.007), and the same trend was observed in faeces. All other variables (biliary lipid equilibrium, plasma lipid levels and partition of cholesterol between the different lipoprotein classes) remained unaffected by treatment throughout the duration of the experiment. In conclusion, it is feasible to increase the bioavailability of UDCA to the intestine and the liver by administering active bacteria. This may represent an interesting new probiotic activity, provided that in future it could be expressed by a safe food micro-organism.

  7. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the (Ca)i transient.

  8. Comparison of two radiolabeled quinuclidinyl benzilate ligands for the characterization of the human peripheral lung muscarinic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, J.P.; Casale, T.B.

    1987-09-28

    Quinuclidinyl benzilate, a muscarinic antagonist, has previously been used in its tritiated form ((/sup 3/H)-QNB) to study the lung muscarinic receptor. The authors investigated whether a newer iodinated form of QNB ((/sup 125/I)-QNB) of higher specific activity would be an appropriate ligand to study the human peripheral lung muscarinic receptor. Both the tritiated and iodinated ligands bound specifically to human lung at 23/sup 0/C. At 37/sup 0/C the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-QNB increased slightly, but no specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-QNB was found. The data from multiple equilibrium binding experiments covering a wide range of radiolabeled QNB concentrations were combined and analyzed using the computer modeling program, LIGAND. The tritiated QNB identified a single affinity human lung binding site with a Kd of 46 +/- 9 pM. The iodinated QNB identified a single higher affinity human lung binding site of much smaller quantity. Competition studies comparing the binding of unlabeled QNB relative to labeled QNB indicated that unlabeled QNB had the same Kd as that measured for (/sup 3/H)-QNB, but a 5 log greater Kd than that measured for (/sup 125/I)-QNB. Other muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists competed with (/sup 3/H)QNB, but not (/sup 125/I)-QNB for binding to muscarinic receptors with the expected magnitude and rank order of potency. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Local administration of thyroid hormones in silicone chamber increases regeneration of rat transected sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Voinesco, F; Glauser, L; Kraftsik, R; Barakat-Walter, I

    1998-03-01

    Conflicting actions of the exogenous thyroid hormone on regenerating peripheral nerve have been reported. These contradictory results were probably due to daily intraperitoneal injections which induce a high concentration of thyroid hormone after administration. In our present study we adapted a technique which allows a local administration of thyroid hormones in a closed system. The effect of a single and local treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) on axonal growth across a gap between sectioned ends of sciatic nerve within silicone chambers was examined in Wistar rats. After nerve transection and surgical implantation, silicone chambers were filled with either a neutral pH solution of triiodothyronine dissolved in NaOH or with sterile solvent as control. Regeneration of the nerves was examined 2 to 8 weeks following the surgery. Early regeneration (4 weeks) was studied by morphological analysis of nerves which showed a significant difference between T3-treated and control groups. Morphometric analysis revealed: (1) a significant difference in the mean diameter of myelinated axons between T3-treated nerve (phi 3.80 +/- 0.22 microns) and control (phi 3.07 +/- 0.44 microns); (2) that T3 increased significantly (1.4-fold) the number of myelinated axons that grew into the middle and distal ends of regeneration chambers; (3) that ultrastructural analysis showed significantly higher percentage of myelinated axons per total axon population in T3-treated groups (38.8 +/- 5.9%) as compared to control (16.0 +/- 2.3%); and (4) that the myelinated axons had thicker myelin sheaths. The beneficial effects of T3 on regeneration, observed at 4 weeks, were sustained over a prolonged period of time. Thus, at 8 weeks of regeneration, the number, the mean diameter of myelinated axons, and the thickness of myelin sheaths remained significantly greater in T3-treated groups. Therefore, a single and local administration of thyroid hormone at the level of the transected sciatic nerve is

  10. Muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of beta-adrenergic stimulation of phospholamban phosphorylation and CaS transport in guinea pig ventricles

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, J.P.; Watanabe, A.M.

    1985-10-25

    The effects of muscarinic cholinergic stimulation on beta-adrenergic induced increases in phospholamban phosphorylation and CaS transport were studied in intact myocardium. Isolated guinea pig ventricles were perfused via the coronary arteries with TSPi, after which membrane vesicles were isolated from individual hearts. Isoproterenol produced reversible increases in TSP incorporation into phospholamban. Associated with the increases in TSP incorporation were increases in the initial rate of phosphate-facilitated CaS uptake measured in aliquots of the same membrane vesicles isolated from the perfused hearts. The increases in TSP incorporation and calcium transport were significantly attenuated by the simultaneous administration of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine also attenuated increases in phospholamban phosphorylation and CaS uptake produced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and forskolin. The contractile effects of all agents which increased cAMP levels (increased contractility and a reduction in the t1/2 of relaxation) were also attenuated by acetylcholine. The inhibitory effects of acetylcholine were associated with attenuation of the increases in cAMP levels produced by isoproterenol and isobutylmethylxanthine but not by forskolin. Acetylcholine also increased the rate of reversal of the functional and biochemical effects of isoproterenol by propranolol without affecting cAMP levels. These results suggest that cholinergic agonists inhibit the functional effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation in part by inhibition of phospholamban phosphorylation. This inhibition may be mediated by two potential mechanisms: inhibition of beta-adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of dephosphorylation.

  11. Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-10-01

    Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS were induced by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (64mg/kg). Seizures were recorded inside the open field apparatus for an average of 10min. Immediately after seizures, the nociceptive threshold was recorded for 130min using the tail-flick test. Pre-treatment of the LC with 1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL concentrations of both atropine and mecamylamine did not cause a significant effect on seizure severity. However, the same treatments decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. In addition, mecamylamine caused an earlier decrease in the post-ictal antinociception compared to atropine. These results suggest that muscarinic and mainly nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the LC are recruited to organise tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception.

  12. Peripheral administration of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or choline increases plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cansev, M; Ilcol, Y O; Yilmaz, M S; Hamurtekin, E; Ulus, I H

    2008-01-01

    1 Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 200-600 mumol/kg of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) increased plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations dose- and time-dependently. 2 CDP-choline treatment caused several-fold increases in plasma concentrations of CDP-choline and its metabolites phosphocholine, choline, cytidine monophosphate (CMP) and cytidine. 3 Equivalent doses (200-600 mumol/kg; i.p.) of phosphocholine or choline, but not CMP or cytidine, increased plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline dose-dependently. 4 CDP-choline, phosphocholine and choline (600 mumol/kg; i.p.) augmented the increases in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline in response to graded haemorrhage. 5 The increases in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline induced by i.p. 600 mumol/kg of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or choline were abolished by pre-treatment with hexamethonium (15 mg/kg; i.p.), but not atropine (2 mg/kg; i.p.). 6 At 320-32 000 mum concentrations, choline, but not CDP-choline or phosphocholine, evoked catecholamine secretion from perfused adrenal gland. Choline (3200 mum)-induced catecholamine secretion was attenuated by the presence of 1 mum of hexamethonium or mecamylamine, but not atropine, in the perfusion medium. 7 Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of choline (0.5-1.5 mumol) also increased plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline dose- and time-dependently. Pre-treatment with mecamylamine (50 mug; i.c.v.) or hexamethonium (15 mg/kg; i.p.), but not atropine (10 mug; i.c.v.), prevented i.c.v. choline (1.5 mumol)-induced elevations in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline. 8 It is concluded that i.p. administration of CDP-choline or its cholinergic metabolites phosphocholine and choline increases plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations by enhancing nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission in the sympatho-adrenal system. Central choline also activates the sympatho-adrenal system by increasing central nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission.

  13. Preweaning iron deficiency increases non-contingent responding during cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Jenney, Christopher B; Alexander, Danielle N; Jones, Byron C; Unger, Erica L; Grigson, Patricia S

    2016-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent single-nutrient deficiency worldwide. There is evidence that ID early in development (preweaning in rat) causes irreversible neurologic, behavioral, and motor development deficits. Many of these effects have been attributed to damage to dopamine systems, including ID-induced changes in transporter and receptor numbers in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. These mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons are, in part, responsible for mediating reward and thus play a key role in addiction. However, there has been relatively little investigation into the behavioral effects of ID on drug addiction. In 2002, we found that rats made ID from weaning (postnatal day 21) and throughout the experiment acquired cocaine self-administration significantly more slowly than controls and failed to increase responding when the dose of the drug was decreased. In the present study, we assessed addiction for self-administered cocaine in rats with a history of preweaning ID only during postnatal days 4 through 21, and iron replete thereafter. The results showed that while ID did not affect the number of cocaine infusions or the overall addiction-like behavior score, ID rats scored higher on a measure of continued responding for drug than did iron replete controls. This increase in responding, however, was less goal-directed as ID rats also responded more quickly to the non-rewarded manipulandum than did control rats. Thus, while ID early in infancy did not significantly increase addiction-like behaviors for cocaine in this small study, the pattern of data suggests a possible underlying learning or performance impairment. Future studies will be needed to elucidate the exact neuro-behavioral deficits that lead to the increase in indiscriminate responding for drug in rats with a history of perinatal ID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rapamycin administration in humans blocks the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Micah J; Fry, Christopher S; Glynn, Erin L; Dreyer, Hans C; Dhanani, Shaheen; Timmerman, Kyle L; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2009-01-01

    Muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signalling are concurrently stimulated following muscle contraction in humans. In an effort to determine whether mTORC1 signalling is essential for regulating muscle protein synthesis in humans, we treated subjects with a potent mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) prior to performing a series of high-intensity muscle contractions. Here we show that rapamycin treatment blocks the early (1–2 h) acute contraction-induced increase (∼40%) in human muscle protein synthesis. In addition, several downstream components of the mTORC1 signalling pathway were also blunted or blocked by rapamycin. For instance, S6K1 phosphorylation (Thr421/Ser424) was increased post-exercise 6-fold in the control group while being unchanged with rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, eEF2 phosphorylation (Thr56) was reduced by ∼25% post-exercise in the control group but phosphorylation following rapamycin treatment was unaltered, indicating that translation elongation was inhibited. Rapamycin administration prior to exercise also reduced the ability of raptor to associate with mTORC1 during post-exercise recovery. Surprisingly, rapamycin treatment prior to resistance exercise completely blocked the contraction-induced increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) and blunted the increase in MNK1 (Thr197/202) phosphorylation. However, the phosphorylation of a known target of MNK1, eIF4E (Ser208), was similar in both groups (P > 0.05) which is consistent with the notion that rapamycin does not directly inhibit MAPK signalling. We conclude that mTORC1 signalling is, in part, playing a key role in regulating the contraction-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in humans, while dual activation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 stimulation may be required for full stimulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. PMID:19188252

  15. Increasing Neuroplasticity to Bolster Chronic Pain Treatment: A Role for Intermittent Fasting and Glucose Administration?

    PubMed

    Sibille, Kimberly T; Bartsch, Felix; Reddy, Divya; Fillingim, Roger B; Keil, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Neuroplastic changes in brain structure and function are not only a consequence of chronic pain but are involved in the maintenance of pain symptoms. Thus, promotion of adaptive, treatment-responsive neuroplasticity represents a promising clinical target. Emerging evidence about the human brain's response to an array of behavioral and environmental interventions may assist in identifying targets to facilitate increased neurobiological receptivity, promoting healthy neuroplastic changes. Specifically, strategies to maximize neuroplastic responsiveness to chronic pain treatment could enhance treatment gains by optimization of learning and positive central nervous system adaptation. Periods of heightened plasticity have been traditionally identified with the early years of development. More recent research, however, has identified a wide spectrum of methods that can be used to "reopen" and enhance plasticity and learning in adults. In addition to transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been investigated. Intermittent fasting and glucose administration are two propitious strategies, that are noninvasive, inexpensive to administer, implementable in numerous settings, and might be applicable across differing chronic pain treatments. Key findings and neurophysiological mechanisms are summarized, and evidence for the potential clinical contributions of these two strategies toward ameliorating chronic pain is presented. Neuroplastic changes are a defining feature of chronic pain and a complicating factor in treatment. Noninvasive strategies to optimize the brain's response to treatment interventions might improve learning and memory, increase the positive adaptability of the central nervous system, and enhance treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover in the rat corpus striatum: role of muscarinic receptor subtypes and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Monsma, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The coupling between the M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor subtypes and phosphatidylinositol (Pl) hydrolysis has been examined in the corpus striatum and cerebral cortex of the rat brain. Receptor binding by the various muscarinic ligands was assessed using a preparation of intact brain cell aggregates, under similar conditions as the assay of Pl hydrolysis. In striatal cell aggregates, (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)-QNB) bound to a single class of muscarinic sites with high affinity, inhibition of (/sup 3/H)-QNB binding by muscarinic receptor ligands which exhibit selectivity for subtypes of the muscarinic receptor revealed the presence of both the M1 and M2 subtypes in approximately equal numbers.

  17. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100.

    PubMed

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  18. Antipsychotic Drug-Like Effects of the Selective M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0152100

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  19. Increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in COPD patients following vitamin C administration

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Sara E.; Kissel, Christine K.; Szabo, Lian; Walker, Brandie L.; Leigh, Richard; Anderson, Todd J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have decreased ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia. Antioxidants increase the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in healthy humans. Cerebral blood flow is an important determinant of carbon dioxide/hydrogen ion concentration at the central chemoreceptors and may be affected by antioxidants. It is unknown whether antioxidants can improve the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response in individuals in whom these are diminished. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C administration on the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia during healthy ageing and in COPD. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we measured the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to hyperoxic hypercapnia before and after an intravenous vitamin C infusion in healthy young (Younger) and older (Older) subjects and in moderate COPD. Vitamin C increased the ventilatory response in COPD patients (mean (95% CI) 1.1 (0.9–1.1) versus 1.5 (1.1–2.0) L·min−1·mmHg−1, p<0.05) but not in Younger (2.5 (1.9–3.1) versus 2.4 (1.9–2.9) L·min−1·mmHg−1, p>0.05) or Older (1.3 (1.0–1.7) versus 1.3 (1.0–1.7) L·min−1·mmHg−1, p>0.05) healthy subjects. Vitamin C did not affect the cerebral blood flow response in the young or older healthy subjects or COPD subjects (p>0.05). Vitamin C increases the ventilatory but not cerebrovascular response to hyperoxic hypercapnia in patients with moderate COPD. PMID:27730137

  20. Planning and Delivering Instruction with Increasing Class Sizes in Educational Administration Program Coursework: Modeling Leadership Skills for New Professors Transitioning from K-12 Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Increased class sizes and advising responsibilities are the new realities in California's graduate programs of Educational Administration. In order to effectively meet new challenges, professors must make adjustments in venue, plan meticulously, utilize technology, distribute leadership, and implement alternative grading systems. This is a…

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors in murine atria: phosphatidylinositol breakdown and receptor interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Upon stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, there is a decrease in the force of contraction rate of firing in heart, while stimulation of ..cap alpha.. adrenergic receptors causes an increase in the force of contraction with no change in the heart rate. Yet both receptors stimulate the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol (PI). Therefore, the breakdown of PI was examined to determine how the process differed between the two receptor systems. Murine atria, prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, were stimulated with the muscarinic cholinergic agonists, carbamylcholine (CARB), and oxotremorine (OXO); and with the ..cap alpha.. adrenergic agonists, norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE); either singly or in combination. Breakdown of PI was assessed by measurement of individual inositol phosphates by anion exchange chromatography. Binding of CARB to atrial muscarinic receptors was measured by competition with (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate.

  2. Increasing Neuroplasticity to Bolster Chronic Pain Treatment: A Role for Intermittent Fasting and Glucose Administration?

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, KT; Bartsch, F; Reddy, D; Fillingim, RB; Keil, A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in brain structure and function are not only a consequence of chronic pain but are involved in the maintenance of pain symptoms. Thus, promoting adaptive, treatment responsive neuroplasticity represents a promising clinical target. Emerging evidence about the human brain’s response to an array of behavioral and environmental interventions may assist in identifying targets to facilitate increased neurobiological receptivity, promoting healthy neuroplastic changes. Specifically, strategies to maximize neuroplastic responsiveness to chronic pain treatment could enhance treatment gains by optimizing learning and positive central nervous system (CNS) adaptation. Periods of heightened plasticity have been traditionally identified with the early years of development. More recent research however has identified a wide spectrum of methods that can be used to “re-open” and enhance plasticity and learning in adults. In addition to transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been investigated. Intermittent fasting and glucose administration are two propitious strategies, which are non-invasive, inexpensive to administer, implementable in numerous settings, and may be applicable across differing chronic pain treatments. Key findings and neurophysiological mechanisms are summarized, providing evidence for the potential clinical contributions of these two strategies toward ameliorating chronic pain. PMID:26848123

  3. Muscarinic receptor pharmacology and circuitry for the modulation of cognition.

    PubMed

    Bubser, Michael; Byun, Nellie; Wood, Michael R; Jones, Carrie K

    2012-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic system constitutes an important part of the neuronal circuitry that modulates normal cognition. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are well known to produce or exacerbate impairments in attention, learning, and memory. Conversely, both direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonists and indirect-acting muscarinic cholinergic agonists, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, have shown cognition-enhancing properties, including improvements in normal cognitive function, reversal of cognitive deficits induced by muscarinic receptor antagonists, and attenuation of cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, until recently, the lack of small molecule ligands that antagonize or activate specific muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes with high selectivity has been a major obstacle in defining the relative contributions of individual mAChRs to different aspects of cognitive function and for the development of novel therapeutic agents. These limitations may be potentially overcome by the recent discovery of novel mAChR subtype-selective compounds, notably allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, which exhibit greater selectivity for individual mAChR subtypes than previous mAChR orthosteric agonists. In preclinical studies, these novel ligands have shown promising efficacy in several models for the enhancement of cognition. In this chapter, we will review the muscarinic cholinergic circuitry and pharmacology of mAChR agonists and antagonists relevant to the modulation of different aspects of cognition in animals and clinical populations.

  4. Methylprednisolone administration in primary biliary cirrhosis increases cholic acid turnover, synthesis, and deoxycholate concentration in bile.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, G; Fusaroli, P; Pezzoli, A; Azzaroli, F; Mazzeo, C; Zambonin, L; Simoni, P; Festi, D; Roda, E

    1999-12-01

    As immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids may be considered an appropriate treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, even if bone loss and other side effects may occur. We studied biliary lipid metabolism in 10 nonicteric patients, with histologically proven primary biliary cirrhosis (stage I-IV). We administered methylprednisolone (24 mg daily) for 30 days to ascertain its effects on biliary lipid metabolism, which are largely still unknown. All patients underwent a 30-day drug-washout period before entering the trial. The following parameters were studied before and after methylprednisolone treatment: serum biochemistry; cholic acid pool size, kinetics and synthesis; biliary lipid secretion; biliary bile acid pattern; biliary lipid molar percentage; and cholesterol saturation index. Methylprednisolone induced a statistically significant (Wilcoxon rank test) increase in cholic acid turnover (from 0.26+/-0.04 to 0.50+/-0.05 K/day, P = 0.005) and synthesis (from 0.42+/-0.12 to 0.78+/-0.11 mmol/day, P = 0.04), and in bile deoxycholic acid molar percentage (from 19.4+/-2.7 to 30.6+/-4.4% molar, P = 0.01). On the other hand, a significant decrease in biliary cholesterol molar percentage (from 7.9+/-0.7 to 6.4+/-0.5% molar, P = 0.005), cholesterol saturation index (from 1.11+/-0.11 to 0.95+/-0.07, P = 0.05), and biliary cholesterol secretion (from 64.7+/-5.4 to 53.0+/-4.5 micromol/hr, P = 0.005) was observed. These findings show that short-term administration of methylprednisolone in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis does not induce expansion of the cholic acid pool but increases cholic acid synthesis and turnover, as well as intestinal production of deoxycholic acid. If long-term treatment is considered, the beneficial immunosuppressive effects of corticosteroids have to be weighed against the hepatotoxic properties of deoxycholic acid.

  5. Epinephrine inhibits analgesic tolerance to intrathecal administrated morphine and increases the expression of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha.

    PubMed

    Satarian, Leila; Javan, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2008-01-17

    Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis inhibits development of morphine tolerance. Also, the expression of CaMKIIalpha is increased following chronic administration of morphine. In the current study, we tried to examine the effect of epinephrine, on the development of morphine tolerance; and also evaluate the expression of CaMKIIalpha as a molecular index for tolerance development. Analgesic tolerance was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine 15 microg/rat, twice a day for 5 days. To study the effect of epinephrine on development or reversal of morphine tolerance, epinephrine was administrated 20 min before morphine injections. Analgesia was assessed using tail flick test. Gene expression assays were done using RT-PCR. Following 5 days of combined administration of morphine and epinephrine (2, 5 or 10 microg/rat), in day 6, morphine produced potent analgesia. Administration of saline and morphine during days 1-5, caused reduced analgesic effect of morphine on day 6. After tolerance induction during 5 days, co-administration of epinephrine and morphine for another 5 days, significantly reversed the tolerance. Both morphine and epinephrine increased the expression of CaMKIIalpha. The expression of CaMKIIalpha was highly increased following combined administration of epinephrine and morphine. Our results showed the inhibition and reversal of analgesic tolerance to local administrated morphine by epinephrine. We observed the increased expression of CaMKIIalpha without development of morphine tolerance in animals treated with combined epinephrine and morphine.

  6. Delirious episodes induced by intravenous administration of clomipramine associated with an acute increase in its plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Eto, S; Terao, T; Nakamura, J

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of clomipramine-induced delirium. One 61-year-old and one 67-year-old female depressive patients became delirious after beginning intravenous clomipramine injections in addition to their oral clomipramine administrations. Their plasma levels of both clomipramine and its metabolite, desmethylclomipramine, were acutely increased about twofold during delirium. The intravenous clomipramine administrations were discontinued. Their delirious state was gradually improved after stopping the intravenous clomipramine administrations. These findings suggest that acute increases of plasma levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine after intravenous clomipramine injections might be related to the appearance of the delirious episodes.

  7. Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Frank I; Horton, Daniel B.; Mamtani, Ronac; Haynes, Kevin; Goldberg, David S; Lee, Dale Y.; Lewis, James D

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Childhood obesity is increasing and is associated with adult obesity. Antibiotics have been used to promote weight gain in livestock for several decades. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children, but it is not clear how exposure to antibiotics early in life affects risk for obesity. We performed a population-based cohort study to assess the association between antibiotic exposure before age 2 years and obesity at age 4 years. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 21,714 children in The Health Improvement Network —a population-representative dataset of more than 10 million individuals derived from electronic medical records from 1995 through 2013 in the United Kingdom. Eligible subjects were registered within 3 months of birth with complete follow-up and height and weight were recorded within 12 months of their 4th birthday. Antibiotic exposure was assessed before age 2 years, and classified based on anti-anaerobic activity. The primary outcome was obesity at age 4 years. We performed logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal and sibling obesity, maternal diabetes, mode of delivery, socioeconomic status, year and country of birth, and urban dwelling. Results In the cohort, 1306 of the children (6.4%) were obese at 4 years of age. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of obesity at 4 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.38). Odds ratios increased with repeated exposures: for 1–2 prescriptions, OR=1.07 (95% CI, 0.91–1.23); for 3–5 prescriptions, OR=1.41 (95% CI, 1.20–1.65); for 6 or more prescriptions, OR=1.47 (95% CI, 1.19–1.82). Antifungal agents were not associated with obesity (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.59–1.11). Conclusions Administration of 3 or more courses of antibiotics before children reach an age of 2 years is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity. PMID:27003602

  8. Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Frank I; Horton, Daniel B; Mamtani, Ronac; Haynes, Kevin; Goldberg, David S; Lee, Dale Y; Lewis, James D

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing and is associated with adult obesity. Antibiotics have been used to promote weight gain in livestock for several decades. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children, but it is not clear how exposure to antibiotics early in life affects risk for obesity. We performed a population-based cohort study to assess the association between antibiotic exposure before age 2 years and obesity at age 4 years. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 21,714 children in The Health Improvement Network-a population-representative dataset of >10 million individuals derived from electronic medical records from 1995 through 2013 in the United Kingdom. Eligible subjects were registered within 3 months of birth with complete follow-up and height and weight were recorded within 12 months of their 4th birthday. Antibiotic exposure was assessed before age 2 years, and classified based on anti-anaerobic activity. The primary outcome was obesity at age 4 years. We performed logistic regression analyses, adjusting for maternal and sibling obesity, maternal diabetes, mode of delivery, socioeconomic status, year and country of birth, and urban dwelling. In the cohort, 1306 of the children (6.4%) were obese at 4 years of age. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of obesity at 4 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.38). ORs increased with repeated exposures: for 1-2 prescriptions, OR = 1.07 (95% CI, 0.91-1.23); for 3-5 prescriptions, OR = 1.41 (95% CI, 1.20-1.65); and for 6 or more prescriptions, OR = 1.47 (95% CI, 1.19-1.82). Antifungal agents were not associated with obesity (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.11). Administration of 3 or more courses of antibiotics before children reach an age of 2 years is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Interaction of chagasic autoantibodies with the third extracellular domain of the human heart muscarinic receptor. Functional and pathological implications].

    PubMed

    Goin, J C; Pérez Leirós, C; Borda, E; Sterin-Borda, L

    1996-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate by ELISA and immunoblotting the presence in the sera of chagasic patients of circulating autoantibodies against the third extracellular domain of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence 169-192 of the receptor. Immunoaffinity purified antipeptide antibodies displayed cardiac muscarinic activity as decreased contractility and cAMP production and increased cGMP levels. These effects were specifically blocked by the synthetic peptide and by atropine. A strong association between the existence of circulating autoantibodies and the presence of dysautonomia was shown, making these autoantibodies an appropriate marker of heart autonomic dysfunction.

  10. Identification of M1 muscarinic receptors in pulmonary sympathetic nerves in the guinea-pig by use of pirenzepine.

    PubMed Central

    Maclagan, J.; Fryer, A. D.; Faulkner, D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of pirenzepine, a muscarinic antagonist considered to be selective for M1 receptors, was studied on bronchoconstriction and bradycardia elicited by preganglionic stimulation of the parasympathetic vagal nerves and by i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. 2. Pirenzepine was equipotent in the heart and lung as an antagonist of the effects of i.v. ACh at postjunctional muscarinic receptors. Doses of pirenzepine in excess of 1 mumol kg-1 abolished all muscarinic responses consistent with non-selective blockade of M3 receptors on airway smooth muscle and M2 receptors on atrial cells. 3. In the lung, low doses of pirenzepine (1-100 nmol kg-1) increased vagally-induced bronchoconstriction despite concurrent partial blockade of the postjunctional receptors. This suggests blockade of neuronal muscarinic receptors. 4. Propranolol (1 mg kg-1) increased control bronchoconstrictor responses elicited by ACh and vagal stimulation but did not alter the potency of pirenzepine for postjunctional receptors in heart or lung. However, pirenzepine-induced enhancement of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction was abolished by propranolol, suggesting that pirenzepine may be an antagonist for muscarinic receptors located in the sympathetic nerves innervating airway smooth muscle. 5. These results confirm that bronchoconstrictor stimuli indirectly initiate activation of an opposing sympathetic reflex in the guinea-pig lung. This response is facilitated by muscarinic receptors located in the sympathetic nervous pathway. 6. The high potency of pirenzepine for the neuronal receptors in the sympathetic nerves suggests that these are M1 receptors. In contrast, the parasympathetic nerves innervating airway smooth muscle in this species contain M2 receptors which inhibit neurotransmission. PMID:2758228

  11. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; Martos, F; Bellido, I; Marquez, E; Garcia, A J; Pavia, J; Sanchez de la Cuesta, F

    1992-06-09

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle homogenates were characterized with [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) by ligand binding studies. [3H]NMS saturation experiments show the existence of a homogeneous population of non-interacting binding sites with similar affinity (KD values of 1.38 +/- 0.20 nM in human colon smooth muscle and 1.48 +/- 0.47 nM in rat colon smooth muscle) and with Hill slopes close to unity in both samples of tissue. However, a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in muscarinic receptor density (Bmax) is found in human colon (29.9 +/- 2.9 fmol/mg protein) compared with rat colon (17.2 +/- 1.5 fmol/mg protein). Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by non-labelled compounds shows the following order in human colon: atropine greater than AF-DX 116 greater than pirenzepine. Whereas in rat colon the rank order obtained is atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Atropine and pirenzepine bind to a homogeneous population of binding sites, although pirenzepine shows higher affinity to bind to the sites present in rat colon (Ki = 1.08 +/- 0.08 microM) than those in human colon (Ki = 1.74 +/- 0.02 microM) (P less than 0.05). Similarly, IC50 values obtained in AF-DX 116 competition experiments were significantly different (P less than 0.01) in human colon (IC50 = 1.69 +/- 0.37 microM) than in rat colon (IC50 = 3.78 +/- 0.75 microM). Unlike atropine and pirenzepine, the inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by AF-DX 116 did not yield a simple mass-action binding curve (nH less than 1, P less than 0.01) suggesting the presence of more than one subtype of muscarinic receptor in both species. Computer analysis of these curves with a two binding site model suggests the presence of two populations of receptor. The apparent Ki1 value for the high affinity binding site is 0.49 +/- 0.07 microM for human colon smooth muscle and 0.33 +/- 0.05 microM for rat colon smooth muscle. The apparent Ki2 for the low affinity binding site is 8

  12. Muscarinic receptors activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus has differential involvement in the formation of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Israela; Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-05-01

    In this work we probed the effects of post-trial infusions of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine on object recognition memory formation. Scopolamine was infused bilaterally immediately after the sample phase in the perirhinal cortex or dorsal hippocampus and animals were tested for short-term (90 min) or long-term (24 h) memory. Results showed that scopolamine impaired short-term memory when injected in either the perirhinal cortex or hippocampus. Nevertheless, scopolamine disrupted long-term memory when administrated in the perirhinal cortex but not when applied in the hippocampus. Long-term memory was unaffected when scopolamine was infused 160 min after the sample phase or 90 min before test phase. Our data indicate that short-term recognition memory requires muscarinic receptors signaling in both the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, whereas long-term recognition memory depends on muscarinic receptors in the perirhinal cortex but not hippocampus. These results support a differential involvement of muscarinic activity in these two medial temporal lobe structures in the formation of recognition memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial effect of muscarinic-2 antagonist on dilated cardiomyopathy induced by autoimmune mechanism against muscarinic-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S; Fu, M L; Hayase, M; Katsuda, S; Yamaguchi, N; Teraoka, K; Kurihara, T; Takekoshi, N

    2001-10-01

    We have previously shown that a peptide corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of the human muscarinic-2 (M2) receptor (M2-peptide) was able to induce an autoimmune cardiomyopathy in rabbits. In this study, we investigated the effect of M2-antagonist (otenzepad) on M2-peptide-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: 1) control group, saline injection; 2) M2-peptide group, M2-peptide injection; 3) M2-antagonist group, otenzepad (30 mg/day) orally and saline injection; and (4) M2-antagonist + M2-peptide group, otenzepad (30 mg/day) orally and M2-peptide injection. The study duration was 1 year. Saline or peptide was injected once a month. All rabbits in both the M2-peptide group and the M2-antagonist + M2-peptide group had high titers of anti-M2-autoantibodies in their sera. Rabbits in the M2-peptide group showed an increase in heart weight, wall thinning and dilatation of the right ventricle. On the contrary, rabbits in the M2-antagonist + M2-peptide group had normal heart weight and shape. All rabbits in the M2-peptide group showed multifocal degeneration and necrosis of myocardial cells with moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, while four rabbits in the M2-antagonist + M2-peptide group showed slight infiltration of inflammatory cells with normal myocardial cells and interstitium, and another three showed no histological changes in the hearts. In conclusion, M2-antagonist protects the myocardium from injury induced by autoimmune mechanism against M2-muscarinic receptor.

  14. Administration of cyclosporine a (CyA) to rats from birth: increased mortality and NK activity

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, J. Jr.; Tseng, G.; Kodali, S.; Love, S.

    1986-03-01

    Neonatal DA and LEW rats received 15, 7.5, and 3.75 mg/Kg of CyA or saline subcutaneously 3x each week for 1-12 weeks. In animals receiving 15 and 7.5 mg/Kg a significant (p<0.05-0.01) decrease in body weight was observed by 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Most animals given 15 mg/Kg died by 4 weeks. Rats receiving 7.5 and 3.75 mg/Kg survived but weighed less (p<0.05) than controls at 2 and 5 weeks, respectively. Morphologically, rats receiving CyA exhibited decreased cellularity in their thymic cortex as well as medulla and spleen white pulp. In addition, there was also a significant decrease in total number of cells harvested from each organ. Rats receiving the 7.5 and 3.75 mg/Kg dose had 1.5-2x more LGLs in their peripheral blood (PBL) and spleen (SPL) then controls after 6-12 weeks. In addition, their PBL and spleen cells were 2-3x more effective than controls in causing /sup 51/Cr release from YAC-1 target cells. Also, SPL cells stained with propidium iodide from the 3.75 mg/Kg group demonstrated a 1.5-2x increase in cells within the S phase of their cell cycle by flow cytometry. Thus, prolonged administration of CyA may have selective enhancing effects on certain lymphoid compartments and subpopulations of neonatal rats as well as a selective toxic effects on neonatal rat development.

  15. Ameliorative effect of tacrine on spatial memory deficit in chronic two-vessel occluded rats is reversible and mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Y; Ikenoya, M; Matsumoto, K; Li, H; Watanabe, H

    2000-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that permanent two-vessel occlusion (2VO)-induced working memory deficit was improved by daily administration of tacrine, a cholinesterase inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of tacrine in 2VO rats using the eight-arm radial maze task. Daily administration of tacrine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg i.p.) started 5 weeks after the 2VO operation significantly improved the maze performance. In the delay-interposition task, a significant impairment of maze performance was observed in the tacrine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated rats at a delay of 90 min but not delays of 5 or 30 min. Sham-operated rats were not affected by delay. After leaving animals with no further treatment for 4 weeks, the tacrine-pretreated 2VO rats showed significantly impaired performance compared to the sham-operated control animals. However, the performance of the tacrine-pretreated 2VO rats was significantly improved by restarting the daily administration of tacrine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of tacrine was reversed by the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine. Moreover, a microdialysis study revealed that tacrine (1 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) level for a period of over 3 h in the cerebral cortex of 2VO rats. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effect of tacrine on the spatial memory deficit in 2VO rats is reversible and may be mediated by stimulating the muscarinic M1 receptor via elevation of the extracellular ACh level in the brain.

  16. Activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for the acquisition of drug reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Jose A; Sturm, Katja; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2006-05-31

    Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens core (NACore) during the acquisition of remifentanil or cocaine reinforcement was determined in an operant runway procedure by simultaneous tandem mass spectrometric analysis of dopamine, acetylcholine, and remifentanil or cocaine itself. Run times for remifentanil or cocaine continually decreased over the five consecutive runs of the experiment. Intra-NACore dopamine, acetylcholine, and drug peaked with each intravenous remifentanil or cocaine self-administration and decreased to pre-run baseline with half-lives of approximately 10 min. As expected, remifentanil or cocaine peaks did not vary between the five runs. Surprisingly, however, drug-contingent dopamine peaks also did not change over the five runs, whereas acetylcholine peaks did. Thus, the acquisition of drug reinforcement was paralleled by a continuous increase in acetylcholine overflow in the NACore, whereas the overflow of dopamine, the expected prime neurotransmitter candidate for conditioning in drug reinforcement, did not increase. Local intra-accumbens administration by reverse microdialysis of either atropine or mecamylamine completely and reversibly blocked the acquisition of remifentanil reinforcement. Our findings suggest that activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the NACore by acetylcholine volume transmission is necessary during the acquisition phase of drug reinforcement conditioning.

  17. Structural determinants at the M2 muscarinic receptor modulate the RGS4-GIRK response to pilocarpine by impairment of the receptor voltage sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Shan; Furutani, Kazuharu; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-21

    Membrane potential controls the response of the M2 muscarinic receptor to its ligands. Membrane hyperpolarization increases response to the full agonist acetylcholine (ACh) while decreasing response to the partial agonist pilocarpine. We previously have demonstrated that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) 4 protein discriminates between the voltage-dependent responses of ACh and pilocarpine; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that RGS4 is involved in the voltage-dependent behavior of the M2 muscarinic receptor-mediated signaling in response to pilocarpine. Additionally we revealed structural determinants on the M2 muscarinic receptor underlying the voltage-dependent response. By electrophysiological recording in Xenopus oocytes expressing M2 muscarinic receptor and G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, we quantified voltage-dependent desensitization of pilocarpine-induced current in the presence or absence of RGS4. Hyperpolarization-induced desensitization of the current required for RGS4, also depended on pilocarpine concentration. Mutations of charged residues in the aspartic acid-arginine-tyrosine motif of the M2 muscarinic receptor, but not intracellular loop 3, significantly impaired the voltage-dependence of RGS4 function. Thus, our results demonstrated that voltage-dependence of RGS4 modulation is derived from the M2 muscarinic receptor. These results provide novel insights into how membrane potential impacts G-protein signaling by modulating GPCR communication with downstream effectors.

  18. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase attenuates muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling by a PKA-independent mechanism in rat carotid body Type I cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carrie M; Wyatt, Christopher N

    2011-01-31

    Carotid body (CB) Type I cells respond to hypoxia by releasing excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. This mechanism leads to increased firing of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) which alters breathing to maintain blood gases within the physiological range. Acetylcholine targets both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the rat CB, acting postsynaptically on CSN and presynaptically on Type I cells. Muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling is inhibited by the activation of G(i)-coupled receptors including histamine H3 receptors. Here inhibition of adenylate cyclase with SQ22536 mimicked H3 receptor activation. Using Ca²(+) imaging techniques it was observed that inhibition of muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling was independent of protein kinase A (PKA) as PKA inhibitors H89 and KT5720 were without effect on the muscarinic Ca²(+) response. By contrast the Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP) inhibitor brefeldin A inhibited muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling whereas the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiated Ca²(+) signaling. Thus in Type I cells inhibition of adenylate cyclase inhibited muscarinic Ca²(+) signaling via a PKA-independent pathway that may rely upon modulation of Epac.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of (3-thienylidene)-3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazide: a novel muscarinic agonist with antihypertensive profile.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Pereira, Sharlene L; Beiral, Hellen J V; Kummerle, Arthur E; Raimundo, Juliana M; Antunes, Fernanda; Sudo, Roberto T; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos A M

    2010-02-01

    Several new bioactive compounds of the N-acylhydrazone class were developed from the safrole, a Brazilian natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa). This work investigated the effects on cardiovascular system of LASSBio-897, a new analogue of the lead compound 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone named LASSBio-294. Thoracic aorta from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was prepared for isometric tension recording and for cGMP content determination. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after treatment with 1 mg/kg intravenously of LASSBio-897 and during 14 days' treatment of SHR with 1 mg/kg/day perorally. LASSBio-897 (0.05-1 micromol/l) exhibited a potent vasodilatory activity in phenylephrine (Phe)-contracted aortic rings from WKY rats. This effect was abolished in endothelium-denuded aortic rings and after treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Also, LASSBio 897 (1 micromol/l) increased about 15 times the intracellular content of cGMP. LASSBio-897-induced vasodilation was totally inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine and by the M(3) subtype selective antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), indicating the involvement of M(3) receptors. Intravenous administration of LASSBio-897 (1 mg/kg) produced significant hypotensive response in both WKY and SHR. The hypotensive effect of LASSBio-897 was also observed during the 14 days of oral administration. The novel N-acylhydrazone derivative LASSBio-897 exhibited a potent vasodilatory activity in aortic rings mediated by the NO/cGMP pathway via activation of endothelial M(3) receptors and was orally effective in reducing BP on SHR.

  20. Effect of aging on airway remodeling and muscarinic receptors in a murine acute asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Young; Lee, Sook Young; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Seung Joon; Kwon, Soon Seog; Kim, Young Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives The influence of aging on the development of asthma has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related airway responses involving lung histology and expression of muscarinic receptors in a murine model of acute asthma. Methods Female BALB/c mice at the ages of 6 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) for 1 month (n = 8–12 per group). We analyzed inflammatory cells and T-helper (Th)2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and parameters of airway remodeling and expression of muscarinic receptors in lung tissue. Results Among the OVA groups, total cell and eosinophil numbers in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the older (6-, 9-, and 12-month-old) mice than in the young (6-week-old) mice. Interleukin (IL) 4 (IL-4) concentration increased, but IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations showed a decreased tendency, with age. IL-17 concentration tended to increase with age, which did not reach statistical significance. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining area, peribronchial collagen deposition, and area of α-smooth muscle staining were significantly higher in the 6-month older OVA group than in the young OVA group. The expression of the M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors tended to increase and decrease, respectively, with age. Conclusion The aged mice showed an active and unique pattern not only on airway inflammation, but also on airway remodeling and expression of the muscarinic receptors during the development of acute asthma compared with the young mice. These findings suggest that the aging process affects the pathogenesis of acute asthma and age-specific approach might be more appropriate for better asthma control in a clinical practice. PMID:24204129

  1. Persistent Sodium Current Drives Conditional Pacemaking in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons under Muscarinic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada-Hanff, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are normally quiescent but can fire spontaneously when stimulated by muscarinic agonists. In brain slice recordings from mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons, we examined the ionic basis of this activity using interleaved current-clamp and voltage-clamp experiments. Both in control and after muscarinic stimulation, the steady-state current–voltage curve was dominated by inward TTX-sensitive persistent sodium current (INaP) that activated near −75 mV and increased steeply with depolarization. In control, total membrane current was net outward (hyperpolarizing) near −70 mV so that cells had a stable resting potential. Muscarinic stimulation activated a small nonselective cation current so that total membrane current near −70 mV shifted to become barely net inward (depolarizing). The small depolarization triggers regenerative activation of INaP, which then depolarizes the cell from −70 mV to spike threshold. We quantified the relative contributions of INaP, hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), and calcium current to pacemaking by using the cell's own firing as a voltage command along with specific blockers. TTX-sensitive sodium current was substantial throughout the entire interspike interval, increasing as the membrane potential approached threshold, while both Ih and calcium current were minimal. Thus, spontaneous activity is driven primarily by activation of INaP in a positive feedback loop starting near −70 mV and providing increasing inward current to threshold. These results show that the pacemaking “engine” from INaP is an inherent property of CA1 pyramidal neurons that can be engaged or disengaged by small shifts in net membrane current near −70 mV, as by muscarinic stimulation. PMID:24048831

  2. Studies of muscarinic neurotransmission with antimuscarinic toxins.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln T; Flynn, Donna D; Liang, Jing-Sheng; McCollum, Mark H

    2004-01-01

    M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors are the most prevalent receptors for acetylcholine in the brain, and m1-toxin1 and m4-toxin are the most specific ligands yet found for their extracellular faces. Both toxins are antagonists. These toxins and their derivatives with biotin, radioiodine and fluorophores are useful for studying M1- and M4-linked neurotransmission. We have used the rat striatum for many studies because this tissue express exceptionally high concentrations of both receptors, the striatum regulates movement, and movement is altered by antimuscarinic agents, M1-knockout and M4-knockout. These toxins and their derivatives may also be used for studies of M1 and M4 receptors in the hippocampus and cortex.

  3. Influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic receptor adenylate cyclase coupling in brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, the influence of four volatile anesthetics (enflurane, isoflurane, diethyl ether, and chloroform) on (1) muscarinic receptor binding parameters and (2) muscarnic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity was examined using membranes isolated from rat brain and heart. Membranes were equilibrated with each of the four anesthetics for 30 minutes and then during the binding assay. The data obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) volatile anesthetics increased receptor affinity for a radiolabeled antagonists, ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)MS), by decreasing its rate of dissociation in brain stem, but not in cardiac, membranes, (2) volatile anesthetics decreased high affinity ({sup 3}H)Oxotremorine-M binding, (3) volatile anesthetics depressed or eliminated the guanine nucleotide sensitivity of agonist binding. The influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic regulation of adenylate cyclase enzyme activity was studied using {alpha}({sup 32}P)ATP as the substrate.

  4. Muscarinic receptor activation tunes mouse stratum oriens interneurones to amplify spike reliability

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J Josh; Grinspan, Zachary M; Statland, Jeffrey M; McBain, Chris J

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic activation of hippocampal targets can initiate and sustain network oscillations in vivo and in vitro, yet the impact of cholinergic modulation on the oscillatory properties of interneurones remains virtually unexplored. Using whole cell current clamp recordings in acute hippocampal slices, we investigated the influence of muscarinic receptor (mAChR) activation on the oscillatory properties of CA1 stratum oriens (SO) interneurones in vitro. In response to suprathreshold oscillatory input, mAChR activation increased spike reliability and precision, and extended the bandwidth that interneurone firing phase-locked. These suprathreshold effects were largest at theta frequencies, indicating that mAChR activation tunes active conductances to enhance firing reliability and precision to theta frequency input. Muscarinic tuning of the intrinsic oscillatory properties of interneurones is a novel mechanism that may be crucial for the genesis of the theta rhythm. PMID:16439425

  5. Type 3 muscarinic receptors contribute to intestinal mucosal homeostasis and clearance of nippostrongylus brasiliensis through induction of Th2 cytokines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite increased appreciation for the role of nicotinic receptors in the modulation of and response to inflammation, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to mucosal homeostasis, clearance of enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function remains relatively undefined. Uninfected and N...

  6. Emerging Technology in School Site Administration: Implications for Increasing Human Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Nathaniel L.; Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.

    This paper identifies an emerging capability in technology and considers relevant applications through school-site administration that could release teachers' creative human potential in ways beneficial to students. The paper examines the use of multimedia authoring tools in relation to curriculum development and enhancement, instructional…

  7. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  8. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  9. 20 CFR 641.870 - Under what circumstances may the administrative cost limitation be increased?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... operation requirements imposed by the Department; (ii) The number of community service assignment positions... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what circumstances may...

  10. 20 CFR 641.870 - Under what circumstances may the administrative cost limitation be increased?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM... operation requirements imposed by the Department; (ii) The number of community service assignment positions... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what circumstances may...

  11. Increasing the Transfer of Learning through Problem-Based Learning in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordiero, Paula A.; Campbell, Barbara

    Since the 1950s some educational researchers have argued for a strong focus on problem solving in administrator-preparation programs. This paper discusses two types of problem-based learning (PBL)--simulated and authentic. It discusses various PBL concepts and presents two vignettes used during the 1995 and 1996 academic years at the University of…

  12. Muscarinic and PACAP receptor interactions at pontine level in the rat: significance for REM sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; Laporte, A M; Ballet, S; Escourrou, P; Hamon, M; Adrien, J; Bourgin, P

    2000-12-01

    Cholinergic and PACAPergic systems within the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) play a critical role in REM sleep generation in rats. In this present work, we have investigated whether REM sleep enhancement induced by carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) or PACAP, depends on an interaction between muscarinic and PACAP receptors. This hypothesis was tested by recording sleep-wake cycles in freely moving rats injected into the PnO with PACAP in combination with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or with carbachol in combination with the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-27. When administered alone, PACAP (3 pmol) or carbachol (110 pmol) induced an enhancement of REM sleep during 8 h (+61%, n = 8; +70%, n = 5), which was totally prevented by infusion of atropine (290 pmol) for PACAP, or of PACAP6-27 (3 pmol) for carbachol. Quantitative autoradiographic studies indicated that (i) PACAP (10-9-10-7 M) induced in the PnO an increase (+35%) of the specific binding of the muscarinic antagonist [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate, which could be completely prevented by PACAP6-27 (IC50 = 8 x 10-8 M) and (ii) both carbachol and PACAP enhanced [35S]GTP-gamma-S binding in a concentration-dependent manner in the PnO. The maximal increase due to carbachol was significantly higher in the presence (+126%) than in the absence (+102%) of PACAP (0.1 microM). These data showed that interactions between muscarinic and PACAP receptors do exist within the PnO and play a role in the local mechanisms of REM sleep control in the rat.

  13. Agonist and antagonist binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors: influence of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwitz, D.; Egozi, Y.; Henis, Y.I.; Kloog, Y.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in six brain regions in mature and old rats of both sexes by employing direct binding of (/sup 3/H)-antagonist as well as of the labeled natural neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)-acetylcholine (( /sup 3/H)-AcCh). In addition, age-related factors were evaluated in the modulation processes involved in agonist binding. The results indicate that as the rat ages the density of the muscarinic receptors is altered differently in the various brain regions: it is decreased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and olfactory bulb of both male and female rats, but is increased (58%) in the brain stem of senescent males while no significant change is observed for females. The use of the highly sensitive technique measuring direct binding of (/sup 3/H)-AcCh facilitated the separate detection of age-related changes in the two classes (high- and low-affinity) of muscarinic agonist binding sites. In old female rats the density of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)-AcCh binding sites was preserved in all tissues studied, indicating that the decreases in muscarinic receptor density observed with (/sup 3/H)-antagonist represent a loss of low-affinity agonist binding sites. In contrast, (/sup 3/H)-AcCh binding is decreased in the hypothalamus and increased in the brain stem of old male rats. These data imply sexual dimorphism of the aging process in central cholinergic mechanisms.

  14. Acute and chronic effects of the M1/M4-preferring muscarinic agonist xanomeline on cocaine vs. food choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fulton, Brian S; Caine, S Barak

    2014-02-01

    We previously showed that the M1/M4-preferring muscarinic agonist xanomeline can acutely attenuate or eliminate cocaine self-administration in mice. Medications used to treat addictions will arguably be administered in (sub)chronic or repeated regimens. Tests of acute effects often fail to predict chronic effects, highlighting the need for chronic testing of candidate medications. Rats were trained to lever press under a concurrent FR5 FR5 schedule of intravenous cocaine and food reinforcement. Once baseline behavior stabilized, the effects of 7 days once-daily injections of xanomeline were evaluated. Xanomeline pretreatment dose-dependently (1.8-10 mg/kg/day) shifted the dose-effect curve for cocaine rightward (up to 5.6-fold increase in A 50), with reallocation of behavior to the food-reinforced lever. There was no indication of tolerance, rather effects grew over days. The suppression of cocaine choice appeared surmountable at high cocaine doses, and xanomeline treatment did not significantly decrease total-session cocaine or food intake. In terms of xanomeline's potential for promoting abstinence from cocaine in humans, the findings were mixed. Xanomeline did produce reallocation of behavior from cocaine to food with a robust increase in food reinforcers earned at some cocaine/xanomeline dose combinations. However, effects appeared surmountable, and food-maintained behavior was also decreased at some xanomeline/cocaine dose combinations, suggesting clinical usefulness may be limited. These data nevertheless support the notion that chronic muscarinic receptor stimulation can reduce cocaine self-administration. Future studies should show whether ligands with higher selectivity for M1 or M1/M4 subtypes would be less limited by undesired effects and can achieve higher efficacy.

  15. α1-Adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in voiding function – binding characteristics of therapeutic agents in relation to the pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shizuo; Ito, Yoshihiko; Tsukada, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    In vivo and ex vivo binding of α1-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptors involved in voiding function is reviewed with therapeutic agents (α1-adrenoceptor antagonists: prazosin, tamsulosin and silodosin; and muscarinic receptor antagonists: oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin, propiverine, imiafenacin and darifenacin) in lower urinary tract symptoms. This approach allows estimation of the inhibition of a well-characterized selective (standard) radioligand by unlabelled potential drugs or direct measurement of the distribution and receptor binding of a standard radioligand or radiolabelled form of a novel drug. In fact, these studies could be conducted in various tissues from animals pretreated with radioligands and/or unlabelled novel drugs, by conventional radioligand binding assay, radioactivity measurement, autoradiography and positron emission tomography. In vivo and ex vivo receptor binding with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists have been proved to be useful in predicting the potency, organ selectivity and duration of action of drugs in relation to their pharmacokinetics. Such evaluations of drug–receptor binding reveal that adverse effects could be avoided by the use of new α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Thus, the comparative analysis of α1-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in the lower urinary tract and other tissues after systemic administration of therapeutic agents allows the rationale for their pharmacological characteristics from the integrated viewpoint of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The current review emphasizes the usefulness of in vivo and ex vivo receptor binding in the discovery and development of novel drugs for the treatment of not only urinary dysfunction but also other disorders. PMID:21265873

  16. α1-Adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in voiding function - binding characteristics of therapeutic agents in relation to the pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Ito, Yoshihiko; Tsukada, Hideo

    2011-08-01

    In vivo and ex vivo binding of α(1)-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptors involved in voiding function is reviewed with therapeutic agents (α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists: prazosin, tamsulosin and silodosin; and muscarinic receptor antagonists: oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin, propiverine, imiafenacin and darifenacin) in lower urinary tract symptoms. This approach allows estimation of the inhibition of a well-characterized selective (standard) radioligand by unlabelled potential drugs or direct measurement of the distribution and receptor binding of a standard radioligand or radiolabelled form of a novel drug. In fact, these studies could be conducted in various tissues from animals pretreated with radioligands and/or unlabelled novel drugs, by conventional radioligand binding assay, radioactivity measurement, autoradiography and positron emission tomography. In vivo and ex vivo receptor binding with α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists have been proved to be useful in predicting the potency, organ selectivity and duration of action of drugs in relation to their pharmacokinetics. Such evaluations of drug-receptor binding reveal that adverse effects could be avoided by the use of new α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Thus, the comparative analysis of α(1)-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in the lower urinary tract and other tissues after systemic administration of therapeutic agents allows the rationale for their pharmacological characteristics from the integrated viewpoint of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The current review emphasizes the usefulness of in vivo and ex vivo receptor binding in the discovery and development of novel drugs for the treatment of not only urinary dysfunction but also other disorders. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological

  17. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have characterized the muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung membranes using the selective muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) and the classical muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate. High-affinity binding with pharmacologic specificity was demonstrated for both radioligands. The high affinity Kd for (/sup 3/H)PZ binding determined from saturation isotherms was 5.6 nM, and the Kd for (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was 14.3 pM. Approximately 62% of the total muscarinic binding sites in human peripheral lung bind (/sup 3/H)PZ with high affinity. There was no significant effect of the guanine nucleotide, guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate, on the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinyclidinyl benzilate binding by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in peripheral lung membranes. If the muscarinic receptor with high affinity for PZ has an important role in bronchoconstriction, its characterization could result in the development of more selective bronchodilators.

  18. Modulation of muscarinic and micotinic cholinergic receptor mediated catecholamine secretion in guinea pig chromaffin cells by phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, J.C.; Fisher, S.K.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated guinea pig chromaffin cells possess both nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) cholinergic receptors that are positively coupled to catecholamine (CA) release. Sixty to 70% of CA release is mediated by nAChRs and 30-40% by mAChRs. In the absence of added calcium, nAChR mediated CA release was reduced by 65% whereas the muscarinic response was unaffected. The addition of 100nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), also resulted in an increased CA release. Temporally and quantitatively, this response resembled that of mAChR activation. Addition of optimal concentrations of nicotine (50..mu..M) and TPA (100nM) induced a synergistic increase in CA release. Addition of muscarine (1mM) and TPA resulted in an additive response despite a 40-60% inhibition of mAChR mediated inositol phosphate release by TPA. Thus, in guinea pig chromaffin cells, it appears that PKC activation alone is a sufficient stimulus for CA release and that activation of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors may further increase this enzyme's activity.

  19. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  20. Muscarinic receptor subtypes controlling the cationic current in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zholos, Alexander V; Bolton, Thomas B

    1997-01-01

    The effects of muscarinic antagonists on cationic current evoked by activating muscarinic receptors with the stable agonist carbachol were studied by use of patch-clamp recording techniques in guinea-pig single ileal smooth muscle cells. Ascending concentrations of carbachol (3–300 μM) activated the cationic conductance in a concentration-dependent manner with conductance at a maximally effective carbachol concentration (Gmax) of 27.4±1.4 nS and a mean −log EC50 of 5.12±0.03 (mean±s.e.mean) (n=114). Muscarinic antagonists with higher affinity for the M2 receptor, methoctramine, himbacine and tripitramine, produced a parallel shift of the carbachol concentration-effect curve to the right in a concentration-dependent manner with pA2 values of 8.1, 8.0 and 9.1, respectively. All M3 selective muscarinic antagonists tested, 4-DAMP, p-F-HHSiD and zamifenacin, reduced the maximal response in a concentration-dependent and non-competitive manner. This effect could be observed even at concentrations which did not produce any increase in the EC50 for carbachol. At higher concentrations M3 antagonists shifted the agonist curve to the right, increasing the EC50, and depressed the maximum conductance response. Atropine, a non-selective antagonist, produced both reduction in Gmax (M3 effect) and significant increase in the EC50 (M2 effect) in the same concentration range. The depression of the conductance by 4-DAMP, zamifenacin and atropine could not be explained by channel block as cationic current evoked by adding GTPγS to the pipette (without application of carbachol) was unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that carbachol activates M2 muscarinic receptors so initiating the opening of cationic channels which cause depolarization; this effect is potentiated by an unknown mechanism when carbachol activates M3 receptors. As an increasing fraction of M3 receptors are blocked by an antagonist, the effects on cationic current of an increasing proportion of

  1. Binding and functional properties of hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Tastenoy, M.; Feifel, R.; Mutschler, E.; Tacke, R.; Strohmann, C.; Rafeiner, K.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J. F.; Lambrecht, G.

    1994-01-01

    1. We have compared the binding properties of several hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic M1 receptors (in rat brain, human neuroblastoma (NB-OK 1) cells and calf superior cervical ganglia), rat heart M2 receptors, rat pancreas M3 receptors and M4 receptors in rat striatum, with their functional antimuscarinic properties in rabbit vas deferens (M1/M4-like), guinea-pig atria (M2), and guinea-pig ileum (M3) muscarinic receptors. 2. Sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) of hexocyclium (-->sila-hexocyclium) and demethyl-hexocyclium (-->demethyl-sila-hexocyclium) did not significantly affect their affinities for muscarinic receptors. By contrast, sila-substitution of o-methoxy-hexocyclium increased its affinity 2 to 3 fold for all the muscarinic receptor subtypes studied. 3. The p-fluoro- and p-chloro-derivatives of sila-hexocyclium had lower affinities than the parent compound at the four receptor subtypes, in binding and pharmacological studies. 4. In binding studies, o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M4 > or = M3 > or = M2) had a much lower affinity than sila-hexocyclium for the four receptor subtypes, and discriminated the receptor subtypes more poorly than sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M3 > M4 > M2). This is in marked contrast with the very clear selectivity of o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium for the prejunctional M1/M4-like heteroreceptors in rabbit vas deferens. 5. The tertiary amines demethyl-hexocyclium, demethyl-sila-hexocyclium and demethyl-o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium had 10 to 30 fold lower affinities than the corresponding quaternary ammonium derivatives. PMID:8075869

  2. SB 202026: a novel muscarinic partial agonist with functional selectivity for M1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Loudon, J M; Bromidge, S M; Brown, F; Clark, M S; Hatcher, J P; Hawkins, J; Riley, G J; Noy, G; Orlek, B S

    1997-12-01

    The finding that ascending cholinergic systems are severely degenerated in Alzheimer's disease has driven the search for a cholinomimetic therapy. Adverse effects observed with cholinesterase inhibitors and high-efficacy muscarinic agonists led us to design compounds with an improved profile. SB 202026 (R-(Z)-(+)-alpha-(methoxyimino)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2] octane-3-acetonitrile) displaced [3H]-oxotremorine-M from muscarinic receptors in the rat brain with high affinity (IC50 = 14 nM), a potency similar to that of oxotremorine-M itself (IC50 = 13 nM), but exhibited low affinity for cholinergic nicotinic receptors and other neuroreceptors. In studies using cloned human muscarinic receptors, SB 202026 possessed approximately equal affinity in displacing [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from all muscarinic receptor subtypes. In functional models in vitro, SB 202026 caused maximal depolarization of the rat superior cervical ganglion at low concentrations (300 nM) (M1-mediated effect), while producing a lower maximal effect than the high-efficacy agonists oxotremorine-M and carbachol on M2-mediated release of ACh and M3-mediated smooth muscle contraction (guinea pig ileum), respectively. The functional selectivity and partial agonist profile seen in vitro were reflected in vivo through potent cognition-related activity (M1-induced increase in hippocampal EEG power) combined with low efficacy, compared with arecoline or oxotremorine, on induction of bradycardia (M2-mediated response), hypotension (via M3-mediated vasorelaxation) and tremor (thought to be mediated by M3 receptors). The foregoing profile of SB 202026 predicted that cognition-enhancing activity would be achieved at doses below those that initiate undesirable side effects, and this has subsequently been demonstrated in rodents, marmosets and humans.

  3. Muscarinic receptors stimulate cell proliferation in the human urothelium-derived cell line UROtsa.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Nicola; Bodei, Serena; Lucente, Alessandra; Michel, Martin C; Zani, Danilo; Simeone, Claudio; Cunico, Sergio Cosciani; Spano, PierFranco; Sigala, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The widespread non-neuronal synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) has changed the paradigm of ACh acting solely as a neurotransmitter. Indeed, the presence of ACh in many types of proliferating cells suggests a role for this neurotransmitter in the control of cell division. The parasympathetic system is a major pathway regulating micturition, but ACh-mediated control plays a more complex role than previously described, acting not only in the detrusor muscle, but also influencing detrusor function through the activity of urothelial muscarinic receptors. Here we investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in mediating cell proliferation in the human UROtsa cell line, which is a widely used experimental model to study urothelium physiology and pathophysiology. Our results demonstrate that UROtsa cells express the machinery for ACh synthesis and that muscarinic receptors, with the rank order of M3>M2>M5>M1=M4, are present and functionally linked to their known second messengers. Indeed, the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) (1-100 μM) concentration-dependently raised IP(3) levels, reaching 66±5% over basal. The forskolin-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation was reduced by CCh exposure (forskolin: 1.4±0.14 pmol/ml; forskolin+100 μM CCh: 0.84±0.12 pmol/ml). CCh (1-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased UROtsa cell proliferation and this effect was inhibited by the non-selective antagonist atropine and the M(3)-selective antagonists darifenacin and J104129. Finally, CCh-induced cell proliferation was blocked by selective PI-3 kinase and ERK activation inhibitors, strongly suggesting that these intracellular pathways mediate, at least in part, the muscarinic receptor-mediated cell proliferation.

  4. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2) plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice.

    PubMed

    Barathi, Veluchamy A; Kwan, Jia Lin; Tan, Queenie S W; Weon, Sung Rhan; Seet, Li Fong; Goh, Liang Kee; Vithana, Eranga N; Beuerman, Roger W

    2013-09-01

    Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2) were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error.

  5. Role of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-2 in the Cerebellar Cortex in Cardiovascular Modulation in Anaesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changzheng; Sun, Tingzhe; Zhou, Peiling; Zhu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Liefeng

    2016-04-01

    Our previous investigations have demonstrated that microinjection of acetylcholine (ACh) or muscarinic ACh receptor activation in the cerebellar cortex induces a systemic blood pressure depressor response. This study aimed to determine the role of muscarinic ACh receptor-2 (M2 receptor) in the cerebellar cortex in cardiovascular function regulation in rats. A nonselective muscarinic receptor agonist (oxotremorine M, OXO; 30 mM), a selective M2 receptor agonist (arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate, ABET; 3, 10, and 30 mM), 30 mM OXO mixed with a selective M2 receptor antagonist (methoctramine hydrate, MCT; 0.3, 1, and 3 mM), and normal saline (0.9 % NaCl) were separately microinjected (0.5 µl/5 s) into the cerebellar cortex (lobule VI) of anaesthetized rats. We measured the mean arterial pressure (MAP), maximum change in MAP, and reactive time (RT; the duration required for the blood pressure to return to basal levels), heart rate (HR) and the maximum change in HR during the RT in response to drug activation. The results demonstrated that ABET dose-dependently decreased MAP and HR, increased the maximum change in MAP and the maximum change in HR, and prolonged the RT. Furthermore, MCT dose-dependently blocked the OXO-mediated cardiovascular depressor response. This study provides the first evidence that M2 receptors in the cerebellar cortex are involved in cardiovascular regulation, the activation of which evokes significant depressor and bradycardic responses.

  6. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2) plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Kwan, Jia Lin; Tan, Queenie S. W.; Weon, Sung Rhan; Seet, Li Fong; Goh, Liang Kee; Vithana, Eranga N.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2) were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error. PMID:23649821

  7. Cardiac effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists used for voiding dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik; Campeau, Lysanne; Olshansky, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Antimuscarinic agents are the main drugs used to treat patients with the overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, defined as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Since the treatment is not curative and since OAB is a chronic disease, treatment may be life-long. Antimuscarinics are generally considered to be ‘safe’ drugs, but among the more serious concerns related to their use is the risk of cardiac adverse effects, particularly increases in heart rate (HR) and QT prolongation and induction of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes). An elevated resting HR has been linked to overall increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. QT prolongation and its consequences are not related to blockade of muscarinic receptors, but rather linked to inhibition of the hERG potassium channel in the heart. However, experience with terodiline, an antimuscarinic drug causing torsade de pointes in patients, has placed the whole drug class under scrutiny. The potential of the different antimuscarinic agents to increase HR and/or prolong the QT time has not been extensively explored for all agents in clinical use. Differences between drugs cannot be excluded, but risk assessments based on available evidence are not possible. PMID:21595741

  8. Effects of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists on vagal hyperreactivity and neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function in antigen challenged guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Richard W; Fryer, Allison D; Belmonte, Kristen E; Jacoby, David B

    1998-01-01

    The role of tachykinin NK1 receptors in the recruitment of eosinophils to airway nerves, loss of inhibitory neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function and the development of vagal hyperreactivity was tested in antigen-challenged guinea-pigs.In anaesthetized guinea-pigs, the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine (1–100 μg kg−1, i.v), inhibited vagally induced bronchoconstriction, in control, but not in antigen-challenged guinea-pigs 24 h after antigen challenge. This indicates normal function of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in controls and loss of neuronal M2 receptor function in challenged guinea-pigs. Pretreatment of sensitized guinea-pigs with the NK1 receptor antagonists CP99994 (4 mg kg−1, i.p.), SR140333 (1 mg kg−1, s.c.) or CP96345 (15 mg kg−1, i.p.) before antigen challenge, prevented M2 receptor dysfunction.Neither administration of the NK1 antagonists after antigen challenge, nor pretreatment with an NK2 receptor antagonist, MEN10376 (5 μmol kg−1, i.p.), before antigen challenge, prevented M2 receptor dysfunction.Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves caused a frequency-dependent (2–15 Hz, 10 V, 0.2 ms for 5 s) bronchoconstriction that was significantly increased following antigen challenge. Pretreatment with the NK1 receptor antagonists CP99994 or SR140333 before challenge prevented this increase.Histamine (1–20 nmol kg−1, i.v.) caused a dose-dependent bronchoconstriction, which was vagally mediated, and was significantly increased in antigen challenged guinea-pigs compared to controls. Pretreatment of sensitized animals with CP99994 before challenge prevented the increase in histamine-induced reactivity.Bronchoalveolar lavage and histological studies showed that after antigen challenge significant numbers of eosinophils accumulated in the airways and around airway nerves. This eosinophilia was not altered by pretreatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994.These data indicate that pretreatment of

  9. Chronic antidepressant administration increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nibuya, M; Nestler, E J; Duman, R S

    1996-04-01

    The present study demonstrates that chronic, but not acute, adminstration of several different classes of antidepressants, including serotonin- and norepinephrine-selective reuptake inhibitors, increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA in rat hippocampus. In contrast, chronic administration of several nonantidepressant psychotropic drugs did not influence expression of CREB mRNA, demonstrating the pharmacological specificity of this effect. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that antidepressant administration increases expression of CREB mRNA in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cell layers of the hippocampus. In addition, levels of CRE immunoreactivity and of CRE binding activity were increased by chronic antidepressant administration, which indicates that expression and function of CREB protein are increased along with its mRNA. Chronic administration of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors rolipram or papaverine also increased expression of CREB mRNA in hippocampus, demonstrating a role for the cAMP cascade. Moreover, coadministration of rolipram with imipramine resulted in a more rapid induction of CREB than with either treatment alone. Increased expression and function of CREB suggest that specific target genes may be regulated by these treatments. We have found that levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and trkB mRNA are also increased by administration of antidepressants or PDE inhibitors. These findings indicate that upregulation of CREB is a common action of chronic antidepressant treatments that may lead to regulation of specific target genes, such as BDNF and trkB, and to the long-term effects of these treatments on brain function.

  10. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  11. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  12. Circadian activity of corticosterone in an animal model of depression: response to muscarinic cholinergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-06-16

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats induces multiple behavioral alterations during adulthood that resemble certain symptoms of human depression, such as impairments of pleasure-seeking behaviors. CMI may also induce permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) to different stimuli; however, the endocrinal changes induced by this treatment are still a matter of debate. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of corticosterone in rats treated in the neonatal period with CMI in basal conditions (0, 6, 12 and 18 h after lights on) and after treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX; 5mg/kg for 14 days). To evaluate the response of the HPA axis to a cholinergic agonist, we analyzed the effect of oxotremorine administration (OXO; 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg) on plasma levels of corticosterone. Administration of OXO took place at the beginning of each one of the two phases of the light-dark cycle (time points 0 and 12h, respectively). Results showed an increase in basal plasma levels of corticosterone in CMI-treated rats at time point zero and at 6h after the onset of the light period. While treatment with FLX reversed the increase in corticosterone plasma levels in CMI-treated rats, the results regarding cholinergic stimulation indicate that those rats do not respond to the administration of a low dose of OXO (0.4 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase (time point 12h). In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that neonatal treatment with CMI induces a hypersecretion of corticosterone in adulthood that was reversed through treatment with the antidepressant FLX. The CMI-treated rats showed a hyporesponse to cholinergic stimulation with OXO at low doses and at the beginning of the dark phase. Thus, the present results do not support the assumption that an increased sensitivity of the muscarinic cholinergic system is one of the possible correlates of the behavioral alterations seen in CMI-treated rats

  13. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  14. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia's gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus.

  15. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration.

  16. Long-term oral melatonin administration reduces ethanol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability and motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, A; Yamskova, O; Schiöth, H B; Nylander, O; Sjöblom, M

    2014-10-01

    Increased intestinal epithelial permeability is associated with intestinal inflammation and dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of long-term oral melatonin administration on ethanol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability and hypermotility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered melatonin in their tap water (0.1 mg mL(-1) or 0.5 mg mL(-1) ) for 2 or 4 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were anaesthetized with Inactin(®) , and a 30-mm duodenal segment was perfused in situ. The effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, bicarbonate secretion, fluid flux and motor activity were studied. The expression levels of the tight junction components, zona occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and myosin light chain kinase and of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 were assessed using qRT-PCR. Melatonin administration for 2 weeks significantly reduced the basal paracellular permeability, an effect that was absent after 4 weeks. Perfusing the duodenal segment with 15% ethanol induced marked increases in duodenal paracellular permeability, bicarbonate secretion and motor activity. Melatonin for 2 weeks dose-dependently reduced ethanol-induced increases in permeability and motor activity. Four weeks of melatonin administration reduced the ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motility and bicarbonate secretion but had no effect on the increases in permeability. Two weeks of melatonin administration upregulated the expression of MT1 and MT2 , although both were downregulated after 4 weeks. Melatonin downregulated the expression of ZO-3 and upregulated the expression of claudin-2, even as all other mRNA-levels investigated were unaffected. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that melatonin administration markedly improves duodenal barrier functions, suggesting its utility in clinical applications when intestinal barrier functions are compromised.

  17. Increasing the Use of Group Interventions in a Pediatric Rehabilitation Program: Perceptions of Administrators, Therapists, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Chantal; Tetreault, Sylvie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceptions related to increased utilization of group interventions as a part of the service reorganization within a pediatric rehabilitation program. Methods: Individual interviews with program administrators (n = 13) and focus groups with therapists (n = 19) and parents of children with disabilities (n = 5) were conducted.…

  18. Subcellular redistribution of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in striatal interneurons in vivo after acute cholinergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Laribi, O; Levey, A I; Bloch, B

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of our work was to investigate how the cholinergic environment influences the targeting and the intracellular trafficking of the muscarinic receptor m2 (m2R) in vivo. To address this question, we have used immunohistochemical approaches at light and electron microscopic levels to detect the m2R in control rats and rats treated with muscarinic receptor agonists. In control animals, m2Rs were located mostly at postsynaptic sites at the plasma membrane of perikarya and dendrites of cholinergic and NPY-somatostatin interneurons as autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, respectively. Presynaptic receptors were also detected in boutons. The m2Rs were usually detected at extrasynaptic sites, but they could be found rarely in association with symmetrical synapses, suggesting that the cholinergic transmission mediated by m2R occurs via synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms. The stimulation of muscarinic receptors with oxotremorine provoked a dramatic alteration of m2R compartmentalization, including endocytosis with a decrease of the density of m2R at the membrane (-63%) and an increase of those associated with endosomes (+86%) in perikarya. The very strong increase of m2R associated with multivesicular bodies (+732%) suggests that oxotremorine activated degradation. The slight increase in the Golgi apparatus (+26%) suggests that the m2R stimulation had an effect on the maturation of m2R. The substance P receptor located at the membrane of the same neurons was unaffected by oxotremorine. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation dramatically influences the subcellular distribution of m2R in striatal interneurons in vivo. These events may have key roles in controlling abundance and availability of muscarinic receptors via regulation of receptor endocytosis, degradation, and/or neosynthesis. Further, the control of muscarinic receptor trafficking may influence the activity of striatal interneurons, including neurotransmitter release and/or electric activity.

  19. Fesoterodine, its active metabolite, and tolterodine bind selectively to muscarinic receptors in human bladder mucosa and detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akira; Fuchihata, Yusuke; Kuraoka, Shiori; Osano, Ayaka; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Takeda, Masayuki; Masuyama, Keisuke; Araki, Isao; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-04-01

    To comparatively characterize the binding activity of fesoterodine, its active metabolite (5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine [5-HMT]), and tolterodine in the human bladder mucosa, detrusor muscle, and parotid gland. Muscarinic receptors in the homogenates of human bladder mucosa, detrusor muscle, and parotid gland were measured by a radioligand binding assay using [N-methyl-(3)H] scopolamine methyl chloride. Fesoterodine, 5-HMT, and tolterodine competed with [N-methyl-(3)H] scopolamine methyl chloride for binding sites in the bladder mucosa, detrusor muscle, and parotid gland in a concentration-dependent manner. The affinity for muscarinic receptors of these agents was significantly greater in the bladder than in the parotid gland, suggesting pharmacologic selectivity for the bladder over the parotid gland. The bladder selectivity was larger for fesoterodine and 5-HMT than for tolterodine. Fesoterodine, 5-HMT, and tolterodine resulted in significantly increased (two- to five-fold) values of the apparent dissociation constant for specific [N-methyl-(3)H] scopolamine methyl chloride binding in the detrusor muscle and parotid gland, with little effect on the corresponding values of the maximal number of binding sites. This finding indicates that these agents bind to the human muscarinic receptors in a competitive and reversible manner. Fesoterodine and 5-HMT bind to the muscarinic receptors with greater affinity in the human bladder mucosa and detrusor muscle than in the parotid gland in a competitive and reversible manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor induces surface transport of KCNQ channels through a CRMP-2-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ling; Kosenko, Anastasia; Yu, Clinton; Huang, Lan; Li, Xuejun; Hoshi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuronal excitability is strictly regulated by various mechanisms, including modulation of ion channel activity and trafficking. Stimulation of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (also known as CHRM1) increases neuronal excitability by suppressing the M-current generated by the Kv7/KCNQ channel family. We found that m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation also triggers surface transport of KCNQ subunits. This receptor-induced surface transport was observed with KCNQ2 as well as KCNQ3 homomeric channels, but not with Kv3.1 channels. Deletion analyses identified that a conserved domain in a proximal region of the N-terminal tail of KCNQ protein is crucial for this surface transport – the translocation domain. Proteins that bind to this domain were identified as α- and β-tubulin and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2; also known as DPYSL2). An inhibitor of casein kinase 2 (CK2) reduced tubulin binding to the translocation domain, whereas an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) facilitated CRMP-2 binding to the translocation domain. Consistently, treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor enhanced receptor-induced KCNQ2 surface transport. M-current recordings from neurons showed that treatment with a GSK3 inhibitor shortened the duration of muscarinic suppression and led to over-recovery of the M-current. These results suggest that m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulates surface transport of KCNQ channels through a CRMP-2-mediated pathway. PMID:26446259

  1. Activation of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor induces surface transport of KCNQ channels through a CRMP-2-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Kosenko, Anastasia; Yu, Clinton; Huang, Lan; Li, Xuejun; Hoshi, Naoto

    2015-11-15

    Neuronal excitability is strictly regulated by various mechanisms, including modulation of ion channel activity and trafficking. Stimulation of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (also known as CHRM1) increases neuronal excitability by suppressing the M-current generated by the Kv7/KCNQ channel family. We found that m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation also triggers surface transport of KCNQ subunits. This receptor-induced surface transport was observed with KCNQ2 as well as KCNQ3 homomeric channels, but not with Kv3.1 channels. Deletion analyses identified that a conserved domain in a proximal region of the N-terminal tail of KCNQ protein is crucial for this surface transport--the translocation domain. Proteins that bind to this domain were identified as α- and β-tubulin and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2; also known as DPYSL2). An inhibitor of casein kinase 2 (CK2) reduced tubulin binding to the translocation domain, whereas an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) facilitated CRMP-2 binding to the translocation domain. Consistently, treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor enhanced receptor-induced KCNQ2 surface transport. M-current recordings from neurons showed that treatment with a GSK3 inhibitor shortened the duration of muscarinic suppression and led to over-recovery of the M-current. These results suggest that m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulates surface transport of KCNQ channels through a CRMP-2-mediated pathway. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Amnesic effects of the anticholinergic drugs, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden: differences in binding properties to the brain muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ohue, M; Kitaura, T; Kihira, K

    1999-07-10

    An amnesic effect of anticholinergic drugs was previously described from several behavioral studies. We examined this effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden, clinically used in the parkinsonism and schizophrenic patients, by using passive avoidance tasks. Both of these drugs (0.1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) showed dose-dependent amnesic effects in the acquisition and retrieval phases. However, the effect induced by trihexyphenidyl was transient, whereas that of biperiden was long-lasting. To clarify the reason for the different duration of the amnesic activity, binding to the muscarinic receptor was examined. In the Scatchard analysis, trihexyphenidyl competed with [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H]QNB) on the muscarinic receptor (showed increased K(d) and unchanged B(max) value), while biperiden decreased [(3)H]QNB binding (B(max) value) significantly. Furthermore, in an exchange assay for receptor inactivation, trihexyphenidyl binding to muscarinic receptors was exchanged by [(3)H]QNB completely, but biperiden decreased the exchangeable binding of [(3)H]QNB in a dose dependent manner (0.1-100 nM). These results suggested that the binding of trihexyphenidyl and biperiden to muscarinic receptor might be completely reversible and partially irreversible, respectively, whereas the K(i) values of these two drugs were similar. In conclusion, this difference in binding property may explain the difference in the time-course of the amnesic effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden.

  3. Blockade of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Aβ1–42 Generation by the Aminotetrahydrofuran Derivative ANAVEX2-73, a Mixed Muscarinic and σ1 Receptor Agonist, in a Nontransgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lahmy, Valentine; Meunier, Johann; Malmström, Susanna; Naert, Gaelle; Givalois, Laurent; Kim, Seung Hyun; Villard, Vanessa; Vamvakides, Alexandre; Maurice, Tangui

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to establish whether the mixed σ1/muscarinic ligand ANAVEX2-73, shown to be neuroprotective in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models in vivo and currently in clinical phase I/IIa, could have the ability to reduce the appearance of hyperphosphorylated Tau and amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) in the Aβ25–35 mouse model of AD. We therefore first confirmed that Aβ25–35 injection induced hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, by showing that it rapidly decreased Akt activity and activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the mouse hippocampus. Second, we showed that the kinase activation, and resulting Tau alteration, directly contributed to the amyloid toxicity, as co-administration of the selective GSK-3β inhibitor 2-thio(3-iodobenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxidiazole blocked both Tau phosphorylation and Aβ25–35-induced memory impairments. Third, we analyzed the ANAVEX2-73 effect on Tau phosphorylation and activation of the related kinase pathways (Akt and GSK-3β). And fourth, we also addressed the impact of the drug on Aβ25–35-induced Aβ1–42 seeding and observed that the compound significantly blocked the increase in Aβ1–42 and C99 levels in the hippocampus, suggesting that it may alleviate amyloid load in AD models. The comparison with PRE-084, a selective and reference σ1 receptor agonist, and xanomeline, a muscarinic ligand presenting similar profile as ANAVEX2-73 on M1 and M2 subtypes, confirmed that both muscarinic and σ1 targets are involved in the ANAVEX2-73 effects. The drug, acting synergistically on both targets, but with moderate affinity, presents a promising pharmacological profile. PMID:23493042

  4. Blockade of Tau hyperphosphorylation and Aβ₁₋₄₂ generation by the aminotetrahydrofuran derivative ANAVEX2-73, a mixed muscarinic and σ₁ receptor agonist, in a nontransgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lahmy, Valentine; Meunier, Johann; Malmström, Susanna; Naert, Gaelle; Givalois, Laurent; Kim, Seung Hyun; Villard, Vanessa; Vamvakides, Alexandre; Maurice, Tangui

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to establish whether the mixed σ₁/muscarinic ligand ANAVEX2-73, shown to be neuroprotective in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models in vivo and currently in clinical phase I/IIa, could have the ability to reduce the appearance of hyperphosphorylated Tau and amyloid-β₁₋₄₂ (Aβ₁₋₄₂ in the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ mouse model of AD. We therefore first confirmed that Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ injection induced hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, by showing that it rapidly decreased Akt activity and activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the mouse hippocampus. Second, we showed that the kinase activation, and resulting Tau alteration, directly contributed to the amyloid toxicity, as co-administration of the selective GSK-3β inhibitor 2-thio(3-iodobenzyl)-5-(1-pyridyl)-[1,3,4]-oxidiazole blocked both Tau phosphorylation and Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced memory impairments. Third, we analyzed the ANAVEX2-73 effect on Tau phosphorylation and activation of the related kinase pathways (Akt and GSK-3β). And fourth, we also addressed the impact of the drug on Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced Aβ₁₋₄₂ seeding and observed that the compound significantly blocked the increase in Aβ₁₋₄₂ and C99 levels in the hippocampus, suggesting that it may alleviate amyloid load in AD models. The comparison with PRE-084, a selective and reference σ₁ receptor agonist, and xanomeline, a muscarinic ligand presenting similar profile as ANAVEX2-73 on M1 and M2 subtypes, confirmed that both muscarinic and σ₁ targets are involved in the ANAVEX2-73 effects. The drug, acting synergistically on both targets, but with moderate affinity, presents a promising pharmacological profile.

  5. Administration's Proposed NSF Budget Includes a 5.5% Increase for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 proposed federal budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is $7.63 billion, 7.3% above the FY 2012 actual amount. NSF acting director Cora Marrett said the budget reflects the administration's recognition of NSF and the importance of funding basic research. "We are pleased about where we stand and hope that Congress will be just as pleased with the budget proposal and will help move things forward," she said during a meeting of the NSF Advisory Committee for Geosciences on 11 April. Budget comparisons are to FY 2012 because the 2013 appropriations were enacted at the end of March, less than 2 weeks before President Barack Obama sent the proposed budget to Congress.

  6. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  7. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  8. Modulation of muscarinic system with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant attenuates depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several studies suggest that muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine is a rapidly acting antidepressant for the treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of synergistic potential of scopolamine with antidepressants for the treatment of depression without memory impairment in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressants such as citalopram, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine at their median effective dose that is 12.5, 42.8, 17.5, 15.7 mg/kg p.o., respectively, were evaluated in combination with scopolamine 0.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally for the synergistic potential for ameliorating depression in Swiss albino mice. A battery of tests including forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed in all the groups comprising vehicle control, scopolamine, antidepressants per se, and the combinations of antidepressants with scopolamine. This was followed by the locomotor activity and memory tests. Results: Behavioral studies indicated that only antidepressant venlafaxine with scopolamine resulted in 95.5% and 93.6% reduction in immobility time compared to the vehicle control in FST and TST, respectively. This is significant (P < 0.0001) synergistic hyper-additive antidepressive-like effect compared to scopolamine per se and venlafaxine per se treatment effects in antidepressant paradigms. All the data were evaluated using the one-way analysis of variance followed by individual comparisons using Tukey's post-hoc test. Control open field studies demonstrated no significant increase in general locomotion after co-administration of the compounds. Step down avoidance paradigm confirmed that scopolamine at the selected dose has no cognition deficit in any mice. Conclusions: The dose of scopolamine selected for synergistic potential has no detrimental effect on memory. The present results suggest the concoction of scopolamine with venlafaxine for enhanced synergistic antidepressive

  9. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  10. Presynaptic muscarinic control of glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Buño, W; Cabezas, C; Fernández de Sevilla, D

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the medial septal nucleus and Broca's diagonal band that terminate in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions (Frotscher and Leranth, 1985). Glutamatergic synapses between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons are presynaptically inhibited by acetylcholine (ACh), via activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) at the terminals of Schaffer collaterals (SCs) (Hounsgaard, 1978; Fernández de Sevilla et al., 2002, 2003). There are two types of SC-CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses. One type, called functional synapse, shows postsynaptic alpha- amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-receptor mediated currents at resting potential (Vm) and both AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents when depolarized. The other type, termed silent synapse, only displays postsynaptic NMDAR-mediated currents at depolarized Vms, but does not respond at the resting Vm (Isaac et al., 1995). Using hippocampal slices obtained from young Wistar rats, we examined the effects of activation of cholinergic afferents at the stratum oriens/alveus on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in CA1 pyramidal neurons by stimulation of SCs. We also tested the action of the nonhydrolyzable cholinergic agonist carbamylcholine chloride (CCh) on EPSCs evoked by minimal stimulation of SCs (which activates a single or very few synapses) in functional and silent synapses.

  11. Selectivity of oxomemazine for the M1 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Woo, C W; Kim, J G

    1994-12-01

    The binding characteristics of pirenzepine and oxomemazine to muscarinic receptor were studied to evaluate the selectivity of oxomemazine for the muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat cerebral microsomes. Equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate([3H]QNB) determined from saturation isotherms was 64 pM. Analysis of the pirenzepine inhibition curve of [3H]QNB binding to cerebral microsome indicated the presence of two receptor subtypes with high (Ki = 16 nM, M1 receptor) and low (Ki = 400 nM, M3 receptor) affinity for pirenzepine. Oxomemazine also identified two receptor subtypes with about 20-fold difference in the affinity for high (Ki = 84 nM, OH receptor) and low (Ki = 1.65 microM, OL receptor) affinity sites. The percentage populations of M1 and M3 receptors to the total receptors were 61:39, and those of OH and OL receptors 39:61, respectively. Both pirenzepine and oxomemazine increased the KD value for [3H]QNB without affecting the binding site concentrations and Hill coefficient for the [3H]QNB binding. Oxomemazine had a 10-fold higher affinity at M1 receptors than at M3 receptors, and pirenzepine a 8-fold higher affinity at OH receptors than at OL receptors. Analysis of the shallow competition binding curves of oxomemazine for M1 receptors and pirenzepine for OL receptors yielded that 69% of M1 receptors were of OH receptors and the remaining 31% of OL receptors, and that 29% of OL receptors were of M1 receptors and 71% of M3 receptors. However, M3 for oxomemazine and OH for pirenzepine were composed of a uniform population. These results suggest that oxomemazine could be classified as a selective drug for M1 receptors and also demonstrate that rat cerebral microsomes contain three different subtypes of M1, M3 and the other site which is different from M1, M2 and M3 receptors.

  12. Direct Interaction of GABAB Receptors with M2 Muscarinic Receptors Enhances Muscarinic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Stephanie B.; Clancy, Sinead M.; Terunuma, Miho; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Thomas, Steven M.; Moss, Stephen J.; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Down-regulation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) provides an important mechanism for reducing neurotransmitter signaling during sustained stimulation. Chronic stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2R) causes internalization of M2R and G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in neuronal PC12 cells, resulting in loss of function. Here, we show that co-expression of GABAB R2 receptors (GBR2) rescues both surface expression and function of M2R, including M2R-induced activation of GIRKs and inhibition of cAMP production. GBR2 showed significant association with M2R at the plasma membrane but not other GPCRs (M1R, μOR), as detected by FRET measured with TIRF microscopy. Unique regions of the proximal C-terminal domains of GBR2 and M2R mediate specific binding between M2R and GBR2. In the brain, GBR2, but not GBR1, biochemically coprecipitates with M2R and overlaps with M2R expression in cortical neurons. This novel heteromeric association between M2R and GBR2 provides a possible mechanism for altering muscarinic signaling in the brain and represents a previously unrecognized role for GBR2. PMID:20016095

  13. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.

  14. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  15. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  16. Analgesic Effects Mediated by Muscarinic Receptors: Mechanisms and Pharmacological Approaches.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Federica; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a research field on great clinical relevance and social impactful. It is associated to a variety of pathological events causing un altered excitability of peripheral nerves derived by tissue damage depending on physical, biological and chemical injury. In the last years much attention has been paid in the identification of novel molecules involved in mediating pain sensation useful as therapeutic tools for the development of new analgesic drugs. Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed both in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is known that muscarinic agonists cause analgesic effects via spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Considering that the analgesia induced by cholinergic agonists is comparable to that observed with morphine, the identification of receptor subtypes involved and the identification of the muscarinic ligands capable of selectively activate these receptors, is of considerable interest for potential therapeutic application. In the present review we describe the role of muscarinic receptors in mediating central and peripheral pain and the mechanisms downstream these receptors responsible of the modulation of nociceptive stimuli. Moreover the therapeutic perspectives and the identification of potential drugs binding muscarinic receptors involved in pain modulation will also be discussed.

  17. Administration of contrast media just before cisplatin-based chemotherapy increases cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sendur, M A N; Aksoy, S; Yaman, S; Arik, Z; Tugba Kos, F; Akinci, M B; Civelek, B; Yildirim Ozdemir, N; Uncu, D; Zengin, N

    2013-01-01

    There is a clinical need to predict the probability of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) in order to make decisions about patient management and relevant preventive measures. The purpose of this study was to develop a risk prediction methodology of CIN. 197 consecutive cancer patients, whose serum creatinine was measured at least 48 h before every cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the patient medical records. Renal function was evaluated at least 48 h before treatment (day 0) of each cycle, based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. CIN was defined as a decrease of ≥ 25% in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to baseline GFR values. The mean age of the study population was 54.5±9.6 years. Fifty-eight patients (29.4%) whose GFR had decreased by at least 25% compared to baseline values formed the CIN group, and the remaining 139 patients formed the non-CIN group. No significant differences were noted between the CIN and non-CIN groups in terms of age, gender, body mass index and smoking history. Metastatic disease was similar in both groups (p=0.86). History of hypertension (p=0.81), diabetes mellitus (p=0.72), and cardiovascular disease (p=0.58) were similar in the two groups. Chemotherapeutic agents used concurrently with cisplatin were similar in both groups. Significantly more radiologic examinations using contrast media were performed in the CIN group compared with the non-CIN group (p=0.01). In patients exposed to contrast media within a week before cisplatin administration, the risk of CIN was 2.56-fold higher (957 percent; CI 1.28-5.11) than in patients without such exposure (p=0.009). In patients with exposure to contrast media within a week before cisplatin administration, the risk of CIN was significantly higher than in patients without such an exposure. No additional risk factors for CIN were found in this retrospective observational

  18. Intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate increases carbohydrate oxidation via TRPV1 but not TRPA1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Kawabata, Fuminori; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-06-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family is composed of a wide variety of cation-permeable channels activated polymodally by various stimuli and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions. Recent investigations have revealed that activation of TRP channels is involved not only in nociception and thermosensation but also in thermoregulation and energy metabolism. We investigated the effect of intragastric administration of TRP channel agonists on changes in energy substrate utilization of mice. Intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; a typical TRPA1 agonist) markedly increased carbohydrate oxidation but did not affect oxygen consumption. To examine whether TRP channels mediate this increase in carbohydrate oxidation, we used TRPA1 and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Intragastric administration of AITC increased carbohydrate oxidation in TRPA1 KO mice but not in TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, AITC dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium ion concentration in cells expressing TRPV1. These findings suggest that AITC might activate TRPV1 and that AITC increased carbohydrate oxidation via TRPV1.

  19. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  20. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, James L

    2006-06-01

    The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a "high degree of confidence." This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to "beyond a reasonable doubt." This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  1. Nicotine effects on muscarinic receptor-mediated free Ca[Formula: see text] level changes in the facial nucleus following facial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Anbing; Sun, Wenhai; Zhang, Hongmei; Tang, Limin

    2016-06-01

    It was suggested that muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors increase free Ca[Formula: see text] levels in the facial nerve nucleus via various channels following facial nerve injury. However, intracellular Ca[Formula: see text] overload can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. It is assumed that, following facial nerve injury, the interactions of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in facial nerve nucleus may negatively regulate free Ca[Formula: see text] concentrations in the facial nerve nucleus, which provide important information for the repair and regeneration of the facial nerve. The present study investigated the regulatory effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus in a rat model of facial nerve injury at 7, 30, and 90 days following facial nerve injury using laser confocal microscopy. The dose-dependent regulation of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus may decrease the range of free Ca[Formula: see text] increases following facial nerve injury, which is important for nerve cell regeneration. It is concluded that the negative effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptors are related to the [Formula: see text] subtype of nicotinic receptors.

  2. Acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse is modulated by non-M1 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C G; Lydic, R; Baghdoyan, H A

    2004-01-01

    Pontine acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the regulation of electroencephalographic and behavioral arousal in all mammals so far investigated. The mouse is recognized as a powerful model for pharmacogenomics but the synaptic mechanisms regulating ACh release in mouse pontine reticular formation have not been characterized. Drug delivery by microdialysis was used in isoflurane-anesthetized C57BL/6J (B6) mice (n=33) to test the hypothesis that muscarinic autoreceptors modulate ACh release in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). Dialysis delivery of tetrodotoxin to the PnO significantly decreased ACh by 58% below control levels, confirming that measured ACh reflected neurotransmitter release. The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine increased ACh release in the PnO by 21% (3 nM), 48% (10 nM), 56% (30 nM), and 104% (100 nM). The muscarinic agonist bethanechol dialyzed into the PnO significantly decreased ACh release by 60% compared with control. Dialysis delivery of relatively subtype selective muscarinic antagonists to the PnO revealed the following order of potency for increasing ACh release: scopolamine (3 nM)>AF-DX 116 (100 nM)=pirenzepine (100 nM). These data support the conclusion that ACh release in PnO of B6 mouse is modulated by non-M1 muscarinic receptors.

  3. Increased growth and germination success in plants following hydrogen sulfide administration.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Frederick D; Nair, Suven P; Ward, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel way of enhancing plant growth through the use of a non-petroleum based product. We report here that exposing either roots or seeds of multicellular plants to extremely low concentrations of dissolved hydrogen sulfide at any stage of life causes statistically significant increases in biomass including higher fruit yield. Individual cells in treated plants were smaller (~13%) than those of controls. Germination success and seedling size increased in, bean, corn, wheat, and pea seeds while time to germination decreases. These findings indicated an important role of H2S as a signaling molecule that can increase the growth rate of all species yet tested. The increased crop yields reported here has the potential to effect the world's agricultural output.

  4. Oral glycine administration increases brain glycine/creatine ratios in men: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Marc J.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Ongur, Dost; Evins, A. Eden; Barros, Tanya L.; Medeiros, Carissa L.; Covell, Julie; Wang, Liqun; Fava, Maurizio; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Oral high-dose glycine administration has been used as an adjuvant treatment for schizophrenia to enhance glutamate neurotransmission and mitigate glutamate system hypofunction thought to contribute to the disorder. Prior studies in schizophrenia subjects documented clinical improvements after 2 weeks of oral glycine administration, suggesting that brain glycine levels are sufficiently elevated to evoke a clinical response within that time frame. However, no human study has reported on brain glycine changes induced by its administration. We utilized a noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique termed echo time-averaged (TEAV) 1H-MRS, which permits noninvasive quantification of brain glycine in vivo, to determine whether 2 weeks of oral glycine administration (peak dose of 0.8g/kg/day) increased brain glycine/creatine (Gly/Cr) ratios in 11 healthy adult men. In scans obtained 17 hours after the last glycine dose, brain (Gly/Cr) ratios were significantly increased. The data indicate that it is possible to measure brain glycine changes with proton spectroscopy. Developing a more comprehensive understanding of human brain glycine dynamics may lead to optimized use of glycine site agonists and glycine transporter inhibitors to treat schizophrenia, and possibly to treat other disorders associated with glutamate system dysfunction. PMID:19556112

  5. A Review of the Debate Concerning the Reagan Administration’s Increase in Defense Spending.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    defense spending to assist in reducing the Federal debt. The study’s main conclusions are that the increased defense expenditures did not burden the... EXPENDITURES FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE ------- 18 1. General ---------------------------------- 18 2. Military Spending from Kennedy to Carter - 22 3. Defense ... expenditures on the U.S. economy. The issues of inflation, employment and long run growth as affected by rapid increases in defense spending will be

  6. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Ellen L.; Winkelmolen, Lieke; Visanji, Naomi; Brotchie, Jonathan; Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    2008-07-18

    trans-Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES) is of interest for its reported protective effects in a variety of pathologies, including neurodegeneration. Many of these protective properties have been attributed to the ability of RES to reduce oxidative stress. In vitro studies have shown an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities following exposure to RES, including upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is capable of reducing both oxidative stress and cell death. We sought to determine if a similar increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes is observed with RES treatment in vivo. Three separate modes of RES delivery were utilized; in a standard diet, a high fat diet and through a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. RES given in a high fat diet proved to be effective in elevating antioxidant capacity in brain resulting in an increase in both MnSOD protein level (140%) and activity (75%). The increase in MnSOD was not due to a substantial proliferation of mitochondria, as RES treatment induced a 10% increase in mitochondrial abundance (Citrate Synthase activity). The potential neuroprotective properties of MnSOD have been well established, and we demonstrate that a dietary delivery of RES is able to increase the expression and activity of this enzyme in vivo.

  7. LY2033298, a positive allosteric modulator at muscarinic M₄ receptors, enhances inhibition by oxotremorine of light-induced phase shifts in hamster circadian activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L; Millan, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycle is essential for restorative sleep, and abnormal sleep timing is implicated in central nervous system (CNS) disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Many transmitters, including acetylcholine, that exerts its actions via muscarinic receptors modulate the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master pacemaker. Since positive allosteric modulators of muscarinic M(4) receptors are candidates for treatment of mood and cognitive deficits of CNS disorders, it is important to evaluate their circadian actions. The effects of intraperitoneally applied muscarinic agents on circadian wheel-running rhythms were measured employing hamsters, a model organism for studying activity rhythms. Systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays and advances of hamster circadian wheel-running rhythms. The M₄ positive allosteric modulator, LY2033298 (10-40 mg/kg), had no effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone, yet significantly enhanced (at 20 mg/kg) the inhibitory influence of oxotremorine on light-induced phase delays. In addition, the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, which was without effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone (0.001-0.1 mg/kg), antagonized (at 0.1 mg/kg) the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine and LY2033298 on light-induced phase delays. These results are the first to demonstrate that systemically applied muscarinic receptor agonists modulate circadian activity rhythms, and they also reveal a specific role for M₄ receptors. It will be of importance to evaluate circadian actions of psychotropic drugs acting via M₄ receptors, since they may display beneficial properties under pathological conditions.

  8. Nicotinic and muscarinic agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors stimulate a common pathway to enhance GluN2B-NMDAR responses

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Miledi, Ricardo; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) can enhance cognitive function. However, it is unknown whether a common signaling pathway is involved in the effect. Here, we show that in vivo administration of nicotine, AChEIs, and an m1 muscarinic (m1) agonist increase glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B (GluN2B)-containing NMDA receptor (NR2B-NMDAR) responses, a necessary component in memory formation, in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and that coadministration of the m1 antagonist pirenzepine prevents the effect of cholinergic drugs. These observations suggest that the effect of nicotine is secondary to increased release of ACh via the activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and involves m1 receptor activation through ACh. In vitro activation of m1 receptors causes the selective enhancement of NR2B-NMDAR responses in CA1 pyramidal cells, and in vivo exposure to cholinergic drugs occludes the in vitro effect. Furthermore, in vivo exposure to cholinergic drugs suppresses the potentiating effect of Src on NMDAR responses in vitro. These results suggest that exposure to cholinergic drugs maximally stimulates the m1/guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha q/PKC/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2/Src signaling pathway for the potentiation of NMDAR responses in vivo, occluding the in vitro effects of m1 activation and Src. Thus, our results indicate not only that nAChRs, ACh, and m1 receptors are on the same pathway involving Src signaling but also that NR2B-NMDARs are a point of convergence of cholinergic and glutamatergic pathways involved in learning and memory. PMID:25114227

  9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-05-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, /sup 3/H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion (/sup 3/H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that /sup 3/H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin.

  10. Osteocytic connexin 43 is not required for the increase in bone mass induced by intermittent PTH administration in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Costa, R.; Davis, H.M.; Atkinson, E.G.; Katchburian, E.; Plotkin, L.I.; Reginato, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether osteocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) is required for the bone response to intermittent PTH administration, and whether the connexin is involved in maintaining the bone matrix. Methods: Human PTH(1-34) was injected to adult male mice expressing (Cx43fl/fl) or not osteocytic Cx43 (Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre) daily (100 µg/kg/d) for 14 days. Results: Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre mice have no difference in body weight and BMD from 1 to 4 months of age. Intermittent PTH administration increased BMD and BV/TV and induced a similar increase in type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, runx2, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein expression in mice from both genotypes. On the other hand, osteocytic deletion of Cx43 did not alter mRNA levels of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, collagens and osteoblast-related genes. In addition, expression of collagens assessed by immunohistochemistry was not affected by deleting osteocytic Cx43. However, PTH administration increased type II collagen only in Cx43fl/fl control mice, whereas hormone increased type I collagen expression only in Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre mice. Furthermore, PTH increased maturity of collagen fibers in control, but not in Cx43-deficient mice. Conclusion: Expression of Cx43 in osteocytes is dispensable for bone anabolism induced by intermittent PTH administration; but it can modulate, at least in part, the effect of PTH on the bone matrix environment. PMID:26944823

  11. Acute administration of diosgenin or dioscorea improves hyperglycemia with increases muscular steroidogenesis in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Fujita, S; Iemitsu, M

    2014-09-01

    Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration improves hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diosgenin, a steroid structurally similar to DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), is contained highly levels in dioscorea; however, it is still unclear whether this natural product improves hyperglycemia in the type 1 diabetes model rats through an increase muscular GLUT4 signaling. After 1 week of STZ injection, fasting glucose level was measured in blood taken from the tail vein every 30 min for 150 min after injection of diosgenin or dioscorea (3mg/kg). On another day, muscle was resected 150 min after diosgenin or dioscorea injections. Serum DHEA level increased significantly 120 min after diosgenin or dioscorea injections; concomitantly, blood glucose level decreased significantly. Moreover, GLUT4 translocation, as well as phosphorylation of Akt and PKC ζ/λ, increased significantly by diosgenin or dioscorea administration. However, these effects of diosgenin and dioscorea were blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor that inhibits synthesizing dehydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone. Additionally, significant correlations were observed between blood glucose level, GLUT4 translocation level, and muscular sex steroid hormone level 150 min after the administrations. These results suggest that the diosgenin-induced increase in the DHEA level may contribute to the improvement of hyperglycemia by activating the muscular GLUT4 signaling pathway in type 1 diabetes model rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

  13. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  14. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo, E.; Martos, F.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, A.; Vigano, M.A.; Ladinsky, H.; Sanchez de La Cuesta, F.

    1988-01-01

    The affinities of selective, pirenzepine and AF-DX 116, and classical, N-methylscopolamine and atropine, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists were investigated in displacement binding experiments with (/sup 3/H)Pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine in membranes from human autoptic tissues (forebrain, cerebellum, atria, ventricle and submaxillary salivary glands). Affinity estimates of N-methylscopolamine and atropine indicated a non-selective profile. Pirenzepine showed differentiation between the M/sub 1/ neuronal receptor of the forebrain and the receptors in other tissues while AF-DX 116 clearly discriminated between muscarinic receptors of heart and glands. The results in human tissues confirm the previously described selectivity profiles of pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 in rat tissues. These findings thus reveal the presence also in man of three distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes: the neuronal M/sub 1/, the cardiac M/sub 2/ and the glandular M/sub 3/.

  15. Web Technology Is a Strategic Tool for Administrators in Higher Education to Increase Students Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyadat, Mohammad; Lew, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Student retention has become a challenging problem for most of the academic institutions and it becomes more challenging with the increased use of Internet to convey information, deliver instructional materials, and make online instruction modality more interactive in educational environment. Even though the technologies for establishing a new…

  16. Chronic administration of caderofloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, increases hepatic CYP2E1 expression and activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Miao, Ming-xing; Zhong, Ze-yu; Xu, Ping; Chen, Yang; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caderofloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone that is under phase III clinical trials in China. Here we examined the effects of caderofloxacin on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms as well as the potential of caderofloxacin interacting with co-administered drugs. Methods: Male rats were treated with caderofloxacin (9 mg/kg, ig) once or twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The effects of caderofloxacin on CYP3A, 2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 2E1 and 2C9 were evaluated using a “cocktail” of 6 probes (midazolam, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, theophylline, chlorzoxazone and diclofenac) injected on d 0 (prior to caderofloxacin exposure) and d 15 (after caderofloxacin exposure). Hepatic microsomes from the caderofloxacin-treated rats were used to assess CYP2E1 activity and chlorzoxazone metabolism. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in hepatic microsomes was analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of hepatic CYP2E1, leading to enhanced metabolism of chlorzoxazone. In vitro microsomal study confirmed that CYP2E1 was a major metabolic enzyme involved in chlorzoxazone metabolism, and the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of CYP2E1 in hepatic microsomes, resulting in increased formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone. Furthermore, the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in liver microsomes, which was consistent with the pharmacokinetic results. Conclusion: Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin can induce the expression and activity of hepatic CYP2E1 in rats. When caderofloxacin is administered, a potential drug-drug interaction mediated by CYP2E1 induction should be considered. PMID:26838075

  17. Increased marihuana-induced fetotoxicity by a low dose of concomitant alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L; Dintcheff, B A

    1986-09-01

    Many pregnant women use both alcohol and marihuana. To evaluate the effects of this combination on fetotoxicity, pregnant mice in the experimental group were injected with a relatively low dose of alcohol (1 g/kg) and with one of two doses of marihuana extract (equivalent of 50 or 100 g/kg delta 9-THC). Control mice received marihuana extract or alcohol alone. The combination of alcohol and the high dose of marihuana produced a greater effect on fetotoxicity (83%) than either marihuana or alcohol alone or that due to the additive effects of either of these substances (63%). The combination of alcohol and the lower dose of marihuana extract did not increase fetotoxicity significantly. Doses of alcohol that are otherwise without effect on pregnancy may thus have the potential for greatly increasing the effects of drugs on pregnancy outcome.

  18. Resveratrol Administration Increases Transthyretin Protein Levels, Ameliorating AD Features: The Importance of Transthyretin Tetrameric Stability

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luís Miguel; Rodrigues, Daniela; Alemi, Mobina; Silva, Sara Costa; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo work showed that resveratrol has beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, resulting in increased expression of transthyretin (TTR). TTR binds amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, avoiding its aggregation and toxicity, and is reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in AD. Further, resveratrol binds TTR, stabilizing the native TTR tetrameric structure. To further explore the mechanism of neuroprotection conferred by TTR in AD, resveratrol was administered in the diet to 5- to 8-month-old AD transgenic female mice carrying just 1 copy of the mouse TTR gene for 2 months. Effects in brain Aβ burden were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and total brain Aβ levels by ELISA, showing a striking decrease in both parameters in treated animals. In addition, total brain lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) levels were increased in treated animals, although its gene expression was unaltered. To further understand the mechanism(s) underlying such improvement in AD features, we measured TTR plasma levels, showing that TTR increased in resveratrol-treated mice, whereas liver TTR gene transcription was not altered. These results strengthen the stability hypothesis, which postulates that TTR is unstable in AD, leading to accelerated clearance and lower levels. Therefore, resveratrol, which stabilizes the TTR tetramer results in TTR-normalized clearance, increases the protein plasma levels. In turn, stabilized TTR binds more strongly to Aβ peptide, avoiding its aggregation. Our results represent a step forward in the understanding of the mechanism underlying TTR protection in AD and highlight the possibility of using TTR stabilization as a therapeutic target in AD. PMID:27385446

  19. Mice increased target biting behaviors 24 hours after co-administration of alcohol and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping Chao; Matray-Devoti, Judith; Fisher, Hans; Wagner, George C

    2017-02-10

    Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment. In the present study, we isolated mice for 4 - 6 weeks and injected them with alcohol, fluoxetine and alcohol with fluoxetine. We studied their aggression by using two types of behavioral paradigms: isolation-induced attack behavior towards a naïve mouse in a neutral cage, or shock-induced target biting aggression. We observed that alcohol administered at 500 mg/kg significantly increased animal attack behaviors towards naïve mice 30 minutes after injections. This dose of alcohol co-administered with a low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) further increased the attack behaviors, but with higher doses of fluoxetine decreased the attack behaviors. Alcohol administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased the shock-induced target biting rates 24 hours after injections. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in target biting rates when alcohol was co-administered with fluoxetine at a dose of 16 mg/kg 24 hours after injections. We also observed the same heightened target biting rates when animals were injected with fluoxetine alone. This heightened biting attack engendered by the fluoxetine (alone or in combination with the alcohol) occurred at a time when brain serotonin activity was reduced by these drugs in the frontal lobe and hypothalamus. These observations indicate that heightened biting attack behavior may be associated with reduced serotonergic activity in brain regions regulating aggression.

  20. Acute and chronic caffeine administration increases physical activity in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used stimulant thought to have ergogenic properties. Most studies on the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been conducted in athletes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and increases liking of physical activity in sedentary adults. Participants completed treadmill walking at 60% to 70% of their maximal heart rate at baseline and for 6 subsequent visits, during which half of the participants were given caffeine (3 mg/kg) and half given placebo in a sports drink vehicle. To investigate the potential synergistic effects of acute and chronic caffeine on self-determined exercise duration, participants were rerandomized to either the same or different condition for the last visit, creating 4 chronic/acute treatment groups (placebo/placebo, placebo/caffeine, caffeine/placebo, caffeine/caffeine). Participants rated how much they liked the activity and perceived exertion at each visit. There was a main effect of time on liking of physical activity, with liking increasing over time and an interaction of sex and caffeine treatment on liking, with liking of activity increasing in female participants treated with caffeine, but not with placebo. There was no effect of caffeine on ratings of perceived exertion. Individuals who received caffeine on the final test day exercised for significantly longer than those who received placebo. These data suggest that repeated exposure to physical activity significantly increases liking of exercise and reduces ratings of perceived exertion and that caffeine does little to further modify these effects.

  1. Does Neostigmine Administration Produce a Clinically Important Increase in Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Rong; Sessler, Daniel I.; Apfel, Christian C.

    2005-01-01

    Neostigmine is used to antagonize neoromuscluar blocker-induced residual neuromuscular paralysis. Despite a previous meta-analysis, the effect of neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains unresolved. We reevaluated the effect of neostigmine on PONV while considering the different anticholinergics as potentially confounding factors. We performed a systematic literature search using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, reference listings, and hand searching with no language restriction through December 2004 and identified 10 clinical, randomized, controlled trials evaluating neostigmine's effect on PONV. Data on nausea or vomiting from 933 patients were extracted for the early (0-6 h), delayed (6-24 h), and overall postoperative periods (0-24 h) and analyzed with RevMan 4.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) and multiple logistic regression analysis. The combination of neostigmine with either atropine or glycopyrrolate did not significantly increase the incidence of overall (0-24 h) vomiting (relative risk (RR) 0.91 [0.70-1.18], P=0.48) or nausea (RR 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59], P=0.08). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that that there was not a significant increase in the risk of vomiting with large compared with small doses of neostigmine. In contrast to a previous analysis, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that neostigmine increases the risk of PONV. PMID:16243993

  2. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24634848

  3. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect.

  4. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun

    2011-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were comparable between thermal conditions. At the MDMA challenge test (3.0 mg/kg, i.v.), in vivo microdialysis showed nucleus accumbens serotonin (NAcc 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) responses were significantly increased in both thermal conditions. In the heated environment, MDMA-stimulated 5-HT responses and core temperature (but not DA) were significantly greater than at room temperature. Though the heated environment did not acutely boost MDMA intake, exaggerated NAcc 5-HT responses to MDMA may result in 5-HT depletion; a condition associated with Ecstasy use escalation and neural dysfunctions altering mood and cognition. PMID:20888192

  5. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the

  6. Intranasal administration of testosterone increased immobile-sniffing, exploratory behavior, motor behavior and grooming behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoliang; Shi, Geming; Tan, Huibing; Kang, Yunxiao; Cui, Huixian

    2011-04-01

    Currently, testosterone (T) replacement therapy is typically provided by oral medication, injectable T esters, surgically implanted T pellets, transdermal patches and gels. However, most of these methods of administration are still not ideal for targeting the central nervous system. Recently, therapeutic intranasal T administration (InT) has been considered as another option for delivering T to the brain. In the present study, the effects of 21-day InT treatment were assessed on open field behavior in gonadectomized (GDX) rats and intact rats. Subcutaneous injections of T at same dose were also tested in GDX rats. A total of 12 behavioral events were examined in GDX groups with or without T and in intact groups with or without InT. Significant decreases in open field activity were observed in rats after GDX without InT compared to sham-operated rats. The open field activity scores for most tests significantly increased with InT treatment in GDX rats and in intact rats compared with the corresponding GDX rats and intact rats. Intranasal administration of T improved the reduced behaviors resulted from T deficiency better than subcutaneous injection of T, demonstrating that T can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration. Our results suggest that intranasal T delivery is an effective option for targeting the central nervous system.

  7. Synthesis, Trafficking, and Localization of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, Neil M.

    2008-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily that are expressed in and regulate the function of neurons, cardiac and smooth muscle, glands, and many other cell types and tissues. The correct trafficking of membrane proteins to the cell surface and their subsequent localization at appropriate sites in polarized cells are required for normal cellular signaling and physiological responses. This review will summarize work on the synthesis and trafficking of muscarinic receptors to the plasma membrane and their localization at the cell surface. PMID:18558434

  8. Binding of tropane alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sporer, F; Sauerwein, M; Wink, M

    1995-07-01

    Fourteen tropane and related alkaloids were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The biogenetic intermediates littorine, 6 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 7 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine exhibit similar affinities at the muscarinic receptor as scopolamine and atropine. The quarternary derivatives N-methylatropine and N-methylscopolamine show the highest binding with IC50 values of less than 100 pM and 300 pM, respectively. The tropane alkaloids (including cocaine) also bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, albeit with much lower affinities.

  9. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  10. Corticosteroid administration modifies ozone-induced increases in sheep airway blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, R.A.; Yousef, M.A.; Schelegle, E.S.; Cross, C.E. )

    1992-09-01

    Recently, we have shown that exposure of intubated conscious sheep to 3 to 4 ppm ozone (O3) for 3 h increases bronchial blood flow (Qbr). The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential role of corticosteroids in modulating this increase. Six nasally intubated sheep were exposed to filtered room air, 3.5 ppm O3 on two separate occasions, and 3.5 ppm O3 plus methyl-prednisone, for 3 h. Qbr was measured using a chronically implanted 20 MHz pulsed Doppler flow probe. Qbr, mean aortic pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, arterial blood gases, and core temperature were monitored. After 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr increased from 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) to 8.5 +/- 1.6 KHz, whereas bronchial vascular resistance (BVR) decreased from the baseline value of 43.6 +/- 8.0 to 15.0 +/- 3 mm Hg/KHz. With corticosteroids, baseline Qbr was 3.2 +/- 0.6 and BVR was 44.2 +/- 9.7; after 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr was 3.3 +/- 0.5 KHz and BVR was 39.0 +/- 8.0 mm Hg/KHz. The two 3.5-ppm O3 exposures without corticosteroids were impressively reproducible. Except for Qbr and BVR, no other measured cardiovascular parameters were affected by O3. The results indicate that corticosteroids are capable of interfering with mediator, neurohumoral, or inflammatory cell mechanisms responsible for vasodilation of the airway microcirculation after O3 exposure, but do not specifically address the specific processes whereby this attenuation occurs.

  11. Fluoxetine administration to pregnant rats increases anxiety-related behavior in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jocelien D A; Vallès, A; van Heesch, Floor; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Roelofs, Janneke J P M; Jonkers, Marloes; Peeters, Elke Joan; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Dederen, Jos P; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Martens, Gerard J; Schubert, Dirk; Homberg, Judith R

    2011-10-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac®) is the most frequently prescribed drug to battle depression in pregnant women, but its safety in the unborn child has not yet been established. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, crosses the placenta, leading to increased extracellular serotonin levels and potentially neurodevelopmental changes in the fetus. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the long-term consequences of prenatal fluoxetine in rats. Pregnant rats were injected daily with 12 mg/kg fluoxetine or vehicle from gestational day 11 until birth, and the behavior of the offspring was monitored. Plasma fluoxetine transfer from mother to pup was 83%, and high levels of fluoxetine (13.0 μg/g) were detected in the pup brain 5 h after the last injection. Fluoxetine-treated dams gave birth to litters 15% smaller than usual and to pups of reduced weight (until postnatal day 7). Furthermore, prenatal fluoxetine exposure significantly increased anxiety in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, the footshock-induced conditioned place aversion test, and the elevated plus maze test (following footshock pre-exposure) during adulthood, and also significantly decreased components of social play behavior at 4 weeks of age, and a strong tendency for increased self-grooming and making less contact in adults. Behavioral despair, anhedonia, and sexual behavior were not different between treatment groups. Finally, the hypothermic response to the 5-HT(1A) agonist flesinoxan was observed at a lower dose in prenatally fluoxetine-exposed rats than in controls. Prenatal fluoxetine exposure in rats leads to detrimental behavioral outcomes in later life, which may partly be due to altered 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling.

  12. Prenatal cocaine administration increases glutathione and alpha-tocopherol oxidation in fetal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jack W; Gyawali, Sandeep; Borys, Ewa D; Koprich, James B; Ptaszny, Magdalena; McGuire, Susan O

    2003-12-30

    Recent findings suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure results in significant attenuation of uterine and placental blood flow. The extent of blood flow reduction to fetuses positively correlates with reductions in glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and dopamine (DA). However, whether such changes in uterine blood flow are sufficient to induce oxidative stress have yet to be determined. In the following experiments, the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on fetal brain levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH and its oxidized form GSSG) or the exogenous antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T and its oxidized quinone form) was investigated. It was hypothesized that cocaine exposure would result in greater oxidation of both GSH and alpha-T. Results indicated that a single injection of cocaine to a drug-naive pregnant dam results in significant (-16.38%) reductions in the levels of GSH. GSSG can be either raised or reduced as a result of fetal uterine position: fetuses at the ovarian extremes show significant increases in GSSG in response to cocaine (+64.73%), whereas cervically situated fetuses show decreased GSSG (-47.91%). Additionally, cocaine significantly decreased the levels of alpha-T (-15.9%) and increased the levels of its oxidative product alpha-Tquinone (alpha-Tq, +34.05%). Levels of alpha-T were not affected by fetal uterine position. These data collectively suggest that cocaine exposure increases the utilization of both endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants in the fetal rat brain. Along with previous studies, these data support the hypothesis that cocaine-induced vasoconstriction results in oxidative stress in the gestating fetus.

  13. Differential regional development of tolerance to increase in dopamine turnover upon repeated neuroleptic administration.

    PubMed

    Scatton, B

    1977-12-15

    Repeated treatment with haloperidol and sulpiride induced tolerance to the increases in homovanillic and dihydroxyphenyl acetic acids in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium and frontal cortex of the rat. The threshold dose inducing this effect appeared to be lower in the striatum than in the limbic regions. Similar results were found in the frontal cortex by measuring dopamine utilization. Moreover, tolerance developed earlier in the striatum than in the limbic areas. The possible reasons are discussed for the differential development of tolerance in the various DA areas investigated.

  14. [Iron substitution in outpatients in Switzerland: Increase of costs associated with intravenous administration].

    PubMed

    Giger, Max; Achermann, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Iron anaemia and iron-deficient erythropoiesis are treated with oral iron supplements. For chronic haemodialysis or in the case of therapy failure or intolerance to oral iron therapy, intravenous supplements are administered. The costs of iron supplements borne by statutory health care insurance had strongly increased during the observation period from 2006 to 2010. Based on the invoice data of a large health insurance company with a market share of around 18 %, prescription data of iron preparations and laboratory tests were analysed and extrapolated to the Swiss population. During the 5-year observation period, costs of intravenous iron substitution increased by 16.5 m EUR (340.3 %) and the number of individuals treated by 243.5 %. A sharp rise was observed in women of menstruating age, which was mainly due to prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. More than 8 % of intravenous iron substitutions were administered without prior laboratory analysis,and must therefore be regarded as off-label use. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to demonstrate the additional value of intravenous over oral iron supplementation, and intravenous iron supplementation should be administered only to patients with proven iron deficiency.

  15. Exercise increases insulin signaling in the hippocampus: physiological effects and pharmacological impact of intracerebroventricular insulin administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre P; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Haas, Clarissa B; Lulhier, Francisco; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Torres-Aleman, Ignácio; Portela, Luis V

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that physical exercise induces adaptations at the cellular, molecular, and systemic levels that positively affect the brain. Insulin plays important functional roles within the brain that are mediated by insulin-receptor (IR) signaling. In the hippocampus, insulin improves synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and learning via direct modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Separately, physical exercise and central insulin administration exert relevant roles in cognitive function. We here use CF1 mice to investigate (i) the effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance and (ii) whether central insulin administration alters the effects of exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance. Adult mice performed 30 days of voluntary exercise on running wheel and afterward both, sedentary and exercised groups, received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of saline or insulin (0.5-5 mU). Memory performance was assessed using the inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks. Hippocampal tissue was measured for [U-(14)C] glucose oxidation and the immunocontent of insulin receptor/signaling (IR, pTyr, pAktser473). Additionally, the phosphorylation of the glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit and the capacity of glutamate uptake were measured, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine glial reactivity. Exercise significantly increased insulin peripheral sensitivity, spatial learning, and hippocampal IR/pTyrIR/pAktser473 immunocontent. Glucose oxidation, glutamate uptake, and astrocyte number also increased relative to the sedentary group. In both memory tasks, 5 mU icv insulin produced amnesia but only in exercised animals. This amnesia was associated a rapid (15 min) and persistent (24 h) increase in hippocampal pNR2B immunocontent that paralleled the increase in glial reactivity. In conclusion, physical exercise thus increased hippocampal insulin signaling and improved

  16. Chronic administration of nandrolone increases susceptibility to morphine dependence without correlation with LVV-hemorphin 7 in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chow, Lok-Hi

    2016-10-01

    LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVVYPWTQRF; LVV-H7), an N-terminal fragment of the β-chain of hemoglobin cleaved by cathepsin D/pepsin, is an atypical endogenous opioid peptide that is found in high concentration in blood. LVV-H7 acts as a μ-opioid agonist and an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Subchronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been clinically proven to induce the synthesis of erythrocytes and increase hemoglobin concentrations. Patients with a history of AAS abuse are more susceptible to opioid abuse. We hypothesized that this association could be at least partially attributed to the sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway by LVV-H7. Using the conditioned place preference test and neurochemical analysis, we investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effect of chronic nandrolone administration on morphine-induced reward and its correlation with LVV-H7 in rats. Either LVV-H7 may not sensitize the rewarding neural circuits or its inhibition on locomotor activity could mask reward-related behaviors. Chronic nandrolone pretreatment indeed caused a significant reward by low dose morphine, which did not cause any reward in control rats. However, coadministration of anti-LVV-H7 antiserum with nandrolone did not block this effect. This may rule out the possibility of the involvement of LVV-H7 in the action of nandrolone to intensify morphine-induced reward. Moreover, the serum level of LVV-H7 was mildly increased in response to chronic nandrolone administration in our animal model. According to the current clinical observations, we may conclude that the chronic administration of nandrolone can increase susceptibility to morphine dependence, but that this effect is not related to elevated LVV-H7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inflammatory Pain Promotes Increased Opioid Self-Administration: Role of Dysregulated Ventral Tegmental Area μ Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Lucia; Wilson-Poe, Adrianne; Campos-Jurado, Yolanda; Zhong, Elaine; Gonzalez-Romero, Jose; Virag, Laszlo; Whittington, Robert; Comer, Sandra D; Carlton, Susan M; Walker, Brendan M; Bruchas, Michael R; Morón, Jose A

    2015-09-02

    Pain management in opioid abusers engenders ethical and practical difficulties for clinicians, often resulting in pain mismanagement. Although chronic opioid administration may alter pain states, the presence of pain itself may alter the propensity to self-administer opioids, and previous history of drug abuse comorbid with chronic pain promotes higher rates of opioid misuse. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory pain leads to increased heroin self-administration resulting from altered mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission. To this end, the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammation was used to assess the neurochemical and functional changes induced by inflammatory pain on MOR-mediated mesolimbic DA transmission and on rat intravenous heroin self-administration under fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In the presence of inflammatory pain, heroin intake under an FR schedule was increased for high, but attenuated for low, heroin doses with concomitant alterations in mesolimbic MOR function suggested by DA microdialysis. Consistent with the reduction in low dose FR heroin self-administration, inflammatory pain reduced motivation for a low dose of heroin, as measured by responding under a PR schedule of reinforcement, an effect dissociable from high heroin dose PR responding. Together, these results identify a connection between inflammatory pain and loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that increases intake of high doses of heroin. These findings suggest that pain-induced loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic pathway may promote opioid dose escalation and contribute to opioid abuse-associated phenotypes. This study provides critical new insights that show that inflammatory pain alters heroin intake through a desensitization of MORs located within the VTA. These findings expand our knowledge of the interactions between inflammatory pain and opioid

  18. ALKALINE RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY INCREASE IN RAT KIDNEY CORTEX AND LIVER AFTER TRYPAN BLUE AND OTHER AZO DYES ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, M.; Brentani, R.; Ferreira, S.; Fausto, N.; Maack, T.

    1961-01-01

    Acid azo dyes, most of them naphtholdisulfonic acid derivatives, were given intraperitoneally to rats and their effect on "alkaline" ribonuclease activity was studied in total homogenates of kidney cortex and liver. Acid treatment was used to release bound enzyme activity. Several of the dyes, including trypan blue, increased RNase activity in both organs 3 days after administration of single doses, while others, like Evans blue, were inactive. Activity was apparently bound to the sulfonic substitution in the 3, 6 positions in the naphthalene rings, substitutions in the benzidine rings being not critical. All of the active and most of the inactive compounds were taken up by tubule cells of kidney cortex and by reticular and parenchymal cells of liver. While the effect on both liver and kidney was obtained 1 day after trypan blue administration, RNase remained increased for only about 3 days in the first organ, and for at least a month in the second. However, repeated trypan blue doses increased liver enzyme activity for at least 9 days. Serum RNase activity was decreased after trypan blue administration. Ethionine administration together with trypan blue markedly blocked the effect of the dye on liver RNase activity; simultaneously given methionine partially reversed the action of the antimetabolite. This suggests that de novo synthesis of RNase is induced in liver by trypan blue. The action of ethionine on the kidney RNase response to trypan blue was less marked although significant; in view of the possible kidney uptake of the plasma enzyme, interpretation of this finding must be postponed. Results are discussed with reference to the mechanism of the structural specificity of the compounds used, cytological localization of the dyes and their mechanism of action on liver and kidney RNase. PMID:13738846

  19. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide increases the expression of aquaporin-4 in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Hayakawa, Tetsu; Seki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia on the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the rat anterior pituitary gland, using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, the level of AQP4 mRNA doubled at 2, 4 and 8 hr. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase with time in AQP4 immunostaining in folliculo-stellate cells following LPS injection; the intensity of immunoreactivity peaked at 8 hr. At the same time, some cyst-like structures, formed by AQP4-positive cells, were observed. These findings indicate that LPS induces the expression of AQP4 in the anterior pituitary gland. The present results should provide an important key to elucidate the pathogenesis of the anterior pituitary gland during endotoxemia.

  20. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  1. Administration of URB597, oleoylethanolamide or palmitoylethanolamide increases waking and dopamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Drucker-Colín, René

    2011-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) are amides of fatty acids and ethanolamine named N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides. The hydrolysis of OEA and PEA is catalyzed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). A number of FAAH inhibitors that increase the levels of OEA and PEA in the brain have been developed, including URB597. In the present report, we examined whether URB597, OEA or PEA injected into wake-related brain areas, such as lateral hypothalamus (LH) or dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) would promote wakefulness (W) in rats. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were implanted for sleep studies with electrodes to record the electroencephalogram and electromyogram as well as a cannulae aimed either into LH or into DRN. Sleep stages were scored to determine W, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Power spectra bands underly neurophysiological mechanisms of the sleep-wake cycle and provide information about quality rather than quantity of sleep, thus fast Fourier transformation analysis was collected after the pharmacological trials for alpha (for W; α = 8-12 Hz), delta (for SWS; δ = 0.5-4.0 Hz) and theta (for REMS; θ = 6.0-12.0 Hz). Finally, microdialysis samples were collected from a cannula placed into the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) and the levels of dopamine (DA) were determined by HPLC means after the injection of URB597, OEA or PEA. We found that microinjection of compounds (10, 20, 30 µg/1 µL; each) into LH or DRN during the lights-on period increased W and decreased SWS as well as REMS and enhanced DA extracellular levels. URB597, OEA or PEA promoted waking and enhanced DA if injected into LH or DRN. The wake-promoting effects of these compounds could be linked with the enhancement in levels of DA and indirectly mediated by anandamide.

  2. Chronic corticosterone administration facilitates aversive memory retrieval and increases GR/NOS immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thays B; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are stress hormones that mediate the organism's reaction to stress. It has been previously proposed that the facilitation of emotional aversive conditioning induced by these hormones may involve nitric oxide-pathways. The purpose of the present study was to address this question. For that, male Wistar rats were surgically implanted with slow-release corticosterone (CORT) pellets (21 days) and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Additional groups of animals were also submitted to the same treatment conditions and on the 21st day of treatment assayed for GR (glucocorticoid receptors)-nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) immunoreactivity (GRi-nNOSi) or measurements of plasma CORT. Results showed that CORT treatment induced facilitation of step-down inhibitory avoidance. This same treatment also significantly increased CORT plasma levels and GRi in the medial, basolateral and basomedial amygdala, in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus, in the ventral CA1 region and in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 regions. Furthermore, nNOSi and GRi-nNOSi were significantly increased by CORT treatment in the medial amygdala and basolateral amygdaloid complex, in the PVN, subiculum, in the dorsal CA3 region and in the ventral CA1 and CA3 regions. These results indicate that the facilitation of aversive conditioning induced by CORT involves GR-nNOS pathways activation, what may be of relevance for a better understanding of stress-related psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Administration of interleukin-7 increases CD4 T cells in idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brian O.; DerSimonian, Rebecca; Kovacs, Stephen B.; Thompson, William L.; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Roby, Gregg; Mican, JoAnn; Pau, Alice; Rupert, Adam; Adelsberger, Joseph; Higgins, Jeanette; Bourgeois, Jeffrey S.; Jensen, Stig M. R.; Morcock, David R.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Osnos, Leah; Maric, Irina; Natarajan, Ven; Croughs, Therese; Yao, Michael D.; Estes, Jacob D.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare syndrome defined by low CD4 T-cell counts (<300/µL) without evidence of HIV infection or other known cause of immunodeficiency. ICL confers an increased risk of opportunistic infections and has no established treatment. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is fundamental for thymopoiesis, T-cell homeostasis, and survival of mature T cells, which provides a rationale for its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent for ICL. We performed an open-label phase 1/2A dose-escalation trial of 3 subcutaneous doses of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) per week in patients with ICL who were at risk of disease progression. The primary objectives of the study were to assess safety and the immunomodulatory effects of rhIL-7 in ICL patients. Injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. One patient experienced a hypersensitivity reaction and developed non-neutralizing anti-IL-7 antibodies. Patients with autoimmune diseases that required systemic therapy at screening were excluded from the study; however, 1 participant developed systemic lupus erythematosus while on study and was excluded from further rhIL-7 dosing. Quantitatively, rhIL-7 led to an increase in the number of circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells and tissue-resident CD3 T cells in the gut mucosa and bone marrow. Functionally, these T cells were capable of producing cytokines after mitogenic stimulation. rhIL-7 was well tolerated at biologically active doses and may represent a promising therapeutic intervention in ICL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00839436. PMID:26675348

  4. Muscarinic effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on rabbit airways.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, A; Saunier, C; Michoud, M C; du Souich, P

    1993-10-01

    1. The aim of the present work was to investigate under which circumstances atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) modulates airway resistance. 2. Of the six groups of rabbits (n = 5) studied, three received an infusion of ANP (80 ng min-1 kg-1 i.v.) for a period of 100 min, while the other three were infused with the vehicle. Before receiving the infusion of ANP or the vehicle, the animals were pretreated with atropine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.), propranolol (2 mg kg-1 i.v.) or not pretreated. After 75 min of infusion of ANP, bronchoconstriction was induced by inhalation of histamine. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured before and 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-histamine challenge. 3. Following 75 min of ANP infusion, plasma ANP concentration increased from 153 +/- 52 (mean +/- s.e.mean) to 1441 +/- 203 pg ml-1 (P < 0.05) without affecting baseline Rrs. Control Rrs values (12.5-20.4 cmH2O l-1 s) were significantly increased following the inhalation of histamine (P < 0.001). By themselves, atropine, propranolol or ANP did not modify the histamine-induced increase in Rrs. However, when the animals were pretreated with atropine, ANP infusion significantly reduced the increase in Rrs induced by histamine (30 +/- 2 vs 51 +/- 6 cmH2O l-1 s; P < 0.05). 4. These data suggest that ANP has an indirect modulating effect on the airway smooth muscle and will decrease Rrs when muscarinic receptors are blocked.

  5. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells using specific muscarinic receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    McLeskey, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In cerebellar granule cell cultures, two muscarinic receptor mediated responses were observed: inhibition of adenylate cyclase (M-AC) and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis (M-PI). These responses were antagonized by three purported specific muscarinic antagonists: pirenzipine and (-)QNX (specific for M-PI) and methoctramine (specific for M-AC). However, the specificity for the three antagonists in blocking these responses is not comparable to the specificity observed in binding studies on these cells or to that quoted in the literature. Two peaks of molecular sizes were found in these cells corresponding to the two molecular sizes of muscarinic receptive proteins reported in the literature. Muscarinic receptive proteins were alkylated with {sup 3}H-propylbenzilylcholine mustard followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Pirenzipine and (-)QNX were able to block alkylation of the high molecular size peak, which corresponds to the receptive protein m{sub 3} reported in the literature. Methoctramine was able to block alkylation of a portion of the lower molecular size peak, possibly corresponding to the m{sub 2} and/or m{sub 4} receptive proteins reported in the literature. Studies attempting to show the presence of receptor reserve for either of the two biochemical responses present in these cells by alkylation of the receptive protein with nonradiolabeled propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM) were confounded by specificity of this agent for the lower molecular weight peak of muscarinic receptive protein. Thus the muscarinic receptive proteins coupled to M-AC were alkylated preferentially over the ones coupled to M-PI.

  6. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  7. Chronic fluoxetine administration enhances synaptic plasticity and increases functional dynamics in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Dina, Popova; Castren, Eero; Taira, Tomi

    2017-09-05

    Recent studies demonstrate that chronic administration of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) promotes neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus, cortex and amygdala. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and how are they related to the clinical antidepressant efficacy are still poorly understood. We show here that chronic FLX administration decreases hippocampus-associated neophobia in naïve mice. In parallel, electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry revealed that the FLX treatment resulted in increased short- and long-term plasticity likely attributed to changes in presynaptic function. These changes were accompanied by enhancement in the expression of proteins related to vesicular trafficking and release, namely synaptophysin, synaptotagmin 1, MUNC 18 and syntaxin 1. Thus, chronic FLX administration is associated with enhanced synaptic dynamics atypical of mature CA1 synapses, elevated hippocampal plasticity, improved hippocampus-dependent behavior as well as altered expression of synaptic proteins regulating neurotransmitter trafficking and release. The results support the idea that antidepressants can promote neuronal plasticity and show that they can increase the functional dynamic range and information processing in synaptic circuitries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Administration of URB597, Oleoylethanolamide or Palmitoylethanolamide Increases Waking and Dopamine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Drucker-Colín, René

    2011-01-01

    Background Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) are amides of fatty acids and ethanolamine named N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides. The hydrolysis of OEA and PEA is catalyzed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). A number of FAAH inhibitors that increase the levels of OEA and PEA in the brain have been developed, including URB597. In the present report, we examined whether URB597, OEA or PEA injected into wake-related brain areas, such as lateral hypothalamus (LH) or dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) would promote wakefulness (W) in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings Male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were implanted for sleep studies with electrodes to record the electroencephalogram and electromyogram as well as a cannulae aimed either into LH or into DRN. Sleep stages were scored to determine W, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Power spectra bands underly neurophysiological mechanisms of the sleep-wake cycle and provide information about quality rather than quantity of sleep, thus fast Fourier transformation analysis was collected after the pharmacological trials for alpha (for W; α = 8–12 Hz), delta (for SWS; δ = 0.5–4.0 Hz) and theta (for REMS; θ = 6.0–12.0 Hz). Finally, microdialysis samples were collected from a cannula placed into the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) and the levels of dopamine (DA) were determined by HPLC means after the injection of URB597, OEA or PEA. We found that microinjection of compounds (10, 20, 30 µg/1 µL; each) into LH or DRN during the lights-on period increased W and decreased SWS as well as REMS and enhanced DA extracellular levels. Conclusions URB597, OEA or PEA promoted waking and enhanced DA if injected into LH or DRN. The wake-promoting effects of these compounds could be linked with the enhancement in levels of DA and indirectly mediated by anandamide. PMID:21779318

  9. Model of rapid gastrointestinal transit in dogs: effects of muscarinic antagonists and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Bharucha, A E; Thomforde, G M; Kost, L J; Phillips, S F

    2002-10-01

    Our aims were to establish a canine model of rapid gastrointestinal transit, and to test the effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, pirenzepine, AF-DX116, and darifenacin), and an NOS inhibitor, L-nitro-N-arginine (L-NNA) in this model. For gastric emptying and small bowel transit, 99mTc-labelled DTPA were added to a meal of skimmed milk (236 mL) that contained 2.4 g of magnesium hydroxide. Regional colonic transit was measured by111In-labelled beads placed in a capsule that released isotope in the proximal colon. Scintiscans were taken at regular intervals and indices of transit were calculated. Drugs were administrated intravenously. Gastric emptying, small bowel and colonic transit were rapid. Atropine and darifenacin (a selective M3 antagonist) delayed gastric emptying and colonic transit, the selective M1 and M2 muscarinic antagonists did not. The muscarinic blockers did not slow small bowel transit. L-NNA delayed small bowel and colonic transit but did not slow gastric emptying. A model suitable for the preclinical study of antidiarrhoeals was established. M3 receptors are important in the control of gastric emptying and colonic transit, and NOS inhibition slowed small bowel and colonic transit.

  10. Effect of central muscarinic receptors on passive-avoidance learning deficits induced by prenatal pentylenetetrazol kindling in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pourmotabbed, A; Mahmoodi, G; Mahmoodi, S; Mohammadi-Farani, A; Nedaei, S E; Pourmotabbed, T; Pourmotabbed, T

    2014-10-24

    Occurrence of the epileptic seizures during gestation might affect the neurodevelopment of the fetus resulting in cognitive problems for the child later in life. We have previously reported that prenatal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling induces learning and memory deficits in the children born to kindled mothers, later in life but the mechanisms involved in this processes are unknown. The cholinergic system plays a major role in learning and memory. The present study was performed to investigate the possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors on learning and memory deficits induced by prenatal PTZ-kindling in male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were kindled by repetitive i.p. injection of 25mg/kg of PTZ on day 13 of their pregnancy. The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of scopolamine and pilocarpine, muscarinic cholinergic receptors antagonist and agonist, respectively on passive-avoidance learning of pups were tested at 12weeks of age using shuttle-box apparatus. Our data showed that the retention latencies of pups that received scopolamine (2 or 3μg) were significantly reduced compared to those received normal saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, post training ICV administration of pilocarpine (2μg) retrieved pups' memory deficits (p<0.001). These results demonstrate for the first time, the importance of the central muscarinic cholinergic receptors in learning and memory deficits in pups born to kindled dams and suggest a central mechanism for the cognitive and memory dysfunction, associated with seizures during pregnancy.

  11. M1 muscarinic receptors are necessary for retrieval of remote context fear memory.

    PubMed

    Patricio, Rafael Rodisanski; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have investigated the transition of consolidation of recent memory to remote memory in aversively motivated tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, the mechanisms that serve the retrieval of remote memories, has not yet been fully understood. Some evidences suggest that the central cholinergic system appears be involved in the modulation of these processes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a pre-test administration of dicyclomine, a high-affinity M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist, on the retrieval of remote memories in fear conditioning and IA tasks. Male Wistar rats were trained, and after 1 or 28days, the rats received dicyclomine (16 or 32mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.) and were tested in CFC, tone fear conditioning (TFC) and IA tasks. At both time intervals, 32mg/kg dicyclomine induced impairment of CFC. In TFC task only the performance of the rats 28days after training was impaired. The IA task was not affected in any of the studied intervals. These findings suggest a differential contribution of muscarinic receptors on recent and remote memories retrieval revealing a more generalized role in remote memory.

  12. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy.

  13. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Adrian J; Bradley, Sophie J; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M; Bottrill, Andrew R; Challiss, R A John; Broad, Lisa M; Felder, Christian C; Tobin, Andrew B

    2016-04-22

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser(228)) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser(228) These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser(228) was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser(228) on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser(228) phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser(228) not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning.

  14. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory*♦

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Bradley, Sophie J.; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M.; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M.; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Challiss, R. A. John; Broad, Lisa M.; Felder, Christian C.; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser228) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser228. These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser228 was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser228 on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser228 phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser228 not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning. PMID:26826123

  15. Role of internalization of M2 muscarinic receptor via clathrin-coated vesicles in desensitization of the muscarinic K+ current in heart.

    PubMed

    Yamanushi, T T; Shui, Z; Leach, R N; Dobrzynski, H; Claydon, T W; Boyett, M R

    2007-04-01

    In the heart, ACh activates the ACh-activated K(+) current (I(K,ACh)) via the M(2) muscarinic receptor. The relationship between desensitization of I(K,ACh) and internalization of the M(2) receptor has been studied in rat atrial cells. On application of the stable muscarinic agonist carbachol for 2 h, I(K,ACh) declined by approximately 62% with time constants of 1.5 and 26.9 min, whereas approximately 83% of the M(2) receptor was internalized from the cell membrane with time constants of 2.9 and 51.6 min. Transfection of the cells with beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (G protein-receptor kinase 2) and beta-arrestin 2 significantly increased I(K,ACh) desensitization and M(2) receptor internalization during a 3-min application of agonist. Internalized M(2) receptor in cells exposed to carbachol for 2 h was colocalized with clathrin and not caveolin. It is concluded that a G protein-receptor kinase 2- and beta-arrestin 2-dependent internalization of the M(2) receptor into clathrin-coated vesicles could play a major role in I(K,ACh) desensitization.

  16. Myocardial muscarinic receptor upregulation and normal response to isoproterenol in denervated hearts by familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, N; Le Guludec, D; Dinanian, S; Delforge, J; Slama, M S; Sarda, L; Dollé, F; Mzabi, H; Samuel, D; Adams, D; Syrota, A; Merlet, P

    2001-12-11

    Patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy, a rare hereditary form of amyloidosis, have progressive autonomic neuropathy. The disease usually does not induce heart failure but is associated with sudden death, conduction disturbances, and an increased risk of complications during anesthesia. Although cardiac sympathetic denervation has been clearly demonstrated, the postsynaptic status of the cardiac autonomic nervous system remains unelucidated. Twenty-one patients were studied (age, 39+/-11 years; normal coronary arteries; left ventricular ejection fraction 68+/-9%). To evaluate the density and affinity constants of myocardial muscarinic receptors, PET with (11)C-MQNB (methylquinuclidinyl benzilate), a specific hydrophilic antagonist, was used. Cardiac beta-receptor functional efficiency was studied by the heart rate (HR) response to intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (5 minutes after 2 mg of atropine, 5, 10, and 15 ng/kg per minute during 5 minutes per step). The mean muscarinic receptor density was higher in patients than in control subjects (B'(max), 35.5+/-8.9 versus 26.1+/-6.7 pmol/mL, P=0.003), without change in receptor affinity. The increase in HR after injection of atropine as well as of MQNB was lower in patients compared with control subjects despite a similar basal HR (DeltaHR after atropine, 11+/-21% versus 62+/-17%; P<0.001), consistent with parasympathetic denervation. Incremental infusion of isoproterenol induced a similar increase in HR in patients and control subjects. Cardiac autonomic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy results in an upregulation of myocardial muscarinic receptors but without change in cardiac beta-receptor responsiveness to catecholamines.

  17. Early postnatal administration of growth hormone increases tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuron numbers in Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Clark, Sara; Bokov, Alex F; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Hurley, David L; Phelps, Carol J

    2010-07-01

    Hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons secrete dopamine, which inhibits pituitary prolactin (PRL) secretion. PRL has demonstrated neurotrophic effects on TIDA neuron development in PRL-, GH-, and TSH-deficient Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice. However, both PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice exhibit normal-sized TIDA neuron numbers, implying GH and/or TSH influence TIDA neuron development. The current study investigated the effect of porcine (p) GH on TIDA neuron development in Ames dwarf hypothalamus. Normal (DF/df) and dwarf mice were treated daily with pGH or saline beginning at 3 d of age for a period of 42 d. After treatment, brains were analyzed using catecholamine histofluorescence, tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunocytochemistry to detect BrdU incorporation. DF/df males and df/df treated with pGH experienced increased (P

  18. Selective blockade of central m1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors with pirenzepine impairs cardiovascular and respiratory function in rats with acute hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievskii, D D

    2006-09-01

    Ultrasound studies showed that selective antagonist of central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors pirenzepine (50 mg/kg intravenously) causes transitory hypotension and respiratory depression in anesthetized intact rats. The M1 receptor antagonist had no effect on cardiac output and portal blood flow. Pretreatment with pirenzepine increased the sensitivity of rats with acute massive hemorrhage to circulatory hypoxia. After blockade of central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, the posthemorrhagic period was characterized by primary decompensation of blood pressure, portal blood flow, and respiration and development of low cardiac output syndrome. The animals died over the first minutes after bleeding arrest. Our results indicate that central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors act as shock-limiting cholinergic structures under conditions of posthemorrhagic changes in systemic and portal blood flow, as well as during respiratory dysfunction.

  19. Moderate traumatic brain injury increases the vulnerability to neurotoxicity induced by systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Ben, Juliana; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Rial, Daniel; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2017-03-10

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to a moderate TBI using a free weight-drop device and, 5 h later, they were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 6-OHDA (100 mg/kg). Afterwards, during a period of 4 weeks, the mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the neurological severity score (NSS), the open field and the rotarod. Animals from the TBI plus 6-OHDA group displayed significant motor and neurological impairments that were improved by acute L-DOPA administration (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the observation of the motor deficits correlates with (i) a significant decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylase levels mainly in the rostral striatum and (ii) a significant increase in the levels of striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. On the whole, the present findings demonstrate that a previous moderate TBI event increases the susceptibility to motor, neurological and neurochemical alterations induced by systemic administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA in mice.

  20. The effects of standardized trauma training on prehospital pain control: have pain medication administration rates increased on the battlefield?

    PubMed

    Bowman, W Joseph; Nesbitt, Michael E; Therien, Sean P

    2012-08-01

    The US Military has served in some of the most austere locations in the world. In this ever-changing environment, units are organized into smaller elements operating in very remote areas. This often results in longer evacuation times, which can lead to a delay in pain management if treatment is not initiated in the prehospital setting. Early pain control has become an increasingly crucial military prehospital task and must be controlled from the pain-initiating event. The individual services developed their standardized trauma training based on the recommendations by Frank Butler and the Defense Health Board Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care. This training stresses evidence-based treatment modalities, including pain control, derived from casualty injury analysis. Inadequate early pain control may lead to multiple acute and potentially chronic effects. These effects encompass a wide range from changes in blood pressure to delayed wound healing and posttraumatic stress disorder. Therefore, it is essential that pain be addressed in the prehospital environment. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective Joint Theater Trauma Registry comparative study evaluating whether standardized trauma training increased prehospital pain medication administration between 2007 and 2009. These years were selected on the basis of mandatory training initiation dates and available Joint Theater Trauma Registry records. Records were analyzed for all US prehospital trauma cases with documented pain medication administration from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom for the specified years. Data analysis revealed 232 patients available for review (102 for 2007 and 130 for 2009). A statistically significant prehospital pain treatment increase was noted, from 3.1% in 2007 to 6.7% in 2009 (p < 0.0005; 95% confidence interval, 2.39-4.93). Standardized trauma training has increased the administration of prehospital pain medication and the

  1. Unexpected antipsychotic-like activity with the muscarinic receptor ligand (5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane .

    PubMed

    Bymaster, F P; Shannon, H E; Rasmussen, K; Delapp, N W; Mitch, C H; Ward, J S; Calligaro, D O; Ludvigsen, T S; Sheardown, M J; Olesen, P H; Swedberg, M D; Sauerberg, P; Fink-Jensen, A

    1998-09-04

    (5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3 .2.1]octane (PTAC) is a potent muscarinic receptor ligand with high affinity for central muscarinic receptors and no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors or binding sites including dopamine receptors. The ligand exhibits partial agonist effects at muscarinic M2 and M4 receptors and antagonist effects at muscarinic M1, M3 and M5 receptors. PTAC inhibited conditioned avoidance responding, dopamine receptor agonist-induced behavior and D-amphetamine-induced FOS protein M5 expression in the nucleus accumbens without inducing catalepsy, tremor or salivation at pharmacologically relevant doses. The effect of PTAC on conditioned avoidance responding and dopamine receptor agonist-induced behavior was antagonized by the acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. The compound selectively inhibited dopamine cell firing (acute administration) as well as the number of spontaneously active dopamine cells (chronic administration) in the limbic ventral tegmental area (A10) relative to the non-limbic substantia nigra, pars compacta (A9). The results demonstrate that PTAC exhibits functional dopamine receptor antagonism despite its lack of affinity for the dopamine receptors and indicate that muscarinic receptor partial agonists may be an important new approach in the medical treatment of schizophrenia.

  2. Biochemical and immunological studies of the Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gainer, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were solubilized from bovine brain membranes with 3(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)propanesulfonate (CHAPS). A combination of 10 mM CHAPS and 1 M NaCl solubilized 15-40% of the specific receptor binding sites from these membranes. The solubilized receptors displayed high affinity binding of the muscarinic antagonist, (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate with a K/sub D/ = 300 pM. In addition, the solubilized and retained guanyl nucleotide regulation of agonist binding characteristic of membrane bound receptors. Gel filtration experiments showed that solubilized receptors from cortex and cerebellum had different elution profiles. Analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that receptors in the lower molecular weight peak sedimented with a coefficient of 5S. Receptors in the larger molecular weight peak sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Attempts to purify receptors by chromatography on propylbenzilycholine Sepharose were unsuccessful. The technique used to attach the ligand to the solid support, however, was used to synthesize a PrBCM-BSA conjugate and the conjugate used as an antigen in the production of anti-ligand antibodies. Two anti-PrBCM monoclonal antibodies were isolated that recognize muscarinic but not nicotinic cholinergic ligands. The abilities of the antibodies to recognize other muscarinic ligands indicated the antibodies recognized a portion of PrBCM involved in binding to the receptor. Construction of an antibody affinity resin resulted in the purification of this fragment a minimum of 170 fold.

  3. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  4. Muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor subtypes on striatal cholinergic interneurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, V.L.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1990-12-01

    Unilateral stereotaxic injection of small amounts of the cholinotoxin, AF64A, caused minimal nonselective tissue damage and resulted in a significant loss of the presynaptic cholinergic markers (3H)hemicholinium-3 (45% reduction) and choline acetyltransferase (27% reduction). No significant change from control was observed in tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase activity; presynaptic neuronal markers for dopamine- and serotonin-containing neurons, respectively. The AF64A lesion resulted in a significant reduction of dopamine D2 receptors as evidenced by a decrease in (3H)sulpiride binding (42% reduction) and decrease of muscarinic non-M1 receptors as shown by a reduction in (3H)QNB binding in the presence of 100 nM pirenzepine (36% reduction). Saturation studies revealed that the change in (3H)sulpiride and (3H)QNB binding was due to a change in Bmax not Kd. Intrastriatal injection of AF64A failed to alter dopamine D1 or muscarinic M1 receptors labeled with (3H)SCH23390 and (3H)pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, no change in (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase was observed. These results demonstrate that a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors (non-M1) are presynaptic on cholinergic interneurons (hence, autoreceptors), and a subpopulation of dopamine D2 receptors are postsynaptic on cholinergic interneurons. Furthermore, dopamine D1, muscarinic M1 and (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase are not localized to striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  5. Muscarinic receptors in perirhinal cortex control trace conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sun Jung; Brown, Thomas H

    2009-04-08

    Trace conditioning requires that a transient representation of the conditional stimulus (CS) persists during the time interval between the CS offset and the onset of the unconditional stimulus. According to one hypothesis, this transient CS representation is supported by endogenous activity in "persistent-firing" neurons of perirhinal cortex (PR). By definition, persistent-firing neurons discharge for tens of seconds or minutes after the termination of the original spike-initiating stimulus. This continued spiking does not depend on recurrent circuit activity and can be reliably and completely blocked by muscarinic receptor antagonists. The present study evaluated the role of PR muscarinic receptors in trace fear conditioning. Before conditioning, rats received bilateral intra-PR infusions with either saline or scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. Scopolamine infusions profoundly impaired trace conditioning but had no effect on delay conditioning or context conditioning. The results encourage a more general understanding of muscarinic receptors in PR and they motivate additional tests of the emerging theory that persistent-firing neurons support aspects of transient memory.

  6. The selective M1 muscarinic cholinergic agonist CDD-0102A enhances working memory and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ragozzino, Michael E; Artis, Sonja; Singh, Amritha; Twose, Trevor M; Beck, Joseph E; Messer, William S

    2012-03-01

    Various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders are marked by alterations in brain cholinergic function and cognitive deficits. Efforts to alleviate such deficits have been limited by a lack of selective M(1) muscarinic agonists. 5-(3-Ethyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine hydrochloride (CDD-0102A) is a partial agonist at M(1) muscarinic receptors with limited activity at other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The present studies investigated the effects of CDD-0102A on working memory and strategy shifting in rats. CDD-0102A administered intraperitoneally 30 min before testing at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg significantly enhanced delayed spontaneous alternation performance in a four-arm cross maze, suggesting improvement in working memory. In separate experiments, CDD-0102A had potent enhancing effects on learning and switching between a place and visual cue discrimination. Treatment with CDD-0102A did not affect acquisition of either a place or visual cue discrimination. In contrast, CDD-0102A at 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly enhanced a shift between a place and visual cue discrimination. Analysis of the errors in the shift to the place or shift to the visual cue strategy revealed that in both cases CDD-0102A significantly increased the ability to initially inhibit a previously relevant strategy and maintain a new, relevant strategy once selected. In anesthetized rats, the minimum dose required to induce salivation was approximately 0.3 mg/kg i.p. Salivation increased with dose, and the estimated ED(50) was 2.0 mg/kg. The data suggest that CDD-0102A has unique memory and cognitive enhancing properties that might be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders at doses that do not produce adverse effects such as salivation.

  7. Altered coupling of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, J.L.; Warren, J.R.

    1986-03-05

    The structure and function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in acinar carcinoma cells have been compared to mAChR in normal pancreatic acinar cells. Similar 80 kD proteins identified by SDS-PAGE of tumor and normal mAChR affinity-labeled with the muscarinic antagonist /sup 3/H-propylbenzilyl-choline mustards, and identical binding of the antagonist N-methylscopolamine to tumor and normal cells (K/sub D/approx.4x10/sup -10/ M), indicate conservation of mAChR proteins in carcinoma cells. Carcinoma mAChR display homogeneous binding of the agonists carbamylcholine (CCh), K/sub D/approx.3x10/sup -5/ M, and oxotremorine (Oxo), K/sub D/approx.x10/sup -6/ M, whereas normal cells display heterogeneous binding, with a minor component of high affinity interactions for CCh, K/sub D/approx.3x10/sup -6/ M, and Oxo, K/sub D/approx.2x/sup -17/ M, and a major component of low affinity interactions for CCh, K/sub D/approx.1x10/sup -4/ M, and Oxo, K/sub D/approx.2x10/sup -5/ M. Both carcinoma and normal cells exhibit concentration-dependent CCh-stimulated increase in cytosolic free Ca/sup 2 +/, as measured by intracellular Quin 2 fluorescence and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. However, carcinoma cells demonstrate 50% maximal stimulation of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ release at a CCh concentration (EC/sub 50/approx.6x10/sup -7/ M) one log below that observed for normal cells. The authors propose an altered coupling of mAChR to intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis in carcinoma cells, which is manifest as a single activated receptor state for agonist binding, and increased sensitivity to muscarinic receptor stimulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ release.

  8. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie; Hansen, Stine Normann

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001). Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001). Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling. PMID:28671625

  9. Muscarinic receptors, leukotriene B4 production and neutrophilic inflammation in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Profita, M; Giorgi, R Di; Sala, A; Bonanno, A; Riccobono, L; Mirabella, F; Gjomarkaj, M; Bonsignore, G; Bousquet, J; Vignola, A M

    2005-11-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in smooth muscle contraction and in the development of airway narrowing; preliminary evidences led us to hypothesize that ACh might also play a role in the development of airways inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the concentrations of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in induced sputum, and the expression of Ach M1, M2, and M3 receptors in sputum cells (SC) obtained from 16 patients with COPD, 11 smokers, and 14 control subjects. The SC were also treated with ACh and the production of LTB4 assessed in the presence or absence of a muscarinic antagonist (oxitropium). In blood monocytes, we evaluated LTB4 release and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway after treatment with Ach. The LTB4 concentrations were higher in COPD than in controls (P < 0.01) and correlated with the number of neutrophil (P < 0.01). The M3 receptors expression was increased in COPD subjects when compared to smokers and control (P < 0.05 and 0.0001, respectively), while M2 expression resulted decreased (P < 0.05 and 0.01). The ACh-induced LTB(4) production was observed in peripheral blood monocytes, and was sensitive to ERK inhibition. Similarly, ACh significantly increased neutrophil chemotactic activity and LTB4 released from SC of COPD patients only, and these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ERK pathway PD98059. The results obtained show that muscarinic receptors may be involved in airway inflammation in COPD subjects through ACh-induced, ERK1/2-dependent LTB4 release. Muscarinic antagonism may contribute to reduce neutrophil infiltration and activation in COPD.

  10. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke. PMID:28091591

  11. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  12. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  13. Muscarinic receptor heterogeneity in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Rogelio O; Garay, Edith; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Ionic current responses elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes (follicles) were studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. ACh generated a fast chloride current (Fin) and inhibited K+ currents gated by cAMP (IK,cAMP) following receptor activation by adenosine, follicle-stimulating hormone or noradrenaline. These previously described cholinergic responses were confirmed to be of the muscarinic type, and were independently generated among follicles from different frogs.Inhibition of IK,cAMP was about 100 times more sensitive to ACh than Fin activation; the half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) were 6.6 ± 0.4 and 784 ± 4 nm, respectively.Both responses were blocked by several muscarinic receptor antagonists. Using the respective EC50 concentrations of ACh as standard, the antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide blocked the two effects with very different potencies. Fin was blocked with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.4 ± 0.07 nm, whilst the IC50 for IK,cAMP inhibition was 5.9 ± 0.2 μm.Oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, preferentially stimulated IK,cAMP inhibition (EC50= 15.8 ± 1.4 μm), whilst Fin was only weakly activated. In contrast, oxotremorine inhibited Fin generated by ACh with an IC50 of 2.3 ± 0.7 μm.Fin elicited via purinergic receptor stimulation was not affected by oxotremorine, indicating that the inhibition produced was specific to the muscarinic receptor, and suggesting that muscarinic actions do not exert a strong effect on follicular cell-oocyte coupling.Using reverse transcription-PCR, transcripts of a previously cloned muscarinic receptor from Xenopus (XlmR) were amplified from the RNA of both the isolated follicular cells and the oocyte. The pharmacological and molecular characteristics suggest that XlmR is involved in IK,cAMP inhibition.In conclusion, follicular cells possess two different muscarinic receptors, one resembling the M2 (or M4) subtype

  14. Muscarinic toxins from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis.

    PubMed

    Jolkkonen, M; Van Giersbergen, P L; Hellman, U; Wernstedt, C; Oras, A; Satyapan, N; Adem, A; Karlsson, E

    1995-12-01

    Three new toxins acting on muscarinic receptors were isolated from the venom of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis. They were called muscarinic toxins alpha, beta, and gamma (MT alpha, MT beta, and MT gamma). All of the toxins have four disulphide bonds and 65 or 66 amino acids. The sequences of MT alpha and MT beta were determined. The muscarinic toxins, of which about 12 have been isolated from venoms of green and black mambas, have 60-98% sequence identity with each other, and are similar to many (about 180) other snake venom components, such as alpha-neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. In contrast to the alpha-neurotoxins, muscarinic toxins do not bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The binding constants of MT alpha and MT beta were determined for human muscarinic receptors of subtypes m1-m5 stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The toxins are less selective than the earlier discovered muscarinic toxins from the green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps. MT alpha and the muscarinic toxin MT4 from D. angusticeps differ only in a region of three amino acids (residues 31-33), which are Leu-Asn-His in MT alpha and Ile-Val-Pro in MT4. This difference causes a pronounced shift in subtype selectivity. MT alpha has high affinity to all subtypes, with Ki (inhibition constant) values of 23 nM (m1; pKi = 7.64 +/- 0.10), 44 nM (m2; pKi = 7.36 +/- 0.06), 3 nM (m3; pKi = 8.46 +/- 0.14), 5 nM (m4; pKi = 8.32 +/- 0.07), and 8 nM (m5; pKi = 8.09 +/- 0.07). MT4 has high affinity only to m1 (Ki = 62 nM) and m4 (87 nM) receptors, and low (Ki > 1 microM) affinity to m2, m3, and m5. The region at positions 31-33 evidently plays an important role in the toxin-receptor interaction. MT beta has low affinity for m1 and m2 receptors (Ki > 1 microM) and intermediate affinity for m3 (140 nM; pKi = 6.85 +/- 0.03), m4 (120 nM; pKi = 6.90 +/- 0.06), and m5 (350 nM; pKi = 6.46 +/- 0.01). The low affinity of MT beta may reflect a tendency for spontaneous inactivation.

  15. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T

    2015-04-08

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings.

  16. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2015-06-01

    While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Timeline Follow-back drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing 1 of 2 similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, 18 social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a nonexposed age-matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to prestudy levels (p < 0.05, respectively). In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non-alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at poststudy measurement (p < 0.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  18. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Gennaro; Guizzetti, Marina; Dao, Khoi; Mattison, Hayley A.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2011-01-01

    In an in vitro co-culture system of astrocytes and neurons, stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in astrocytes had been shown to cause neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons, and this effect was inhibited by ethanol. The present study sought to confirm these earlier findings in a more complex system, in vitro rat hippocampal slices in culture. Exposure of hippocampal slices to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (1 mM for 24 h) induced neurite outgrowth in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which was mediated by activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. Specifically, carbachol induced a >4-fold increase in the length of the longest neurite, and a 4-fold increase in the length of minor neurites and in the number of branches. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol (50 mM) resulted in significant inhibition of the effects induced by carbachol on all parameters measured. Neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons is dependent on various permissive factors that are produced and released by glial cells. In hippocampal slices carbachol increased the levels of two extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and laminin-1, by 1.6-fold, as measured by Western blot. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol significantly inhibited these increases. Carbachol-induced increases in levels of extracellular matrix proteins were antagonized by a M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, function-blocking fibronectin or laminin-1 antibodies antagonized the effect of carbachol on neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that in hippocampal slices stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors induces neurite outgrowth, which is mediated by fibronectin and laminin-1, two extracellular matrix proteins released by astrocytes. By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol. PMID:21884684

  19. The distribution of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in patients with dementia. A controlled study with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Gibson, R.; Coppola, R.; Jones, D.W.; Molchan, S.; Sunderland, T.; Berman, K.F.; Reba, R.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist, 123IQNB (3-quinuclidinyl-4-iodobenzilate labeled with iodine 123), was used with single photon emission computed tomography to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 14 patients with dementia and in 11 healthy controls. High-resolution single photon emission computed tomographic scanning was performed 21 hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 5 mCi of IQNB. In normal subjects, the images of retained ligand showed a consistent regional pattern that correlated with postmortem studies of the relative distribution of muscarinic receptors in the normal human brain, having high radioactivity counts in the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and insular cortex, low counts in the thalamus, and virtually no counts in the cerebellum. Eight of 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease had obvious focal cortical defects in either frontal or posterior temporal cortex. Both patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pick's disease had obvious frontal and anterior temporal defects. A region of interest statistical analysis of relative regional activity revealed a significant reduction bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex of the patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. This study demonstrates the practicability of acetylcholine receptor imaging with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography. The data suggest that focal abnormalities in muscarinic binding in vivo may characterize some patients with Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease, but further studies are needed to address questions about partial volume artifacts and receptor quantification.

  20. [Lesions in the pars compacta substantiae nigra and the subthalamic nucleus modify the density of muscarinic receptors in different nuclei of the basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lezcano, L; Rocha-Arrieta, L L; Martínez-Martí, L; Alvarez-González, L; Pavón-Fuentes, N; Macías-González, R; Serrano-Sánchez, T; Rosillo-Martí, J C; Coro-Grave de Peralta, Y; Bauza-Calderín, Y; Briones, M

    Several studies that has focused to the dopaminergic transmission in the basal ganglia in parkinsonian condition, but only a few article has taking into account the imbalance between dopaminergic and cholinergic transmission. To evaluate the muscarinic cholinergic receptors density in SNc and PPN in the 6-OHDA model. Were organized five experimental groups in correspondence to the place of the lesion: I. Non treated rats, II. 6-OHDA lesion in SNc, III. 6-OHDA lesion in SNc + quinolinic acid lesion in NST, IV. Sham operated rats, V. Quinolinic acid in STN. Were obtained coronal sections of 20 microm thickness of SNc and PPN from rats and in these sections was evaluated the muscarinic receptors density through autoradiographic technique with [3H]quinuclidinylbenzilate (QNB) (1.23 nM). The muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 microM) was utilized as non-specific union. The density was evaluated in both hemispheres and the density optical was converted in fentomolas/mg of tissue with base to values obtained from tritium standards. Significant diminution of the muscarinic receptors density was found in the SNc ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion from experimental groups II (t=2.76; p<0.05) and III (t=4.06; p<0.05). In the group V, was seen a significant increase of muscarinic receptor density in the SNc ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion. The comparison between experimental groups evidenced significant differences among them (F=13.13; p<0.001) with a significant decrease in the density from SNc of groups II and III and significant increase in the density from SNc of group V in comparison of the others groups. In relation to PPN, muscarinic receptors density from right PPN ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion, shown significant differences (F=3.93; p<0.01) between the experimental groups with a significant increase of this variable in the group II. These results signal a modification of cholinergic activity after 6-OHDA lesion. The changes in the muscarinic receptors populations

  1. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  2. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  3. Intracellular calcium in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells is regulated by M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C. M.; Yo, Y. L.; Wang, Y. Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. The regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) during exposure to carbachol was measured directly in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) loaded with fura-2. Stimulation of muscarinic cholinoceptors (muscarinic AChRs) by carbachol produced a dose-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i which was followed by a stable plateau phase. The EC50 values of carbachol for the peak and sustained plateau responses were 0.34 and 0.33 microM, respectively. 2. Atropine (10 microM) prevented all the responses to carbachol, and when added during a response to carbachol, significantly, but not completely decreased [Ca2+]i within 5 s. Therefore, the changes in [Ca2+]i by carbachol were mediated through the muscarinic AChRs. 3. AF-DX 116 (a selective M2 antagonist) and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP, a selective M3 antagonist) inhibited the carbachol-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i with pKB values of 6.4 and 9.4, respectively, corresponding to low affinity for AF-DX 119 and high affinity for 4-DAMP in antagonizing this response. 4. The plateau elevation of [Ca2+]i was dependent on the presence of external Ca2+. Removal of Ca2+ by the addition of 2 mM EGTA caused the [Ca2+]i to decline rapidly to the resting level. In the absence of external Ca2+, only an initial transient peak of [Ca2+]i was seen which then declined to the resting level; the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i could then be evoked by the addition of Ca2+ (1.8 mM) in the continued presence of carbachol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8298822

  4. The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline has an antipsychotic-like profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, K J; Mirza, N R; Bickerdike, M J; Bright, J L; Harrington, N R; Hesselink, M B; Kennett, G A; Lightowler, S; Sheardown, M J; Syed, R; Upton, R L; Wadsworth, G; Weiss, S M; Wyatt, A

    2001-11-01

    The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline was examined and compared with the antipsychotics clozapine and/or haloperidol in the following in vivo rat models: apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI), amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and the conditioned emotional response (CER) test. The effects of xanomeline were also assessed ex vivo on dopamine turnover in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Under conditions of varying dose and prepulse intensity, xanomeline, like haloperidol, had no effect on PPI. In contrast, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine and the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine both induced significant dose-dependent deficits in PPI. Haloperidol and xanomeline, but not pilocarpine, dose dependently reversed apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI. Thus, xanomeline induced a clear antipsychotic-like effect in PPI, whereas pilocarpine appeared to induce a psychotomimetic-like effect. Xanomeline attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity at doses that had no effect on spontaneous activity, possibly indicating a separation between attenuation of limbic hyperdopaminergic function and the induction of hypolocomotion. Haloperidol and clozapine also reversed amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, but at similar doses to those that reduced spontaneous locomotion. Clozapine, but not haloperidol had an anxiolytic-like effect in the CER test. The effects of xanomeline in the CER test were similar to those of clozapine, although at the anxiolytic dose it tended to disrupt baseline levels of lever pressing. Finally, haloperidol, clozapine, pilocarpine, and xanomeline, all induced an increase in dopamine turnover in medial prefrontal cortex. The antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in the animal models used here suggest that it may be a useful treatment for psychosis.

  5. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulating cell cycle progression are expressed in human gingival keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, J; Hall, L L; Ndoye, A; Chernyavsky, A I; Jolkovsky, D L; Grando, S A

    2003-02-01

    We have previously reported the presence in human gingival keratinocytes (GKC) of choline acetyltransferase, the acetylcholine (ACh) synthesizing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, the ACh degrading enzyme, and alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha 7, beta 2 as well as alpha 9 nicotinic ACh receptor subunits. To expand the knowledge about the role of ACh in oral biology, we investigated the presence of the muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) subtypes in GKC. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of m2, m3, m4, and m5 mRNA transcripts. Synthesis of the respective proteins was verified by immunoblotting with the subtype-specific antibodies that revealed receptor bands at the expected molecular weights. The antibodies mapped mAChR subtypes in the epithelium of human attached gingiva and also visualized them on the cell membrane of cultured GKC. The whole cell radioligand binding assay revealed that GKC have specific binding sites for the muscarinic ligand [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate, Bmax = 222.9 fmol/106 cells with a Kd of 62.95 pM. The downstream coupling of the mAChRs to regulation of cell cycle progression in GKC was studied using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays. Incubation of GKC for 24 h with 10 micro m muscarine increased relative amounts of Ki-67, PCNA and p53 mRNAs and PCNA, cyclin D1, p21 and p53 proteins. These effects were abolished in the presence of 50 micro m atropine. The finding in GKC of mAChRs coupled to regulation of the cell cycle progression demonstrate further the structure/function of the non-neuronal cholinergic system operating in human oral epithelium. The results obtained in this study help clarify the role for keratinocyte ACh axis in the physiologic control of oral gingival homeostasis.

  6. Effect of pirenzepine, a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, on amygdala kindling in rat.

    PubMed

    Eşkazan, E; Aker, R; Onat, F; Köseoğlu, S; Gören, M Z; Hasanoğlu, A

    1999-11-01

    Kindling, an animal model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, is performed by daily application of low-intensity electrical brain stimulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of muscarinic M1 receptors on amygdala kindling in the rat. Bipolar nichrome stimulation and recording electrodes were stereotaxically implanted into the right and left basolateral amygdala. Extradural recording electrodes were also placed bilaterally in the skull over the cortex. Amygdala stimulation was applied twice daily at the current intensity of afterdischarge threshold. Seizure intensity was graded by using Racine's standard five-stage scale. In the first group of experiments, saline or pirenzepine (10, 25, 50 and 100 nmol), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 h before the electrical stimulation. In the second group of experiments, rats were kindled to full stage 5 seizures. After a recovery period, 50 nmol of pirenzepine was administered intracerebroventricularly to kindled animals. In the first group of experiments, none of the animals pretreated with the doses of 50 and 100 nmol of pirenzepine reached a stage 5 seizure. Pirenzepine significantly retarded kindling seizure development and increased the total number of stimulations required to reach the first stage 5 seizure. Afterdischarge duration was also reduced in the pirenzepine 10 nmol group as compared with that in the saline-pretreated group. In the second group, seizure stage and afterdischarge duration were not affected by pirenzepine in fully-kindled animals. The findings of this study suggest that muscarinic M1 receptors may have a critical role in the development of kindling epileptic activity, but not in already kindled seizures.

  7. Pancreatic L-Glutamine Administration Protects Pig Islets From Cold Ischemic Injury and Increases Resistance Toward Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Heide; Theisinger, Bastian; Guenther, Bernhard; Johnson, Paul R; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and transplantation of porcine islets represent a future option for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. Stringent product release criteria and limited availability of transgenic and specific pathogen-free pigs will essentially require processing of explanted pig pancreata in specialized, possibly remote isolation facilities, whereby pancreata are exposed to cold ischemia due to prolonged tissue transit time. In the present study we investigated whether pancreas oxygenation can be efficiently combined with an antioxidant strategy utilizing intraductal L-glutamine administration. Pig pancreata were intraductally perfused after retrieval and after cold storage in oxygen-precharged perfluorohexyloctane utilizing University of Wisconsin solution supplemented with (n = 16) or without (n = 14) 5 mmol/L L-glutamine. After isolation purified islets were subjected to extensive quality assessment. Islet recovery postpurification was significantly higher in glutamine-treated pancreata (77.0 ± 3.3% vs. 60.3 ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). Glutamine administration increased intraislet content of reduced glutathione (117.8 ± 16.5 vs. 15.9 ± 2.8 ng/ng protein, p < 0.001) associated with increased islet recovery after culture (65.8 ± 12.1% vs. 40.3 ± 11.7%, p < 0.05), enhanced glucose stimulation index (1.82 ± 0.16 vs. 1.38 ± 0.10, p < 0.05), and improved posttransplant function in diabetic nude mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intraductally administered glutamine increased pig islet resistance toward reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and high-dose proinflammatory cytokines. The present study demonstrates that quality and function of pig islets exposed to warm and cold ischemia can significantly be improved using intraductal l-glutamine administration. As the efficiency of the intraductal route may be inferior compared to intravascular administration further studies should aim on assessment of l

  8. Vitamin D3 restores altered cholinergic and insulin receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and muscarinic M3 receptor expression in pancreatic islets of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush T; Antony, Sherin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sadanandan, Jayanarayanan; Naijil, George; Paulose, Chiramadathikudiyil S

    2011-05-01

    Nutritional therapy is a challenging but necessary dimension in the management of diabetes and neurodegenerative changes associated with it. The study evaluates the effect of vitamin D(3) in preventing the altered function of cholinergic, insulin receptors and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. Muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptors in pancreas control insulin secretion. Vitamin D(3) treatment in M3 receptor regulation in the pancreatic islets was also studied. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression was done in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. Immunocytochemistry of muscarinic M3 receptor was studied in the pancreatic islets using specific antibodies. Y-maze was used to evaluate the exploratory and spatial memory. Diabetes induced a decrease in muscarinic M1, insulin and vitamin D receptor expression and an increase in muscarinic M3, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholine esterase and GLUT3 expression. Vitamin D(3) and insulin treatment reversed diabetes-induced alterations to near control. Diabetic rats showed a decreased Y-maze performance while vitamin D(3) supplementation improved the behavioural deficit. In conclusion, vitamin D(3) shows a potential therapeutic effect in normalizing diabetes-induced alterations in cholinergic, insulin and vitamin D receptor and maintains a normal glucose transport and utilisation in the cortex. In addition vitamin D(3) modulated muscarinic M3 receptors activity in pancreas and plays a pivotal role in controlling insulin secretion. Hence our findings proved, vitamin D(3) supplementation as a potential nutritional therapy in ameliorating diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions and suggest an interaction between vitamin D(3) and muscarinic M3 receptors in regulating insulin secretion from pancreas.

  9. Different muscarinic receptor subtypes modulate proliferation of primary human detrusor smooth muscle cells via Akt/PI3K and map kinases.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Nicola; Bodei, Serena; Zani, Danilo; Michel, Martin C; Simeone, Claudio; Cosciani Cunico, Sergio; Spano, Pierfranco; Sigala, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    While acetylcholine (ACh) and muscarinic receptors in the bladder are mainly known for their role in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility, in other tissues they are involved in tissue remodelling and promote cell growth and proliferation. In the present study we have used primary cultures of human detrusor smooth muscle cells (HDSMCs), in order to investigate the role of muscarinic receptors in HDSMC proliferation. Samples were obtained as discarded tissue from men >65 years undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer and cut in pieces that were either immediately frozen or placed in culture medium for the cell culture establishment. HDSMCs were isolated from samples, propagated and maintained in culture. [(3)H]-QNB radioligand binding on biopsies revealed the presence of muscarinic receptors, with a Kd of 0.10±0.02nM and a Bmax of 72.8±0.1fmol/mg protein. The relative expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes, based on Q-RT-PCR, was similar in biopsies and HDSMC with a rank order of M2≥M3>M1>M4>M5. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh, 1-100μM) concentration-dependently increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation (up to 46±4%). This was concentration-dependently inhibited by the general muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and by subtype-preferring antagonists with an order of potency of darifenacin >4-DAMP>AF-DX 116. The CCh-induced cell proliferation was blocked by selective PI-3 kinase and ERK activation inhibitors, strongly suggesting that these intracellular pathways mediate, at least in part, the muscarinic receptor-mediated cell proliferation. This work shows that M2 and M3 receptors can mediate not only HDSM contraction but also proliferation; they may also contribute bladder remodelling including detrusor hypertrophy.

  10. Ethanol preexposure increases ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Camarini, Rosana; Hodge, Clyde W

    2004-12-01

    Genetic variables are thought to interact with environmental factors, such as alcohol exposure history, to produce individual differences in alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The objective of this study was to test the potential interaction between genetic predisposition to consume alcohol and alcohol pretreatment on subsequent self-administration. To accomplish this goal, four groups of mice from the ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2) and ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strains were exposed to saline, acute ethanol (2 g/kg), or chronic intermittent ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. Locomotor activity was monitored after each injection. After preexposure, animals were given a two-bottle choice test with various concentrations of ethanol/sucrose vs. sucrose or ethanol vs. water for 4 days at each concentration. Then, all animals were challenged with a 2.0 g/kg ethanol i.p. injection and locomotor activity was assessed. Acute and chronic ethanol pretreatment increased locomotor activity in response to a challenge dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) in D2 mice but had no effect on B6 mice. Prior exposure to ethanol altered the amount of ethanol consumed in a mouse strain-dependent manner. D2 mice showed a positive relationship between ethanol intake and dose or duration of ethanol preexposure. B6 mice preexposed to ethanol consumed more ethanol than naive animals, independent of dose or duration of exposure. During the last phase of self-administration testing, D2 mice exposed to chronic ethanol (2 g/kg) consumed as much ethanol as B6 from the same pretreatment condition. After a history of ethanol self-administration, saline control mice from the D2 strain showed equal locomotor activation as compared to D2 mice that were pretreated with ethanol injections. B6 mice showed no change in locomotor activity after ethanol self-administration or injection. These results demonstrate that genetic predisposition to avoid alcohol (D2 mice) can be modified by a

  11. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  13. The effect of the muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist biperiden on cognition in medication free subjects with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, Claudia; Bakker, Geor; van Dijk, Jelske; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Booij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

    2017-09-01

    The acetylcholine muscarinic M1 receptor has been implicated in both psychosis and cognition. Post-mortem research has shown reduced muscarinic M1 receptor density in 25% of chronic patients with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether reduced M1 receptor density is related to cognitive symptoms of psychosis. We investigated the role of the M1 receptor in separate cognitive domains in subjects with a psychotic disorder using a muscarinic M1 antagonist as an acute pharmacological challenge. 33 young subjects with a psychotic disorder and 30 gender, age and IQ matched healthy controls were enrolled. All participants completed a comprehensive cognitive test battery twice: once after placebo and once after oral administration of 4mg. biperiden (M1 antagonist). The order of drug administration was counterbalanced. Biperiden significantly negatively influenced both verbal (p< 0.001 and p=0.032) and visual learning and memory (p=0.028) in both groups. A medication x group interaction effect was found for reasoning and problem solving (p=0.005). No main or interaction effects were found for other cognitive domains. These results provide further in-vivo evidence that the M1 receptor is involved in cognitive functioning, particularly verbal and visual memory processes. Lack of differential effects of biperiden between psychotic subjects and healthy controls may suggest that decreased M1 receptor density is only present in chronic, older schizophrenia patients. However, it remains possible that differential effects of biperiden would be present in more severe cognitive impaired subjects with psychosis after several doses of biperiden instead of a single administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetylcholine-induced neuronal differentiation: muscarinic receptor activation regulates EGR-1 and REST expression in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Salani, Monica; Anelli, Tonino; Tocco, Gabriella Augusti; Lucarini, Elena; Mozzetta, Chiara; Poiana, Giancarlo; Tata, Ada Maria; Biagioni, Stefano

    2009-02-01

    Neurotransmitters are considered part of the signaling system active in nervous system development and we have previously reported that acetylcholine (ACh) is capable of enhancing neuronal differentiation in cultures of sensory neurons and N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. To study the mechanism of ACh action, in this study, we demonstrate the ability of choline acetyltransferase-transfected N18TG2 clones (e.g. 2/4 clone) to release ACh. Analysis of muscarinic receptors showed the presence of M1-M4 subtypes and the activation of both IP(3) and cAMP signal transduction pathways. Muscarinic receptor activation increases early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) levels and treatments with agonists, antagonists, and signal transduction enzyme inhibitors suggest a role for M3 subtype in EGR-1 induction. The role of EGR-1 in the enhancement of differentiation was investigated transfecting in N18TG2 cells a construct for EGR-1. EGR-1 clones show increased neurite extension and a decrease in Repressor Element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) expression: both these features have also been observed for the 2/4 clone. Transfection of this latter with EGR zinc-finger domain, a dominant negative inhibitor of EGR-1 action, increases REST expression, and decreases fiber outgrowth. The data reported suggest that progression of the clone 2/4 in the developmental program is dependent on ACh release and the ensuing activation of muscarinic receptors, which in turn modulate the level of EGR-1 and REST transcription factors.

  15. Mechanisms of ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to muscarinic agonists in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Roum, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Bronchial hyperreactivity, a chief characteristic of asthma, is poorly understood mechanistically. Its development in ozone-exposed guinea pigs was studied in this dissertation research. Reactivity was assessed in awake, spontaneously breathing animals by measuring specific airway resistance (SRaw) as a function of increasing muscarinic bronchoconstrictor challenge. In the first study, improvements in the reactivity measurement were seen by using (1) propranolol pretreatment (10 mg/kg IP, 1/2 hr before measurement) and (2) intravenous (rather than aerosolized) muscarinic challenge. Both (1) decreased its population wide variation and (2) increased its intra-animal reproducibility. Secondly, characteristics of ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, such as (1) its airway mucosal permeability dependence, (2) its time course of development, and (3) its ozone-dose dependence were studied. The relationship between airway mucosa neutrophilic infiltration and the development of this hyperreactivity was examined in the third and fourth study. In the third, a time course study showed that development of hyperreactivity occurred before the neutrophilic infiltration phase, and correlated best with a decrease in identifiable mucosal goblet cells and increase in identifiable mucosoal mast cells. In the fourth, the development of ozone-induced hyperreactivity in animals made granulocytopenic with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate treatment was studied. In the final study, the effects of indomethacin on the development of this hyperreactivity was assessed.

  16. Loss of muscarinic and purinergic receptors in urinary bladder of rats with hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akira; Kageyama, Aiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Nozawa, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Shizuo

    2010-10-01

    To clarify the basic mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of cystitis by characterizing the urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant (muscarinic and purinergic) receptors, and the in vivo release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the bladder of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-treated rats. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in rat tissue were measured by radioreceptor assays using (N-methyl-³H) scopolamine methyl chloride ([³H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP (2,8-³H) tetrasodium salt ([³H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. The urodynamic parameters and ATP levels were measured using a cystometric method and the luciferin-luciferase assay, respectively. In the HCl-treated rats, the micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly (48% and 55%, respectively, P <.05) decreased and the number of micturitions was significantly (3.2-fold, P <.05) increased compared with those of the control rats. The maximal number of binding sites for [³H]NMS and [³H]αβ-MeATP was significantly (55% and 72%, respectively, P <.001) decreased in the bladder of HCl-treated rats, suggesting downregulation of both muscarinic and purinergic receptors. In the HCl-treated rats, the inhibition constant, K(i), values for oxybutynin, solifenacin, and darifenacin were significantly (1.3-1.4-fold, P <.05) increased, but those for tolterodine and AF-DX116 were unchanged. Similarly, the inhibition constant for A-317491, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid tetrasodium, and MRS2273 was significantly (5.5, 11, and 7.6-fold, respectively, P <.001) increased. Furthermore, the in vivo release of ATP was significantly (P <.05) enhanced in the HCl-treated rat bladder. Both muscarinic and purinergic mechanisms might be, at least in part, associated with the urinary dysfunction due to cystitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired M3 and enhanced M2 muscarinic receptor contractile function in a streptozotocin model of mouse diabetic urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pak, K. J.; Ostrom, R. S.; Matsui, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 weeks after streptozotocin treatment, the EC50 value of oxotremorine-M increased 3.1-fold in urinary bladder from the M2 KO mouse (N = 5) compared to wild type (N = 6; P < 0.001). Analogous changes were observed in intact bladder. In denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated mice, forskolin (5 µM) caused a much greater inhibition of contraction in M2 KO bladder compared to wild type. Following streptozotocin treatment, this forskolin effect increased 1.6-fold (P = 0.032). At the 20- to 24-week time point, the forskolin effect increased 1.7-fold for denuded as well as intact bladders (P = 0.036, 0.01, respectively). Although streptozotocin treatment inhibits M3 receptor-mediated contraction in denuded urinary bladder, muscarinic contractile function is maintained in wild-type bladder by enhanced M2 contractile function. M2 receptor activation opposes forskolin-induced relaxation of the urinary bladder, and this M2 function is enhanced following streptozotocin treatment. PMID:20349044

  18. The addition of five minor tobacco alkaloids increases nicotine-induced hyperactivity, sensitization and intravenous self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Kelly J; Caillé, Stephanie; Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine

    2009-11-01

    Several minor tobacco alkaloids have been found to exhibit properties pharmacologically relevant to the addictive profile of tobacco; however, little is known of their effects on a behavioural model of drug addiction. In this study we compared the locomotor and reinforcing effects of intravenous nicotine (30 microg/kg per infusion) vs. a cocktail of nicotine plus five minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke (anabasine, nornicotine, anatabine, cotinine and myosmine). Rats were initially tested for their locomotor response to nicotine or nicotine plus the minor alkaloids with six intravenous injections over 1 h. We then assessed the spontaneous acquisition of intravenous self-administration with nicotine or nicotine plus the minor alkaloids, under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule followed by responding on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule, progressive-ratio schedule and a single within-session ascending dose-response test. The activity test was repeated following the progressive-ratio phase to assess locomotor sensitization. A second group of rats were then tested on the locomotor procedure to better clarify the role of each individual minor alkaloid in nicotine-induced locomotor activity. Compared to nicotine alone, addition of the minor tobacco alkaloids increased locomotor activity and increased locomotor sensitization following self-administration. During fixed-ratio 5, progressive ratio and the dose-response test, rats receiving nicotine plus the minor alkaloids responded significantly more than those receiving nicotine alone. Testing of each minor alkaloid in the second experiment indicated that anatabine, cotinine and myosmine individually increased nicotine-induced locomotor activity. These results suggest that the minor tobacco alkaloids, particularly anatabine, cotinine and myosmine, may increase the motivation for nicotine and thus facilitate smoking behaviour.

  19. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding: in vivo depiction using single photon emission computed tomography and radioiodinated quinuclidinyl benzilate

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, B.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, E.; Storni, A.; Greer, K.; Petry, N.; Lischko, M.; Flanagan, S.

    1982-06-01

    An attempt was made to characterize, in vivo, specific binding to the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the calf using the radioiodinated ligand quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 123/I-OH-QNB) and single photon detection emission computed tomography (SPECT). The supratentorial brain activity was significantly increased after the intravenous infusion of /sup 123/I-OH-QNB as compared to free /sup 123/I. Scopolamine, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, decreased the measured brain activity when infused prior to /sup 123/I-OH-QNB consistent with pharmacologic blockade of specific receptor binding. Quantitative in vitro tissue distribution studies obtained following SPECT imaging were consistent with regionally distinct specific receptor binding in the striatum and cortical gray matter, nonspecific binding in the cerebellum, and pharmacologic blockade of specific binding sites with scopolamine. Although /sup 123/I-OH-QNB is not the ideal radioligand, our limited success will hopefully encourage the development of improved binding probes for SPECT imaging and quantitation.

  20. Endosulfan and cholinergic (muscarinic) transmission: effect on electroencephalograms and (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in pigeon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 ..mu..V in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 ..mu..g/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity.

  1. Enhanced sensitivity of muscarinic cholinergic receptor associated with dopaminergic receptor subsensitivity after chronic antidepressant treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, T.; Matsushita, H.

    1981-03-09

    The chronic effects of antidepressant treatment on striatal dopaminergic (DA) and muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors of the rat brain have been examined comparatively in this study using /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-SPD) and /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB) as the respective radioactive ligands. Imipramine and desipramine were used as prototype antidepressants. Although a single administration of imipramine or desipramine did not affect each receptor sensitivity, chronic treatment with each drug caused a supersensitivity of mACh receptor subsequent to DA receptor subsensitivity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that anti-mACh properties of imipramine or desipramine may not necessarily be related to the manifestation of mACh receptor supersensitivity and that sustained DA receptor subsensitivity may play some role in the alterations of mACh receptor sensitivity.

  2. Comparison of the effect of anti-muscarinic agents on bladder activity, urinary ATP level, and autonomic nervous system in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Naka, Hidekatsu; Miyazato, Minoru

    2009-04-01

    We compared the effect of 4 anti-muscarinic agents on bladder activity, urinary ATP levels, and autonomic nervous system in rats. Rats were divided into the following 5 groups (control group, oxybutynin group, propiverine group, tolterodine group, imidafenacin group), and were administered daily the designated anti-muscarinic agent or distilled water into the stomach. After 2 weeks, we performed 1) continuous cystometry with physiological saline and 0.1% acetic acid solution, 2) measurement of urinary ATP level before and after bladder stimulation, and 3) measurement of the heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines. The maximum bladder contraction pressure increased and the interval between contractions became shorter during cystometry with acetic acid solution in the control group, but not in the 4 anti-muscarinic agent groups. The urinary ATP level increased after bladder stimulation in all groups, but the increase was smaller in the propiverine and imidafenacin groups. The plasma noradrenaline and dopamine levels of the propiverine group were higher. Taken together, all anti-muscarinic agents inhibited the bladder activity without changing the heart rate and blood pressure. Especially, the inhibitory effect of propiverine and imidafenacin on bladder activity may be partly due to blocking an increase of ATP release from the bladder urothelium.

  3. Acute Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Increases the Pro-BDNF/Total-BDNF Ratio in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Furlanetto, Camila B; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by an inborn error in metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. High levels of BCAAs are associated with neurological dysfunction and the role of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neurological dysfunction of MSUD is still unclear. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of an acute BCAA pool administration on BDNF levels and on the pro-BDNF cleavage-related proteins S100A10 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat brains. Our results demonstrated that acute Hyper-BCAA (H-BCAA) exposure during the early postnatal period increases pro-BDNF and total-BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, tPA levels were significantly decreased, without modifications in the tPA transcript levels in the hippocampus and striatum. On the other hand, the S100A10 mRNA and S100A10 protein levels were not changed in the hippocampus and striatum. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed increased pro-BDNF, total-BDNF and tPA levels only in the striatum, whereas the tPA and S100A10 mRNA expression and the immunocontent of S100A10 were not altered. In conclusion, we demonstrated that acute H-BCAA administration increases the pro-BDNF/total-BDNF ratio and decreases the tPA levels in animals, suggesting that the BCAA effect may depend, at least in part, on changes in BDNF post-translational processing.

  4. Neonatal caffeine administration causes a permanent increase in the dendritic length of prefrontal cortical neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Méndez, Sergio; Carretero, Rosalba; Martínez-Tellez, Rubelia; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Flores, Gonzalo

    2006-11-01

    We studied the morphological changes of the dendritic length of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) induced by the effect of chronic administration of caffeine in the neonatal rat. The caffeine (50 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected from day 1 after birth (P1) to day 12 (P12). The morphology of the pyramidal neurons of layer 3 of the PFC was investigated in these animals at two different ages, before puberty (P35) and after puberty (P70). Before the animals were sacrificed by using overdoses of sodium pentobarbital and being perfused intracardially with 0.9% saline, the locomotor activity in a novel environment was measured. The brains were then removed, processed by the Golgi-Cox stain, and analyzed by the Sholl method. The dendritic morphology clearly showed that the neonatal animals administered caffeine showed an increase in the dendritic length of the pyramidal neurons of the PFC when compared with the control animals at both ages. The present results suggest that neonatal administration of caffeine may in part affect the dendritic morphology of the pyramidal cells of this limbic structure and this effect persists after puberty and may be implicated in several brain processes.

  5. Effect of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonism on rat gastric motor activity.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Pieter; Karlsson, Lisa K C; Nielsen, Maria Astin; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Hultin, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediate nitric oxide release during motor events in the rat stomach. Isolated rat stomach volume changes were monitored in an organ bath setup with an intragastric balloon coupled to a barostat and studied in basal conditions and during electrical vagal stimulation (EVS). In conscious rats, the intragastric pressure (IGP) was measured during test meal infusion. In the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 0.1 mmol/l), EVS induced significant gastric contractions (mean +/- SEM = 0.27 +/- 0.04 ml; n = 6) that could be blocked by atropine (3 micromol/l) and hexamethonium (0.1 mmol/l). In the presence of atropine and/or hexamethonium, EVS-induced relaxations could not be blocked by L-NAME, while exogenous nitric oxide could still relax the stomach. In conscious rats, atropine (1 mg kg(-1)) initially decreased IGP, while during further distension it increased IGP. In the presence of L-NAME (30 mg kg(-1)) atropine consistently decreased IGP. L-NAME alone significantly increased IGP during the test meal infusion, but this effect was reduced in the presence of atropine. These findings indicate a role for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the vagal-stimulation-induced activation of nitrergic nerves in the rat stomach. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  7. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and heart slices were highly variable and only 10% of murine cardiomyocytes expressed muscarinic receptors. M2 receptors were evenly distributed across individual cells and their density in freshly isolated embryonic cardiomyocytes was ~ 1 μm− 2, increasing at birth (to ~ 3 μm− 2) and decreasing back to ~ 1 μm− 2 after birth. M2 receptors were primarily monomeric but formed reversible dimers. They diffused freely at the plasma membrane, moving approximately 4-times faster in heart slices than in cultured cardiomyocytes. Knowledge of receptor density and mobility has allowed receptor collision rate to be modeled by Monte Carlo simulations. Our estimated encounter rate of 5–10 collisions per second, may explain the latency between acetylcholine application and GIRK channel opening. PMID:23357106

  8. Alterations in alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in rat brain following nonionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, V.C.; Ross, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave radiation produces hyperthermia. The mammalian thermoregulatory system defends against changes in temperature by mobilizing diverse control mechanisms. Neurotransmitters play a major role in eliciting thermoregulatory responses. The involvement of adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors was investigated in radiation-induced hyperthermia. Rats were subjected to radiation at 700 MHz frequency and 15 mW/cm/sup 2/ power density and the body temperature was raised by 2.5 degrees C. Of six brain regions investigated only the hypothalamus showed significant changes in receptor states, confirming its pivotal role in thermoregulation. Adrenergic receptors, studied by (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding, showed a 36% decrease in binding following radiation after a 2.5 degrees C increase in body temperature, suggesting a mechanism to facilitate norepinephrine release. Norepinephrine may be speculated to maintain thermal homeostasis by activating heat dissipation. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors, studied by (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, showed a 65% increase in binding at the onset of radiation. This may be attributed to the release of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus in response to heat cumulation. The continued elevated binding during the period of cooling after radiation was shut off may suggest the existence of an extra-hypothalamic heat-loss pathway.

  9. Muscarinic enhancement of persistent sodium current synchronizes striatal medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hernández, Adán; Vergara, Ramiro; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2009-08-01

    Network dynamics denoted by synchronous firing of neuronal pools rely on synaptic interactions and intrinsic properties. In striatal medium spiny neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation endows neurons with nonlinear capabilities by inducing a negative-slope conductance region (NSCR) in the current-voltage relationship. Nonlinearities underlie associative learning, procedural memory, and the sequential organization of behavior in basal ganglia nuclei. The cholinergic system modulates the function of medium spiny projection neurons through the activation of muscarinic receptors, increasing the NMDA-induced NSCR. This enhancement is reflected as a change in the NMDA-induced network dynamics, making it more synchronous. Nevertheless, little is known about the contribution of intrinsic properties that promote this activity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cholinergic modulation of bistable behavior in the striatum, we used whole cell and calcium-imaging techniques. A persistent sodium current modulated by muscarinic receptor activation participated in the enhancement of the NSCR and the increased network synchrony. These experiments provide evidence that persistent sodium current generates bistable behavior in striatal neurons and contributes to the regulation of synchronous network activity. The neuromodulation of bistable properties could represent a cellular and network mechanism for cholinergic actions in the striatum.

  10. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased

  11. Soluble complement receptor 1 is increased in patients with leukemia and after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Sadallah, S; Lach, E; Schwarz, S; Gratwohl, A; Spertini, O; Schifferli, J A

    1999-01-01

    Complement receptor type 1 is expressed by erythrocytes and most leukocytes. A soluble form is shed from the leukocytes and found in plasma (sCR1). sCR1 is a powerful inhibitor of complement. We report an increased sCR1 in the plasma of leukemia patients, up to levels producing measurable complement inhibition. Half of the 180 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) had sCR1 levels above the normal range. The highest levels were observed in T-ALL (17 patients). The complement function of a T-ALL serum was improved by blocking sCR1 with a specific mAb (3D9). Measurements in 16 peripheral stein cell donors before and after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration showed an increase in sCR1 (before, 43.8+/-15.4; at day 5, 118.3+/-44.7 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). This increase paralleled the increase in total leukocyte counts and was concomitant with de novo leukocyte mRNA CR1 expression in all three individuals tested. Whether pharmacological intervention may be used to up-regulate sCR1 so as to inhibit complement in vivo should be further investigated.

  12. Starvation activates MAP kinase through the muscarinic acetylcholine pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx

    PubMed Central

    You, Young-jai; Kim, Jeongho; Cobb, Melanie; Avery, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Summary Starvation activates MAPK in the pharyngeal muscles of C. elegans through a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Gqα, and nPKC as shown by the following results: (1) Starvation causes phosphorylation of MAPK in pharyngeal muscle. (2) In a sensitized genetic background in which Gqα signaling cannot be downregulated, activation of the pathway by a muscarinic agonist causes lethal changes in pharyngeal muscle function. Starvation has identical effects. (3) A muscarinic antagonist blocks the effects of starvation on sensitized muscle. (4) Mutations and drugs that block any step of signaling from the muscarinic receptor to MAPK also block the effects of starvation on sensitized muscle. (5) Overexpression of MAPK in wild-type pharyngeal muscle mimics the effects of muscarinic agonist and of starvation on sensitized muscle. We suggest that, during starvation, the muscarinic pathway to MAPK is activated to change the pharyngeal muscle physiology to enhance ingestion of food when food becomes available. PMID:16581001

  13. Blunted insula activation reflects increased risk and reward seeking as an interaction of testosterone administration and the MAOA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Radke, Sina; Clemens, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Jung, Sonja; Habel, Ute

    2017-09-01

    Testosterone, a male sex hormone, has been suggested to partly explain mixed findings in males and females when investigating behavioral tendencies associated with the MAOA polymorphism. Prior studies indicated that the MAOA polymorphism represents a vulnerability factor for financial risk-taking and harm avoidance and that testosterone increases human risk-taking. We therefore assumed an interactive influence of the MAOA polymorphism and testosterone application on decision making and corresponding neural correlates in a risk and reward context. Stratified for the MAOA polymorphism (S =short, L =long), 103 healthy males were assigned to a placebo or testosterone group (double blind, randomized) receiving a topical gel containing 50 mg testosterone. During a functional MRI scan, the participants performed a sequential decision making task. Our results indicate that testosterone and the MAOA polymorphism jointly influence sequential decision making. The MAOA-S variant was associated with less automatic harm avoidance as reflected in response times on safe decisions. Moreover, after testosterone administration, MAOA-S carriers were more risk-taking. Overall activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus increased with growing risk for losses. In the anterior insula, testosterone administration mitigated this effect solely in MAOA-S carriers. This might be a reflection of an improved coping during risk-reward conflicts subsequently modulating risky decision making. While the molecular basis is not well defined so far, our results support the assumption of testosterone as a modulatory factor for previously reported sex differences of behavioral associations with the MAOA-S variant. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4574-4593, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Brief intermittent cocaine self-administration and abstinence sensitizes cocaine effects on the dopamine transporter and increases drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction.

  15. Brief Intermittent Cocaine Self-Administration and Abstinence Sensitizes Cocaine Effects on the Dopamine Transporter and Increases Drug Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-01-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction. PMID:25212486

  16. M sub 1 muscarinic antagonists interact with. sigma. recognition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hudkins, R.L. ); DeHaven-Hudkins, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The M{sub 1}-selective muscarinic antagonists aprophen, caramiphen, carbetapentane, 2-DAEX, dicyclomine, hexahydrosiladifenidol, iodocaramiphen, nitrocaramiphen, oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl potently inhibited binding to {sigma} sites in brain. Both basic ester and non-ester structural type compounds which exhibit affinity for the muscarinic receptor also demonstrated affinity for the {sigma} site, while the classical antimuscarinic agents atropine and QNB, and the tricyclic pirenzepine, were ineffective in binding to this site. The authors also observed a significant correlation between the K{sub i} values for {sigma}compounds to inhibit ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine binding and their IC{sub 50} values to inhibit carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. These observations may aid in elucidating the relationship of {sigma} binding to inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by cholinergic agonists.

  17. A model of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöhren, Kirstin; Höltje, Hans-Dieter

    2002-11-01

    The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor belongs to the family of rhodopsin like G-Protein Coupled Receptors. This subtype of muscarinic receptors is of special interest because it bears, aside from an orthosteric binding site, also an allosteric binding site. Based on the X-ray structure of bovine rhodopsin a complete homology model of the human M2 receptor was developed. For the orthosteric binding site point mutations and binding studies with different agonists and antagonists are available. This knowledge was utilized for an initial verification of the M2 model. Allosteric modulation of activity is mediated by structurally different ligands such as gallamine, caracurine V salts or W84 (a hexamethonium-derivative). Caracurine V derivatives with different affinities to M2 were docked using GRID-fields. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations yielded different binding energies based on diverse electrostatic and lipophilic interactions. The calculated affinities are in good agreement to experimentally determined affinities.

  18. Noninvasive evaluation of brain muscarinic receptor occupancy of oxybutynin, darifenacin and imidafenacin in rats by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akira; Maruyama, Shuji; Fukumoto, Dai; Tsukada, Hideo; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2010-07-31

    The current study was conducted to evaluate, by the noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET), the binding of antimuscarinic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) to muscarinic receptors in rat brain. Muscarinic receptor occupancy in the rat brain after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of oxybutynin, darifenacin and imidafenacin was evaluated by using a small animal PET system, and compared with the results by ex vivo autoradiographic and ex vivo radioligand binding experiments. In PET study, the i.v. injection of oxybutynin but not darifenacin or imidafenacin at pharmacological doses decreased significantly binding potential (BP) of (+)N-[(11)C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ([(11)C](+)3-MPB) in the rat cerebral cortex and corpus striatum in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, in the in vivo autoradiographic experiment, oxybutynin dose-dependently reduced binding of [(11)C](+)3-MPB in the brain, whereas darifenacin and imidafenacin did not. Following the i.v. injection of oxybutynin, darifenacin and imidafenacin, there was a similar degree of binding to muscarinic receptors in the bladder as demonstrated by a significant increase in apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) values for specific [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3)H]NMS) binding. Significant binding of muscarinic receptors in the brain was observed after the injection of oxybutynin but not darifenacin or imidafenacin. Oxybutynin but not darifenacin or imidafenacin has potential side effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with OAB. The results reveal the noninvasive characterization of brain receptor occupancy by PET to be a powerful tool for precise evaluation of adverse CNS effects of antimuscarinic agents in pre-clinical and clinical evaluations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of the Toxins Muscarine and Psilocybin in a Family of Mushroom-Forming Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kosentka, Pawel; Sprague, Sarah L.; Ryberg, Martin; Gartz, Jochen; May, Amanda L.; Campagna, Shawn R.; Matheny, P. Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom-forming fungi produce a wide array of toxic alkaloids. However, evolutionary analyses aimed at exploring the evolution of muscarine, a toxin that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, and psilocybin, a hallucinogen, have never been performed. The known taxonomic distribution of muscarine within the Inocybaceae is limited, based only on assays of species from temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Here, we present a review of muscarine and psilocybin assays performed on species of Inocybaceae during the last fifty years. To supplement these results, we used liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) to determine whether muscarine was present in 30 new samples of Inocybaceae, the majority of which have not been previously assayed or that originated from either the tropics or temperate regions of the southern hemisphere. Our main objective is to test the hypothesis that the presence of muscarine is a shared ancestral feature of the Inocybaceae. In addition, we also test whether species of Inocyabceae that produce psilocybin are monophyletic. Our findings suggest otherwise. Muscarine has evolved independently on several occasions, together with several losses. We also detect at least two independent transitions of muscarine-free lineages to psilocybin-producing states. Although not ancestral for the family as a whole, muscarine is a shared derived trait for an inclusive clade containing three of the seven major lineages of Inocybaceae (the Inocybe, Nothocybe, and Pseudosperma clades), the common ancestor of which may have evolved ca. 60 million years ago. Thus, muscarine represents a