Science.gov

Sample records for administration international trade

  1. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  2. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... administrative review made by the Mexican Ministry of Economy, with respect to Certain Types of Stearic Acid from...-1904-01). The binational panel affirmed the Mexican Ministry of Economy's final determination...

  3. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  6. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48 Section 0.48 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field...

  7. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  8. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  10. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  11. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  12. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  13. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  14. Bee health and international trade.

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, H; Knox, D A

    1997-04-01

    The international trade in bee products is a complex issue as a result of the diverse uses of these products. This is especially true with regard to honey. In most cases, honey is imported for human consumption: the high purchase and shipping costs preclude the use of honey as feed for bees. For these reasons, the risk of transmitting disease through honey is minimal. However, this risk should not be ignored, especially in those countries where American foulbrood is not known to occur. The importation of pollen for bee feed poses a definite risk, especially since there are no acceptable procedures for determining whether pollen is free from pathogens, insects and mites. Routine drying of pollen would reduce the survival of mites and insects, but would not have any impact on bacterial spores. Phytosanitary certificates should be required for the importation of honey and pollen when destined for bee feed. The declaration on the phytosanitary certificate should include country of origin, and should state whether the following bee diseases and parasitic mites are present: American foulbrood disease, European foulbrood disease, chalkbrood disease, Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae.

  15. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  16. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  17. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  18. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  19. Evolution of international trade and investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhixin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an evolving two-layer international economy network (IEN) consisting of international trade network (ITN) and international investment network (IIN) as layers, is constructed to investigate the world economy from 2001 to 2010. First, the structure analysis shows that the average partner numbers for both trade and investment are increasing year by year, and the average volume has a significant decrease in 2008 for investment and 2009 for trade. The IIN has longer average path length and dramatically lower edge density compared with the ITN, yet its clustering coefficient is larger in all years. Then, the regional relativity indicates that the longer the distance between two countries, the smaller trade and investment volumes they carry in are general, and the impact of the geographical distance gradually reduces as time goes on. Furthermore, the countries and regions are ranked by Pagerank in ITN, IIN and IEN to illustrate the roles they played. And finally, community structures are detected to visualize the global economic landscape, with countries and regions in the same community ranked according to the total volume of trade or investment.

  20. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  1. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    year. Korea and China, along with India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Mexico, and Malaysia , represented the majority of all patent filings from...on counterfeit goods seized by category . Counterfeit footwear ranked as the top commodity seized, representing $102.3 million in domestic value. Other...retaliation. For countries outside the WTO, the possibility of trade sanctions remain. The USTR also has created several administrative categories for

  2. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  3. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HMS international trade permit. 300.182... FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.182 HMS international trade permit. (a) General. An importer, entering for consumption fish...

  4. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  5. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, An export trade show exhibit... State's environment/geography/international relationships; projects to develop and use technology...

  6. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  7. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  8. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  9. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  10. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  11. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... by both government and private sector. Over the next 5-6 years, 150-200 tertiary hospital projects... headquarters in these cities. These include the Apollo Group in Chennai, and Wockhard and the Tata Institute...

  12. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Prevention and Vision for 2020, in which China plans to spend RMB 80 billion ($13 billion) on improving... Middle and Long Term Plan 2005-2020, China's nuclear power installed capacity will reach 60 million to 70... (U.S. $72 billion) by 2020.\\2\\ China's nuclear industry is expected to grow to nearly $300 billion...

  13. The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiqiong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2014-11-01

    International oil trade is a subset of global trade and there exist oil trade communities. These communities evolve over time and provide clues of international oil trade patterns. A better understanding of the international oil trade patterns is necessary for governments in policy making. To study the evolution of trade communities in the international oil trade network, we set up unweighted and weighted oil trade network models based on complex network theory using data from 2002 to 2011. We detected the communities in the oil trade networks and analyzed their evolutionary properties and stabilities over time. We found that the unweighted and weighted international oil trade networks show many different features in terms of community number, community scale, distribution of countries, quality of partitions, and stability of communities. Two turning points occurred in the evolution of community stability in the international oil trade network. One is the year 2004-2005 which correlates with changes in demand and supply in the world oil market after the Iraq War, and the other is the year 2008-2009 which is connected to the 2008 financial crisis. Different causations of instability show different features and this should be considered by policy makers.

  14. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  15. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly; Clayton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how current administrative interns enrolled in a university administrator preparation program describe and make meaning of their internship experiences. Design/methodology/approach: For this qualitative study, the researchers interviewed administrative interns enrolled in one university preparation…

  16. In Defense of Realistic International Economics: Free Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a critique of Culbertson's paper on international trade (see SO516710). Critiques Culbertson's treatment of national sovereignty and the general welfare, international wage differentials, and prices and competition. (JDH)

  17. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  18. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Nei, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries’ incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  19. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  20. 77 FR 42273 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue...

  1. 78 FR 42497 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On..., Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street...

  2. International regulation of wildlife trade: relevant legislation and organisations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M E; Rosser, A M

    2002-04-01

    Trade in wildlife brings into play a variety of legislation from several distinct areas of law. Many species of wildlife are subject to restrictions on international movement with the aim of protecting wild populations from over-exploitation. Animal health legislation is strictly applied to the movement of most animals to prevent the spread of infectious diseases between importing and exporting counties. The welfare of animals in the course of trade requires consideration and relevant legislation has been put into place, particularly in respect of transportation. A number of institutions have an impact on the trade itself or on the legislation that regulates wildlife trade on an international basis.

  3. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  4. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-20

    Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other developed countries, with relatively strong regulatory systems...U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith in WIPO: Debates US WTO Cases Against China,” Intellectual...Factsheet, “Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement,” August 4, 2008. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another Year of Elevating IP Protection With

  5. Turmoil: A Simulation Game Dealing With International Oil Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert

    1976-01-01

    This simulation game is intended to help secondary students understand the complexities of the international oil trade. Students represent nations involved in trading oil and other commodities. The game takes about five classroom periods to teach. The article includes all essential materials. (Author/RM)

  6. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  7. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  8. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  9. Methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, T.; Helme, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December, 1997, the international community established binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions obligations for industrialized countries. The Parties to the new Kyoto Protocol also agreed on the use of a number of market-based mechanisms, including international GHG emissions trading. These market mechanisms were of critical to the importance because they have the potential to significantly reduce the costs of treaty compliance. In principle, an international cap-and-trade system appears to be one of the most cost-effective means of reducing GHG emissions. Maintaining the integrity of the trading system is of primary importance in ensuring that trading helps countries to meet their GHG commitments. This paper explores methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system, starting with a discussion of preconditions for participation in trading and then moving to features of an international compliance system. Achieving maximum compliance with international requirements may best be accomplished by limiting participation in trading to Annex I countries that maintain strong domestic compliance systems. Prior to the climate negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, the US Administration proposed a number of preconditions for participation in trading, including the adoption of international measurement standards and the establishment of domestic compliance and enforcement programs. This paper explores these and other preconditions, including the establishment of tough domestic financial penalties on companies that exceed allowed emissions and seller responsibility for the delivery of real reductions. The paper also discusses several necessary features of the international compliance system.

  10. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    PhRMA, “Special 301 Submission for 2007,” Appendix: Damage Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other...2007, [http://www.ustr.gov]. See also CRS Report RL33536, China-U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith...2007. 88 “Peru IPR Text Reflects FTA Template, Shows Reduced PhRMA Sway,” Inside US Trade, July 6, 2007. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another

  11. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  12. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  13. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  14. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  15. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.72 How can I trade internationally... CITES species. (2) International trade in salvaged Appendix-I plants, and......

  16. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  17. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition.

  18. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  19. 76 FR 11559 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SEAL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  20. 76 FR 11558 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel HO-D-DOE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  1. 75 FR 47679 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RAINDANCER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  2. 76 FR 30237 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel KAINANI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  3. 76 FR 13701 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel AMAZING GRACE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  4. 75 FR 2592 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BELLISSIMO. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  5. 76 FR 40984 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SOMEDAY IS NOW. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  6. 76 FR 11560 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SLOW HAND. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  7. 76 FR 13700 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SANBAR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  8. 76 FR 11561 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MARIPOSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  9. 75 FR 54960 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel IRISH GYPSY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  10. 76 FR 820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel OCEAN BOUND. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  11. 75 FR 70068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TAXI 1. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  12. 76 FR 819 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MEDEA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  13. 75 FR 70069 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GEM. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  14. 75 FR 25924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GENO IV. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  15. 76 FR 11560 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel COMFORT ZONE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  16. 75 FR 60862 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel HAWK. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  17. 75 FR 2591 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BOO PACIFIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  18. 76 FR 820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel OCEAN BOUND. SUMMARY: As... (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under...

  19. 76 FR 13701 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TIGERS EYE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  20. 75 FR 49553 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ENDLESS SUMMER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  1. 76 FR 13702 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TASI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  2. 76 FR 40981 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TRILOGY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.- build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  3. 76 FR 11558 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ANDANTE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  4. 76 FR 40982 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DANDY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  5. 75 FR 54960 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel EQUANIMITY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  6. 76 FR 30235 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ARIEL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  7. 76 FR 40983 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BRUT. SUMMARY: As authorized by... (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under...

  8. 75 FR 25924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONTINGENCY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  9. 76 FR 13700 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GIG `EM. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  10. 76 FR 46893 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel XECULINK 1. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  11. 76 FR 30236 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BELLISSIMA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  12. 76 FR 40983 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TANTO AMOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  13. 76 FR 46894 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SIMA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  14. 76 FR 30237 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONDESA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  15. 75 FR 70068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DESTINY. SUMMARY: As authorized... (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under...

  16. 76 FR 40984 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JUANITA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  17. 76 FR 30236 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel C NOU. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  18. 76 FR 46894 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONCH WEST. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  19. 76 FR 30755 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel KINGFIN. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  20. 76 FR 51464 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CATATONIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  1. 76 FR 30755 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ADIOS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  2. 76 FR 51465 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SENSEI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  3. 75 FR 14486 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ISLAND DESTINY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  4. 75 FR 9020 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GYPSY SOUL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  5. 75 FR 28101 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JEN CHRIS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  6. 76 FR 35943 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Invitation for public comments on a requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  7. 76 FR 35945 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Invitation for public comments on a requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  8. 76 FR 4419 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel FIRST CAST. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  9. 75 FR 14485 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CRISTOBAL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  10. 75 FR 35517 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel HARBOR LIGHTS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  11. 75 FR 6433 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel POLLOCK XIII. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  12. 75 FR 14487 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY. SUMMARY: As authorized by... (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under...

  13. 76 FR 29331 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GRAND IMPULSE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  14. 75 FR 9020 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel AMICUS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  15. 75 FR 14487 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CLOUD NINE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  16. 75 FR 9021 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JUSTINE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  17. 76 FR 29332 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LYRA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  18. 75 FR 38865 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Invitation for public comments on a requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  19. 76 FR 35944 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Invitation for public comments on a requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws... requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver has been...

  20. 76 FR 51467 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LEONESSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  1. 76 FR 51467 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JOINT VENTURE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  2. 75 FR 9021 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SMOOTH SAILING. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  3. 76 FR 39152 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel VALKYRIE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  4. 76 FR 51466 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TELL TALES. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  5. 75 FR 14486 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel QUICKSILVER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  6. 76 FR 51465 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CORSAIRE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  7. 76 FR 29332 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MEDUSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  8. 76 FR 51466 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel EUREKA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  9. 75 FR 11991 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ISLAND STYLE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  10. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade... technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee administrative...

  11. 76 FR 76812 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... 0148] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for... the vessel BARBARY GHOST is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sightseeing tours in the...

  12. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., and/or business partners, as well as counseling from Commercial Service trade specialists. In both... to introduce participants to distributors and prospective partners. The Americas Business Trade... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International...

  13. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  14. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  15. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  16. 77 FR 66911 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PURE INSANITY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PURE INSANITY... of the vessel PURE INSANITY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Vessel Chartering''...

  17. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...

  18. 76 FR 70216 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE... the vessel REEL ATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing Charter passenger less...

  19. 77 FR 25013 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MARIE ELENA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MARIE ELENA... the vessel MARIE ELENA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailboat passenger...

  20. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS... of the vessel COOL BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset...

  1. 78 FR 19066 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA... of the vessel MI CASA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Passenger charters. Geographic...

  2. 75 FR 4449 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...On January 15, 2010, the Maritime Administration published notice of administrative waiver of the coastwise trade laws. There was an inadvertent error in the docket number. The correct docket number, MARAD-2010-0002, heads this...

  3. 76 FR 67253 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL... the vessel ACERO AZUL is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger for hire.'' GEOGRAPHIC...

  4. 76 FR 79763 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO... of the vessel TANGO is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Sightseeing, sportfishing, scuba...

  5. 78 FR 35092 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEAR BOAT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEAR BOAT... of the vessel BEAR BOAT is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Crewed and unscrewed...

  6. 78 FR 76405 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KNIGHT HAWK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KNIGHT HAWK... of the vessel KNIGHT HAWK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Carrying passengers for...

  7. 77 FR 74547 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PEGASUS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PEGASUS... of the vessel PEGASUS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Offshore sailing instruction,...

  8. 76 FR 60117 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WILDFLOWER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WILDFLOWER... applicant the intended service of the vessel WILDFLOWER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day and overnight charters focused on outdoor adventure.'' Geographic Region: ``Hawaii, California,...

  9. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  10. 77 FR 35743 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE... the vessel SECOND CHANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Small group charters.''...

  11. 75 FR 4449 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...On January 15, 2010, the Maritime Administration published notice of administrative waiver of the coastwise trade laws. There was an inadvertent error in the docket number. The correct docket number, MARAD-2010-0001, heads this...

  12. 77 FR 10802 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SILVER MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SILVER MOON... the vessel SILVER MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Catamaran Sailing Charters, both...

  13. 77 FR 74274 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MELLO MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MELLO MOON... of the vessel MELLO MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Six pack passenger...

  14. 78 FR 70096 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE MOON... of the vessel BLUE MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Bareboat Charter'' Geographic...

  15. 78 FR 53004 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND WIND; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND WIND... of the vessel SECOND WIND is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Breakfast, lunch, and...

  16. 78 FR 30388 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OSPREY; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Puerto Rico'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  17. 78 FR 68147 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KARIBELLA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  18. 78 FR 64282 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EVEN KIEHL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... or fewer''. Geographic Region: California, South Carolina, Florida, North Carolina, Oregon... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EVEN...

  19. 78 FR 76404 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TUESDAY'S CHILD; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ....'' Geographic Region: ``Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TUESDAY'S...

  20. 78 FR 68148 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPROMPTU; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Region: Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  1. 78 FR 47825 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SERENITY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ..., Washington, DC, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Texas..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  2. 76 FR 67252 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEIJA FLOR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ....'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``California, Oregon, Washington, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEIJA...

  3. 78 FR 25531 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TEMPEST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ..., Maryland, Washington, DC, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  4. 78 FR 47826 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAMMIN; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... small groups''. Geographic Region: ``Maryland, Virginia, Washington, DC, North Carolina, South Carolina... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  5. 78 FR 25529 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY... of the vessel ALCHEMY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Uninspected six-pack sailing...

  6. 77 FR 16582 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MILKY WAY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MILKY WAY... the vessel MILKY WAY is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``UPZ Coastal Six Pack...

  7. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE... of the vessel BAD INFLUENCE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``6 pack fishing...

  8. 77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME... the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing charter boat.'' Geographic...

  9. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER... the vessel DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.''...

  10. 77 FR 13696 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIREN; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIREN... the vessel SIREN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sailing charters.'' Geographic...

  11. 77 FR 13694 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AURORA B; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AURORA B... the vessel AURORA B is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Will provide special chartering...

  12. 78 FR 42153 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COMPASS ROSE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COMPASS ROSE... of the vessel COMPASS ROSE is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sailboat charters six...

  13. 78 FR 76407 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VALKYRIE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VALKYRIE... of the vessel VALKYRIE is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Passengers for catamaran...

  14. 78 FR 30389 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VELA; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VELA... of the vessel VELA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sailing Charters''. Geographic...

  15. International Trade. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gerald F.

    In order to evaluate the potential effects of U.S. conversion to SI (Systems International) units on U.S. foreign trade, 188 export product classes and 155 import product classes were selected from 1,166 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) product classes and questionnaires were mailed to a total of 510 firms, utilizing separate forms for…

  16. On Quality Education Reform in International Trade Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing problems of quality education of specialization of international trade in current colleges and universities of China, and then propose several pieces of corresponding suggestion on educational reform. According to the characteristics of college and university education, we shall emphasize on the…

  17. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  18. 75 FR 42481 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel COMFORTABLY NUMB. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  19. 76 FR 38269 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Department of... waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LEI LANI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  20. 75 FR 42481 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel SEAFLYER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  1. 75 FR 42480 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel DIAMOND GIRL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  2. 75 FR 42480 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel THIRD SWAN. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  3. 76 FR 35943 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... Trade Laws for the vessel M/Y VIVERE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  4. 75 FR 38865 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... Trade Laws for the vessel PROTECTOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  5. 76 FR 6182 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... 0002] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration... the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LYRIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the... waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...

  6. 76 FR 6184 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... Trade Laws for the vessel DOLCE VITA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  7. 75 FR 38864 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... Trade Laws for the vessel PALMETTO FLYER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of....-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request for such a waiver...

  8. 76 FR 35946 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-0079] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration... the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LIL LIZ. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the... waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...

  9. 76 FR 6183 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... 0001] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime Administration... the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RADIANCE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the... waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...

  10. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  11. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    PubMed

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  12. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas....

  13. Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-28

    for pharmaceutical companies to invest in R&D. • Type III diseases, such as dengue fever and African sleeping sickness, are those that have...customs authorities temporarily halted shipments of generic medicines manufactured in India and in transit to Colombia and Peru via the Netherlands... Peru , Panama, and Colombia. The Obama Administration is reviewing U.S. trade policy, including IPRs and pharmaceuticals

  14. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  15. An Investigation of Chief Administrator Turnover in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John

    2011-01-01

    This article explores chief administrator turnover in international schools. Quantitative and qualitative data from the 83 chief administrators who participated in the study suggests that the average tenure of an international school chief administrator is 3.7 years and that the main reason chief administrators leave international schools is…

  16. Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven; Ni, Ruijing; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Da; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David; Feng, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Yingying; Hu, Yongyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhu; Jiang, Xujia; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin; Huang, Yi; Guan, Dabo

    2016-10-01

    International trade separates regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. Yet the role of trade in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions has never been quantified. Here, we contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers such as Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences between consumption- and production-related radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of aerosols while lowering global emissions.

  17. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)...

  18. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. ] Water Technology Trade Mission to India; February 28... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing a Water Technology Trade Mission to...

  19. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    PubMed

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  20. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business development trade mission to Kabul... to port cities such as Karachi. After 30 years of war reconstruction and development efforts...

  1. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  2. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand.

  3. Asymmetric responses of international stock markets to trading volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Richard; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lin, Doris S. Y.; Huang, Ming-Hsiang

    2006-02-01

    The major goal of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that stock returns and return volatility are asymmetric, threshold nonlinear, functions of change in trading volume. A minor goal is to examine whether return spillover effects also display such asymmetry. Employing a double-threshold GARCH model with trading volume as a threshold variable, we find strong evidence supporting this hypothesis in five international market return series. Asymmetric causality tests lend further support to our trading volume threshold model and conclusions. Specifically, an increase in volume is positively associated, while decreasing volume is negatively associated, with the major price index in four of the five markets. The volatility of each series also displays an asymmetric reaction, four of the markets display higher volatility following increases in trading volume. Using posterior odds ratio, the proposed threshold model is strongly favored in three of the five markets, compared to a US news double threshold GARCH model and a symmetric GARCH model. We also find significant nonlinear asymmetric return spillover effects from the US market.

  4. Multinetwork of international trade: A commodity-specific analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We study the topological properties of the multinetwork of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period, comparing them with those of the aggregate-trade network, known in the literature as the international-trade network (ITN). We show that link-weight distributions of commodity-specific networks are extremely heterogeneous and (quasi) log normality of aggregate link-weight distribution is generated as a sheer outcome of aggregation. Commodity-specific networks also display average connectivity, clustering, and centrality levels very different from their aggregate counterpart. We also find that ITN complete connectivity is mainly achieved through the presence of many weak links that keep commodity-specific networks together and that the correlation structure existing between topological statistics within each single network is fairly robust and mimics that of the aggregate network. Finally, we employ cross-commodity correlations between link weights to build hierarchies of commodities. Our results suggest that on the top of a relatively time-invariant “intrinsic” taxonomy (based on inherent between-commodity similarities), the roles played by different commodities in the ITN have become more and more dissimilar, possibly as the result of an increased trade specialization. Our approach is general and can be used to characterize any multinetwork emerging as a nontrivial aggregation of several interdependent layers.

  5. 78 FR 25532 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OCEAN JEDI; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...-7 day charters.'' Geographic Region: New York, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, California... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OCEAN JEDI... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws...

  6. 78 FR 30388 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SAFARI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Region: ``Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, North Carolina''. The complete application is given in DOT docket... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SAFARI... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws...

  7. 78 FR 19067 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MARAE; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...: Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Washington DC, Delaware, New Jersey... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MARAE... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws...

  8. 78 FR 64283 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HAWK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HAWK... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under... instruction primarily in the area of the middle Chesapeake Bay but possibly expanding north and south...

  9. International trade and determinants of price differentials of insulin medicine.

    PubMed

    Helble, Matthias; Aizawa, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Empirical studies on pharmaceutical pricing across countries have found evidence that prices vary according to per capita income. These studies are typically based on survey data from a subset of countries and cover only one year. In this paper, we study the international trade and price of insulin by using detailed trade data for 186 importing countries from 1995 to 2013. With almost 12,000 observations, our study constitutes the largest comparative study on pharmaceutical pricing conducted so far. The large dataset allows us to uncover new determinants of price differentials. Our analysis shows that the international trade of insulin increased substantially over this time period, clearly outpacing the increasing prevalence of diabetes. Using the unit values of imports, we also study the determinants of price differentials between countries. Running various panel regressions, we find that the differences in prices across countries can be explained by the following factors: First, corroborating earlier studies, we find that per capita GDP is positively correlated with the unit price of insulin. Second, the price of insulin drugs originating from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries tends to be substantially higher than for those imported from developing countries. Third, more intense competition among suppliers leads to lower insulin prices. Fourth, higher out-of-pocket payments for health care are associated with higher prices. Finally, higher volumes and tariffs seem to result in lower unit prices.

  10. 75 FR 25311 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel EROS. SUMMARY: As authorized by... applicant the intended service of the vessel EROS is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Occasional...

  11. 76 FR 24562 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel FIREFLY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel FIREFLY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``We see...

  12. 75 FR 25311 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel PEGASUS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel PEGASUS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  13. 75 FR 75544 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel WORK N GIRL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel WORK N GIRL is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``This vessel will be used for sport...

  14. 75 FR 5172 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SUPER NOVA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel SUPER NOVA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Doing day and cruising charters for six...

  15. 75 FR 56656 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RAMBLIN ROSE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel RAMBLIN ROSE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``to...

  16. 75 FR 5171 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DRAGON LADY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel DRAGON LADY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Captained charters in which clients are...

  17. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  18. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    United States and abroad. In 2008, the trade deficit in goods reached $821.2 billion on a balance of payments ( BoP ) basis, up slightly from $819.4...pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or to assist U.S. industries to...intervened in foreign exchange markets to keep the value of their currencies from rising too fast. The broadest measure of U.S. international economic

  19. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Mexico (NAFTA...

  20. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Large Diameter Line Pipe and Tube from Mexico (NAFTA Secretariat...

  1. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230, (202)...

  2. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  3. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  4. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  5. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  6. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  7. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation... of the vessel BEE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Skippered day cruises on a classic,...

  8. 78 FR 68148 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Linda Williams, U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime... Linda.Williams@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended...

  9. 78 FR 58603 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALL GOOD; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALL GOOD... comments electronically via the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . All comments will become part of... and all documents entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at...

  10. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI... of the vessel GEMINI is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``S/V Gemini to be used as an...

  11. 78 FR 19066 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FRANK S. CRESSEY; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FRANK S... the applicant the intended service of the vessel FRANK S. CRESSEY is: Intended Commercial Use...

  12. 78 FR 64283 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END... of the vessel RAINBOW'S END is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``1 day to 2 week...

  13. 77 FR 42082 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GUILDING LIGHT; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GUILDING LIGHT... of the vessel GUILDING LIGHT is: ] Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day charters and week...

  14. 78 FR 13751 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME AROUND; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME... the applicant the intended service of the vessel LAST TIME AROUND is: Intended Commercial Use...

  15. 77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER... the vessel IN THE SHELTER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``The vessel is a 38 foot...

  16. 78 FR 58602 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PHANTOM; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... North of a line between Gore Point to Cape Suckling [including the North Gulf Coast and Prince William... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  17. 78 FR 58603 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DRUMBEAT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... North of a line between Gore Point to Cape Suckling [including the North Gulf Coast and Prince William... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  18. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOT ROD; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOT ROD... of the vessel HOT ROD is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Charter Sport Fishing and...

  19. 78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GATO; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GATO... of the vessel GATO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Six pack charters, half day and full...

  20. 78 FR 46409 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WING; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WING... of the vessel WING is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Crewed day & sunset sails, 3-8...

  1. 78 FR 35093 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC... of the vessel EYE DOC is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Charter fishing on Lake...

  2. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR... of the vessel JAGUAR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``For bare boat/lease recreational...

  3. 77 FR 16583 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CLOUD NINE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CLOUD NINE... the vessel CLOUD NINE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Local and long range sailing...

  4. 76 FR 67254 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LINDA GRACE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LINDA GRACE... the vessel LINDA GRACE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``2 to 8 hour day sails,...

  5. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK... of the vessel LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as...

  6. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOLLY DAY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOLLY DAY... applicant the intended service of the vessel HOLLY DAY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Part...

  7. 77 FR 10799 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FLAMINGO; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FLAMINGO... the vessel FLAMINGO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter work with the Boy Scouts at...

  8. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA... of the vessel VICTORIA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Carrying up to 12 passengers for...

  9. 78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT... of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Private charter--up to 12...

  10. 77 FR 35745 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SMOKE AND ROSES; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SMOKE AND ROSES... the vessel SMOKE AND ROSES is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``We intend to carry up to...

  11. 77 FR 26819 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET... the vessel BLUE PLANET is: Intended Commercial use of Vessel: ``Charter to Boy Scouts of...

  12. 76 FR 67255 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT... the vessel KIWI CAT is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Small vessel 12 person chartering...

  13. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p... trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that...

  14. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11... anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined...

  15. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11... anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined...

  16. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  17. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  18. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    PubMed

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  19. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  20. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    PubMed Central

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  1. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade.

  2. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  3. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: New plants with high safety and availability, by Bill Poirier, Westinghouse Electric Company; Increased reliability and competitiveness, by Russell E. Stachowski, GE Energy, Nuclear; Fuel for long-term supply of nuclear power, by Kumiaki Moriya, Hitachi, Ltd., Japan; Super high burnup fuel, By Noboru Itagaki and Tamotsu Murata, Nuclear Fuel Industries LTD., Japan; Zero fuel failures by 2010, by Tom Patten, AREVA NP Inc.; Decommissioning opportunities in the UK, by David Brown and William Thorn, US Department of Commerce; Industry's three challenges, by Dale E. Klein, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and, A step ahead of the current ABWR's, compiled by Claire Zurek, GE Energy.

  4. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A global solution for clients, by Yves Linz, AREVA NP; A safer, secure and economical plant, by Andy White, GE Hitachi Nuclear; Robust global prospects, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited; Development of NPPs in China, by Chen Changbing and Li Huiqiang, Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Yucca Mountain update; and, A class of its own, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear. The Industry Innovation articles in this issue are: Fuel assembly inspection program, by Jim Lemons, Tennessee Valley Authority; and, Improved in-core fuel shuffle for reduced refueling duration, by James Tusar, Exelon Nuclear.

  5. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer’s market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer’s willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 − DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  6. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  7. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m... negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that the meeting will...

  8. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  9. 77 FR 59690 - Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 26, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Titan Resources International, Corp. (``Titan''). Titan is a Wyoming corporation... releases and other public statements concerning Titan's business operations and financial condition....

  10. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…

  11. Internal Administrative Control: Its Applicability to the Marine Corps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL : Master’s Thesis ITS APPLICABILITY TO THE MARINE CORPS June 1984 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 4. CONTRACT OR GRANT Nr...NUMBERS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Postgraduate School jUne 1984 13...Continu. on fevers# side It nec esary and Identify by. block number) internal Control Internal Administrative Control Administrative Control 0

  12. 75 FR 75545 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel FAMILY TIME. SUMMARY: As... U.S. vessel builders or businesses in the U.S. that use U.S. flag vessels. If MARAD determines, in... business that uses U.S. flag vessels in that business, a waiver will not be granted. Comments should...

  13. 75 FR 25312 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GAME DAY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C...://www.regulations.gov . Interested parties may comment on the effect this action may have on U.S. vessel... issuance of the waiver will have an unduly adverse effect on a U.S.-vessel builder or a business that...

  14. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.71 How can I... are not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (2) The quotas have been......

  15. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... in plants? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions: In addition to the requirements of this...

  16. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  17. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  18. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  19. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  20. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  1. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Harmonized System of the World Customs Organization. (1) Logs means all wood in the rough, whether or not... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  2. 76 FR 66127 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP II; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP...

  3. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  4. International trade and waste and fuel management issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Innovative financing and workforce planning, by Donna Jacobs, Entergy Nuclear; Nuclear power - a long-term need, by John C. Devine, Gerald Goldsmith and Michael DeLallo, WorleyParsons; Importance of loan guarantee program, by Donald Hintz; EPC contracts for new plants, by Dave Barry, Shaw Power Group; GNEP and fuel recycling, by Alan Hanson, AREVA NC Inc.; Safe and reliable reactor, by Kiyoshi Yamauchi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Safe, small and simple reactors, by Yoshi Sakashita, Toshiba Corporation; Nuclear power in Thailand, by Tatchai Sumitra, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology; and, Nuclear power in Vietnam, by Tran Huu Phat, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. The Industry Innovation article this issue is Rectifying axial-offset-anomaly problems, by Don Adams, Tennessee Valley Authority. The Plant Profile article is Star of Stars Excellence, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.

  5. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  6. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  7. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-26

    discussion of particular trends and points of contention related to trade policy. The United States is now running huge deficits in its trade with other...nations. Between 2006 and 2007 the U.S. merchandise trade deficit declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments (BoP...basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A 2007 surplus in services trade of $119 billion resulted in a deficit of $700 billion on

  8. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU’s support for international trade law. PMID:27867316

  9. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  10. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  11. International Trade: A Small Business Primer. Growing Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, Roger E.

    The United States' declining share of world trade is connected with the fact that hundreds of thousands of medium- and small-sized businesses are ignoring trade and exports. The cure for their fear of the unknown is information and education. Exports have a number of advantages: increased profits, spread of overhead costs, smooth seasonal…

  12. English for International Trade: China Enters the WTO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Jixian; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey into the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on business professionals and college English instruction. Individuals in business and trading companies from the five cities in Ahejiang province were polled on issues related to the learning and teaching of English with reference to China's entry into…

  13. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  14. 75 FR 44762 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (94-4A007) To Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Florida Citrus Exports, L.C. (``FCE... International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an...

  15. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (99-5A002) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  16. 76 FR 39846 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (10-1A001) to Amend the export trade certificate of review issued to alaska longline cod commission, application... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  17. 76 FR 23788 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (88-13A16) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  18. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  19. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  20. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  1. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC on December 16... etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  2. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  3. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  4. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries,...

  5. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  6. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  7. EPA's Role in International Environment, Trade and Finance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Both domestically and globally, protecting human health and the environment is essential to sustainable economic growth and development. EPA works in trade, environment and finance to protect these goals.

  8. Administrator Perceptions of Transition Programs in International Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which transition programs are offered to students at international secondary schools. Components of professional development, orientation and departure programs, and transition support teams were examined. Participants included school administrators at 11 international schools across five continents. Findings…

  9. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  10. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    PubMed

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

  11. 77 FR 72816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International Corporation (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines); Chesapeake, VA On June 28, 2012, the Virginia...

  12. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Methods Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. Results An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over ‘disguised protectionism’ and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. Conclusion The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue. PMID:20943828

  13. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... correspondence, including ruling requests and mailed comments regarding 19 U.S.C. 1625 modifications...

  14. NAFTA literature at the International Trade Commission library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the US official materials regarding NAFTA originate in the Executive Office of the President, especially the Office of the United States Trade Representative. These materials can be purchased from the U.S.G.P.O. There were also numerous Congressional hearings; many of which are probably now out of print, government agencies and the public are welcome to make copies of the ones in the collections of the ITC libraries. One of the most important sources of materials available in electronic format is the National Trade Data Base, produced by the Department of Commerce. This is a collection of at least 120 separate files containing documents relating to trade. It includes several files specifically on NAFTA, including the text of the treaty. It is available as two CD-ROM's, issued monthly, or on Internet.

  15. The relationship between the World Trade Organisation and the Office International des Epizooties.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    1997-04-01

    The provisions of the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures are designed to extend the liberalisation of trade, without increasing the risk to public, animal or plant health. The international standards set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) will be used as a benchmark by World Trade Organisation panels and committees when evaluating national sanitary-based regulations. For a significant liberalisation of trade to be achieved, Member Countries are faced with a dual mandate: a) each country must put these concepts into practice when making import/export decisions; and b) each country must make the commitment to support the OIE in its efforts to develop and review sanitary standards. Of equal importance to the application of standards is the cultural change that trade and regulatory communities must undergo. The author examines the role of Member Countries and the OIE in the implementation of this important agreement.

  16. 77 FR 66911 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FIVE O'CLOCK HERE; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FIVE O'CLOCK... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... of Transportation, Maritime Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room W23-453, Washington,...

  17. 77 FR 56264 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TREE OF LIFE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TREE OF LIFE... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under....'' Geographic Region: Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, New York, Georgia,...

  18. International Trade and Worker Displacement: Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Paul T.; Corson, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Two samples of Trade Adjustment Assistance Program participants before and after 1988 program changes were studied. The program served workers who were permanently displaced and suffered significant earnings losses, but there was no evidence that training affected earnings three years after initial unemployment. (SK)

  19. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    PubMed

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  20. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. 1987 annual report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-15

    Five tables present all reported 1987 data on international trade, involving the United States, in wildlife and plant species listed on the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Data on species, quantities, countries involved, purpose of trade, and description of products or specimens are provided.

  1. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-03

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance.

  2. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-05

    declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A...the $753 billion deficit in 2006. While U.S. exports are highly competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand...they may generate trade friction and pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign

  3. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  4. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  5. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A.…

  6. 76 FR 54520 - Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 30, 2011. It appears to... concerning the securities of Somerset International Group, Inc. The Commission is of the opinion that...

  7. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  8. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  9. 77 FR 35355 - User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration RIN 0625-XA17 User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services AGENCY: U.S... Trade Administration (ITA) publishes this notice to announce its intent to adjust user fees in light of... its costs for providing trade promotion services under the current fee structure. ITA provides a...

  10. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc., Application no. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  11. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, Application no. 99... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  12. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  13. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001) to amend an export trade certificate of review previously issued to Aerospace Industries Association... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  14. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc. (Application No. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  15. 78 FR 36745 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to the Independent Film & Television Alliance, Application no... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  16. 76 FR 27994 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (84-22A12) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  17. 75 FR 31423 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 84-21A12) To Amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review Previously Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  18. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-16

    declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A 2007...753 billion deficit in 2006. While U.S. exports are highly competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand by...may generate trade friction and pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or

  19. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-04

    billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and $817 billion on a Census basis. A surplus in services trade of $80 billion resulted in a deficit of...competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand by Americans for imported products. In 2006, U.S. exports of goods and...pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or to assist U.S. industries to

  20. 77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest Foods, Inc...@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  1. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... number) or e- mail at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  2. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., 2011, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to ARC Industries... at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of...

  3. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod... number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  4. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  5. Embodied environmental emissions in U.S. international trade, 1997-2004.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-07-15

    Significant recent attention has been given to quantifying the environmental impacts of international trade. However, the United States, despite being the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases and having large recent growth in international trade, has seen little analysis. This work uses a multi-country input-output model of the U.S. and its seven largest trading partners (Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, Germany, the UK, and Korea) to analyze the environmental effects of changes to U.S. trade structure and volume from 1997 to 2004. It is shown that increased import volume and shifting trade patterns during this time period led to a large increase in the U.S.' embodied emissions in trade (EET) for CO2, SO2, and NO(x). Methodological uncertainties, especially related to uncertainties of international currency conversion, lead to large differences in estimation of the total EET, but we estimate that the overall embodied CO2 in U.S. imports has grown from between 0.5 and 0.8 Gt of CO2 in 1997 to between 0.8 and 1.8 Gt of CO2 in 2004, representing between 9-14% and 13-30% of U.S. (2-4% to 3-7% of global) CO2 emissions in 1997 and 2004, respectively.

  6. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda for a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  7. 78 FR 57619 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Legal Services Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... FR 20893, April 8, 2013, regarding the Executive-Led Legal Services Trade Mission to China...

  8. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Biotechnology Life Sciences trade mission to China on October 17-20, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to China is intended to include representatives from a variety of...

  9. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  10. 75 FR 25207 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 88-12A16) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America, Application no. 88-00016. SUMMARY: Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') of the International...

  11. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and...

  12. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and cosmetics companies...

  13. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  14. 77 FR 49059 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHAT DE MER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHAT DE MER... of the vessel CHAT DE MER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Primarily carrying passengers...

  15. 77 FR 26820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE BLUE MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE BLUE MOON... the vessel THE BLUE MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``6 pack UPV (short...

  16. 78 FR 64284 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG OL; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ....'' Geographic Region: ``New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina.'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG...

  17. 78 FR 19362 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART III; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART... the applicant the intended service of the vessel W.L. STEWART III is: Intended Commercial Use...

  18. 77 FR 21150 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIR MARTIN II; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIR MARTIN II... the vessel SIR MARTIN II is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day charter up to 6 passengers...

  19. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  20. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-02

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required.

  1. 75 FR 16077 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the ] next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  2. 75 FR 8922 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the first meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance...

  3. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of ] programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in...

  4. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  5. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... ``Green Information & Communication Technology (ICT)'' solutions, as well as energy...

  6. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%-3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  7. 78 FR 4124 - Foreign-Trade Zone 68-El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 68--El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., El Paso, TX An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting special-purpose subzone...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis: usefulness in international trade.

    PubMed

    Milian-Suazo, Feliciano; Harris, Beth; Arriaga Díaz, Camila; Romero Torres, Cecilia; Stuber, Tod; Alvarez Ojeda, Genoveva; Morales Loredo, Alberto; Perez Soria, Martina; Payeur, Janet B

    2008-11-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) represents a barrier for free trade of livestock between Mexico and the United States of America (US). In spite of efforts from Mexico to export TB-free animals, some of those found with TB lesions in slaughterhouses in the US are traced back to that country. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine, through molecular epidemiology, the most probable source of infection for cattle found with TB lesions in the US. Ninety M. bovis isolates, 50 from Mexico obtained from cattle in 8 different states, and 40 from the US from cattle, deer, elk and feral pigs from 7 different states were included in the study. All samples were analyzed in both laboratories, Mexico and the US, following the same protocol for molecular analysis by spoligotyping. Twenty-seven clusters, ranging from 1 to 18 genetically similar strains were found. Some clustering by country was observed, strains from cattle and deer in Michigan in the US fell into the same cluster, suggesting transmission between species. These results, combined with epidemiological information suggest that despite of the possibility that some animals with lesions in the US come from Mexico as false negatives, the US has its own source of infection, must probably in dairy cattle and wildlife. Genetic diversity of isolates from Mexico was larger than that in the US, which could be a consequence of the endemic status of the disease and the indiscriminate movement of animals between regions.

  9. Exploring the Security Dimension of Sino-US Trade Asymmetry. Implications for the International Trade System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    realist perspective does not place eco­ nomics and finance in a subordinate role in the field of national security. Nor does it argue for support of an...upon US security, National War College pro­ fessor Bernard Cole states that it is “more difficult for the US to intercede on behalf of Taiwan on...Graduate Institute of International Politics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. [ 90 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Spring 2010 Report

  10. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  11. Changes in U.S.-International Arms Trade Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    international program managers have used in the recent past. They, of course, would be free to draw parallels between their programs and the programs presented in...equipped with Orpheus Reece Pods, Campal Mission Support, and drag chutes (see F-16 system description for additional details). Deliveries began in...source codes to only those who need it, and 4) assurances of free and automatic flowback of F-16 derived technologies. (24:2-13) In mid-1989, the JDA

  12. International jurisprudence on trade and environmental health: one step forward, two steps back?

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), there has been considerable debate regarding the impact of its rules on public health. By contrast, the role of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism has received little attention, even though the bodies responsible for settling disputes are the ultimate interpreters of WTO rules and agreements. To date, three WTO disputes that relate to occupational and/or environmental health have been fully litigated. A review of the decisions and reasoning in these cases indicates that WTO jurisprudence is evolving, as Panels and the Appellate Body try--with varying degrees of success--to balance countries' rights and obligations under international trade agreements with their right to protect occupational and environmental health. Disputes between nations can have an impact beyond the parties concerned, and raise questions about the relationship between trade agreements and other international agreements, especially multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).

  13. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Minx, Jan C; Weber, Christopher L; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-05-24

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO(2) emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO(2) emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO(2) emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO(2) in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO(2) in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non-energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO(2) in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO(2) in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Glen P.; Minx, Jan C.; Weber, Christopher L.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO2 emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO2 emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO2 emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO2 in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO2 in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non–energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO2 in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO2 in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21518879

  15. 75 FR 34960 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Public notice and request for...) published the Public Notice and Request for Comments for Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program...

  16. 75 FR 32341 - Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 Import Administration IA ACCESS Pilot Program AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Public notice and request for... copies of comments to the Secretary of Commerce, Attn: Evangeline Keenan, Import Administration,...

  17. Exploration on the Evaluation Mode of "International Trade Practice" in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    Considering the employment-oriented positioning of higher vocational education which is put by the education ministry and the features of higher vocational schools students, this paper indicates that the disadvantages in the evaluation mode of higher vocational school international trade course. Therefore, a reformed suggestion is given for the…

  18. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  19. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  20. The Historical Influence of International Trade and Religion on the Arts, Crafts and Architecture of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissette, Paul

    This document outlines a slide presentation on Southeast Asia with primary emphasis on Indonesia. How international trade has influenced the design and development of Indonesian arts, crafts, and architecture are main points of interest. A geographical overview of Indonesia is described along with its natural resources, population, and religious…

  1. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  2. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  3. International Children's Trade Books: Building Blocks for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Hadaway, Nancy L.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of character education has been emphasized since ancient times across cultures and religions as a way to develop morals and values of the younger generations. In this article, the authors highlight several award-winning international children's trade books that reflect the core values recurring in literature and scriptures…

  4. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... shipments of seeds of any species listed in Appendix I, except for seeds of certain artificially propagated hybrids (see § 23.92), or seeds of species listed in Appendix II or III with an annotation that...

  5. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD..., the import, export, or re-export of timber species listed under CITES must meet the other requirements... timber species in the CITES Appendices. These definitions are based on the tariff classifications of...

  6. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD..., the import, export, or re-export of timber species listed under CITES must meet the other requirements... timber species in the CITES Appendices. These definitions are based on the tariff classifications of...

  7. International cooperation in the solution to trade-related invasive species risks.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the factors behind the growth of invasive species as a global problem, and the scope for international cooperation and coordination in addressing that problem. This is limited by the terms of the various international agreements governing trade, health, and biodiversity. The default strategy in most cases has two parts: border protection and the control of or adaptation to introduced species that have escaped detection at the border. Most invasive species policy involves unilateral national defensive action as opposed to coordinated international action. We argue that an important part of the solution to the problem lies in global coordination and cooperation in the management of both pathways and sanitary and phytosanitary risks at all scales. More particularly, because invasive species are an externality of trade, transport, and travel that involve public goods, they require collective regulation of international markets that goes beyond that admitted under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. We argue that it is important to bring that agreement into conformity with the International Health Regulations (IHR), and to develop an international mechanism to generate and disseminate information on invasive species risks and their impacts.

  8. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  9. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  10. Learning from Graduates and Interns: Examining Graduate and Student Experiences in the Education Administration Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Jennifer; Thessin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand: (1) the degree to which administrative interns are provided with the opportunity to lead administrative experiences; (2) the types of administrative experiences in which interns engage during the administrative internship experience; and (3) the value of the administrative internship to…

  11. An evidence base for International Health Regulations: quantitative measurement of the impacts of epidemic disease on international trade.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Wong, K Y; Taneda, K

    2005-12-01

    When cholera broke out in Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in 1997, an urgent measure was filed with the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the World Trade Organization, by the European Union, citing the protection of human health, to limit imports of fish products. The authors analysed import data on specified products over time to quantify the trade impact of this measure. Using previous specific trade trends, the authors modelled expected trade flows and compared observed imports with expected imports to calculate the potential cost of lost trade. The conclusion of this analysis was that the impact of European restrictions on fish exports from Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the economies of these African countries was at least US dollar 332,217,415 for the years 1998 to 2002. Insights from such quantitative studies will be important in making policy choices under the revised International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization and should inform the discussion about the adoption of these regulations.

  12. Testing the Effectiveness of an International Conservation Agreement: Marketplace Forensics and CITES Caviar Trade Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    Background The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. Methodology/Principal Findings We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006–2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995–1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Conclusions/Significance Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing. PMID:22848410

  13. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  14. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the threat to patients: a plea for doctors to respond internationally.

    PubMed

    Faunce, T A; Drahos, P

    1998-01-01

    Many recent international agreements sponsored by bodies such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO), aim to facilitate the global free flow of goods, services and capital, by opening markets under the threat of trade sanctions. Nation States signing such agreements, in particular the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), agree to suffer a sovereignty deficit in order to enhance their trading prospects. In the resulting reorganization of trade, medicine may be marginalised as merely another industry that must open its regional doors in the interests of global corporate productivity. We make a plea for medical organizations to lobby in appropriate international forums to create "hard" norms that ensure such international trade agreements that adequately respect the demands of fundamental ethical principles of the doctor patient relationship, principles such as medical loyalty and beneficence.

  15. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a ] meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  16. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental...

  17. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  18. 75 FR 70215 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... international markets; and the identification of priority environmental technologies, products and services...; (3) Environmental Engineering and Consulting Services; (4) Financial Services for the Environmental... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request...

  19. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  20. Building a Collaborative Network for Education and Training in International Trade Facilitation Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, John A.; Petrova, Nadya N.; Gill, Joshua K.

    The authors present the benefits of collaboration rather than competition in developing educational and training resources for international trade within a geographic region and explore the challenges for business partners, governments and educational institutions. The paper indicates that flexibility in the 21st Century is critical, particularly when striving for virtual implementations of the solution services. It is essential, say the authors, for educators, governments and business executives to focus on performance and the careful orchestration and integration of business, policy and information technology for “Networking” that successfully stimulates inter-governmental cooperation and innovative policies that foster Regional trade facilitation. An innovative way to enhance 21st Century Trade Facilitation is offered with Supply Chain Centers of Regional Excellence (SCcORE).

  1. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  2. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  3. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  4. 75 FR 1335 - Export Trade Certificate Of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate Of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance ( 88-11A16) of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood...

  5. 75 FR 11118 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 99-4A005) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, LLC, Application no. 99-00005. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  6. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. Sections...

  7. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export... September 27, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the...

  8. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY..., Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  9. 75 FR 50747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association (Application 85-16A18). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers...

  10. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to...

  11. 75 FR 75963 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-9A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate...

  12. 75 FR 51980 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE'') (Application 84- 21A12). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  13. 76 FR 10885 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review for the Latin American ] Multichannel Advertising Council..., U.S. Department of Commerce, received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  14. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application 10-0005) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from ARC Industries LTD (``ARC''). SUMMARY: The... Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate'')....

  15. 78 FR 25060 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-11A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate...

  16. 76 FR 47148 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...- 13A16). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... published in the Federal Register on August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51439). The original Export Trade Certificate...

  17. 75 FR 65449 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an amended export trade certificate of review to Florida Citrus Exports L.C. (``FCE'') (Application 94-4A007). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  18. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Commerce... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate'') to the U.S. Shippers...

  19. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association No. 85-17A18. SUMMARY: The Office... of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export ] Trade Certificate of...

  20. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Aerospace Industries Association of America... an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice summarizes the...

  1. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...-00001). SUMMARY: On August 18, 2011, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. Sections 4001-21) authorizes...

  2. 78 FR 30273 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application no. 84-24A12. SUMMARY..., Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  3. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review From Canned Wild Salmon Export Council, LLC (``CWSEC''). SUMMARY: The..., has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...

  4. 75 FR 28235 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 85-16A18) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association, Application No. 85-00018. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  5. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance ( 99-4A005) of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the California Almond Export Association, LLC. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  6. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  7. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    PubMed

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-04-05

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  9. The Rise of China in the International Trade Network: A Community Core Detection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995–2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  10. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies.

  11. 75 FR 66796 - Pricewaterhousecoopers LLP (“PwC”), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Account Administrators Group Atlanta, GA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C... Administrators Group. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,630 is hereby issued as follows: All workers...

  12. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.

  13. 75 FR 42690 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States regulations, including advice...

  14. 76 FR 35405 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  15. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International.... SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  16. 76 FR 61669 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States laws and regulations,...

  17. 75 FR 48643 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  18. 76 FR 7816 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  19. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  20. 78 FR 18317 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia- Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia-- Amendment AGENCY: International... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia published at 77 FR...), interested U.S. healthcare firms and trade organizations which have not already submitted an application...

  1. The Role of Thailand in the International Trade in CITES-Listed Live Reptiles and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Background International wildlife trade is one of the leading threats to biodiversity conservation. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the most important initiative to monitor and regulate the international trade of wildlife but its credibility is dependent on the quality of the trade data. We report on the performance of CITES reporting by focussing on the commercial trade in non-native reptiles and amphibians into Thailand as to illustrate trends, species composition and numbers of wild-caught vs. captive-bred specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on data in the WCMC-CITES trade database, we establish that a total of 75,594 individuals of 169 species of reptiles and amphibians (including 27 globally threatened species) were imported into Thailand in 1990–2007. The majority of individuals (59,895, 79%) were listed as captive-bred and a smaller number (15,699, 21%) as wild-caught. In the 1990s small numbers of individuals of a few species were imported into Thailand, but in 2003 both volumes and species diversity increased rapidly. The proportion of captive-bred animals differed greatly between years (from 0 to >80%). Wild-caught individuals were mainly sourced from African countries, and captive-bred individuals from Asian countries (including from non-CITES Parties). There were significant discrepancies between exports and imports. Thailand reports the import of >10,000 individuals (51 species) originating from Kazakhstan, but Kazakhstan reports no exports of these species. Similar discrepancies, involving smaller numbers (>100 individuals of 9 species), can be seen in the import of reptiles into Thailand via Macao. Conclusion/Significance While there has been an increase in imports of amphibian and reptiles into Thailand, erratic patterns in proportions of captive-bred specimens and volumes suggests either capricious markets or errors in reporting. Large discrepancies with respect to origin

  2. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  3. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.17...

  4. 76 FR 20713 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Request for Comments on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ....gov/Trade_Agreements/Regional/CAFTA/Section_Index.html , and the International Labour Organization... Council meeting in November 2008, pursuant CAFTA-DR Article 16.4.2. Since the CAFTA-DR came into...

  5. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On December 5, 2012, the NAFTA Chapter...

  6. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-CDA-2008-1904-02. The binational panel affirmed in part and...

  7. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On August 6, 2013, the NAFTA Chapter...

  8. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Injury to a U.S. Industry (NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2008-1904-04). The binational...

  9. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... from Mexico, NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2007-1904-01. The binational panel affirmed in...

  10. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On October 25, 2012, the NAFTA Chapter...

  11. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Mexico (NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2008-1904-04). The binational panel upheld in part...

  12. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Mexico, NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2007-1904-01. The binational panel affirmed in part...

  13. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ..., geothermal, biomass, hydropower, and energy efficiency sectors. Several U.S. firms have already made... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is organizing a Renewable Energy and Energy...

  14. Recent developments in animal identification and the traceability of animal products in international trade.

    PubMed

    Barcos, L O

    2001-08-01

    The author explores the variations in the domestic livestock populations world-wide between 1961 and 1998, and observes a marked increase in the swine population, as compared to other domestic species. Trends in international trade of live animals over the same period are also analysed; international trade involved 1% of livestock world-wide and the international meat market constituted 10% of total meat production. The various stages of the food chain are analysed, from farm to fork, with emphasis on those elements to which the concept of traceability is applicable; from the composition of bovines, to slaughter, and through the various products and sub-products all the way to the final product consumed. Against this background, the characteristics of identification systems for individual animals and animal products is described, as well as applications to traceback and trace forward. To conclude, the author details the factors which influence the various processes of identification and traceability, and thus must be considered when choosing a system. The wide variability amongst systems world-wide is noted and attributed to the differences in sanitary and economic or socio-cultural criteria. The author therefore recommends that work should begin on international harmonisation of such systems.

  15. Revocation of advisory opinion entitled "FD&C Act Trade Correspondence 61". Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Notice; revocation.

    PubMed

    1999-05-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking an advisory opinion entitled "FD&C Act Trade Correspondence, TC-61," (hereinafter called TC-61) dated February 15, 1940, because it is out of date with current scientific knowledge and is superseded by the final rule for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products. As an advisory opinion, this correspondence was not published in the Federal Register.

  16. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  17. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  18. 76 FR 6183 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Trade Laws for the vessel RAVEN'S DANCE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of... the vessel RAVEN'S DANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Provide ecology centric...

  19. Certification for regional and international trade in livestock commodities: the need to balance credibility and enterprise.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Perry, B D; Catley, A; Leyland, T J; Penrith, M-L; Donaldson, A I

    2006-07-08

    The current system for the certification of internationally traded animal commodities can act as a barrier to developing countries accessing high-value international markets. In this Viewpoint article, Gavin Thomson and colleagues discuss the situation as it stands and identify inconsistencies with respect to the certification process. They suggest ways to address the lack of capacity for credible certification in some developing countries that will encourage market access for livestock commodities. They emphasise the role of mechanisms other than demonstrating that an area of production is free from a range of animal diseases, arguing that this could be of significant benefit to developing regions and countries, but that a reliable and independent system of certification based on international standards is essential.

  20. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Diana; Roberton, Scott; Hunter, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The search for animal host origins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has so far remained focused on wildlife markets, restaurants and farms within China. A significant proportion of this wildlife enters China through an expanding regional network of illegal, international wildlife trade. We present the case for extending the search for ancestral coronaviruses and their hosts across international borders into countries such as Vietnam and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where the same guilds of species are found on sale in similar wildlife markets or food outlets. The three species that have so far been implicated, a viverrid, a mustelid and a canid, are part of a large suite of small carnivores distributed across this region currently overexploited by this international wildlife trade. A major lesson from SARS is that the underlying roots of newly emergent zoonotic diseases may lie in the parallel biodiversity crisis of massive species loss as a result of overexploitation of wild animal populations and the destruction of their natural habitats by increasing human populations. To address these dual threats to the long-term future of biodiversity, including man, requires a less anthropocentric and more interdisciplinary approach to problems that require the combined research expertise of ecologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, as well as human health professionals. PMID:15306396

  1. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  2. 77 FR 26768 - Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Cosponsorship...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/International Society for..., and Sustaining a Culture of Compliance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,...

  3. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  4. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally.

  5. Pharmaceutical patents and some international trade issues: Canada, the United States, and NAFTA.

    PubMed

    Tancer, R S

    1993-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a more aggressive US policy for the protection of the intellectual property rights of its citizens, individual and corporate, who do business aborad. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and, in particular, the harmonization of conflicting US and Canadian policies. In reconciling these policy differences, the United States unilaterally applied relatively new procedures authorized under section 301 and Special 301 of its trade laws. It also utilized the bilateral dispute mechanism mandating cooperation "in the Uruguay Round ... to improve protection of intellectual property," as provided in the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement. These efforts were successful; Canada amended its patent law in 1993 to conform to current international practices. These changes were incorporated into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), making it a state-of-the-art example of the protection of intellectual property rights. The intellectual property chapter of NAFTA will serve as the model for US intellectual property rights negotiations for the foreseeable future.

  6. Peace through Trade: An Analysis of the Effect of Domestic Trade on International Conflict and Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the analysis method developed by Granger , see: C.W.J Granger , "Investigating Causal Relations by Economic Models and Cross- Spectral Methods...Journal of Conflict Resolution 26, no. 4 (December 1982). 11 there is less causality from 1976-78.19 While the analysis used COPDAB as the dependent...dependent variable.20 Once a correlation between trade and conflict had been determined, the causality was assessed and found to flow from trade to

  7. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  8. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  9. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  10. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  11. 75 FR 10342 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Trade Laws for the vessel COOL BEANS II. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel COOL BEANS II is... added as a second vessel to our existing business, Cool Beans Cruises...

  12. University Efficiency: Complementariness versus Trade-Off between Teaching, Research and Administrative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers-Rubio, Ricardo; Mas-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Casado-Diaz, Ana B.

    2010-01-01

    University managers should be aware of the importance that efficiency has for their own universities, orientating their actions towards research and teaching excellence. This study estimates teaching and research efficiency of the different departments of a university and tests the complementariness versus trade-off between them. The results…

  13. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    PubMed

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive.

  14. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  15. Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

    Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

  16. An Update on the E.M.U. Language and International Trade Program: Current Status and Recent Changes in Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, J. Sanford; Chatman, Eleanor

    Eastern Michigan University's (EMU) bachelor's (B.A.) and master's (M.A.) programs in Language and International Trade began in 1978, and have awarded 181 B.A. and 249 M.A. degrees in their first 10 years. Two surveys of program graduates revealed that most are employed in jobs with international concerns. Alumni observations strongly reflected…

  17. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  18. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review...

  19. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  20. 75 FR 62766 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From... (``Department'') published the Preliminary Results of the first administrative review of sodium... February 28, 2009. See First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's...

  1. 75 FR 5946 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from... administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the... Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  2. 75 FR 14568 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from... administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the... Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  3. 77 FR 2036 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ..., International Trade Administration, by telephone at (202) 482-5131 (this is not a toll-free number) or email at... Aerospace (Oakbrook, IL); CERTON Software, Inc (Melbourne, FL); CIRCOR International, Inc. (Burlington,...

  4. Internal states drive nutrient homeostasis by modulating exploration-exploitation trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Corrales-Carvajal, Verónica María; Faisal, Aldo A; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Internal states can profoundly alter the behavior of animals. A quantitative understanding of the behavioral changes upon metabolic challenges is key to a mechanistic dissection of how animals maintain nutritional homeostasis. We used an automated video tracking setup to characterize how amino acid and reproductive states interact to shape exploitation and exploration decisions taken by adult Drosophila melanogaster. We find that these two states have specific effects on the decisions to stop at and leave proteinaceous food patches. Furthermore, the internal nutrient state defines the exploration-exploitation trade-off: nutrient-deprived flies focus on specific patches while satiated flies explore more globally. Finally, we show that olfaction mediates the efficient recognition of yeast as an appropriate protein source in mated females and that octopamine is specifically required to mediate homeostatic postmating responses without affecting internal nutrient sensing. Internal states therefore modulate specific aspects of exploitation and exploration to change nutrient selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19920.001 PMID:27770569

  5. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230,...

  6. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section..., NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230, (202)...

  7. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section...: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution...

  8. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th...

  9. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section...: Valerie Dees, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution...

  10. 77 FR 21152 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LOST SOUL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... SOUL; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the intended service of the vessel LOST SOUL is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Pleasure...

  11. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOWLIN AT THE MOON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... MOON; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel HOWLIN AT THE MOON is: ] Intended Commercial Use...

  12. 77 FR 20102 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE WING; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... WING; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel LITTLE WING is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  13. 78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of...

  14. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use...

  15. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... LATITUDE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  16. Movement of pathogens with the international trade of live fish: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, R P

    1996-06-01

    Inter-regional trade in live fish as eggs, larvae or juveniles provides the potential for parallel movements of pathogens. Pathogens that exist in a carrier state and/or can be transmitted by vertical means pose the greatest threat since casual observation, and even periods of quarantine or pathogen inspections, may fail to indicate their presence. Additional complications arise with the movements of non-target species for which health examinations may not be required, or for which criteria for pathogen inspections have not been developed. Although international trade in salmonids has been responsible for most of the disease regulations currently in place, an equal or stronger effort should be expected with other species. At the same time, ensuring equal treatment of all trading partners with respect to the level and sophistication of the health examinations to which the product will be subjected is a major problem. There are several examples of past and potential pathogen movements with fish or fish products. Unfortunately, these are often confused by a poor understanding of the current situation in the region into which the animal or product has been imported. The technology, experience or extent of surveillance in the importing region may be insufficient to assess the situation. Distinguishing between exotic imported pathogens and unknown pathogens which are already present in indigenous fish stocks can therefore often be difficult. The author discusses examples of clearly-documented imports of pathogens, as well as the potential for the spread of agents which pose an equal or greater danger. In addition, the author discusses the confusion which often arises when the background into which these pathogens are to move is poorly understood in the importing region.

  17. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  18. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  19. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-22

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1-3.9 ppm or 3-9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990-2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  20. Measuring the dissimilarity of multiplex networks: An empirical study of international trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Cui, Huiyuan; Zhu, Ji; Du, Yu; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenhua

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, multiplex networks are becoming a research focus in the domain of complex networks. Discovering significant correlations between layers in multiplex networks can provide an insight to their structures. In this study, we propose some methods to measure the dissimilarities of different layers in directed and weighted multiplex networks. The dissimilarity is defined on two levels: node level and layer level. The node dissimilarity is computed based on the distance of the probability distribution of its link weights vectors in different layers; and the layer-level dissimilarity is the weighted sum of the nodes' dissimilarities. Furthermore, the dissimilarity is disintegrated into the connection-based dissimilarity and the weight-based dissimilarity, which represent the topological structure changes and the link weight changes, respectively. The proposed methods are applied to international trade networks.