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Sample records for administration international trade

  1. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... participants include representatives of U.S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including... the global supply chain. Mission Goals The goal of the Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission to Vietnam.... companies with key contacts in the target markets and to promote market policies and procedures that...

  2. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... administrative review made by the Mexican Ministry of Economy, with respect to Certain Types of Stearic Acid from...-1904-01). The binational panel affirmed the Mexican Ministry of Economy's final determination...

  3. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  4. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  5. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  6. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  7. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  8. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48 Section 0.48 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field...

  9. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  10. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  12. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  13. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  14. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  15. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  16. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  17. International Developments in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Franklin D.

    Review of the history and characteristics of international organizations in educational administration suggests that the time may be right for a worldwide organization. Five international organizations have formed since 1959, when the University Council for Educational Administration linked U.S. and Canadian educators. A chronological chart…

  18. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  19. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  20. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

  1. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  2. Evolution of international trade and investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhixin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an evolving two-layer international economy network (IEN) consisting of international trade network (ITN) and international investment network (IIN) as layers, is constructed to investigate the world economy from 2001 to 2010. First, the structure analysis shows that the average partner numbers for both trade and investment are increasing year by year, and the average volume has a significant decrease in 2008 for investment and 2009 for trade. The IIN has longer average path length and dramatically lower edge density compared with the ITN, yet its clustering coefficient is larger in all years. Then, the regional relativity indicates that the longer the distance between two countries, the smaller trade and investment volumes they carry in are general, and the impact of the geographical distance gradually reduces as time goes on. Furthermore, the countries and regions are ranked by Pagerank in ITN, IIN and IEN to illustrate the roles they played. And finally, community structures are detected to visualize the global economic landscape, with countries and regions in the same community ranked according to the total volume of trade or investment.

  3. Retail Trade. International Trends and National Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    This brief examines trends in the retail trade, especially in grocery stores, from an international perspective. A comparison of recent national studies finds the following: (1) significant differences in structure and organization exist, especially in the role of traditional small shops versus large chain grocery stores; (2) increasing store size…

  4. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  5. International Trade and Education: Issues and Programs. AACJC Issues Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James R., Ed.; Sakamoto, Clyde, Ed.

    This technical assistance monograph on international trade education was designed to give college officials insights into programs and services offered by a number of postsecondary institutions; to identify problems experienced by program administrators; and to share the perspectives of leaders in international trade education. First, introductory…

  6. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  7. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  8. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 300.182 HMS international trade permit. (a) General. An importer, entering for consumption fish or..., as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false HMS international trade permit....

  9. The Use of Decompositions in International Trade Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highfill, Jannett K.; Weber, William V.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that international trade, as compared with international finance or even international economics, is primarily an applied microeconomics field. Discusses decomposition analysis in relation to international trade and tariffs. Reports on an evaluation of the treatment of this topic in eight college-level economics textbooks. (CFR)

  10. 75 FR 4449 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Maritime Administration published notice of administrative waiver of the coastwise trade laws. There was an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY:...

  11. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  12. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  13. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  14. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  15. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  16. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  17. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  18. The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiqiong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2014-11-01

    International oil trade is a subset of global trade and there exist oil trade communities. These communities evolve over time and provide clues of international oil trade patterns. A better understanding of the international oil trade patterns is necessary for governments in policy making. To study the evolution of trade communities in the international oil trade network, we set up unweighted and weighted oil trade network models based on complex network theory using data from 2002 to 2011. We detected the communities in the oil trade networks and analyzed their evolutionary properties and stabilities over time. We found that the unweighted and weighted international oil trade networks show many different features in terms of community number, community scale, distribution of countries, quality of partitions, and stability of communities. Two turning points occurred in the evolution of community stability in the international oil trade network. One is the year 2004-2005 which correlates with changes in demand and supply in the world oil market after the Iraq War, and the other is the year 2008-2009 which is connected to the 2008 financial crisis. Different causations of instability show different features and this should be considered by policy makers.

  19. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... Sunset Review. Department contact Antidumping Duty Proceedings Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium...

  20. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... demand for hospitals and beds far exceeding supply. The problem is acute in rural India, which accounts... mission, located in southern and western India respectively. Several corporate hospital chains have their... at hotel. Hospital visit and meeting with senior management, including the procurement...

  1. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  2. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly; Clayton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how current administrative interns enrolled in a university administrator preparation program describe and make meaning of their internship experiences. Design/methodology/approach: For this qualitative study, the researchers interviewed administrative interns enrolled in one university preparation…

  3. International Trade Curriculum. A Joint Vocational Education Curriculum Project of Alaska, Oregon & Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This document is intended to help instructors and administrators develop secondary and postsecondary instructional programs on international trade that are based on competencies identified as those needed in international business by companies in Alaska, Oregon, and Washington. The first section introduces competency-based curriculum and includes…

  4. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  5. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew O; Nei, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries' incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other.

  6. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Nei, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries’ incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  7. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  8. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  10. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  11. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  14. International Perspective, Educational Administration. A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Franklin D., Ed.

    To help further the movement toward international communication in the field of educational administration, this directory lists national, international, and governmental organizations and offices concerned with educational administration for most countries in the world. Preceding the listings is an article on the growth of an international…

  15. Turmoil: A Simulation Game Dealing With International Oil Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert

    1976-01-01

    This simulation game is intended to help secondary students understand the complexities of the international oil trade. Students represent nations involved in trading oil and other commodities. The game takes about five classroom periods to teach. The article includes all essential materials. (Author/RM)

  16. 75 FR 4449 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... January 15, 2010, the Maritime Administration published notice of administrative waiver of the coastwise... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws;...

  17. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  18. Methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, T.; Helme, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December, 1997, the international community established binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions obligations for industrialized countries. The Parties to the new Kyoto Protocol also agreed on the use of a number of market-based mechanisms, including international GHG emissions trading. These market mechanisms were of critical to the importance because they have the potential to significantly reduce the costs of treaty compliance. In principle, an international cap-and-trade system appears to be one of the most cost-effective means of reducing GHG emissions. Maintaining the integrity of the trading system is of primary importance in ensuring that trading helps countries to meet their GHG commitments. This paper explores methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system, starting with a discussion of preconditions for participation in trading and then moving to features of an international compliance system. Achieving maximum compliance with international requirements may best be accomplished by limiting participation in trading to Annex I countries that maintain strong domestic compliance systems. Prior to the climate negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, the US Administration proposed a number of preconditions for participation in trading, including the adoption of international measurement standards and the establishment of domestic compliance and enforcement programs. This paper explores these and other preconditions, including the establishment of tough domestic financial penalties on companies that exceed allowed emissions and seller responsibility for the delivery of real reductions. The paper also discusses several necessary features of the international compliance system.

  19. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  20. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  1. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  2. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Parts 351, 354, and 356 RIN 0625-AA97 Import Administration; Change of Agency Name AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Final...), through internal department organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration''...

  3. Effect of market structure on international coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Abbey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.

  4. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 300.182 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of...

  5. International Trade in Educational Services: Good or Bad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Kurt; Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the challenges and opportunities that international trade in educational services represents for higher education systems in industrialized and developing countries and shows the importance of international quality assurance in education. Makes the case that the lifelong learning sector is most likely to be affected by developments…

  6. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  7. OIE List A disease as a constraint to international trade.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2000-01-01

    World Trade Organisation agreements have swept aside many of the previous constraints to international trade in animals and animal products and have looked critically at those that still survive. The presence of disease, in particular the OIE list A diseases, still provide legitimacy for barriers to trade, and as a consequence the importance of reliable animal disease surveillance has increased. However, the economic consequences of reporting the occurrence of a List A disease have also increased, as this provides trading partners with sufficient reason to impose an embargo that could severely compromise the national agricultural industry. The dilemma for some developing economies, reliant on agricultural exports, is how to balance a transparent and efficient disease reporting service, sufficient to provide the necessary information for importing countries to make realistic risk assessments, with the perceived political damage from being honest with trading partners who might take advantage of the information to require additional safeguards and health certification. PMID:11193664

  8. 77 FR 21152 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LOST SOUL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... the intended service of the vessel LOST SOUL is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Pleasure charter... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LOST SOUL; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of...

  9. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  10. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition.

  11. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  12. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  13. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade... technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee administrative...

  14. 77 FR 66583 - Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... International Trade Administration Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  15. 75 FR 57263 - Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking nominations for membership on the Civil Nuclear Trade...

  16. 76 FR 53882 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Trade Fair Certification Program Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... and instructions should be directed to Michael Thompson, Trade Fair Certification Program, U.S... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Trade Fair Certification Program Application AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. 76 FR 36080 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign-Trade Zone Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... can involve issues related to domestic industry and trade policy impact. Such applications must... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign-Trade Zone Application AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department...

  18. 76 FR 13700 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GIG `EM. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  19. 76 FR 30237 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONDESA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  20. 76 FR 820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel OCEAN BOUND. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  1. 75 FR 70069 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GEM. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  2. 76 FR 30237 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel KAINANI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  3. 75 FR 9020 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel AMICUS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  4. 76 FR 29332 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LYRA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  5. 76 FR 51465 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SENSEI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  6. 76 FR 6182 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LYRIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  7. 75 FR 38865 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel PROTECTOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  8. 75 FR 54960 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel IRISH GYPSY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  9. 75 FR 14487 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY. SUMMARY: As authorized...

  10. 76 FR 820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel OCEAN BOUND. SUMMARY:...

  11. 76 FR 51465 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CORSAIRE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  12. 76 FR 35943 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel PARTYNUTTS III. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  13. 76 FR 6183 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RAVEN'S DANCE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  14. 75 FR 47679 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RAINDANCER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  15. 76 FR 4419 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel FIRST CAST. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  16. 75 FR 9021 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SMOOTH SAILING. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  17. 75 FR 25924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GENO IV. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  18. 76 FR 46894 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SIMA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  19. 76 FR 35943 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel M/Y VIVERE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  20. 76 FR 51467 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JOINT VENTURE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  1. 75 FR 9021 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JUSTINE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  2. 76 FR 30235 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ARIEL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  3. 76 FR 30755 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel KINGFIN. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  4. 76 FR 35945 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel WANDERBIRD. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  5. 75 FR 54960 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel EQUANIMITY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  6. 76 FR 13701 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel AMAZING GRACE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  7. 76 FR 30236 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel C NOU. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  8. 76 FR 35946 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LIL LIZ. SUMMARY: As...

  9. 75 FR 2591 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BOO PACIFIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  10. 75 FR 14486 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ISLAND DESTINY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  11. 75 FR 49553 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ENDLESS SUMMER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  12. 76 FR 51466 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel EUREKA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  13. 76 FR 11561 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MARIPOSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  14. 76 FR 30236 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BELLISSIMA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  15. 76 FR 11558 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel HO-D-DOE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  16. 76 FR 11560 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SLOW HAND. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  17. 76 FR 13702 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TASI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  18. 76 FR 6183 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RADIANCE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  19. 76 FR 35944 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MANDARIN. ] SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  20. 75 FR 38865 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DUTCH HARBOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  1. 76 FR 11558 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ANDANTE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  2. 76 FR 29331 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GRAND IMPULSE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  3. 75 FR 25924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONTINGENCY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  4. 75 FR 35517 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel HARBOR LIGHTS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  5. 76 FR 46894 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CONCH WEST. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  6. 75 FR 14485 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CRISTOBAL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  7. 76 FR 51466 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TELL TALES. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  8. 75 FR 5171 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ANN PATRICE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  9. 76 FR 11559 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SEAL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  10. 75 FR 6433 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel POLLOCK XIII. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  11. 75 FR 70068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DESTINY. SUMMARY: As...

  12. 76 FR 6184 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DOLCE VITA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  13. 76 FR 39152 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel VALKYRIE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  14. 76 FR 51464 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CATATONIC. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  15. 75 FR 11991 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ISLAND STYLE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  16. 75 FR 28101 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JEN CHRIS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  17. 76 FR 30755 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ADIOS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  18. 75 FR 14486 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel QUICKSILVER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  19. 76 FR 51467 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LEONESSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  20. 76 FR 35944 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MOKSHA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  1. 76 FR 46893 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel XECULINK 1. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  2. 75 FR 2592 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BELLISSIMO. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  3. 75 FR 38864 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel PALMETTO FLYER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  4. 75 FR 9020 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GYPSY SOUL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  5. 76 FR 40982 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DANDY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances....

  6. 76 FR 40984 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel JUANITA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  7. 76 FR 40981 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TRILOGY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.- build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain...

  8. 76 FR 40983 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel BRUT. SUMMARY: As authorized by... (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under...

  9. 75 FR 70068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TAXI 1. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that...

  10. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  11. A Study and Simulation of International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica; Skrentny, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates a fifth grade teaching unit on international economics. Gives suggestions for use at the lower elementary and primary grades and points out that incorporation of economics into the elementary education curriculum can produce economically literate citizens in a cost-effective way. (GG)

  12. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  13. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  14. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately apparent, but…

  15. On Quality Education Reform in International Trade Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing problems of quality education of specialization of international trade in current colleges and universities of China, and then propose several pieces of corresponding suggestion on educational reform. According to the characteristics of college and university education, we shall emphasize on the…

  16. International Trade. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gerald F.

    In order to evaluate the potential effects of U.S. conversion to SI (Systems International) units on U.S. foreign trade, 188 export product classes and 155 import product classes were selected from 1,166 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) product classes and questionnaires were mailed to a total of 510 firms, utilizing separate forms for…

  17. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  18. 77 FR 35743 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SECOND CHANCE... the vessel SECOND CHANCE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Small group charters.''...

  19. 78 FR 35092 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEAR BOAT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEAR BOAT... of the vessel BEAR BOAT is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Crewed and unscrewed...

  20. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...

  1. 78 FR 70096 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE MOON... of the vessel BLUE MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Bareboat Charter'' Geographic...

  2. 78 FR 25529 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY... of the vessel ALCHEMY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Uninspected six-pack sailing...

  3. 78 FR 30387 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MON AMI; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MON AMI... of the vessel MON AMI is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter''. Geographic...

  4. 76 FR 79764 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel DREAM CATCHER... the vessel DREAM CATCHER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger charter.''...

  5. 77 FR 41882 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel STARDUST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel STARDUST... of the vessel STARDUST is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Carry passengers only, not more...

  6. 78 FR 20172 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BASIC INSTINCT; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BASIC INSTINCT... of the vessel BASIC INSTINCT is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Charters for day...

  7. 76 FR 67254 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ABOUT TIME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ABOUT TIME... the vessel ABOUT TIME is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Uninspected passenger...

  8. 77 FR 16582 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MILKY WAY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MILKY WAY... the vessel MILKY WAY is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``UPZ Coastal Six Pack...

  9. 78 FR 42153 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COMPASS ROSE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COMPASS ROSE... of the vessel COMPASS ROSE is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sailboat charters six...

  10. 76 FR 67252 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEIJA FLOR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEIJA FLOR... the vessel BEIJA FLOR is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Short term private...

  11. 77 FR 20100 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel NORDIC STAR... the vessel NORDIC STAR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sailing excursions and...

  12. 78 FR 33150 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLACK ICE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLACK ICE... of the vessel BLACK ICE is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Small passenger sails....

  13. 78 FR 25531 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TEMPEST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TEMPEST... of the vessel TEMPEST is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Offshore wreck diving.''...

  14. 77 FR 66911 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PURE INSANITY; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PURE INSANITY... of the vessel PURE INSANITY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Vessel Chartering''...

  15. 78 FR 58602 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAROL LYNN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAROL LYNN... of the vessel CAROL LYNN is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Six Pack Charter...

  16. 77 FR 10802 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SILVER MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SILVER MOON... the vessel SILVER MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Catamaran Sailing Charters, both...

  17. 76 FR 67253 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ACERO AZUL... the vessel ACERO AZUL is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Passenger for hire.'' GEOGRAPHIC...

  18. 77 FR 40146 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SATISFACTION; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SATISFACTION... of the vessel SATISFACTION is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sightseeing, whale...

  19. 76 FR 67256 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CELTIC TRAVELLER; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CELTIC... applicant the intended service of the vessel CELTIC TRAVELLER is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF...

  20. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE... of the vessel BAD INFLUENCE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``6 pack fishing...

  1. 78 FR 19066 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MI CASA... of the vessel MI CASA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Passenger charters. Geographic...

  2. 78 FR 76405 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KNIGHT HAWK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KNIGHT HAWK... of the vessel KNIGHT HAWK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Carrying passengers for...

  3. 78 FR 64283 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HAWK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HAWK... of the vessel SEA HAWK is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Passenger sailing tours...

  4. 77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME... the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing charter boat.'' Geographic...

  5. 76 FR 76812 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST... the vessel BARBARY GHOST is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sightseeing tours in the...

  6. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS... of the vessel COOL BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset...

  7. 77 FR 13694 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AURORA B; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AURORA B... the vessel AURORA B is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Will provide special chartering...

  8. 77 FR 50987 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee, Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... environmental technologies, products and services opportunities in international markets; the identification of... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee, Request for Nominations AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Solicitation of...

  9. 76 FR 38269 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Department of... waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel LEI LANI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....

  10. 75 FR 42481 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...'s regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the waiver will... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel COMFORTABLY NUMB. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary...

  11. 75 FR 42480 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...'s regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the waiver will... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel THIRD SWAN. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary...

  12. 75 FR 42481 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...'s regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the waiver will... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel SEAFLYER. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary...

  13. 75 FR 42480 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...'s regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the waiver will... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... Trade Laws for the vessel DIAMOND GIRL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121, the Secretary...

  14. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  15. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  16. Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven; Ni, Ruijing; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Da; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David; Feng, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Yingying; Hu, Yongyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhu; Jiang, Xujia; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin; Huang, Yi; Guan, Dabo

    2016-10-01

    International trade separates regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. Yet the role of trade in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions has never been quantified. Here, we contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers such as Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences between consumption- and production-related radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of aerosols while lowering global emissions.

  17. An Investigation of Chief Administrator Turnover in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John

    2011-01-01

    This article explores chief administrator turnover in international schools. Quantitative and qualitative data from the 83 chief administrators who participated in the study suggests that the average tenure of an international school chief administrator is 3.7 years and that the main reason chief administrators leave international schools is…

  18. Kokusai kyoiku gyosei shiron (Some Ideas on International Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara, Iichi

    1969-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of an educational research study on the twin concept of educational administration that is international in scope and administration for the advancement of international education. The basic principles of international education administration are internationalism,…

  19. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  20. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... change in office location. SUMMARY: Regulations and Rulings, in the Office of International Trade, of the... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... International Trade, (202) 325-0118. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  1. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... international trade? 23.20 Section 23.20 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... CITES documents are required for international trade? (a) Purpose. Articles III, IV, and V of the...

  2. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... international trade? 23.20 Section 23.20 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... CITES documents are required for international trade? (a) Purpose. Articles III, IV, and V of the...

  3. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. PMID:25063193

  4. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand.

  5. 19 CFR 147.22 - Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act. 147.22 Section 147.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Requirements of Other Laws § 147.22 Compliance with...

  6. 78 FR 76404 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ZEPHYRUS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ZEPHYRUS... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  7. 78 FR 76404 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TUESDAY'S CHILD; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TUESDAY'S CHILD... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review...

  8. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA... Administration (MARAD), is authorized to grant waivers of the U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the...

  9. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  10. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  11. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and Development"…

  12. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  13. 75 FR 28235 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Trading Company Affairs, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 7021X... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 85-16A18.... 85-00018. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  14. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  15. 75 FR 66347 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...., international freight) from the gross sales value. The Department clarified its ``automatic assessment... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...

  16. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR... of the vessel JAGUAR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``For bare boat/lease recreational...

  17. 78 FR 42152 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OFF COURSE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OFF COURSE... of the vessel OFF COURSE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Carrying up to 6...

  18. 76 FR 67255 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KIWI CAT... the vessel KIWI CAT is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Small vessel 12 person chartering...

  19. 77 FR 42082 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GUILDING LIGHT; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GUILDING LIGHT... of the vessel GUILDING LIGHT is: ] Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day charters and week...

  20. 78 FR 35093 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EYE DOC... of the vessel EYE DOC is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Charter fishing on Lake...

  1. 76 FR 75949 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PANGAEA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel PANGAEA... the vessel PANGAEA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``We would like to offer Pangaea for...

  2. 78 FR 13751 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME AROUND; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME... the applicant the intended service of the vessel LAST TIME AROUND is: Intended Commercial Use...

  3. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK... of the vessel LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as...

  4. 77 FR 35745 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SMOKE AND ROSES; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SMOKE AND ROSES... the vessel SMOKE AND ROSES is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``We intend to carry up to...

  5. 78 FR 64283 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END... of the vessel RAINBOW'S END is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``1 day to 2 week...

  6. 78 FR 58603 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALL GOOD; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALL GOOD... comments electronically via the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . All comments will become part of... and all documents entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at...

  7. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOT ROD; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOT ROD... of the vessel HOT ROD is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Charter Sport Fishing and...

  8. 77 FR 16583 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CLOUD NINE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CLOUD NINE... the vessel CLOUD NINE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Local and long range sailing...

  9. 78 FR 68147 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KARIBELLA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KARIBELLA... 46 CFR part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all comments received..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  10. 78 FR 68148 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPROMPTU; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPROMPTU... 46 CFR Part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all comments received..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  11. 78 FR 33149 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ARRIVE DERCI; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ARRIVE DERCI... given in Sec. 388.4 of MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is able to search the... comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union,...

  12. 78 FR 60018 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOOKED FOR REEL; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOOKED... address the waiver criteria given in Sec. 388.4 of MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388. Privacy...

  13. 78 FR 68149 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VALIANT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VALIANT... 46 CFR Part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all comments received..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  14. 78 FR 30961 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE DUTCH; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE DUTCH... waiver criteria given in Sec. 388.4 of MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is...

  15. 78 FR 68148 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT... waiver criteria given in Sec. 388.4 of MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388. Privacy Act Anyone is...

  16. 78 FR 33149 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CATTITUDE... of the vessel CATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Passenger vessel for coastwise...

  17. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation... of the vessel BEE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Skippered day cruises on a classic,...

  18. 77 FR 10799 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FLAMINGO; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FLAMINGO... the vessel FLAMINGO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter work with the Boy Scouts at...

  19. 78 FR 46409 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WING; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel WING... of the vessel WING is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Crewed day & sunset sails, 3-8...

  20. 76 FR 70216 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE... the vessel REEL ATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing Charter passenger less than... (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.)....

  1. 78 FR 20171 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOING GALT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOING GALT... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590. You may also send... of the vessel GOING GALT is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Excursions and daily or...

  2. 78 FR 46409 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISH ON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISH ON... of the vessel FISH ON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: 6 pack charter on Lake Erie....

  3. 77 FR 26819 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE PLANET... the vessel BLUE PLANET is: Intended Commercial use of Vessel: ``Charter to Boy Scouts of...

  4. 78 FR 60018 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GENESIS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GENESIS... of the vessel GENESIS is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``To charter in New York Harbor, as...

  5. 77 FR 24558 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel STEPPIN UP; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel STEPPIN UP... STEPPIN UP is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``All Inclusive Chartering, up to 10 days, full and half day charters, pick up and discharge passengers at same ports.'' Geographic Region: ``New York,...

  6. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  7. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  8. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p.... trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and...

  9. Does Human Migration Affect International Trade? A Complex-Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960–2000. Next, we ask whether pairs of countries that are more central in the migration network trade more. We show that: (i) the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated, and such correlation can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; (ii) centrality in the international-migration network boosts bilateral trade; (iii) intensive forms of country centrality are more trade enhancing than their extensive counterparts. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries, but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration. PMID:24828376

  10. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    PubMed

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  11. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    PubMed Central

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  12. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  13. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  14. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer’s market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer’s willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 − DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  15. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  16. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 4383, 1-22-2013). The FTZ Board has... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of...

  17. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m... policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and anticipated...

  18. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  20. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  1. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  2. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  3. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  4. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  5. Emerging Pathogen in Wild Amphibians and Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Rolando; Daszak, Peter; Apolo, Ada; Perdomo, Eugenio; Speranza, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an emerging disease responsible for global decline and extinction of amphibians. We report the causative agent, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for the international restaurant trade. Our findings suggest that international trade may play a key role in the global dissemination of this and other emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. PMID:12967500

  6. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants? 23.72 Section 23.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  7. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  8. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  9. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  10. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  11. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  12. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants? 23.72 Section 23.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  13. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants? 23.72 Section 23.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  14. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  15. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  16. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  17. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  18. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  19. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants? 23.72 Section 23.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  20. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants? 23.72 Section 23.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  1. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  2. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  3. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  4. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  5. Exploring the Experiences of Administrative Interns: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation explores the experiences of administrative interns throughout their administrative internship to discover how they perceive and make meaning of their internship experiences--their thoughts, feelings, concerns, and aspirations. All thirteen participants were students in one university administrator preparation…

  6. 75 FR 5171 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel DRAGON LADY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel DRAGON LADY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Captained charters in which clients are...

  7. 76 FR 9402 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ARIELS SONG. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... applicant the intended service of the vessel ARIELS SONG is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  8. 75 FR 51873 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TARA VANA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel TARA VANA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  9. 75 FR 25312 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GAME DAY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the.... You may also send comments electronically via the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov...

  10. 76 FR 29332 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MEDUSA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel MEDUSA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Day...

  11. 76 FR 31004 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SANTORINI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel SANTORINI is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Vessel...

  12. 76 FR 11560 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel COMFORT ZONE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel COMFORT ZONE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  13. 75 FR 56656 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RAMBLIN ROSE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel RAMBLIN ROSE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``to...

  14. 76 FR 13701 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TIGERS EYE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel TIGERS EYE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  15. 75 FR 75544 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel WORK N GIRL. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel WORK N GIRL is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``This vessel will be used for sport...

  16. 75 FR 75543 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SEAGRASS. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel SEAGRASS is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel:...

  17. 75 FR 14487 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel CLOUD NINE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel CLOUD NINE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter.'' Geographic Region: ``FL, MI, WI,...

  18. 75 FR 34528 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the issuance of the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel PRIDE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C. 12121... vessel PRIDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``pleasure charters taking 6 passengers for...

  19. 75 FR 75545 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel FAMILY TIME. SUMMARY: As... U.S. vessel builders or businesses in the U.S. that use U.S. flag vessels. If MARAD determines, in accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30,...

  20. 76 FR 18301 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RED GYPSY. SUMMARY: As authorized... applicant the intended service of the vessel RED GYPSY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  1. 75 FR 5172 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel SUPER NOVA. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... vessel SUPER NOVA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Doing day and cruising charters for six...

  2. 76 FR 40983 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003), that the... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TANTO AMOR. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C... applicant the intended service of the vessel TANTO AMOR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel:...

  3. 75 FR 19463 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MISS YANKEE PRIDE. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46... applicant the intended service of the vessel MISS YANKEE PRIDE is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  4. 75 FR 10342 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR Part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel COOL BEANS II. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S... vessel COOL BEANS II is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``This vessel will be owner operated as...

  5. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  6. International trade and waste and fuel management issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Innovative financing and workforce planning, by Donna Jacobs, Entergy Nuclear; Nuclear power - a long-term need, by John C. Devine, Gerald Goldsmith and Michael DeLallo, WorleyParsons; Importance of loan guarantee program, by Donald Hintz; EPC contracts for new plants, by Dave Barry, Shaw Power Group; GNEP and fuel recycling, by Alan Hanson, AREVA NC Inc.; Safe and reliable reactor, by Kiyoshi Yamauchi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Safe, small and simple reactors, by Yoshi Sakashita, Toshiba Corporation; Nuclear power in Thailand, by Tatchai Sumitra, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology; and, Nuclear power in Vietnam, by Tran Huu Phat, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. The Industry Innovation article this issue is Rectifying axial-offset-anomaly problems, by Don Adams, Tennessee Valley Authority. The Plant Profile article is Star of Stars Excellence, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.

  7. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  8. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  9. 77 FR 7131 - Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will be changed to include additional topics. DATES... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  10. International Trade: A Small Business Primer. Growing Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, Roger E.

    The United States' declining share of world trade is connected with the fact that hundreds of thousands of medium- and small-sized businesses are ignoring trade and exports. The cure for their fear of the unknown is information and education. Exports have a number of advantages: increased profits, spread of overhead costs, smooth seasonal…

  11. English for International Trade: China Enters the WTO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Jixian; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey into the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on business professionals and college English instruction. Individuals in business and trading companies from the five cities in Ahejiang province were polled on issues related to the learning and teaching of English with reference to China's entry into…

  12. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  13. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  14. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  15. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  16. 77 FR 49476 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing (NITC... comment period for the New International Trade Crossing (NITC) Presidential Permit application....

  17. 78 FR 46921 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maureen Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI),...

  18. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries,...

  19. 75 FR 52716 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its quarterly meeting to discuss environmental technologies...

  20. 75 FR 18482 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its quarterly meeting to discuss environmental technologies...

  1. 78 FR 21911 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... adoption of environmental technologies and discuss ways to leverage the concept of sustainability...

  2. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  3. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  4. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts. PMID:26249847

  5. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  6. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  7. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    PubMed

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

  8. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    PubMed

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs. PMID:18240675

  9. Administrator Perceptions of Transition Programs in International Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which transition programs are offered to students at international secondary schools. Components of professional development, orientation and departure programs, and transition support teams were examined. Participants included school administrators at 11 international schools across five continents. Findings…

  10. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Methods Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. Results An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over ‘disguised protectionism’ and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. Conclusion The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue. PMID:20943828

  11. NAFTA literature at the International Trade Commission library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the US official materials regarding NAFTA originate in the Executive Office of the President, especially the Office of the United States Trade Representative. These materials can be purchased from the U.S.G.P.O. There were also numerous Congressional hearings; many of which are probably now out of print, government agencies and the public are welcome to make copies of the ones in the collections of the ITC libraries. One of the most important sources of materials available in electronic format is the National Trade Data Base, produced by the Department of Commerce. This is a collection of at least 120 separate files containing documents relating to trade. It includes several files specifically on NAFTA, including the text of the treaty. It is available as two CD-ROM's, issued monthly, or on Internet.

  12. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  13. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  14. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  15. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    PubMed

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences. PMID:18278256

  16. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    PubMed

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  17. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. 1987 annual report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-15

    Five tables present all reported 1987 data on international trade, involving the United States, in wildlife and plant species listed on the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Data on species, quantities, countries involved, purpose of trade, and description of products or specimens are provided.

  18. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance.

  19. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance. PMID:22077096

  20. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  1. International Trade in Commerce with Liberal Arts: One Instructor's Dual Pursuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trendota, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    The need for and opportunities presented by foreign language aptitude in international trade are noted, and a program in executive German at the College of Saint Catherine is described. The program emphasizes developing language skills, especially in correspondence, and learning to observe certain international conventions and courtesies. (MSE)

  2. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A. Adams,…

  3. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  4. The Persistence of Structural Inequality?: A Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports results from a network analysis of international trade from 1965 through 2000. It addresses the impact of changes associated with globalization and the "new international division of labor" (NIDL) on structural inequality in the world economy. To assess this impact, I ask three specific questions. (1) Do patterns of…

  5. 77 FR 71780 - U.S. Trade Mission to Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia, The Philippines, Hong Kong...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Trade Mission to Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds--Asia, The... Asia, that will include the Trade Winds--Asia business forum in Seoul, Korea, May 2013. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds--Asia business forum in Seoul, Korea (which is...

  6. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  7. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS.... Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of grant opportunity to States. Eligible Applicants... to carry out export promotion programs that assist eligible small business concerns to...

  8. ESL: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators in International Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Edna, Ed.

    The handbook is intended as an aid to teachers and administrators in developing English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for the kind of linguistically diverse student population found in international schools. It consists of a selection of essays on ESL program design and implementation and lists of additional resources. Essays include: "The…

  9. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  10. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Biotechnology Life Sciences trade mission to China on October 17-20, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to China is intended to include representatives from a variety of...

  11. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  12. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  13. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  14. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    .... firms to Israel's rapidly expanding oil and gas market and to assist U.S. companies pursuing export... International Trade Administration Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel AGENCY: International Trade... organizing an Executive-led Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel, October 27-October 31, 2012. This mission...

  15. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda for a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  16. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in... Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International...

  17. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in... Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International...

  18. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in... Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International...

  19. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in... Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International...

  20. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  1. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  2. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  3. 75 FR 8922 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the first meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance...

  4. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of ] programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in...

  5. 75 FR 16077 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the ] next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  6. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and Exhibitor Data AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995....

  7. 76 FR 76813 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FOR-2-NA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FOR-2-NA... the vessel FOR-2-NA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter fishing, for hire.''...

  8. 77 FR 26820 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE BLUE MOON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel THE BLUE MOON... the vessel THE BLUE MOON is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``6 pack UPV (short...

  9. 77 FR 66911 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FIVE O'CLOCK HERE; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FIVE O'CLOCK... the applicant the intended service of the vessel FIVE O'CLOCK HERE is: Intended Commercial Use...

  10. 78 FR 19362 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART III; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART... the applicant the intended service of the vessel W.L. STEWART III is: Intended Commercial Use...

  11. 78 FR 76405 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALISH SEA-KR; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALISH SEA-KR... of the vessel SALISH SEA-KR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Passenger Vessel,...

  12. 77 FR 56264 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TREE OF LIFE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TREE OF LIFE... of the vessel TREE OF LIFE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Passenger carrying charter...

  13. 75 FR 70215 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for... membership on the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). SUMMARY: The Environmental... of policies and programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, and...

  14. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%–3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  15. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-08-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce the concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides released in streams and aquifers to the allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on global trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  16. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  17. International jurisprudence on trade and environmental health: one step forward, two steps back?

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), there has been considerable debate regarding the impact of its rules on public health. By contrast, the role of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism has received little attention, even though the bodies responsible for settling disputes are the ultimate interpreters of WTO rules and agreements. To date, three WTO disputes that relate to occupational and/or environmental health have been fully litigated. A review of the decisions and reasoning in these cases indicates that WTO jurisprudence is evolving, as Panels and the Appellate Body try--with varying degrees of success--to balance countries' rights and obligations under international trade agreements with their right to protect occupational and environmental health. Disputes between nations can have an impact beyond the parties concerned, and raise questions about the relationship between trade agreements and other international agreements, especially multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).

  18. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Minx, Jan C; Weber, Christopher L; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-05-24

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO(2) emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO(2) emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO(2) emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO(2) in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO(2) in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non-energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO(2) in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO(2) in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Glen P.; Minx, Jan C.; Weber, Christopher L.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO2 emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO2 emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO2 emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO2 in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO2 in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non–energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO2 in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO2 in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21518879

  20. Exploration on the Evaluation Mode of "International Trade Practice" in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    Considering the employment-oriented positioning of higher vocational education which is put by the education ministry and the features of higher vocational schools students, this paper indicates that the disadvantages in the evaluation mode of higher vocational school international trade course. Therefore, a reformed suggestion is given for the…

  1. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  2. The Distribution of Talent and the Pattern and Consequences of International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Gene M.

    2004-01-01

    The author studies the interaction between imperfect labor contracts and international trade in a setting in which workers have private information about their own abilities. When an individual's contribution to firm output can be measured accurately in some activities but not in others, the most able workers select occupations in which their pay…

  3. The Historical Influence of International Trade and Religion on the Arts, Crafts and Architecture of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissette, Paul

    This document outlines a slide presentation on Southeast Asia with primary emphasis on Indonesia. How international trade has influenced the design and development of Indonesian arts, crafts, and architecture are main points of interest. A geographical overview of Indonesia is described along with its natural resources, population, and religious…

  4. International Children's Trade Books: Building Blocks for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Hadaway, Nancy L.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of character education has been emphasized since ancient times across cultures and religions as a way to develop morals and values of the younger generations. In this article, the authors highlight several award-winning international children's trade books that reflect the core values recurring in literature and scriptures…

  5. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  6. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13, 17, and 23 RIN 1018-AW82 Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES; Correction AGENCY:...

  7. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Public Meeting AGENCY: Fish..., as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora...: Background The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora,...

  8. 77 FR 67390 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in...; Announcement of Public Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States, as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and...

  9. 75 FR 11556 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the United States, as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES),...

  10. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)? 23.75 Section 23.75 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  11. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  12. An evidence base for International Health Regulations: quantitative measurement of the impacts of epidemic disease on international trade.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Wong, K Y; Taneda, K

    2005-12-01

    When cholera broke out in Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in 1997, an urgent measure was filed with the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the World Trade Organization, by the European Union, citing the protection of human health, to limit imports of fish products. The authors analysed import data on specified products over time to quantify the trade impact of this measure. Using previous specific trade trends, the authors modelled expected trade flows and compared observed imports with expected imports to calculate the potential cost of lost trade. The conclusion of this analysis was that the impact of European restrictions on fish exports from Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the economies of these African countries was at least US dollar 332,217,415 for the years 1998 to 2002. Insights from such quantitative studies will be important in making policy choices under the revised International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization and should inform the discussion about the adoption of these regulations.

  13. An evidence base for International Health Regulations: quantitative measurement of the impacts of epidemic disease on international trade.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Wong, K Y; Taneda, K

    2005-12-01

    When cholera broke out in Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in 1997, an urgent measure was filed with the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the World Trade Organization, by the European Union, citing the protection of human health, to limit imports of fish products. The authors analysed import data on specified products over time to quantify the trade impact of this measure. Using previous specific trade trends, the authors modelled expected trade flows and compared observed imports with expected imports to calculate the potential cost of lost trade. The conclusion of this analysis was that the impact of European restrictions on fish exports from Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the economies of these African countries was at least US dollar 332,217,415 for the years 1998 to 2002. Insights from such quantitative studies will be important in making policy choices under the revised International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization and should inform the discussion about the adoption of these regulations. PMID:16642753

  14. Learning from Graduates and Interns: Examining Graduate and Student Experiences in the Education Administration Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Jennifer; Thessin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand: (1) the degree to which administrative interns are provided with the opportunity to lead administrative experiences; (2) the types of administrative experiences in which interns engage during the administrative internship experience; and (3) the value of the administrative internship to…

  15. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  16. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Architects ( http://www.aia.org/ ), is organizing an Architecture Services Trade Mission to India...

  17. World Administrative Radio Conference. Issues for US International Spectrum Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    U.S. preparations for the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference to be held in Spain, February 1992 are examined. WARC-92 will attempt to reassign radio frequencies internationally in order to take advantage of new radio-based technologies and applications, such as digital audio broadcasting, high definition television, and personal communications services, while still accommodating the needs of existing users and services. The impacts of the realignment will be felt throughout the U.S. economy and around the world, and the agreements reached at WARC-92 will influence the development of radio-based systems and services well into the next century.

  18. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental...

  19. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a ] meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  20. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  1. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  2. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Lakner, Zoltán; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-01

    With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks.

  3. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules.

  4. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Lakner, Zoltán; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-01

    With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks. PMID:22701535

  5. Building a Collaborative Network for Education and Training in International Trade Facilitation Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, John A.; Petrova, Nadya N.; Gill, Joshua K.

    The authors present the benefits of collaboration rather than competition in developing educational and training resources for international trade within a geographic region and explore the challenges for business partners, governments and educational institutions. The paper indicates that flexibility in the 21st Century is critical, particularly when striving for virtual implementations of the solution services. It is essential, say the authors, for educators, governments and business executives to focus on performance and the careful orchestration and integration of business, policy and information technology for “Networking” that successfully stimulates inter-governmental cooperation and innovative policies that foster Regional trade facilitation. An innovative way to enhance 21st Century Trade Facilitation is offered with Supply Chain Centers of Regional Excellence (SCcORE).

  6. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  7. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  8. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  9. The effect of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species on scientific collections.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David L; Solow, Andrew R

    2008-04-22

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was conceived in the spirit of cooperation, with the aim of ensuring that the international trade in wild animals and plants, including all parts and derivatives, did not threaten their survival. However, concerns have been raised by scientists that CITES hinders the cross-border movement of scientific specimens. To our knowledge, no empirical analysis has been undertaken to demonstrate the existence of this effect. We test for a CITES effect on the collection record of orchids from Brazil and Costa Rica using the collection records of bromeliads, which are not covered by CITES, as a control. Highly significant effects are found in both countries. PMID:18252676

  10. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  11. The Rise of China in the International Trade Network: A Community Core Detection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995–2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  12. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  13. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism.

  14. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  15. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and...

  16. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies. PMID:26820112

  17. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies.

  18. Report of the International Seminar on Trade Union Documentation and Research Services. (Geneva, 23 October-4 November, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). International Vocational Training Information and Research Centre.

    The purpose of this international seminar was to facilitate full analysis, especially in regard to developing nations, of the role assigned to the Trade Union Research Service; its work and methods, its organization, and patterns of cooperation with trade union officers and executives responsible for programs of labor education. On the basis of…

  19. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.

  20. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. PMID:21269674

  1. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will conclude no...

  2. 78 FR 57619 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 20893, April 8, 2013, regarding the Executive-Led Legal Services Trade Mission to China scheduled... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Legal Services Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International...

  3. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30, 2013, to revise the mission description from... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International...

  4. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... business culture in which deals are made on the strength of personal contacts. This trade mission offers U... International Trade Administration Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq AGENCY: International... to assist U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and services in the promising...

  5. 76 FR 35405 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  6. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  7. 75 FR 42690 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States regulations, including advice...

  8. 75 FR 48643 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  9. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International.... SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  10. 76 FR 61669 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States laws and regulations,...

  11. 76 FR 7816 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  12. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  13. The Role of Thailand in the International Trade in CITES-Listed Live Reptiles and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Background International wildlife trade is one of the leading threats to biodiversity conservation. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the most important initiative to monitor and regulate the international trade of wildlife but its credibility is dependent on the quality of the trade data. We report on the performance of CITES reporting by focussing on the commercial trade in non-native reptiles and amphibians into Thailand as to illustrate trends, species composition and numbers of wild-caught vs. captive-bred specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on data in the WCMC-CITES trade database, we establish that a total of 75,594 individuals of 169 species of reptiles and amphibians (including 27 globally threatened species) were imported into Thailand in 1990–2007. The majority of individuals (59,895, 79%) were listed as captive-bred and a smaller number (15,699, 21%) as wild-caught. In the 1990s small numbers of individuals of a few species were imported into Thailand, but in 2003 both volumes and species diversity increased rapidly. The proportion of captive-bred animals differed greatly between years (from 0 to >80%). Wild-caught individuals were mainly sourced from African countries, and captive-bred individuals from Asian countries (including from non-CITES Parties). There were significant discrepancies between exports and imports. Thailand reports the import of >10,000 individuals (51 species) originating from Kazakhstan, but Kazakhstan reports no exports of these species. Similar discrepancies, involving smaller numbers (>100 individuals of 9 species), can be seen in the import of reptiles into Thailand via Macao. Conclusion/Significance While there has been an increase in imports of amphibian and reptiles into Thailand, erratic patterns in proportions of captive-bred specimens and volumes suggests either capricious markets or errors in reporting. Large discrepancies with respect to origin

  14. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  15. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... duties or inspections? 23.17 Section 23.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  16. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... duties or inspections? 23.17 Section 23.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  17. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration... in Sri Lanka, are organizing a Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka from February 3-9,...

  18. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe. PMID:20166316

  19. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Diana; Roberton, Scott; Hunter, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The search for animal host origins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has so far remained focused on wildlife markets, restaurants and farms within China. A significant proportion of this wildlife enters China through an expanding regional network of illegal, international wildlife trade. We present the case for extending the search for ancestral coronaviruses and their hosts across international borders into countries such as Vietnam and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where the same guilds of species are found on sale in similar wildlife markets or food outlets. The three species that have so far been implicated, a viverrid, a mustelid and a canid, are part of a large suite of small carnivores distributed across this region currently overexploited by this international wildlife trade. A major lesson from SARS is that the underlying roots of newly emergent zoonotic diseases may lie in the parallel biodiversity crisis of massive species loss as a result of overexploitation of wild animal populations and the destruction of their natural habitats by increasing human populations. To address these dual threats to the long-term future of biodiversity, including man, requires a less anthropocentric and more interdisciplinary approach to problems that require the combined research expertise of ecologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, as well as human health professionals. PMID:15306396

  20. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Roberton, Scott; Hunter, Paul R

    2004-07-29

    The search for animal host origins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has so far remained focused on wildlife markets, restaurants and farms within China. A significant proportion of this wildlife enters China through an expanding regional network of illegal, international wildlife trade. We present the case for extending the search for ancestral coronaviruses and their hosts across international borders into countries such as Vietnam and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where the same guilds of species are found on sale in similar wildlife markets or food outlets. The three species that have so far been implicated, a viverrid, a mustelid and a canid, are part of a large suite of small carnivores distributed across this region currently overexploited by this international wildlife trade. A major lesson from SARS is that the underlying roots of newly emergent zoonotic diseases may lie in the parallel biodiversity crisis of massive species loss as a result of overexploitation of wild animal populations and the destruction of their natural habitats by increasing human populations. To address these dual threats to the long-term future of biodiversity, including man, requires a less anthropocentric and more interdisciplinary approach to problems that require the combined research expertise of ecologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, as well as human health professionals.

  1. 78 FR 68037 - Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Telecommunication Sciences, Career SES Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration (ITA) Renee A... International Affairs, Career SES Leonard M. Bechtel, Chief Financial Officer and Director of Administration, Career SES, Chairperson Karl B. Nebbia, Associate Administrator for Spectrum Management, Career SES...

  2. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  3. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally.

  4. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  5. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  6. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  7. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China

  8. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  9. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments. PMID:21229208

  10. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  11. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  12. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529–40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr‑1 from 1992–2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  13. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    PubMed

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive.

  14. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  15. Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

    Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

  16. 78 FR 13694 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Tentative U.S. Negotiating... to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), will... Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, referred to here as CITES or the Convention, is an international...

  17. 75 FR 48309 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 19613 (April 15, 2010) (``Preliminary Results... International Trade Administration First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from... first administrative review of sodium hexametaphosphate (``sodium hex'') from the People's Republic...

  18. 76 FR 73599 - Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... \\1\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 23545 (April... International Trade Administration Second Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's... time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of sodium...

  19. 75 FR 28205 - Administrative Waivers of the Coastwise Trade Laws: New Definition for Eligible Vessel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979). The costs and benefits associated with this...: New Definition for Eligible Vessel AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MARAD) is changing the definition of...

  20. University Efficiency: Complementariness versus Trade-Off between Teaching, Research and Administrative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers-Rubio, Ricardo; Mas-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Casado-Diaz, Ana B.

    2010-01-01

    University managers should be aware of the importance that efficiency has for their own universities, orientating their actions towards research and teaching excellence. This study estimates teaching and research efficiency of the different departments of a university and tests the complementariness versus trade-off between them. The results…

  1. Selection of Business Administration Curriculum for International Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasierowski, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 692 business-administration graduate students in four countries (Canada, Poland, Latvia, Philippines) indicates that students from different countries assign different rankings to the importance of business-administration courses in the curriculum, group courses into different thematic groups, and prefer different instructional…

  2. 78 FR 16465 - Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... with potential customers, partners and local representatives. Commercial Setting: Malaysia Overview..., inclusiveness and sustainability. Energy Malaysia is expected to experience a large increase in overall energy... International Trade Administration Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and...

  3. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-22

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1-3.9 ppm or 3-9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990-2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  4. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1-3.9 ppm or 3-9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990-2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  5. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  6. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  7. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOWLIN AT THE MOON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... MOON; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel HOWLIN AT THE MOON is: ] Intended Commercial Use...

  8. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use...

  9. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TWO BUOYS ONE GULL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... GULL; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel TWO BUOYS ONE GULL is: Intended Commercial Use...

  10. 78 FR 37659 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MISS ANDREA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... ANDREA; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel MISS ANDREA is: Intended Commercial Use Of...

  11. 77 FR 20102 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE WING; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... WING; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel LITTLE WING is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  12. 78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of...

  13. 77 FR 41883 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SIX STRING; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... STRING; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel SIX STRING is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  14. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... LATITUDE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  15. Prediction in complex systems: The case of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmer, Alexandre; Zeng, An; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Predicting the future evolution of complex systems is one of the main challenges in complexity science. Based on a current snapshot of a network, link prediction algorithms aim to predict its future evolution. We apply here link prediction algorithms to data on the international trade between countries. This data can be represented as a complex network where links connect countries with the products that they export. Link prediction techniques based on heat and mass diffusion processes are employed to obtain predictions for products exported in the future. These baseline predictions are improved using a recent metric of country fitness and product similarity. The overall best results are achieved with a newly developed metric of product similarity which takes advantage of causality in the network evolution.

  16. 77 FR 48497 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel-Clarification and Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... publishing this amendment to the Notice of the Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel, 77 FR 21748, April 11... Description and Notional Agenda sections of the Notice of the Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel, 77 FR 21748... International Trade Administration Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel--Clarification and Amendment...

  17. 78 FR 42041 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ..., 2014, published at 78 FR 34344, June 7, 2013, to identify the mission as an Executive-led Trade Mission... Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea, March 10-14, 2014, published at 78 FR 34344, June 7, 2013. As... International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan, and Korea...

  18. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is scheduled for Thursday, April 27, 2012, at... programs; and issues related to innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC...

  19. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental...

  20. 77 FR 58356 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law...

  1. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... issued on June 3, 1986 (51 FR 20873, June 9, 1986), and last amended on April 6, 2006 (71 FR 18721, April... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association No. 85-17A18. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 76 FR 63608 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    .... (``AIAA'') original Certificate was issued on September 8, 1992 (57 FR 41920, September 14, 1992). A... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-10A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Aerospace Industries Association of...

  3. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... May 13, 2010 (75 FR 29514, May 26, 2010). A summary of the current application for an amendment... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Alaska Longline Cod Commission...

  4. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    basis of inconclusive or unknown potential hazards of a contaminant which may significantly impact global trade because mycotoxin residues vary widely between countries. This paper describes the current economic and heath impact of these regulations and their impact on international trade.

  5. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    basis of inconclusive or unknown potential hazards of a contaminant which may significantly impact global trade because mycotoxin residues vary widely between countries. This paper describes the current economic and heath impact of these regulations and their impact on international trade. PMID:17727996

  6. 77 FR 75997 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations from U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for...: Solicitation of nominations from U.S. state officials for membership to the Environmental Technologies Trade... development and administration of policies and programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental...

  7. The increasing significance of international trade in equids and its influence on the spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2000-01-01

    Expansion in international trade in equids and equine semen has been especially notable over the past 10-15 years among those countries historically identified as having significant breeding and performance horse industries. The continuing trend towards globalization of the horse industry received additional impetus in January, 1995, following establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO), whose primary goal is to promote freer economic exchange between member countries through the reduction or elimination of protectionist barriers to trade. Continued growth in international trade, closely related to changing trends in the horse industry, has greatly increased the risk of spread of a wide range of equine infectious diseases between countries. In consequence, the global distribution of certain of these diseases is likely to change in the future. Within the past 30-40 years, there have been numerous confirmed instances of the spread of specific diseases through the international movement of equids or shipment of semen, some of which have resulted in epidemics of major economic importance. Under the Sanitary-Phytosanitary Agreement of the WTO, national agencies have had to rethink their traditional "zero-risk" approach in regulating the importation of equids or equine semen from other countries. Mindful of the risks of disease spread inherent in such transactions, authorities must now accept that primary emphasis in today's global economic climate must be on greater facilitation of trade, rather than attempting to provide absolute disease preventive safeguards. PMID:11193671

  8. Assessment of Administrative Interns: A Problem for Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Ralph R.

    This paper focuses on the philosophical implications of assessment methodologies by describing problems that occurred during internship programs for school administrators in Louisiana. A state conference internship's guidelines lacked a formalized learning contract for participants. At the time, more teachers sought access to administrative…

  9. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  10. 77 FR 26822 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LONGWOOD BATEAU; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ....'' GEOGRAPHIC REGION: ``Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York.'' The complete application is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION:...

  11. 75 FR 16987 - Trade Adjustment Assistance; Merit Staffing of State Administration and Allocation of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    .... On August 5, 2009, the Department published an NPRM proposing two actions (74 FR 39198). The first... administration of the TAA program.'' 74 FR 39199, Aug. 5, 2009. The Department received several comments...

  12. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land. PMID:26961010

  13. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  14. The application of risk analysis to international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    1993-12-01

    In an era when arduous land and sea journeys separated exporting and recipient nations, the duration and stress of transport dictated localised sourcing of stock and provided an implicit quarantine. Clinically latent infection, which remained undetected prior to embarkation, often surfaced and was eliminated before reaching the importing country. Many nations which would not accept the risk of importation, on clinical grounds, could effectively isolate themselves by prohibiting entry. Passive acceptance characterised much of the response of industry to the perceived wisdom behind such decisions. Advances in transportation technology now permit the accumulation of an export consignment from across an entire country. The assembled shipment is a sentinel for the infection experience of the national herd. The journey to the final destination is measured in hours, rather than weeks. Parallel diagnostic and epidemiological advances face the challenge of compensating for the risks attendant in such widespread and rapid sourcing of stock. Nations which judge the risks as unacceptable face a concerted legal challenge on a series of levels, both domestic and international. Refusal of legal importation can be circumvented easily through the smuggling of germ plasm. National Veterinary Services must respond to the economic, social and political realities of this new international trading environment. The means of facing this challenge through quantitative risk analysis are described. The theory of risk analysis, as well as the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the import applications of this analysis, is explained. Current challenges and potential solutions are discussed. PMID:8312609

  15. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Sectors sections of the Notice of the Executive- Led Mission to Zambia and South Africa, 77 FR 31574, May... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to...

  16. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... notice for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012... Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012, announced in the Notice published at 77 FR...

  17. 76 FR 37315 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Report from Foreign-Trade Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... the FTZ Board and other trade policy officials to determine whether zone activity is consistent with U.S. international trade policy, and whether it is in the public interest. The public uses the... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Report from...

  18. An Empirical Study on the Curriculum Construction of Business English for International Trade Based on the Case of GDUFS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Cheng, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Business English education concern is of great significance. Business English for International Trade in Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (GDUFS) is widely acclaimed, and it is also a popular major. GDUFS has adopted the slogan "Learn from East and West, moral integrity and direct behavior". It is a famous cradle of learning,…

  19. Integrating English for Specific Purposes Courseware into Task-Based Learning in a Context of Preparing for International Trade Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on integrating courseware for participating in international trade fairs into English for specific purposes (ESP) instruction at a technical university in Taiwan. An Information and Communication Technology (ICT) approach combining courseware integration with Task Based Learning (TBL), was adopted. Evaluation of implementing…

  20. 78 FR 69648 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting AGENCY: ITA, DOC... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services...