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Sample records for administration noaa polar

  1. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  2. State Geography Using NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Stephen J.

    1985-01-01

    NOAA polar-orbiting satellites have the capability of providing views of entire states. This article describes the characteristics of data from these satellites, indicates their advantages and disadvantages, and shows how the satellite data can be used in a statewide representation of physical geography for students at the introductory level. (RM)

  3. 77 FR 74174 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule of a forthcoming meeting of the DoC NOAA National Climate Assessment...

  4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration /NOAA/ contamination monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The JPL has designed and built a plume contamination monitoring package to be installed on a NOAA environmental services satellite. The package is designed to monitor any condensible contamination that occurs during the ignition and burn of a TE-M-364-15 apogee kick motor. The instrumentation and system interface are described, and attention is given to preflight analysis and test.

  5. Data compression for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration /NOAA/ weather satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Schlutsmeyer, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) receives high quality infrared weather images from each of its two geostationary weather satellites at an average data rate of 57 kilobits/second. These images are currently distributed to field stations over 3 kilohertz analog phone lines. The resulting loss in image quality renders the images unacceptable for proposed digital image processing. This paper documents the study leading to a current effort to implement a microprocessor-based universal noiseless coder/decoder to satisfy NOAA's requirements of high quality, good coverage and timely transmission of its infrared images.

  6. NOAA Would Receive an 11% Increase Under Obama Administration's Proposed Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2014 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with 5.45 billion, 11% above the FY 2012 spend plan of 4.91 billion (see Table ). The proposal, which was sent to Congress on 10 April, would increase funding for operations, research, and facilities to 3.41 billion (up 7.97% over FY 2012) and for procurement, acquisition, and construction to 2.12 billion (up 17.51%). The budget proposal uses the FY 2012 spend plan as a comparison because Congress approved the FY 2013 appropriations only a few weeks before the FY 2014 proposal was released.

  7. 75 FR 38079 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    .... Please refer to the Web page http://www.sab.noaa.gov/Meetings/meetings.html for the most up-to-date...-5700. Please check the SAB Web site http://www.sab.noaa.gov for confirmation of the venue and for... on July 21 at 2:15 p.m. (check Web site to confirm time). The SAB expects that public...

  8. Digital Video Needs for Oceanographic Images for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    www.lib.noaa.gov) and the worldwide online library catalog, WorldCat (http://www.oclc.org/ worldcat /). WorldCat is the world’s largest and richest database...OE expeditions will also be available through NOAALINC and WorldCat . E. The Digital Atlas Working Group This group has developed a Geographic...future NOAA video portal, and WorldCat . Input will be provided from both the NOAA Data Centers and the Internet for video images. Multi-platform

  9. In-flight measurement of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-10 static Earth sensor error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvie, E.; Filla, O.; Baker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis performed in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) measures error in the static Earth sensor onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-10 spacecraft using flight data. Errors are computed as the difference between Earth sensor pitch and roll angle telemetry and reference pitch and roll attitude histories propagated by gyros. The flight data error determination illustrates the effect on horizon sensing of systemic variation in the Earth infrared (IR) horizon radiance with latitude and season, as well as the effect of anomalies in the global IR radiance. Results of the analysis provide a comparison between static Earth sensor flight performance and that of scanning Earth sensors studied previously in the GSFC/FDD. The results also provide a baseline for evaluating various models of the static Earth sensor. Representative days from the NOAA-10 mission indicate the extent of uniformity and consistency over time of the global IR horizon. A unique aspect of the NOAA-10 analysis is the correlation of flight data errors with independent radiometric measurements of stratospheric temperature. The determination of the NOAA-10 static Earth sensor error contributes to realistic performance expectations for missions to be equipped with similar sensors.

  10. NOAA-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, Harry G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly developed a valuable series of polar-orbiting Earth environmental observation satellites since 1978. These satellites provide global data to NOAA's short- and long-range weather forecasting systems. The system consists of two polar-orbiting satellites known as the Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS-N) (ATN). Operating as a pair, these satellites ensure that environmental data, for any region of the Earth, is no more than six hours old. These polar-orbiting satellites have not only provided cost-effective data for very immediate and real needs but also for extensive climate and research programs. The weather data (including images seen on television news programs) has afforded both convenience and safety to viewers throughout the world. The satellites also support the SARSAT (Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking) part of the COSPAS-SARSAT constellation. Russia provides the COSPAS (Russian for Space Systems for the Search of Vessels in Distress) satellites. The international COSPAS-SARSAT system provides for the detection and location of emergency beacons for ships, aircraft, and people in distress and has contributed to the saving of more than 10,000 lives since its inception in 1982.

  11. Bringing Experience from the Field into the Classroom with the NOAA Teacher at Sea and PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubanks, E. D.; Kohin, S.; Oberbauer, S.

    2008-12-01

    As a participant of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Teacher at Sea (2007) and the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S., PolarTREC (2008) programs, I have had the opportunity to participate in hands-on research with leading scientific researchers from the tropics to the Arctic. These Teacher Researcher Experiences (TRE's) and the resulting relationships that have developed with the scientific community have been an asset to my professional development and have greatly enhanced my students' learning. The opportunity to participate in data collection and hands-on research with a NOAA researcher, Dr. Kohin, helped me bring shark, ocean, and ship science from my expedition onboard the NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan in the Channel Island region into my classroom. The new knowledge, experiences, and resources that I brought back allowed me to create lesson plans and host Shark Month--an activity that involved all 300 students in my school. My students were able to link real data regarding the location of sharks to practical application and still meet state standards. Likewise, the scientist from my PolarTREC expedition, Dr. Oberbauer, is assisting me in a long-term plan to incorporate his data into my classroom curricula. Already, my experiences from Barrow, Alaska, have been shared through webinars with my community and as a keynote speaker to over 600 Palm Beach County science teachers. We are also working together to develop a yearlong curriculum, in which my entire school of 300 students will discover interdisciplinary polar science. Participation in TRE's has been beneficial for my students and my community, but what is the return on the investment for the scientists who invited me to participate in their research? Both scientists have transferred their knowledge out of the laboratory and made a link between their research and a different generation--our future scientists. They become instrumental science leaders in a community of young

  12. Web Services at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Baldwin, R.; Del Greco, S.; Lott, N.; Rutledge, G.

    2007-12-01

    NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) currently archives over 1.5 petabytes of climatological data from various networks and sources including in-situ, numerical models, radar and satellite. Access to these datasets is evolving from interactive web interfaces utilizing database technology to standardized web services in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). NCDC is currently offering several web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), XML over Representational State Transfer (REST/XML), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) / Web Feature Service (WFS) / Web Coverage Service (WCS) and OPeNDAP web service protocols. These services offer users a direct connection between their client applications and NCDC data servers. In addition, users may embed access to the services in custom applications to efficiently navigate and subset data in an automated fashion. NCDC currently provides gridded numerical model data through a THREDDS Data Server and GrADS Data Server which offers OPeNDAP and WCS access. In-situ network metadata are available through WMS and WFS while the corresponding time-series data are accessible through SOAP and REST web services. These in-situ services are a part of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) WaterOneFlow services, a consolidated access system for hydrologic data, and comply with the WaterOneFlow specifications. NCDC's Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI), which provides user access to archives of several datasets critical to the detection and evaluation of severe weather, is also accessible through REST/XML services. Providing cataloging, access and search capabilities for many of NCDC's datasets using community driven standards is a top priority for the ever increasing data volumes being archived at NCDC. Providing interoperable access is critical to supporting data stewardship across multiple scientific disciplines and user types. This demonstration will

  13. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... February 16, 2011 Part IV Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Draft NOAA... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA214 Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  14. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is moved inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. NOAA-L is part of the Polar- Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the uncrating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite is lifted for mating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the lifting and rotating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite to allow for mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (AKM). NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Outside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., a crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is lowered to the ground before being moved inside. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. 76 FR 36094 - Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft scientific integrity policy is available for public...

  15. Acquisition of Gulfstream IV-SP jet for environmental measurements in the upper troposphere by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Philippsborn, F.R.

    1996-11-01

    Acquisition of a Gulfstream IV-SP jet by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is intended to address the critical shortage of platforms capable of making intensive in situ meteorological and atmospheric observations in the upper troposphere. Its primary function will be Hurricane Synoptic Surveillance. In its initial configuration, the jet will significantly improve the ability of NOAA scientists to predict the expected path of hurricanes by gathering vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity within 1,000 km of tropical cyclones by means of dropwindsondes over the data-sparse oceanic regions of the western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Future missions proposed for the aircraft include winter storm surveillance, hurricane reconnaissance, weather research, global climate studies, air chemistry, validation of satellite data, and development of remote sensors. 5 refs.

  1. 75 FR 5566 - NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA... Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of... three new NOAA cooperative institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the...

  2. 75 FR 82377 - NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER... Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration...

  3. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. GIS Services, Visualization Products, and Interoperability at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, R.; Ansari, S.; Reid, G.; Lott, N.; Del Greco, S.

    2007-12-01

    The main goal in developing and deploying Geographic Information System (GIS) services at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is to provide users with simple access to data archives while integrating new and informative climate products. Several systems at NCDC provide a variety of climatic data in GIS formats and/or map viewers. The Online GIS Map Services provide users with data discovery options which flow into detailed product selection maps, which may be queried using standard "region finder" tools or gazetteer (geographical dictionary search) functions. Each tabbed selection offers steps to help users progress through the systems. A series of additional base map layers or data types have been added to provide companion information. New map services include: Severe Weather Data Inventory, Local Climatological Data, Divisional Data, Global Summary of the Day, and Normals/Extremes products. THREDDS Data Server technology is utilized to provide access to gridded multidimensional datasets such as Model, Satellite and Radar. This access allows users to download data as a gridded NetCDF file, which is readable by ArcGIS. In addition, users may subset the data for a specific geographic region, time period, height range or variable prior to download. The NCDC Weather Radar Toolkit (WRT) is a client tool which accesses Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data locally or remotely from the NCDC archive, NOAA FTP server or any URL or THREDDS Data Server. The WRT Viewer provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service backgrounds, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WRT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, NetCDF, GrADS) formats. As more users become accustom to GIS, questions of better, cheaper, faster access soon follow. Expanding use and availability can best be accomplished through

  4. Droughts of the Late 1980s in the United States as Derived from NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix N.

    1995-05-01

    Drought is one of the most adverse and powerful weather-related disasters that occur every year across a portion of the United States. The consequences of droughts quite often can be devastating. To mitigate these consequences, droughts require careful monitoring. Recently, NOAA's National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service developed a new Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based vegetation condition index (VCI) that showed good results when it was used for drought detection and tracking. The VCI is a vegetation index with reduced noise and is adjusted for land climate, ecology, and weather conditions. This index provides a quantitative estimate of weather impact on vegetation and also measures vegetation conditions. Several large-area experiments showed that the VCI had excellent ability to detect drought and to measure the time of its onset and its intensity, duration, and impact on vegetation. The VCI provides accurate drought information not only for the cases with well-defined, prolonged, widespread, and very strong droughts, but also for very localized, short-term, and ill-defined droughts. The advantages of this index compared to conventional ground data are in providing more comprehensive, timely, and accurate drought information. This paper describes the methodology and technical principles used to derive the vegetation condition index, explores data processing, and gives many examples of VCI application for drought monitoring in the United States during 1985-90. The spatial and temporal patterns of VCI-derived drought were in a very good agreement with the identical patterns identified from precipitation and yield anomalies.

  5. 75 FR 10755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2010 NOAA Engagement Survey Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2010 NOAA Engagement Survey Tool AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), DOC. ACTION: Notice... instrument and instructions should be directed to Louisa Koch, Director, NOAA Office of Education, (202)...

  6. 77 FR 14347 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Restoration Center Performance Progress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Restoration Center Performance Progress Report AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Robin.Bruckner@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for an extension of...

  7. 77 FR 65674 - Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of solicitation for members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board....

  8. 78 FR 59339 - Intracoastal Waterway Route “Magenta Line” on NOAA Nautical Charts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Intracoastal Waterway Route ``Magenta Line'' on NOAA Nautical Charts AGENCY: National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (NOAA... Intracoastal Waterways, produced by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and, subsequently, NOAA, have...

  9. Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Clouds on NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Satellite Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    smoke , smog, dust and water ;erosols usually falls within the Mie Regime. The combination of Rayleigh and Mie scattering causes the selective...T. L., 1984. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS, Assesment Services Center, Columbia, MO, Personal Communications. Barnett, T. L. and Thompson, D...Washington, D.C., NOAA Technical Memorandum, NESS 107, 73 pp. LeDuc, S. K., 1984. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS, Assesment Information Services

  10. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Validation and Verification on National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Lockheed WP-3D Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoucalas, George; Daniels, Taumi S.; Zysko, Jan; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting project (TAMDAR) developed a low-cost sensor for aircraft flying in the lower troposphere. This activity was a joint effort with support from Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and industry. This paper reports the TAMDAR sensor performance validation and verification, as flown on board NOAA Lockheed WP-3D aircraft. These flight tests were conducted to assess the performance of the TAMDAR sensor for measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and wind parameters. The ultimate goal was to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological data, downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. The envisioned system will initially be used on regional and package carrier aircraft. The ultimate users of the data are National Centers for Environmental Prediction forecast modelers. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. NASA worked with an industry partner to develop the sensor. Prototype sensors were subjected to numerous tests in ground and flight facilities. As a result of these earlier tests, many design improvements were made to the sensor. The results of tests on a final version of the sensor are the subject of this report. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated air speed, true air speed, ice presence, wind speed and direction, and eddy dissipation rate. Summary results from the flight test are presented along with corroborative data from aircraft instruments.

  11. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  12. 75 FR 15686 - NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER... Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. ] SUMMARY: NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration...

  13. 78 FR 57131 - Membership of the NOAA Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Membership of the NOAA Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of Membership of the NOAA Performance Review Board (PRB). SUMMARY: In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4),...

  14. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  15. NOAA Lists 20 Coral Species as Threatened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    Twenty coral species have been listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 27 August. This is NOAA's largest ESA rule making. The coral species include 15 found in the Indo-Pacific region and 5 that are located in the Caribbean. They join two other Caribbean coral species that NOAA listed as threatened in 2006.

  16. Clash over NOAA budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At the April 26 hearing on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) budget by a Senate Appropriations subcommittee, Sen. Lowell P. Weicker, Jr . (R-Conn.), decried the budget cuts proposed by NOAA and the Reagan Administration. ‘I think it would be almost criminal’ to agree to the proposed cuts, Weicker said, adding that although he understands the broad policy to trim the budget, the proposed cuts amounted to ‘piecemeal emasculation … I won't be part of it.’‘I cannot help but note with regret that for the third year in a row the Administration proposed drastic reductions in oceans-related research and development,’ said Weicker during the hearing conducted by the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on the departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, and the Judiciary. ‘The proposed 37% cut in funding for fisheries programs combined with a 40% cut in other oceans and coastal activities would add up to an $85 million loss for NOAA's oceans programs. To make cuts of this magnitude would be, in effect, to write off the great potential the oceans have for feeding our people and helping to power our economy,’ the Connecticut senator said. ‘In short, the potential of the oceans as well as the pressures placed upon them have never been so great—and they will be even greater tomorrow. In the face of Administration indifference and outright hostility, Congress must maintain its commitment to the oceans and to the positive contributions they can make to our future.’

  17. Chlorofluorocarbon-11, -12, and nitrous oxide measurements at the NOAA/GMCC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change) baseline stations (16 September 1973 to 31 December 1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.M.; Komhyr, W.D.; Dutton, E.G.

    1985-06-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ARL) began measuring chlorofluorocarbon-11 in 1973 because of the interest in this anthropogenic pollutant as a tracer for the study of mass transfer processes in the atmosphere and the oceans. Interest in chlorofluorocarbon-11, and in chlorofluorocarbon-12 and nitrous oxide, was heightened during the mid-1970's with the realization that these compounds can be decomposed by photolysis in the stratosphere to cause stratospheric ozone destruction by released chlorine atoms. Measurements of chlorofluorocarbon-12 and nitrous oxide were begun by NOAA/ARL in 1977. The report describes the evolution of the chlorofluorocarbon and N/sub 2/O measurement programs through 1979. By that time, the sample collection and analysis techniques became standardized, and have remained the same to the present.

  18. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.

    1999-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN, is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  19. 77 FR 13095 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for NOAA Restoration Center Programmatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Statement for NOAA Restoration Center Programmatic Coastal Habitat Restoration Activities AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... Environmental Quality and procedures issued by NOAA Administrative Order 216-6, NOAA is providing notice of...

  1. 78 FR 37795 - Draft NOAA Procedures for Government to Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC726 Draft NOAA Procedures for Government to... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces the availability of and request for comments on the Draft NOAA Procedures for Government-to-Government...

  2. An Education Plan for NOAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2004

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Commerce Donald L. Evans has said, "Environmental Literacy is critical to enable learners of all ages to pursue knowledge, produce advanced products, and enhance personal growth." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recognizes it has a role and a responsibility to the nation in advancing education leading…

  3. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  4. Data management in NOAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callicott, William M.

    1992-01-01

    NOAA has 11 terabytes of digital data stored on 240,000 computer tapes. There are an additional 100 terabytes (TB) of geostationary satellite data stored in digital form on specially configured SONY U-Matic video tapes at the University of Wisconsin. There are over 90,000,000 non-digital form records in manuscript, film, printed, and chart form which are not easily accessible. The three NOAA Data Centers service 6,000 requests per year and publish 5,000 bulletins which are distributed to 40,000 subscribers. Seventeen CD-ROM's have been produced. Thirty thousand computer tapes containing polar satellite data are being copied to 12 inch WORM optical disks for research applications. The present annual data accumulation rate of 10 TB will grow to 30 TB in 1994 and to 100 TB by the year 2000. The present storage and distribution technologies with their attendant support systems will be overwhelmed by these increases if not improved. Increased user sophistication coupled with more precise measurement technologies will demand better quality control mechanisms, especially for those data maintained in an indefinite archive. There is optimism that the future will offer improved media technologies to accommodate the volumes of data. With the advanced technologies, storage and performance monitoring tools will be pivotal to the successful long-term management of data and information.

  5. 76 FR 55362 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Customer Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Customer Surveys AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... instrument and instructions should be directed to Sarah Brabson, (301) 628-5751 or...

  6. 77 FR 32572 - (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The.... These times are subject to change. Please refer to the Web page http://...

  7. 78 FR 55064 - Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Gulf Coast Ecosystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Solicitation for Members of the NOAA Science Advisory Board... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. ACTION: Notice... Administration is publishing this notice to solicit nominations for the NOAA Science Advisory Board Gulf...

  8. NOAA & Academia Partnership Building Conference. Highlights (3rd, Washington, DC, November 14-15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Silver Spring, MD.

    In November 2001 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hosted the third NOAA and Academia Partnership to evaluate, maintain, and expand on efforts to optimize NOAA-university cooperation. Close partnership between the NOAA and U.S. universities has produced many benefits for the U.S. economy and the environment. Based on the…

  9. 76 FR 53883 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Satellite Ground Station Customer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA... (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce... marlin.o.perkins@noaa.gov or Paul Seymour, 301-817-4521 or paul.seymourf@noaa.gov ....

  10. 78 FR 26616 - Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft Five Year Research and Development Plan is available for...

  11. NOAA issues scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced the agency's first-ever scientific integrity policy at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The policy follows a December 2010 White House memorandum that issued guidance to federal agencies implementing scientific integrity policies (see "White House issues scientific integrity policies," Eos Trans. AGU, 91(51), 503, doi:10.1029/2010EO510003, 2010). The purpose of the NOAA policy is "to promote a continuing culture of scientific excellence and integrity, and to establish a policy on the integrity of scientific activities that the agency conducts and uses to inform management and policy decisions," the agency's administrative order states. "In addition, the intent of the policy is to strengthen widespread confidence—from scientists, to decisionmakers, to the general public—in the quality, validity, and reliability of NOAA science and to denote the agency's commitment to a culture of support for excellence of NOAA's principal science asset, its employees."

  12. The NOAA IOOS Data Integration Framework: Initial Implementation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    The NOAA IOOS Data Integration Framework: Initial Implementation Report Jeff de La Beaujardière National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...Administration ( NOAA ) Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program office has begun the implementation of a Data Integration Framework (DIF) to...improve management and delivery of an initial subset of ocean observations. The DIF establishes a web service layer atop key NOAA data providers

  13. 76 FR 26254 - NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER... Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice...-FY2015. SUMMARY: NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) is electronically publishing...

  14. Geostatistics and remote sensing using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as predictive tools in tick distribution and habitat suitability estimations for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South America. National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A

    1999-02-01

    Remote sensing based on NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration) satellite imagery was used, together with geostatistics (cokriging) to model the correlation between the temperature and vegetation variables and the distribution of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), in the Neotropical region. The results were used to map the B. microplus habitat suitability on a continental scale. A database of B. microplus capture localities was used, which was tabulated with the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images from the NOAA satellite series. They were obtained at 10 days intervals between 1983 and 1994, with an 8 km resolution. A cokriging system was generated to extrapolate the results. The data for habitat suitability obtained through two vegetation and four temperature variables were strongly correlated with the known distribution of B. microplus (sensitivity 0.91; specificity 0.88) and provide a good estimation of the tick habitat suitability. This model could be used as a guide to the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of B. microplus. It can be also used to prepare eradication campaigns or to make predictions about the effects of global change on the distribution of the parasite.

  15. Collection development at the NOAA Central Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quillen, Steve R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Central Library collection, approximately one million volumes, incorporates the holdings of its predecessor agencies. Within the library, the collections are filed separately, based on their source and/or classification schemes. The NOAA Central Library provides a variety of services to users, ranging from quick reference and interlibrary loan to in-depth research and online data bases.

  16. In Congress NOAA budget set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In late November, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget, which is part of the appropriations bill for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and related agencies; at the same time, he also signed into law an amendment attached to that bill that prohibits the sale of the weather satellites (Eos, May 17, 1983, p. 377, and March 22, 1983, p. 113). Commercialization of the land remote sensing satellite system is still being considered, however.As a result of the conference between the House of Representatives and the Senate appropriations committees, the appropriation for NOAA totals $1020.6 million, with a program level of $1073.1 million. The appropriation is the money that comes from the federal treasury; the program level represents all of the funds—including treasury funds, transfers, residuals, etc.—actually available for the program. Strictly in terms of dollars, the total fiscal 1984 NOAA appropriation is almost level with the fiscal 1983 appropriation of $1000.9 million. In fiscal 1984, NOAA's research core, called Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF), receives an appropriation of $988.2 million, with a program level of $1014.8 million

  17. The NOAA Big Data Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  18. The Weather Radar Toolkit, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center's support of interoperability and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.

    2006-12-01

    In February 2005, 61 countries around the World agreed on a 10 year plan to work towards building open systems for sharing geospatial data and services across different platforms worldwide. This system is known as the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The objective of GEOSS focuses on easy access to environmental data and interoperability across different systems allowing participating countries to measure the "pulse" of the planet in an effort to advance society. In support of GEOSS goals, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has developed radar visualization and data exporter tools in an open systems environment. The NCDC Weather Radar Toolkit (WRT) loads Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scan (S-band) data, known as Level-II, and derived products, known as Level-III, into an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant environment. The application is written entirely in Java and will run on any Java- supported platform including Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix. The application is launched via Java Web Start and runs on the client machine while accessing these data locally or remotely from the NCDC archive, NOAA FTP server or any URL or THREDDS Data Server. The WRT allows the data to be manipulated to create custom mosaics, composites and precipitation estimates. The WRT Viewer provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service backgrounds, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WRT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, NetCDF, GrADS) formats. By decoding the various Radar formats into the NetCDF Common Data Model, the exported NetCDF data becomes interoperable with existing software packages including THREDDS Data Server and the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The NCDC recently partnered with NOAA's National Severe Storms Lab (NSSL) to decode Sigmet C-band Doppler

  19. 75 FR 59686 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA... Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to...-4558 or kay.metcalf@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This notice is for renewal of...

  20. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great...

  1. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data... Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money...

  2. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melanie Gange at (301) 713-0174, or by e-mail at...

  3. 75 FR 60085 - NOAA Proposed Policy on Prohibited and Authorized Uses of the Asset Forfeiture Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ29 NOAA Proposed Policy on Prohibited and... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY... through NOAA to pay certain enforcement related costs from sums received as fines, penalties,...

  4. 78 FR 68816 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA... Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to..., 301-817-4543 or Scott.Rogerson@noaa.gov ; or Kay Metcalf, 301-817-4558 or...

  5. 75 FR 55541 - NOAA Regional Ocean Partnership Funding Program-FY2011 Funding Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC20 NOAA Regional Ocean Partnership Funding... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this document is to advise...) that NOAA is soliciting proposals for competitive funding for Regional Ocean Partnerships that...

  6. 76 FR 16386 - NOAA Policy on Prohibited and Approved Uses of the Asset Forfeiture Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ29 NOAA Policy on Prohibited and Approved Uses... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act authorizes the Secretary of Commerce through NOAA to pay certain...

  7. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  8. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  9. Life-Cycle Data Management at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates over a hundred observing systems which span the environment from the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun. The resulting data are essential for immediate priorities such as weather forecasting, and the data also constitute an irreplaceable resource collected at great cost. It is therefore necessary to carefully preserve this information for ongoing scientific use, for new research and applications, and to ensure reproducibility of scientific conclusions. The NOAA data life-cycle includes activities in three major phases: planning and production, management of the resulting data, and usage activities. This paper will describe current work by the NOAA Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), and the NOAA National Data Centers in areas including DM planning, documentation, cataloging, data access, and preservation and stewardship to improve and standardize policies and practices for life-cycle data management.

  10. Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Kilcoyne, Heather; Cikanek, Harry; Mehta, Ajay

    2013-12-01

    next generation polar-orbiting environmental satellite system, designated as the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), was proposed in February 2010, as part of the President's Fiscal Year 2011 budget request, to be the Civilian successor to the restructured National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Beginning 1 October 2013, the JPSS baseline consists of a suite of five instruments: advanced microwave and infrared sounders critical for short- and medium-range weather forecasting; an advanced visible and infrared imager needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models; and an Earth radiation budget sensor for monitoring the Earth's energy budget. NASA will fund the Earth radiation budget sensor and the ozone limb sensor for the second JPSS operational satellite--JPSS-2. JPSS is implemented through a partnership between NOAA and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOAA is responsible for overall funding; maintaining the high-level requirements; establishing international and interagency partnerships; developing the science and algorithms, and user engagement; NOAA also provides product data distribution and archiving of JPSS data. NASA's role is to serve as acquisition Center of Excellence, providing acquisition of instruments, spacecraft and the multimission ground system, and early mission implementation through turnover to NOAA for operations.

  11. Education Strategic Plan 2015-2035: Advancing NOAA's Mission through Education. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Strategic Plan provides a framework to guide collaboration across the NOAA education community and a structure in which to track and report progress. Congress recognized the importance of NOAA's education programs with the passage of the America COMPETES Act. The America COMPETES…

  12. Education Strategic Plan 2015-2035: Advancing NOAA's Mission through Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Strategic Plan provides a framework to guide collaboration across the NOAA education community and a structure in which to track and report progress. Congress recognized the importance of NOAA's education programs with the passage of the America COMPETES Act. The America COMPETES…

  13. 76 FR 4091 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Certification Requirements for NOAA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...; Certification Requirements for NOAA's Hydrographic Product Quality Assurance Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce... to David B. Enabnit, (301) 713-2770 x132, Dave.Enabnit@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  14. 76 FR 41453 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of NOAA National Marine Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, CA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces its intention to prepare an SEIS in accordance with the...

  15. NOAA's Weather-Ready Nation: Progress and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharfenberg, K.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather-Ready Nation program is about building community resilience in the face of increasing vulnerability to extreme weather and water events. Through community partnerships and infusion of new science and technology, better preparedness is reducing the devastating impacts of these extreme events. For the past three years, the National Weather Service has been leading the Weather-Ready Nation strategy through a number of initiatives, focused around a series of pilot projects for transforming internal National Weather Service Operations. The "Emergency Response Specialist" technical role and associated training has been developed to better apply new hazardous weather research and technology to critical community decisions. High-resolution storm surge inundation mapping was introduced to the public in 2014 during Hurricane Arthur with successful results. The dual-polarization upgrade to the Nation's weather radar network has also been completed, with successful application of improved tornado, flash flood, and winter storm warning services. This presentation will focus on the application of these science initiatives under the NOAA Weather-Ready Nation program, and will further discuss NWS plans for operational application of future advances in research and technology.

  16. THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF NOAA'S AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted atmospheric research, including chemical and physical measurements, process studies, and the development and evaluation of experimental meteorological and photochemical air quality models. ...

  17. THE NOAA - EPA NATIONAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building upon decades of collaboration in air pollution meteorology research, in 2003 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signed formal partnership agreements to develop and implement an operationa...

  18. Validation of the Version 1 NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Sea Surface Temperature Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution, global satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data set called Pathfinder, from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA Polar Orbiters, is available from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (JPL PO.DAAC). Suitable for research as well as education, the Pathfinder SST data set is a result of a collaboration between the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and investigators at several universities. NOAA and NASA are the sponsors of the Pathfinder Program, which takes advantage of currently archived Earth science data from satellites. Where necessary, satellite sensors have been intercalibrated, algorithms improved and processing procedures revised, in order to produce long time-series, global measurements of ocean, land and atmospheric properties necessary for climate research. Many Pathfinder data sets are available to researchers now, nearly a decade before the first launch of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The lessons learned from the Pathfinder programs will facilitate the processing and management of terabytes of data from EOS. The Oceans component of Pathfinder has undertaken to reprocess all Global Area Coverage (GAC) data acquired by the 5-channel AVHRRs since 1981. The resultant data products are consistent and stably calibrated [Rao, 1993a, Rao, 1993b, Brown et al., 1993], Earth-gridded SST fields at a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions.

  19. The Meteosat ground stations for NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, C. M. A.

    1993-05-01

    In September 1991, it was decided that ESA would support the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) by operating the European Meteosat-3 satellite around the much more westerly position of 90 deg W. As a result, ESOC's Stations and Communications Engineering Department was charged with providing additional ground facilities at the NOAA and NASA sites on Wallops Island, at ESA's Kourou facilities in French Guiana, and at ESOC itself. These new facilities had to be fully operational within one year of the commitment being made.

  20. Mission Description and In-Flight Operations of ERBE Instruments on ERBS, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Dianne; Bush, Kathryn; Lee, Kam-Pui; Summerville, Jessica

    1998-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have operated on three different Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 weather satellites are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper is one of a series that describes the ERBE mission, in-orbit environments, instrument design and operational features, and data processing and validation procedures. This paper also describes the in-flight operations for the ERBE nonscanner instruments aboard the ERBS, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 spacecraft from January 1990 through December 1990. Validation and archives of radiation measurements made by ERBE nonscanner instruments during this period were completed in August 1996. This paper covers normal and special operations of the spacecraft and instruments, operational anomalies, and the responses of the instruments to in-orbit and seasonal variations in the solar environment.

  1. 77 FR 76000 - Notice of Availability of Draft Report of the NOAA Research and Development Portfolio Review Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Science Advisory Board RIN 0648-XC378 Notice of Availability of Draft Report of the NOAA Research and Development Portfolio Review Task Force and Request for... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for...

  2. 75 FR 4043 - Science Advisory Board; Draft Report of the NOAA Science Advisory Board Oceans and Health Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board; Draft Report of the NOAA Science...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: NOAA Research (OAR) publishes this notice on behalf...

  3. 75 FR 13259 - NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn About the Proposed NOAA Climate Service AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice...

  4. Instrument interface description for NOAA 2000 instruments with European morning spacecraft and/or NOAA-OPQ spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe at a high level the common interface provisions and constraints placed on the NOAA-2000 instruments and the interfacing spacecraft elements in the following areas: electrical interface, mechanical interface, thermal interface, magnetic interface, electromagnetic compatibility, structural/mechanical environmental interface, contamination control, and the ionizing radiation environment. The requirements reflect the fact that these instruments must be compatible with a number of different polar orbiting satellite vehicles including the NOAA-OPQ satellites and the EUMETSAT METOP satellites.

  5. NOAA Plans for Geomagnetic Storm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, B. L.; Biesecker, D. A.; Mulligan, P.; Simpson, M.

    2012-12-01

    For many years, NOAA has issued geomagnetic storm watches and warnings based on coronal mass ejection (CME) imagery and in-situ solar wind measurements from research satellites. The NOAA Satellite and Information Service (NESDIS) recognizes the importance of this service to protecting technological infrastructure including power grids, polar air travel, and satellite navigation, so is actively planning to replace these assets to ensure their continued availability. NOAA, NASA, and the US Air Force are working on launching the first operational solar wind mission in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), to follow NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in making solar wind measurements at the sun-Earth L1 for 15-60 minute geomagnetic storm warning. For continuing operations after the DSCOVR mission, one technology NOAA is looking at is solar sails that could greatly improve the lead time of geomagnetic storm warnings by stationkeeping closer to the sun than L1. We are working with NASA and private industry on the Sunjammer solar sail demonstration mission to test making solar wind measurements from a solar sail in the sun-Earth L1 region. NOAA uses CME imagery from the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites to issue 1-3 day geomagnetic storm watches. For the future, NOAA worked with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to develop a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) through Phase A, and is studying ways to complete instrument development and test fly it for use in the future.

  6. IASI Products Processing System at the NOAA/NESDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), is a hyperspectral infrared sounder residing on the European Space Agency’s (ESA) MetOp series of polar orbiting satellites and has 8461 spectral channels, aligned in three bands between 3.62 and 15.5 micron, with a spectral resolution of 0.5 cm-1 , after apodisation. IASI Level 1C data are made available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) through the International Joint Polar-Orbiting Operational Satellite System (IJPS) agreement. The first priority of the IASI Product Processing System (PPS) at the NOAA/NESDIS is to generate radiance products that are produced using Level 1C data, which are ingested in a pipeline mode from the European Organization for the Exploitation Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) via General File Transmission (GFT) protocol, applied to spectral and spatial sub-setting. IASI is a multi-purpose sounding instrument designed for the next generation infrared sounder having element of operational sounding system which provides global measurements with high vertical resolution and accuracy of temperature, water vapor, trace-gases such as ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as surface temperature, surface emissivity, and cloud characteristics. IASI PPS system generates Level 1C Thinned (L1CT) radiance and Level 2 profile products. Currently the IASI level 2 products from MetOp-2 satellite include temperature and humidity profiles, trace gases, and the cloud cleared radiances (CCR) on a global scale and these products are available to the operational user community. In an effort to ensure consistent levels of service and quality assurance for these suites of products, the Office of Satellite and Products Operation (OSPO) is implementing and executing new, innovative tools to better monitor performance and quality of the operational IASI products being generated. The

  7. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  8. NOAA requirements and programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    Service programs in NOAA that contemplate using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GEOS) Data Collection System (DCS) are considered. The GEOS DCS will be operated by the National Environmental Satellite Service of NOAA as an integral part of the national operation environmental satellite program. This plan is concerned with that part of the GEOS program connected with collection and relay of data from remote locations. Service programs include: (1) hydrological data collection; (2) oceanographic data collection; (3) marine observations from data buoys; (4) Tsunami warning service; and (5) meteorological service.

  9. The NOAA Big Data Project: NEXRAD on the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundwall, Jed; Bouffler, Brendan

    2016-04-01

    Last year, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) made headlines when it entered into a research agreement with Amazon Web Services (AWS) to explore sustainable models to increase the output of open NOAA data. Publicly available NOAA data drives multi-billion dollar industries and critical research efforts. Under this new agreement, AWS and its Data Alliance collaborators are looking at ways to push more NOAA data to the cloud and build an ecosystem of innovation around it. In this presentation, we will provide a brief overview of the NOAA Big Data Project and the AWS Data Alliance, then dive into a specific example of data that has been made available (high resolution Doppler radar from the NEXRAD system) and early use cases.

  10. The NOAA Big Data Project: NEXRAD on the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.; Weber, J.

    2015-12-01

    This past April, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) made headlines when it entered into a research agreement with Amazon Web Services (AWS) to explore sustainable models to increase the output of open NOAA data. Publicly available NOAA data drives multi-billion dollar industries and critical research efforts. Under this new agreement, AWS and its Data Alliance collaborators are looking at ways to push more NOAA data to the cloud and build an ecosystem of innovation around it. In this presentation, we will provide a brief overview of the NOAA Big Data Project and the AWS Data Alliance, then dive into a specific example of data that has been made available (high resolution Doppler radar from the NEXRAD system) and early use cases.

  11. Low-dose cisplatin administration to septic mice improves bacterial clearance and programs peritoneal macrophage polarization to M1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Zhenling; Ma, Xuelei; Shao, Bin; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Binglan; Xu, Guangchao; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-11-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, and early responses of macrophages are vital in controlling the infected microorganisms. We used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis to determine the role of cisplatin (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1)) with respect to peritoneal macrophages, controlling peritoneal/blood bacterial infection, and systemic inflammation. We found that mice which received low-dose (0.1 and 0.5 mg kg(-1)) i.p. cisplatin had lower mortality rate and improved clinical scores compared with mice in normal saline-treated group, and the level of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced after cisplatin administration in peritoneal fluid of mice underwent CLP. Although cisplatin had no directly bactericidal ability, the numbers of bacteria in peritoneal and blood were significantly reduced at 24 and 72 h after the onset of CLP. Besides, in vivo phagocytosis and killing assay showed that the ability of macrophage derived from peritoneum was significantly increased with cisplatin treatment (5, 10, and 15 μM) for both gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This was associated with the macrophage phenotype polarization from CD11b(+) F4/80(high) CD206(-) to CD11b(+) F4/80(low) CD206(-) M1 group. These findings underscore the importance of low-dose cisplatin in the treatment of sepsis.

  12. NOAA backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    In the past year, NOAA has measured and analyzed another year's worth of backscatter over Boulder, CO. The average profile was computed from 80 satellite observations of backscatter spread throughout the year, using NOAA's CO2 coherent lidar operating at a wavelength of 10.59 microns. The seasonal averages show a familiar trend (highest backscattering in spring, perhaps due to Asian dust or biomass burning, and lowest backscattering in fall). The 1990 average profile was not significantly different from the 1988 or 1989 profiles, except that it displays a slight increase in the upper troposphere, perhaps due to the Redoubt Volcano. The NOAA's backscatter processing program (BETA) was refined to enable the calculation of gaseous absorption effects based on rawinsonde measurements, as well as using atmospheric models. NOAA participated in two intercomparisons of aerosol measuring instruments near Boulder, called FRLAB (Front Range Lidar, Aircraft, and Balloon Experiment). Considerable effort was also put into developing a multiagency science proposal to NASA headquarters to work with both JPL and NASA-Marshall to produce an airborne Doppler lidar facility for the DC-8.

  13. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  14. Space Weather impact on the degradation of NOAA POES MEPED proton detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Tyssøy, Hilde Nesse; Jakobsen Sandanger, Marit Irene; Stadsnes, Johan; Søraas, Finn

    2016-06-01

    The Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (NOAA POES) is known to degrade with time. In recent years a lot of effort has been put into calibrating the degraded proton detectors. We make use of previous work and show that the degradation of the detectors can be attributed to the radiation dose of each individual instrument. However, the effectiveness of the radiation in degrading the detector is modulated when it is weighted by the mean ap index, increasing the degradation rate in periods with high geomagnetic activity, and decreasing it through periods of low activity. When taking ap and the radiation dose into account, we find that the degradation rate is independent of spacecraft and detector pointing direction. We have developed a model to estimate the correction factor for all the MEPED detectors as a function of accumulated corrected flux and the ap index. We apply the routine to NOAA POES spacecraft starting with NOAA-15, including the European satellites MetOp-02 and MetOp-01, and estimate correction factors.

  15. NOAA Research Vessel Explores Atlantic Ocean Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Mike Ford, a biological oceanographer with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), sat rapt in front of a bank of high-definition monitors. They provided live video and data feeds from a tethered pair of instrument-laden remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) that were descending 4692 meters on their deepest dive ever. Their target: an unnamed and unexplored New England seamount discovered in the North Atlantic last year.

  16. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... spectrum in the 137-138 MHz band with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)...

  17. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... spectrum in the 137-138 MHz band with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)...

  18. Envisioning Improvements in NOAA Environmental Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2012-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces and maintains a huge, heterogeneous and continuously updated collection of environmental data from a diverse suite of observing systems including satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, in situ sensors, and animal tagging. These data are an irreplaceable national resource and must be discoverable, accessible, well-documented, and preserved for future users. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of operations for the desired target architecture. In this paper we describe current work toward these goals. The NOAA Environmental Data Management (EDM) Committee and other collaborators in the agency are developing an EDM Framework that includes over-arching Principles, Governance, Resources, Standards, Architecture, Assessment, and Infrastructure which apply broadly to many classes of data, and individual Data Lifecycles for particular data collections. See Figure 2. This Framework will inform, organize and support NOAA data management activities. NOAA Procedural Directives regarding archiving, data management planning, metadata, and data sharing by grantees are now being implemented; new Directives regarding data access and data citation are being developed. We have begun initial assessments of how data from our primary observing systems are managed. A Dashboard to measure and encourage progress in these areas is being prototyped. We have established an EDM Wiki to share best practices. Finally, participation in standards bodies and collaboration with other agencies and organizations is helping us to maximize compatibility and leverage existing work.Figure 1: Conceptual overview of the desired target state of NOAA data management activities. Not all activities are illustrated. Figure 2: High-level overview of the conceptual framework for environmental data management activities.

  19. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into

  20. Introduction to the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; MacDermaid, C.; Hackathorn, E.; Lynge, J.; Smith, J.; Pierce, R.; Davis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Across the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other government agencies, there exists a wide variety of environmental data and information systems meeting various agency missions. To meet NOAA's mission -- to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts, to share that knowledge and information with others, and to conserve and manage coastal and marine ecosystems and resources -- NOAA's data and systems need to be easily accessible and interoperable. Achieving this would lead to a more efficient organization. A concept conceived at Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) called the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) can provide this functionality. While the concept is visionary, the core requirements of this new system are: 1. Provide access to all information and data for all time scales 2. Provide the information when the user needs it 3. Provide the information in a form the user can interpret 4. Make information available on all platforms NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) is a framework of layered services designed to help NOAA's mission areas by facilitating the discovery, access, integration, and understanding of all NOAA data (past, present, and future). Designed for a world where everything is in motion, NEIS allows fluid data integration and interaction across 4D time and space. This presentation will provide an overview the NEIS concept and prototype, as well as information regarding ongoing and future activities related to this project.

  1. NOAA Plans for Improving Public Access to Science Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2013-12-01

    The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a memorandum on 2013 February 22 calling for federal agencies to enhance public access to research results (PARR), and required agencies to submit, within 6 months of the memo, draft plans explaining how they would implement the requirements. For the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), research results include digital data about the Earth's environment and publications based on those data. Regarding environmental data, NOAA is already very active in ensuring and improving public access. Indeed, National Weather Service (NWS) data was highlighted as one of the good examples in the OSTP memo. More generally, the NOAA National Data Centers, the Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), and scientific and technical personnel across the agency are striving to ensure NOAA data are discoverable and accessible on-line, well-documented and formatted for usability, and preserved for future generations as a national asset. This presentation will describe current and potential activities in support of public access to NOAA and NOAA-funded environmental data. Regarding publications, there is greater uncertainty. The fundamental issue is how to ensure no-cost access (after an embargo period) to publications that typically require subscriptions. That issue must be addressed at the interagency level with the journal publishers. The plan indicates that NOAA will adopt shared mechanisms and agreements to the extent possible rather than building new systems. Some elements remain under discussion; this presentation will be limited to those aspects on which there is general agreement.

  2. Data management in NOAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callicott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The NOAA archives contain 150 terabytes of data in digital form, most of which are the high volume GOES satellite image data. There are 630 data bases containing 2,350 environmental variables. There are 375 million film records and 90 million paper records in addition to the digital data base. The current data accession rate is 10 percent per year and the number of users are increasing at a 10 percent annual rate. NOAA publishes 5,000 publications and distributes over one million copies to almost 41,000 paying customers. Each year, over six million records are key entered from manuscript documents and about 13,000 computer tapes and 40,000 satellite hardcopy images are entered into the archive. Early digital data were stored on punched cards and open reel computer tapes. In the late seventies, an advanced helical scan technology (AMPEX TBM) was implemented. Now, punched cards have disappeared, the TBM system was abandoned, most data stored on open reel tapes have been migrated to 3480 cartridges, many specialized data sets were distributed on CD ROM's, special archives are being copied to 12 inch optical WORM disks, 5 1/4 inch magneto-optical disks were employed for workstation applications, and 8 mm EXABYTE tapes are planned for major data collection programs. The rapid expansion of new data sets, some of which constitute large volumes of data, coupled with the need for vastly improved access mechanisms, portability, and improved longevity are factors which will influence NOAA's future systems approaches for data management.

  3. NOAA GCOM-W1/AMSR2 Oceanic Environmental Products: Phase-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenak, Z.; Alsweiss, S.; Chang, P.; Park, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Passive microwave radiometry is a special application of microwave communications technology for the purpose of collecting Earth's electromagnetic radiation. With the use of radiometers onboard earth orbiting satellites, scientists are able to monitor the Earth's environment and climate system on both short- and long-term temporal scales with near global coverage. The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is part of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) broader commitment toward global and long-term observation of the Earth's environment. GCOM consists of two polar orbiting satellite series, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), with 1-year overlap between them for inter-calibration. AMSR2 onboard GCOM-W1 is a microwave radiometer system that measures dual polarized radiances at 6.9, 7.3, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. It is a sun-synchronous orbiter that acquires microwave radiances by conically scanning the Earth's surface at a nominal earth incidence angle of 55 degrees that results in a wide swath of 1450 km. As a part of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) GCOM-W1 product development and validation project will provide NOAA's users access to critical geophysical products derived from AMSR-2. These products, which are detailed in NOAA's JPSS Level 1 Requirements Document Supplement, include: microwave brightness temperature, total precipitable water, cloud liquid water, precipitation type/rate, sea surface temperature, and Sea Surface Wind Speed. Phase-1 of the AMSR-2 project at NOAA included inter-calibration of AMSR-2 measured brightness temperatures with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager as the reference radiometer. The second phase of the project utilized the calibrated brightness temperatures in a robust Bayesian network to retrieve more accurate geophysical parameters over the ocean surface. It can handle retrievals even with missing channels and

  4. Comparison of 18 months of longwave radiation results from Nimbus-7 and the ERBE NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. D.; Smith, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from ERBE wide-field-of-view (WFOV) and scanning sensor are compared with Nimbus-7 WFOV results. Monthly averaged OLR data from the ERBE WFOV instruments aboard the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 polar orbiting satellites during the 3-year overlap period with Nimbus-7 are deconvolved using spherical harmonics. Results of a comparison of the data sets are presented on regional, zonal, and global scales in the spatial domain and on a monthly scale in the time domain.

  5. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  6. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  7. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  8. 75 FR 30383 - NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT64 NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy; Comment.... SUMMARY: NOAA wishes to ensure its Arctic Vision and Strategy document reaches the broadest possible... increasing global strategic interest. DATES: Comments must be submitted by June 25, 2010. ADDRESSES:...

  9. 75 FR 25843 - Notice of Public Review and Comment Period on NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ACTION... increasing global strategic interest. DATES: Comments must be submitted by June 10, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To view the document, go to http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/ . I. Summary of the...

  10. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center

  11. Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The Suomi NPP spacecraft launched on October 28, 2011 and is currently undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation campaign. Given that public

  12. NOAA's Education Program: Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, John W., Ed.; Feder, Michael A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    There is a national need to educate the public about the ocean, coastal resources, atmosphere and climate. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the agency responsible for understanding and predicting changes in the Earth's environment and conserving and managing coastal and marine resources to meet the nation's…

  13. Science and applications from the next generation of particle and field instruments on the NOAA satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Janet; Onsager, Terrance; Rodriguez, Juan; Singer, Howard

    The vision of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is, "A nation prepared to mitigate the effects of space weather through the understanding and use of actionable alerts, forecasts, and data products." To achieve this vision, NOAA maintains a constellation of satellites equipped with space weather sensors in geosynchronous and low Earth orbits. The data from these sensors drive space weather models and forecasts delivered to customers such as power utilities, airlines, GPS users, and satellite operators through our operational forecast office and website. Here we describe the heritage and new sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-NOP, GOES-R, and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and the relevance of the data for radiation belt studies and modeling. We describe the implementation of a new radiation belt and satellite charging product known as the Space Environmental Anomalies Expert System-Real Time [O'Brien et al., 2009]. Finally, we discuss the anticipated direction for new space weather models and research at SWPC.

  14. Measurements of stratospheric volcanic aerosol optical depth from NOAA TIROS Observational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierangelo, CléMence; ChéDin, Alain; Chazette, Patrick

    2004-02-01

    We show that the infrared optical depth of stratospheric volcanic aerosols produced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 may be retrieved from the observations of the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS-2) on board the polar meteorological satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Evolution of the concentration in time and in space, in particular the migration of the aerosols from the tropics to the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, is found to be consistent with our knowledge of the consequences of this eruption. The method relies on the analysis of the differences between the satellite observations and simulations from an aerosol-free radiative transfer model using collocated radiosonde data as the prime input. Thus aerosol optical depths are retrieved directly without making assumptions about the aerosol size distribution or absorption coefficient. The aerosol optical depths reached a maximum in August 1991 in the tropical zone (0.055 at 8.3 μm, 0.03 at 4.0 μm, and 0.02 at 11.1 μm). The peak occurred in November 1991 in the southern midlatitudes and in March/April 1992 in the northern midlatitudes. A reanalysis of the almost 25 year archive of NOAA TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) observations holds considerable promise for improved knowledge of the atmosphere loading in volcanic aerosols.

  15. 78 FR 68819 - Final NOAA Procedures for Government-to-Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Final Handbook. SUMMARY: In compliance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13175, ``Consultation and Coordination with Indian...

  16. 77 FR 40341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ..., and Information Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service, National Weather... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps AGENCY: National Oceanic and...

  17. NOAA Looks for Advice to Make Its Data Easier to Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-03-01

    "There is no sector in American business that wouldn't like to have better environmental information," said Joseph Klimavicz, chief information officer for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  18. Draft U.S. ocean policy plan precedes proposal to move NOAA to Interior department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The Obama administration's ambitious plan to protect oceans was released on 12 January, just 1 day prior to the administration's apparently unrelated announcement of a proposed governmental reorganization that would move the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from the Department of Commerce to the Department of the Interior. The proposed NOAA move is part of a larger administration proposal to consolidate six federal agencies that are focused on business and trade into one department. The action is contingent upon congressional approval. The proposal to move NOAA to the Interior department has prompted a variety of reactions, with some considering it common sense to group agencies dealing with natural resources in the same department. Others have charged that the proposed move could blunt NOAA's leading role in protecting oceans, among other concerns.

  19. Historical Space Weather Datasets within NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Mabie, J. J.; Horan, K.; Clark, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is primarily responsible for scientific data stewardship of operational space weather data from NOAA's fleet of environmental satellites in geostationary and polar, low-earth orbits. In addition to this and as the former World Data Center for Solar Terrestrial Physics from 1957 to 2011 NGDC acquired a large variety of solar and space environmental data in differing formats including paper records and on film. Management of this heterogeneous collection of environmental data is a continued responsibility of NGDC as a participant in the new World Data System. Through the former NOAA Climate Data Modernization Program many of these records were converted to digital format and are readily available online. However, reduced funding and staff have put a strain on NGDC's ability to effectively steward these historical datasets, some of which are unique and, in particular cases, were the basis of fundamental scientific breakthroughs in our understanding of the near-earth space environment. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the historical space weather datasets which are currently managed by NGDC and discuss strategies for preserving these data during these fiscally stressing times.

  20. NOAA Budget Proposal Calls for a Small Increase, But Several Programs Would Be Sharply Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget of 5.497 billion for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be good news for the agency overall if Congress goes along with the Obama administration's funding plan. The proposal would increase NOAA's discretionary budget by 174.1 million, 3.27% above the FY 2014 enacted budget (see Table ). The White House announced the overall federal budget on 4 March, and the NOAA budget "blue book" with specific funding numbers was issued in mid-March.

  1. Differences in visible and near-IR responses, and derived vegetation indices, for the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRRs: a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the differences in the visible and near-IR responses of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-9 and -10 satellites for coincident sample locations. The study also evaluates the differences in vegetation indices computed from those data. Data were acquired of the southeast portion of the United States for the 6 December 1986 daylight orbits of NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites. The results suggest that, with appropriate gain and offset, the vegetation indices of the two sensor systems may be interchangeable for assessment of land surfaces.

  2. Challenges of transitioning from a faculty to an administrative role: part 3, from solving problems to managing polarities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cesarina M

    2011-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, Jana L. Pressler, PhD, RN, and Carole A. Kenner, PhD, RNC-NIC, FAAN, the editors of this department, address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. In this article, the editors asked guest author, Dr Cesarina Thompson, to discuss the transition process from faculty to administrative role.

  3. Mission description and in-flight operations of ERBE instruments on ERBS, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, William L.; Bush, Kathryn A.; Degnan, Keith T.; Howerton, Clayton E.; Tolson, Carol J.

    1992-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are operating on three different Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is operated by NASA, and NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 weather satellites are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper is the second in a series that describes the ERBE mission, and data processing and validation procedures. This paper describes the spacecraft and instrument operations for the second full year of in-orbit operations, which extend from February 1986 through January 1987. Validation and archival of radiation measurements made by ERBE instruments during this second year of operation were completed in July 1991. This period includes the only time, November 1986 through January 1987, during which all ERBE instruments aboard the ERBE, NOAA 9, and NOAA 10 spacecraft were simultaneously operational. This paper covers normal and special operations of the spacecraft and instruments, operational anomalies, and the responses of the instruments to in-orbit and seasonal variations in the solar environment.

  4. 77 FR 15358 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and..., National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. BILLING CODE 3510-NK-M...

  5. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Design and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnant, F.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). This poster will provide an overview of the NPOESS architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the Earth, atmosphere, and near-Earth space environment. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as to remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up NPOESS that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  6. NOAA Activities and Plans for New Operational Space Weather Platforms and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Mulligan, P.; Cash, M. D.; Reinard, A.; Simpson, M.; Diedrich, B.; Socker, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is vigorously pursuing several space weather platforms that have been demonstrated as requiring replacement. In this time of limited budgets, this has led to the need for creative and innovative solutions. Just as importantly, NOAA is only 13 months away from the launch of its first L1 solar wind monitor, the DSCOVR mission. At the same time, a private company, L'Garde Inc. will be launching a solar sail mission with NOAA as a partner. Recognizing the importance of solar wind monitoring and the need for continuity, the planning process is already underway for the DSCOVR follow-on mission and scenarios for that include commercial data purchases and solar sails. Finally, NOAA planning for an operational coronagraph is moving forward, with continuing development of the Naval Research Laboratory's Compact Coronagraph (CCOR). We will provide details on the current NOAA plans for each of these missions.

  7. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a...

  8. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a...

  9. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a...

  10. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 6: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations NOAA/NESS support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Geostationary and polar orbiting satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were used to operationally provide field hydrologists with basin snowcover percentages for inclusion in runoff models. Data reduction is accomplished thru the use of optical rectification devices and electronic color density slicers. Over two thousand satellite-derived snow maps covering 30 different basins in the western United States were provided to users. Plans for improving snowmapping techniques on computer interactive systems and by all-digital analysis are presented. A description of the newest generation of NOAA polar orbiters, TIROS-N, and its potential for snowmapping is reviewed. Snowcover percentages for all basins determined between November 1974 and July 1978 are presented in tabular format.

  11. Distributed Datamining for NASA/NOAA databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Park, B. H.; Sivakumar, K.; Kargupta, H.; Ma, J.; da, M.

    2002-12-01

    sources: NASA DAO data and NOAA SAA data. The NASA DAO data is a subset of the Data Assimilation Office's (DAO) monthly mean data set. It has global spatial coverage and a temporal coverage ranging from March 1980 to November 1993. The NOAA SAA data is a product of NOAA and US department of defense (DOD) US Polar-orbiting environment satellites (POES). Seventeen features from NASA DAO and eight features from NOAA SAA data was used in our experiments. A Bayesian network (BN) model was first contructed from the two datasets combined. This BN, referred to as the centralized BN, served as the ground truth for comparing the performance of our collective BN learning algorithm. Our preliminary experiments reveal a number of interesting trends. Correlations between specific DAO and NOAA data features are evident. Specific features are consistently observed as root nodes in the BN, suggesting that these features could possibly be the ``cause'' for certain phenomenon. Seasonal trends in the data reflect appropriate seasonal changes in the BN model.

  12. VIIRS ocean color data visualization and processing with IDL-based NOAA-SeaDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-11-01

    The NOAA Sea-viewing Data Analysis System (NOAA-SeaDAS) is an Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based satellite data visualization, analysis, and processing system based on the version 6.4 of the NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-ofview (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) released in 2012. NOAA-SeaDAS inherited all the original functionalities of SeaDAS 6.4 and was upgraded with many new functions and new sensor supports, particularly the support of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP). The main goal of the NOAA-SeaDAS development is primarily in support of NOAA ocean color team's calibration and validation activities. The current version of NOAA-SeaDAS can visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR or Level-1B data) produced by the NOAA Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), ocean color Environmental Data Records (EDR or Level-2 data) produced by the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level- 2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, and Level-3 data binned or mapped from Level-2 data produced by NOAA-MSL12. NOAA-SeaDAS is currently serving an active IDL user group at NOAA and will serve other institutions and universities in the future. The goal is to allow various scientific users to visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS data from Level-1B through Level-2 and Level-3. In addition, NOAA-SeaDAS can also visualize satellite images from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), as well as many other satellite ocean color sensors, e.g., SeaWiFS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), etc. NOAA-SeaDAS is under constant development to create new system functionalities and enhance user experience. With constantly increasing volume in the global ocean color data archive, NOAA-SeaDAS will play an important role in support of global marine environment data analysis and various scientific applications.

  13. Best NOAA budget ever, Knauss says

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's budget request of $1.7 billion for fiscal year 1993 is “the best budget we have presented to date,” said John Knauss, Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce. It is an increase of 7.8% over fiscal 1992. NOAA's proposed budget focuses on four major areas: the modernization of the National Weather Service, improving predictions of global change, understanding coastal ocean processes, and managing marine fisheries.The budget “reflects our conviction that we are working to assure the president's belief in the interconnectedness of the environment and the economy,” particularly in the weather service and fisheries programs, said Knauss, testifying before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies on April 9.

  14. Antenna Automation For NOAA Satellite Images Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, W. L.; Benabadji, N.; Belbachir, A. H.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, precise and efficient software tool (LAAR-TRACK) for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites orbit determination. It's based on using orbital elements, which are given by the NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence) by taking into considerations orbital perturbations due to the atmospheric drag, the influence of the moon and the sun and the geopotential field. The LAAR-TRACK gives the azimuth and the elevation that must have the antenna for pointing in real time the LEO satellites. This software is loaded on a computer directly connected, via the parallel port, to the tracking interface that we have developed, and which will be detailed in this paper. By this way the antenna can be automatically directed for receiving NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) HRPT (High Resolution Picture Transmission) pictures.

  15. Creating a More Inclusive Talent Pool for the GeoSciences in NOAA Mission Fields:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Trotman, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) is recognized as a model federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, (STEM) education investment. The EPP has a premier goal of increasing the numbers of students, especially from underrepresented communities, who are trained and awarded degrees in NOAA mission-relevant STEM fields. This goal is being achieved through awards to support undergraduate and graduate level student scholarships and to enhance NOAA mission-relevant education, research and internships at EPP Cooperative Science Centers located at MSIs. The internships allow undergraduate students to gain technical experience in STEM fields while gaining an understanding of a science mission agency such as NOAA. EPP has built evidence supporting the value of internships with its Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP). Program metrics are used to refine and improve the internship to ensure student success. Scholarships are competitively awarded and requires applicants to submit a personal statement detailing the NOAA-relevant professional experience the applicant seeks to acquire, and gauges the depth of understanding of the work of NOAA.A focus is the EPP USP Student Internship at NOAA, which has two training phases. The first occurs at NOAA HQ in Maryland and incorporates exposure to NOAA professional culture including mentoring and professional development for scholarship recipients. The second occurs at NOAA facilities in the 50 states and US Territories. The internship projects are conducted under the supervision of a NOAA mentor and allow the scholars to: acquire increased science and technology skills: be attached to a research group and participate in a research activity as part of the team; and, acquire practical experience and knowledge of the day-to-day work of the NOAA facility. EPP has recently initiated the Experiential Research and Training

  16. Defense meteorological satellite program capabilities through the end of this century and requirements for the converged DMSP NOAA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, John; Belsma, Leslie; Bohlson, John S.; Glackin, David L.

    1995-12-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites currently in orbit are designated the Block SD-2 series. Characterized by on-board processing and near full redundancy, the Block 5D-2 design provides a stable, highly reliable platform for a sophisticated sensor suite. Under both solar and lunar illumination conditions, the payload instruments provide visual radiances with very high dynamic range, as well as calibrated radiances in the infrared and microwave spectral regimes. Additional space environmental sensors provide in-situ measurements of electrons and ions, energy distribution of charged particles, and changes in the local magnetic field. The DMSP mission sensor digital data is now available from the National Geophysical Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. The future 5D-3 spacecraft, currently in production, will be a larger structure with increased power and weight capability to accommodate a greater payload, including a combined microwave sensor providing imaging and temperature and moisture profiling in one instrument. New space environmental instruments observing in the ultraviolet spectrum will improve specification ofthe ionosphere. On 5 May 1994, the U.S. President directed convergence ofthe Department ofDefense (DOD) DMSP system and the Department of Commerce (DOC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES). The Integrated Program Office (IPO) was formed to implement the merger and develop a single system, the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), to provide data for U.S. civil and defense as well as international needs. Negotiations between NOAA and EUMETSAT are underway for an interim Joint Polar System (JPS). This is proposed to be a two-satellite constellation in which one satellite is POES and one is from EUMETSAT. In the timeframe ofNPOESS, it is anticipated that continued cooperation with EUMETSAT will lead to a three

  17. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: polarization sensitivity and potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) current geostationary imagers for operational weather forecasting, the next generation imager, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), will have six reflective solar bands - five more than currently available. These bands will be used for applications such as aerosol retrievals, which are influenced by polarization effects. These effects are determined by two factors: instrument polarization sensitivity and the polarization states of the observations. The former is measured as part of the pre-launch testing program performed by the instrument vendor. We analyzed the results of the pre-launch polarization sensitivity measurements of the 0.47 μm and 0.64 μm channels and used them in conjunction with simulated scene polarization states to estimate potential on-orbit radiometric impacts. The pre-launch test setups involved illuminating the ABI with an integrating sphere through either one or two polarizers. The measurement with one (rotating) polarizer yields the degree of linear polarization of ABI, and the measurements using two polarizers (one rotating and one fixed) characterized the non-ideal properties of the polarizer. To estimate the radiometric performance impacts from the instrument polarization sensitivity, we simulated polarized scenes using a radiative transfer code and accounted for the instrument polarization sensitivity over its field of regard. The results show the variation in the polarization impacts over the day and by regions of the full disk can reach up to 3.2% for the 0.47μm channel and 4.8% for the 0.64μm channel. Geostationary orbiters like the ABI give the unique opportunity to show these impacts throughout the day compared to low earth orbiters, which are more limited to certain times of day. This work may enhance the ability to diagnose anomalies on-orbit.

  18. A NOAA/NOS Sea Level Advisory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, W.

    2011-12-01

    In order for coastal communities to realize current impacts and become resilient to future changes, sea level advisories/bulletins are necessary that systematically monitor and document non-tidal anomalies (residuals) and flood-watch (elevation) conditions. The need became apparent after an exceptional sea level anomaly along the U.S. East Coast in June - July of 2009 when higher than normal sea levels coincided with a perigean-spring tide and flooded many coastal regions. The event spurred numerous public inquiries to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) from coastal communities concerned because of the lack of any coastal storm signatures normally associated with such an anomaly. A subsequent NOAA report provided insight into some of the mechanisms involved in the event and methods for tracking their reoccurrences. NOAA/CO-OPS is the U.S. authority responsible for defining sea level datums and tracking their relative changes in support of marine navigation and national and state land-use boundaries. These efforts are supported by the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), whose long-term and widespread observations largely define a total water level measurement impacting a coastal community. NWLON time series provide estimates of local relative sea level trends, a product increasingly utilized by various stakeholders planning for the future. NWLON data also capture significant short-term changes and conveyance of high-water variations (from surge to seasonal scale) provides invaluable insight into inundation patterns ultimately needed for a more comprehensive planning guide. A NOAA/CO-OPS Sea Level Advisory Project will enhance high-water monitoring capabilities by: - Automatically detecting sea level anomalies and flood-watch occurrences - Seasonally calibrating the anomaly thresholds to a locality in terms of flood potential - Alerting for near

  19. Noaa's Jpss Program: the Next Generation of Operational Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. The NPP was completed as originally planned and launched on October 28, 2011 and carries the following five sensors: - Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that provides advanced imaging and radiometric capabilities. - Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in clear conditions. - Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in cloudy conditions. - Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) that provides improved vertical and horizontal measurements of the distribution of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere. - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor that continues precise, calibrated global measurements of the earth's radiation budget JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the CRIS and the ATMS are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the VIIRS are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, hydrology, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long

  20. 77 FR 13562 - Request for Comments on the 5-Year Review of NOAA's Policy on Partnerships in the Provision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... on Partnerships in the Provision of Environmental Information AGENCY: National Weather Service (NWS... request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric... National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is undertaking...

  1. NOAA Operational Tsunameter Support for Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R.; Stroker, K.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) completed the deployment of the last of the 39-station network of deep-sea tsunameters. As part of NOAA's effort to strengthen tsunami warning capabilities, NDBC expanded the network from 6 to 39 stations and upgraded all stations to the second generation Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis technology (DART II). Consisting of a bottom pressure recorder (BPR) and a surface buoy, the tsunameters deliver water-column heights, estimated from pressure measurements at the sea floor, to Tsunami Warning Centers in less than 3 minutes. This network provides coastal communities in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico with faster and more accurate tsunami warnings. In addition, both the coarse resolution real-time data and the high resolution (15-second) recorded data provide invaluable contributions to research, such as the detection of the 2004 Sumatran tsunami in the Northeast Pacific (Gower and González, 2006) and the experimental tsunami forecast system (Bernard et al., 2007). NDBC normally recovers the BPRs every 24 months and sends the recovered high resolution data to NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) for archive and distribution. NGDC edits and processes this raw binary format to obtain research-quality data. NGDC provides access to retrospective BPR data from 1986 to the present. The DART database includes pressure and temperature data from the ocean floor, stored in a relational database, enabling data integration with the global tsunami and significant earthquake databases. All data are accessible via the Web as tables, reports, interactive maps, OGC Web Map Services (WMS), and Web Feature Services (WFS) to researchers around the world. References: Gower, J. and F. González, 2006. U.S. Warning System Detected the Sumatra Tsunami, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(10). Bernard, E. N., C. Meinig, and A. Hilton, 2007. Deep Ocean

  2. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moorhead, Jerry; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Hobbins, Michael; Senay, Gabriel; Paul, George; Marek, Thomas; Porter, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which is essential for regional scale water resources management. Data used in the development of NOAA daily ETref maps are derived from observations over surfaces that are different from short (grass — ETos) or tall (alfalfa — ETrs) reference crops, often in nonagricultural settings, which carries an unknown discrepancy between assumed and actual conditions. In this study, NOAA daily ETos and ETrs maps were evaluated for accuracy, using observed data from the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network. Daily ETos, ETrs and the climatic data (air temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) used for calculating ETref were extracted from the NOAA maps for TXHPET locations and compared against ground measurements on reference grass surfaces. NOAA ETrefmaps generally overestimated the TXHPET observations (1.4 and 2.2 mm/day ETos and ETrs, respectively), which may be attributed to errors in the NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed, to which reference ETref is most sensitive. Therefore, a bias correction to NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed data, or adjustment to the resulting NOAA ETref, may be needed to improve the accuracy of NOAA ETref maps.

  3. 77 FR 69436 - JPSS Polar Satellite-Gap Mitigation-Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Comment AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: NOAA has long been concerned about the potential for a gap... the Government Accountability Office on this topic, NOAA has also convened an Independent Review...

  4. Chromospheric Mass Motions and Intrinsic Sunspot Rotations for NOAA Active Regions 10484, 10486, and 10488 Using ISOON Data (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-10

    understand the broader magnetic field context in each active region through the time of the data set. 3 . RESULTS 3.1. NOAA AR 10484 NOAA AR 10484...negative and positive magnetic field areas, respectively, prior to October 27, and the leveling off of the magnetic field areas early on October 28... Magnetic field areas of both polarities remain constant through the rest of the data set with the negative magnetic field area ∼1.3 times larger than the

  5. 15 CFR 922.50 - Appeals of administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management, NOAA 1305 East-West Highway, 13th Floor, Silver... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND...

  6. 15 CFR 922.50 - Appeals of administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management, NOAA 1305 East-West Highway, 13th Floor, Silver... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND...

  7. 15 CFR 922.50 - Appeals of administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management, NOAA 1305 East-West Highway, 13th Floor, Silver... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND...

  8. 15 CFR 922.50 - Appeals of administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Zone Management, NOAA 1305 East-West Highway, 13th Floor, Silver... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND...

  9. 77 FR 33443 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Assessment Methods for Data-Moderate Stocks will be held at the National Marine Fisheries Service's...

  10. NOAA's hydrolab conducts reef studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This summer, scuba-diving scientists operating from Hydrolab, NOAA's undersea laboratory, are carrying out four experiments aimed at producing better management of coral reefs and their fishery resources. Hydrolab is located at a depth of 50 feet, near the mouth of the Salt River, off St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The lab houses four scientists for up to 2 weeks at a time, permitting them to swim out into the water to conduct research. The projects make use of both the natural coral reef near Hydrolab and the nearby artificial reef constructed for comparison studies.

  11. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.

  12. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  13. Rescuing NOAA's Earliest Airphoto Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F. C.; Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.; Hendy, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    In 2004 NGDC had rediscovered a previously lost collection of airphotos produced by Coast and Geodetic Survey (later NOAA-NOS National Geodetic Survey) dated from late 1920s to 1960s. The collection focuses on U.S. coastline and the primary goal of these photos was to provide reference for coastal map construction. There are approximately 200,000 frames of film and print taken by multiple instruments. The majority of the photographs were taken by multilens cameras which captures nadir and oblique imageries to cover a larger area hence reduce the number of flightlines required. This huge collection not only shows the change of U.S coast over decades but also gracefully demonstrates how the technique of photogrammetry evolved. It is regarded as the premier record of land cover and coastal features for the era prior to the advent of satellite remote sensing. The collection was stored for many years at the Federal Records Center in Takoma Park, Maryland. After aging past the retention date, the FRC was ready to dispose the collection. NGDC volunteered to pay for the shipping and the collection was transferred to NGDC in 2004. In 2009-11 approximately 10% of the collection was digitally scanned by NOAA's Climate Data Modernization Program. NGDC has organized the scanned photos based on flight lines and has built a web access system. The unscanned portion of the collection is in storage with the Federal Record Center in Denver, Colorado.

  14. The NOAA/NESDIS Operational Microwave Integrated Retrieval System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is a state-of-the-art retrieval system developed to support POES, MetOp, DMSP, NPP/NPOESS programs at NOAA/NESDIS in generating operational temperature, water vapor, surface and hydrological parameters from microwave sensors. It is based on an assimilation-type scheme and capable of optimally retrieving atmospheric and surface state parameters in all weather and over all-surface conditions. The MIRS is being implemented at NESDIS to build a one-stop shop for operational microwave products from various satellites with different instrumental configurations. With its capability of providing optimal and physically-based retrievals of atmospheric and surface state parameters, the operational MIRS provides advanced near-real-time surface and precipitation products in all-weather and over all-surface conditions. These products are retrieved with brightness temperature measurements from microwave instruments, including AMSU-A and AMSU-B/MHS instruments onboard NOAA and EUMETSAT polar orbiting satellites, SSMIS on DMSP polar satellites and are operationally available to both real-time users and climate users through the NESDIS Environment Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) Data Distribution Sever (DDS) and Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In this presentation, we will discuss the operational MIRS system, its products and their application in supporting NESDIS precipitation operation.

  15. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  16. 78 FR 26617 - National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC661 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Online Webinar AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  17. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its

  18. NOAA's Honua: Visualizations of Complex Environmental Information in Formal and Informal Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. A.; Stovall, W. K.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center supports a data visualization program, called NOAA's Honua, for the presentation of geophysical processes and environmental data in both formal and informal education settings using 3-D technology. Many display systems are available for the virtual representation of global environmental data, including Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and ESRI's ArcGIS Explorer. All present global data on virtual 3-D platforms using industry standard vector and raster data sources. Other products project earth system data on 3-D spherical platforms: NOAA's Science on a Sphere, Global Imagination's Magic Planet, and the OmniGlobe spherical display system. The NOAA Pacific Services Center provides resources for formal education in the form of lesson plans that cover ocean, climate, and hazards science. Components of NOAA's Honua also utilize spherical display systems for public outreach in a variety of venues, including conferences, community events, and science learning centers. In these settings, NOAA's Honua combines written narratives and accompanying audio in an interactive kiosk. Web-based 3-D interactive components are available and complement both the formal and informal education components. The strength of this program is that complex geophysical processes are presented in intuitive and compelling formats that are readily accessible via the Internet and can be viewed at science centers and museums.

  19. NOAA draft scientific integrity policy: Comment period open through 20 August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is aiming to finalize its draft scientific integrity policy possibly by the end of the year, Larry Robinson, NOAA assistant secretary for conservation and management, indicated during a 28 July teleconference. The policy “is key to fostering an environment where science is encouraged, nurtured, respected, rewarded, and protected,” Robinson said, adding that the agency's comment period for the draft policy, which was released on 16 June, ends on 20 August. “Science underpins all that NOAA does. This policy is one piece of a broader effort to strengthen NOAA science,” Robinson said, noting that the draft “represents the first ever scientific integrity policy for NOAA. Previously, our policy only addressed research misconduct and focused on external grants. What's new about this policy is that it establishes NOAA's principles for scientific integrity, a scientific code of conduct, and a code of ethics for science supervision and management.”

  20. NOAA's Data Catalog and the Federal Open Data Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengren, M. J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Open Data Policy Presidential Directive requires Federal agencies to create and maintain a 'public data listing' that includes all agency data that is currently or will be made publicly-available in the future. The directive requires the use of machine-readable and open formats that make use of 'common core' and extensible metadata formats according to the best practices published in an online repository called 'Project Open Data', to use open licenses where possible, and to adhere to existing metadata and other technology standards to promote interoperability. In order to meet the requirements of the Open Data Policy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has implemented an online data catalog that combines metadata from all subsidiary NOAA metadata catalogs into a single master inventory. The NOAA Data Catalog is available to the public for search and discovery, providing access to the NOAA master data inventory through multiple means, including web-based text search, OGC CS-W endpoint, as well as a native Application Programming Interface (API) for programmatic query. It generates on a daily basis the Project Open Data JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file required for compliance with the Presidential directive. The Data Catalog is based on the open source Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN) software and runs on the Amazon Federal GeoCloud. This presentation will cover topics including mappings of existing metadata in standard formats (FGDC-CSDGM and ISO 19115 XML ) to the Project Open Data JSON metadata schema, representation of metadata elements within the catalog, and compatible metadata sources used to feed the catalog to include Web Accessible Folder (WAF), Catalog Services for the Web (CS-W), and Esri ArcGIS.com. It will also discuss related open source technologies that can be used together to build a spatial data infrastructure compliant with the Open Data Policy.

  1. REPETITIVE DIGITAL NOAA-AVHRR DATA FOR ALASKAN ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, William M.; Pawlowski, Robert J.; Fleming, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Selected digitally enhanced NOAA - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images taken by the NOAA 6, 7, 8 and 9 Polar Orbiting Satellites demonstrate the capability and application of repetitive low-resolution satellite data to Alaska's engineering and science community. Selected cloud-free visible and thermal infrared images are enhanced to depict distinct oceanographic and geologic processes along Alaska's west coast and adjacent seas. Included are the advance of the Bering Sea ice field, transport of Yukon River sediment into Norton Sound, and monitoring of plume trajectories from the Mount Augustine volcanic eruptions. Presented illustrations are representative of the 94 scenes in a cooperative USGS EROS/NOAA Alaskan AVHRR Digital Archive. This paper will discuss the cooperative efforts in establishing the first year data set and identifying Alaskan applications.

  2. Mission description and in-flight operations of ERBE instruments on ERBS and NOAA 10 spacecraft, February 1987 - February 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Kathryn A.; Degnan, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    Instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are operating on three different Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the NOAA 9 and NOAA 10 weather satellites are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This paper is the third in a series that describes the ERBE mission in-orbit environments, instrument design and operational features, and data processing and validation procedures. This paper describes the in-flight operations for the ERBE instruments aboard the ERBS and NOAA 10 spacecraft for the period from February 1987 through February 1990. Validation and archival of radiation measurements made by ERBE instruments during this period were completed in May 1992. This paper covers normal and special operations of the spacecraft and instruments, operational anomalies, and the responses of the instruments to in-orbit and seasonal variations in the solar environment.

  3. Accuracy assessment of NOAA's daily reference evapotranspiration maps for the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference ET for the continental U.S. using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large scale spatial representation for reference ET, which is essential for regional scal...

  4. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which i...

  5. 78 FR 16254 - (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... and Technology (CIOERT); (3) NOAA Response to the SAB Report on Assessing Data from non-NOAA Sources; (4) NOAA Response to the SAB White Paper; On ] the Need for a NOAA Environmental Data Management... programs are of the highest quality and provide optimal support to resource management. Time and Date:...

  6. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC...

  7. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC...

  8. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC...

  9. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC...

  10. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC...

  11. New Developments in NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Morris, J. S.; Carter, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) is part of the NOAA strategic goal of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation that gives focus to the building and sustaining of key observational assets and data archives critical to maintaining the global climate record. Since 2002, CLASS has been NOAA's enterprise solution for ingesting, storing and providing access to a host of near real-time remote sensing streams such as the Polar and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (POES and GOES) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since October, 2011 CLASS has also been the dedicated Archive Data Segment (ADS) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). As the ADS, CLASS receives raw and processed S-NPP records for archival and distribution to the broad user community. Moving beyond just remote sensing and model data, NOAA has endorsed a plan to migrate all archive holdings from NOAA's National Data Centers into CLASS while retiring various disparate legacy data storage systems residing at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). In parallel to this data migration, CLASS is evolving to a service-oriented architecture utilizing cloud technologies for dissemination in addition to clearly defined interfaces that allow better collaboration with partners. This evolution will require implementation of standard access protocols and metadata which will lead to cost effective data and information preservation.

  12. NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, Forecast Office

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Forecast Office of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of alerts, warnings, and watches. The office, staffed 24/7, is always vigilant for solar activity that ...

  13. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  14. DOI, USDA, EPA, NOAA and USACE announce additional Resilient Lands and Waters Initiative sites to prepare natural resources for climate change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of the Interior (DOI), Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) today recognized three n

  15. Calibration and Validation of the 36-year NOAA/AVHRR Imager Visible Channel Data record in support of the NOAA Climate Data Records program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, A.; Doelling, D.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.; Bedka, K. M.; Minnis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA/AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) series of polar-orbiting earth-imagers have been flying since 1978 to the present and provide an opportunity to derive a long-term consistent set of well calibrated visible channel radiances for cloud, aerosol, and land use retrievals. This will allow climate modelers to investigate climate natural variability, intra-seasonal oscillations such as the ENSO, and feedback mechanisms over a 36-year record. Large climate perturbations, such as the 1982 and 1998 El Ninos as well as the 1982 El Chichon and 1992 Mt Pinatubo volcanic eruptions, have not been observed since 2000. The vicarious calibration method relies on temporally well characterized multiple pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) referenced to the Aqua-MODIS calibration. The PICS are characterized by NOAA-16 TOA reflectances, over the full range of observed solar zenith angles of a NOAA degrading orbit culminating in a terminator orbit. The NOAA-16 reflectances are first calibrated against Aqua-MODIS using the simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) method. Site characterization with NOAA-16 has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with spectral band adjustments, since the AVHRR sensor spectral responses are similar. Consistent calibration between the individual desert, polar ice and deep convective cloud PICS approaches validates the methodology. The individual calibration gains are combined to provide the final merged calibration by weighting them by the inverse of their temporal variance. By combining by site stability ensures that site anomalous reflectance drifts do not adversely impact the calibration. Also the merged gain has a lower temporal variability than any individual PICS. In this study we describe the methodology used to derive a new set of calibration coefficients for Channel-1 0.65 (um) and Channel-2 (0.86 um) of the NOAA/AVHRR series of Polar-Orbiting imagers beginning in 1978. We will demonstrate the consistency of

  16. Joint Polar Satellite System Common Ground System Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, previously known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both segments are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The C3S currently flies the Suomi National Polar Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite and transfers mission data from Suomi NPP and between the ground facilities. The IDPS processes Suomi NPP satellite data to provide Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. When the JPSS-1 satellite is launched in early 2017, the responsibilities of the C3S and the IDPS will be expanded to support both Suomi NPP and JPSS-1. The JPSS CGS currently provides data processing for Suomi NPP, generating multiple terabytes per day across over two dozen environmental data products; that workload will be multiplied by two when the JPSS-1 satellite is

  17. NOAA-NASA Coastal Zone Color Scanner reanalysis effort.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Watson W; Conkright, Margarita E; O'Reilly, John E; Patt, Frederick S; Wang, Menghua H; Yoder, James A; Casey, Nancy W

    2002-03-20

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span more than two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) CZCS reanalysis (NCR) effort. NCR consisted of (1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved with modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms and (2) blending where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  18. Improvements and Extensions for Joint Polar Satellite System Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Feeley, J. H.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the old POES system managed by the NOAA. JPSS satellites will carry sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the JPSS is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3), data processing and product delivery. CGS's data processing capability processes the data from the JPSS satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for S-NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the JPSS program. The EDRs for S-NPP are currently undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. Changes identified by the Cal/Val campaign are coming available for implementation into the operational system in support of both S-NPP and JPSS-1 (scheduled for launch in 2017). Some of these changes will be available in time to update the S-NPP algorithm baseline, while others will become operational just prior to JPSS-1 launch. In addition, new capabilities, such as higher spectral and spatial resolution, will be exercised on JPSS-1. This paper will describe changes to current algorithms and products as a result of the Cal/Val campaign and related initiatives for improved capabilities. Improvements include Cross Track Infrared Sounder high spectral

  19. NOAA tools to support CSC and LCC regional climate science priorities in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. P.; Marcy, D.; Robbins, K.; Shafer, M.; Stiller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an active regional partner with the Department of Interior (DOI) in supplying and supporting the delivery of climate science and services. A primary mechanism for NOAA-DOI coordination at the regional scale is the Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network, which is supported in part by DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). Together, the CSCs and LCCs provide a framework to identify landscape-scale science and services priorities for conservation and management. As a key partner of the CSCs and an active member of many LCCs, NOAA is working to ensure its own regional product and service delivery efforts will help address these conservation and management challenges. Two examples of NOAA's regional efforts are highlighted here, with a focus on the coastal and interior geographies of the western Gulf of Mexico where NOAA partners with the South Central CSC and participates as a member of the Gulf Coast Prairie LCC. Along the Texas coastline, a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer, produced by NOAA's Coastal Services Center and available via its Digital Coast interface, allows constituents to visualize estimates of sea level rise, measures of uncertainty, flood frequencies, and environmental (e.g., marsh migration) and socioeconomic (e.g., tidal flooding of built environments) impacts. In the interior of Texas and Louisiana, NOAA's Southern Regional Climate Center is leading a consortium of partners in the development of a unified source of regional water reservoir information, including current conditions, a historical database, and web-based visualization tools to illustrate spatio-temporal variations in water availability to a broad array of hydrological, agricultural, and other customers. These two examples of NOAA products can, in their existing forms, support regional conservation and management priorities for CSCs and LCCs by informing vulnerability assessments and adaptation

  20. NOAA-USGS Debris-Flow Warning System - Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows cause loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage annually in the United States (National Research Council, 2004). In an effort to reduce loss of life by debris flows, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated an experimental debris-flow prediction and warning system in the San Francisco Bay area from 1986 to 1995 that relied on forecasts and measurements of precipitation linked to empirical precipitation thresholds to predict the onset of rainfall-triggered debris flows. Since 1995, there have been substantial improvements in quantifying precipitation estimates and forecasts, development of better models for delineating landslide hazards, and advancements in geographic information technology that allow stronger spatial and temporal linkage between precipitation forecasts and hazard models. Unfortunately, there have also been several debris flows that have caused loss of life and property across the United States. Establishment of debris-flow warning systems in areas where linkages between rainfall amounts and debris-flow occurrence have been identified can help mitigate the hazards posed by these types of landslides. Development of a national warning system can help support the NOAA-USGS goal of issuing timely Warnings of potential debris flows to the affected populace and civil authorities on a broader scale. This document presents the findings and recommendations of a joint NOAA-USGS Task Force that assessed the current state-of-the-art in precipitation forecasting and debris-flow hazard-assessment techniques. This report includes an assessment of the science and resources needed to establish a demonstration debris-flow warning project in recently burned areas of southern California and the necessary scientific advancements and resources associated with expanding such a warning system to unburned areas and, possibly, to a

  1. Polarized cells, polar actions.

    PubMed

    Maddock, J R; Alley, M R; Shapiro, L

    1993-11-01

    The recognition of polar bacterial organization is just emerging. The examples of polar localization given here are from a variety of bacterial species and concern a disparate array of cellular functions. A number of well-characterized instances of polar localization of bacterial proteins, including the chemoreceptor complex in both C. crescentus and E. coli, the maltose-binding protein in E. coli, the B. japonicum surface attachment proteins, and the actin tail of L. monocytogenes within a mammalian cell, involve proteins or protein complexes that facilitate bacterial interaction with the environment, either the extracellular milieux or that within a plant or mammalian host. The significance of this observation remains unclear. Polarity in bacteria poses many problems, including the necessity for a mechanism for asymmetrically distributing proteins as well as a mechanism by which polar localization is maintained. Large structures, such as a flagellum, are anchored at the pole by means of the basal body that traverses the peptidoglycan wall. But for proteins and small complexes, whether in the periplasm or the membrane, one must invoke a mechanism that prevents the diffusion of these proteins away from the cell pole. Perhaps the periplasmic proteins are retained at the pole by the presence of the periseptal annulus (35). The constraining features for membrane components are not known. For large aggregates, such as the clusters of MCP, CheA, and CheW complexes, perhaps the size of the aggregate alone prevents displacement. In most cases of cellular asymmetry, bacteria are able to discriminate between the new pole and the old pole and to utilize this information for localization specificity. The maturation of new pole to old pole appears to be a common theme as well. Given numerous examples reported thus far, we propose that bacterial polarity displays specific rules and is a more general phenomenon than has been previously recognized.

  2. NOAA GOES Satellite Sees March 12/13 Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES satellite data shows the progression of the major winter storm over the U.S. Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. on March 12 and 13.Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project, Denn...

  3. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of...

  4. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of...

  5. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of...

  6. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of...

  7. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of...

  8. Polarization measurement through combination polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yunfeng; Li, Linjun; He, Zhelong; Liu, Yanwei; Ma, Cheng; Shi, Guang; Liu, Lu

    2014-02-01

    Polarization measurement approaches only using polarizer and grating is present. The combination polarizers consists of two polarizers: one is γ degree with the X axis; the other is along the Y axis. Binary grating is covered by the combination polarizers, and based on Fraunhofer diffraction, the diffraction intensity formula is deduced. The polarization state of incident light can be gotten by fitting the diffraction pattern with the deduced formula. Compared with the traditional polarization measurement method, this measurement only uses polarizer and grating, therefore, it can be applied to measure a wide wavelength range without replacing device in theory.

  9. A very strong magnetic field region in NOAA 11035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggli, Sarah Amelia

    2015-04-01

    NOAA 11035 was a fairly typical active region that emerged near the central meridian 13-14 December 2009, early in solar cycle 24. During the active region’s rapid emergence and evolution, a deeply-rooted magnetic bipole emerged into the pre-existing leading polarity with spectacular consequences. Multi-wavelength imaging and spectropolarimetry from FIRS, IBIS, Hinode, TRACE, and SOHO allow for a comprehensive investigation of the physical processes present in this region. Intrusion of the opposite polarity into the leading sunspot’s penumbra resulted in a region of highly concentrated horizontal magnetic field, with a peak field strength larger than 3600 G based on Milne-Eddington inversion of Fe I spectropolarimetry at 6302 and 15650 Å. Photospheric velocity measurements show blueshifts of 4 km/sec along the neutral line, which are coincident with a dark chromospheric structure in He I 10830 and H I 6563 Å. We conclude that these signatures are the result of continuous magnetic reconnection near photospheric heights.

  10. Amphetamine concentrations in human urine following single-dose administration of the calcium antagonist prenylamine-studies using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Thomas; Roditis, Susanne K; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-03-01

    Prenylamine (R,S-N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl-methyl-2-phenethylamine), a World Health Organization class V calcium antagonist, is known to be metabolized to amphetamine. In this study, amphetamine concentrations after a single-dose administration of prenylamine were determined to check if they reached values that could be of analytical and/or pharmacological importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. Enantiomeric composition of amphetamine was also studied. Five volunteers received a single 120-mg oral dose of prenylamine. Urine samples were analyzed using the Abbott TDx immunoassay Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II and using our routine systematic toxicological analysis (STA) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure. For quantitation purposes, GC-MS was used in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode (ions m/z 118, 122, 240, 244) after solid-phase extraction (Isolute Confirm HCX) and derivatization (heptafluorobutyric anhydride). Amphetamine-d5 was used as internal standard (IS). Chiral separation of the heptafluorobutyrated amphetamine enantiomers was achieved using an Astec Chiraldex G-PN column. The TDx results showed a great variability for the different volunteers. A urine sample of one volunteer showed results as high as 3200 ng/mL, whereas the urine samples of another volunteer never gave results greater than the TDx detection limit (100 ng/mL). Using the STA procedure, the presence of amphetamine could be confirmed in all urine samples with TDx results greater than the cutoff value (300 ng/mL). Using the GC-MS SIM method, amphetamine concentrations up to 1280 ng/mL were determined. Chiral analysis revealed that both enantiomers of amphetamine were present in the samples with a surplus of the S(+)-enantiomer in the early phase of excretion. Forensic implications are discussed.

  11. Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

  12. Educator House Call: On-Line Data for Educators' Needs Assessment--Summary Report. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-149

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtevant, Rochelle A.; Marshall, Ann

    2009-01-01

    On July 15, 2009, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) co-hosted a focus group--Educator House Calls: On-Line Data for Educators. The focus group was conducted at GLERL's main laboratory in Ann Arbor. The workshop was organized and funded by COSEE Great Lakes with student…

  13. NOAA Inter-Agency Networking for Open Data and Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) generates tens of terabytes of data per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. With rare exceptions, all of these data should be made publicly accessible in a usable fashion. NOAA has long been both an advocate and a practitioner of open data, and has observations going back 150 years in its archives. The NOAA data management community therefore welcomed the White House mandates on Open Data and Open Research, and has striven to improve standardization internally and in collaboration with other organizations. This paper will summarize the state of inter-agency networking by NOAA, and will discuss future perspectives, in particular the need to achieve a state where the appropriate technology choices for particular classes of geospatial data are obvious and beyond discussion, and where data sharing and metadata creation are built into agency workflows for project planning, approval, and execution, so that instead of writing and enforcing mandates we can focus on actually using data from multiple sources to improve understanding and decision-making.

  14. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Architecture Overview and Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions. Originally designed to support S-NPP and JPSS, the CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate all of these other important missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture will be upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" S-NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support; taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies; and satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This

  15. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  16. Faster from the Depths to Decision: Collecting, Distributing, and Applying Data from NOAA`s Deep-Sea Tsunameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Wang, D.; Branski, F.

    2008-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates two tsunami warning centers (TWCs): the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC) and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). ATWC provides tsunami alerts to Canadian coastal regions, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the coasts of continental US and Alaska. PTWC provides local/regional tsunami alerts/advisories to the state of Hawaii. An operational center of the Tsunami Warning System of the Pacific, it provides tsunami alerts to most countries of the Pacific Rim. PTWC also provides tsunami alerts for the Caribbean and Indian Ocean countries on an interim basis. The TWCs aim to issue first tsunami bulletins within 10-15 minutes of the earthquake for tele-tsunamis and within a few minutes for local tsunamis. The TWCs have a requirement for offshore tsunami detection in real-time with a data latency of 1 minute or less. Offshore detection of tsunamis is the purpose of NOAA`s recently completed 39-station array of deep-sea tsunameters. The tsunameters, employing the second-generation DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) technology, can speed tsunami detection information to the TWCs in less than 3 minutes from depths of 6000 meters in the Pacific and Western Atlantic oceans. The tsunameters consist of a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) and a surface buoy. Communication from the BPR to the buoy is via underwater acoustic transmissions. Satellite communications carry the data from the buoy to NOAA`s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), which operates the tsunameters. The BPRs make pressure measurements, converts them to an equivalent water-column height, and passes them through a tsunami detection algorithm. If the algorithm detects a sufficient change in the height, the tsunameter goes into a rapid reporting mode or Event Mode. The acoustic modem-satellite telecommunications path takes approximately 50 seconds to reach the NDBC server. In a few seconds, NDBC reformats the data and

  17. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  18. NOAA Climate Users Engagement Using Training Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Jones, J.; Pulwarty, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Training Program was initiated in 2001. The training original target audience was NOAA NWS regional and local climate services workforce. As a result of eight-year-long development of the training program, NWS offers two training courses and about 25 online distance learning modules covering various climate topics: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, NWS national and local climate products, their tools, skill, and interpretation. Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows delivery of the most relevant, advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. In 2009 the training program launched a pilot project that expanded the training opportunities for specific user groups. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) requested a training course with emphasis on Climate, Drought and Remote Sensing for their water resources managers, hydrologists, and engineering staff. The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) co-sponsored the project. Developing the course NOAA, NIDIS, and DWR staff worked together testing different approaches in order to identify the most appropriate balance between gaps in the target audience climate knowledge and technical level needed for the information communication and delivery. The two-day course was offered in June 2009 for 35 trainees with classroom recording for further dissemination of the training materials in form of online audio-visual presentations (webcasts). The training event brought together NOAA staff and partners from U.S. Geological Survey, the Western Regional Climate Center, NASA, academia, and DWR staff and provided a valuable opportunity for curriculum development and expertise exchange. The course final discussion engaged participants in process of identifying additional climate products and services needed for regional and sector specific

  19. Toward consistent radiometric calibration of the NOAA AVHRR visible and near-infrared data record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Doelling, David R.; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Gopalan, Arun; Haney, Conor O.

    2015-09-01

    The 35-year Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite-instrument data record is critical for studying decadal climate change, provided that the AVHRR sensors are consistently calibrated. Owing to the lack of onboard calibration capability, the AVHRR data need to be adjusted using vicarious approaches. One of the greatest challenges hampering these vicarious calibration techniques, however, is the degrading orbits of the NOAA satellites that house the instruments, or, more specifically, the fact that the satellites eventually drift into a terminator orbit several years after launch. This paper presents a uniform sensor calibration approach for the AVHRR visible (VIS) and nearinfrared (NIR) records using specifically designed NOAA-16 AVHRR-based, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) calibration models that take into account orbit degradation. These models are based on multiple invariant Earth targets, including Saharan deserts, polar ice scenes, and tropical deep-convective clouds. All invariant targets are referenced to the Aqua- MODIS Collection-6 calibration via transfer of the Aqua-MODIS calibration to NOAA-16 AVHRR using simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) comparisons over the North Pole. A spectral band adjustment factor, based on SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) spectral radiances, is used to account for the spectrally-induced biases caused by the spectral response function (SRF) differences of the AVHRR and MODIS sensors. Validation of the AVHRR Earth target calibration is performed by comparisons with contemporary MODIS SNOs. Calibration consistency between Earth targets validates the historical AVHRR record.

  20. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Improving NOAA's Tides and Currents Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, DeNeice C.

    2006-01-01

    The Nation uses water-level data for a variety of practical purposes, including hydrography, nautical charting, maritime navigation, coastal engineering, and tsunami and storm surge warnings (NOAA, 2002; Digby et al., 1999). Long-term applications include marine boundary determinations, tidal predictions, sea-level trend monitoring, oceanographic research, and climate research. Accurate and timely information concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean current is needed to understand their impact on coastal management, disaster management, and public health. Satellite altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and to improve scientists understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) National Ocean Service has been monitoring sea-level variations for many years (NOAA, 2006). NOAA s Tides & Currents DST (decision support tool, managed by the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, is the portal to a vast collection of oceanographic and meteorological data (historical and real-time), predictions, and nowcasts and forecasts. This report assesses the capacity of NASA s satellite altimeter data to meet societal decision support needs through incorporation into NOAA s Tides & Currents.

  1. BOREAS AFM-6 NOAA/ETL 35 GHz Cloud/Turbulence Radar GIF Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martner, Brooks E.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 35-GHz cloud-sensing radar in the Northern Study Area (NSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 16 Jul 1994 to 08 Aug 1994. This data set contains a time series of GIF images that show the structure of the lower atmosphere. The NOAA/ETL 35-GHz cloud/turbulence radar GIF images are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Optical Passive Sensor Calibration for Satellite Remote Sensing and the Legacy of NOAA and NIST Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Datla, Raju; Weinreb, Michael; Rice, Joseph; Johnson, B. Carol; Shirley, Eric; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the cooperative efforts of scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to improve the calibration of operational satellite sensors for remote sensing of the Earth’s land, atmosphere and oceans. It gives a chronological perspective of the NOAA satellite program and the interactions between the two agencies’ scientists to address pre-launch calibration and issues of sensor performance on orbit. The drive to improve accuracy of measurements has had a new impetus in recent years because of the need for improved weather prediction and climate monitoring. The highlights of this cooperation and strategies to achieve SI-traceability and improve accuracy for optical satellite sensor data are summarized1. PMID:26601030

  3. Optical Passive Sensor Calibration for Satellite Remote Sensing and the Legacy of NOAA and NIST Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Datla, Raju; Weinreb, Michael; Rice, Joseph; Johnson, B Carol; Shirley, Eric; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the cooperative efforts of scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to improve the calibration of operational satellite sensors for remote sensing of the Earth's land, atmosphere and oceans. It gives a chronological perspective of the NOAA satellite program and the interactions between the two agencies' scientists to address pre-launch calibration and issues of sensor performance on orbit. The drive to improve accuracy of measurements has had a new impetus in recent years because of the need for improved weather prediction and climate monitoring. The highlights of this cooperation and strategies to achieve SI-traceability and improve accuracy for optical satellite sensor data are summarized.

  4. Improvements in NOAA's Operational Tsunameter Network since December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R.; Kohler, C.; McArthur, S.; Burnett, W. H.; Wells, W. I.; Luke, R.

    2009-12-01

    In December 2004 during the devastating Sumatran Tsunami, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) had five tsunameter stations established in the North Pacific Ocean and one in the South Pacific Ocean operated and maintained by NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). The original six tsunameters employed the technology of the first generation Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART I) developed by NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) and successfully transitioned to NDBC in 2003. The technology consists of a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) that makes pressure measurements near the sea-floor and a surface buoy. It takes less than three minutes for data to get from the BPR, which can reside to depths of 6000 m, to users. The BPR contains a tsunami detection algorithm that will place the BPR in rapid reporting mode(also know as Event Mode). The two most profound improvements to the network were its expansion to 39 stations and the transition and upgrade to the second generation DART II systems. In the aftermath of the Sumatran Tsunami, NOAA expanded the network to 39 stations to bolster the US tsunami warning system by providing coastal communities in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico with faster and more accurate tsunami warnings. Cooperating NOAA offices selected the sites in consultation with the US Geological Survey and other interested parties. Since their initial establishment, NDBC has relocated some stations to improve data availability by reducing the risks of vessel collision, extreme winds, seas, and currents. NDBC completed the network in March 2008. During the expansion of the NOAA network, NDBC assisted several countries in the deploying and distributing data from their own DART II tsunameters. NDBC completed the upgraded of all stations to the DART II systems by the end of 2007. The significant capability fielded by the DART II technology was the bi-directional communications

  5. Near real time SST retrievals from Himawari-8 at NOAA using ACSPO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, M.; Ignatov, A.; Petrenko, B.; Kihai, Y.; Dash, P.

    2016-05-01

    Japanese Himawari-8 (H8) satellite was launched on October 7, 2014 and placed into a geostationary orbit at ~ 140.7°E. The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard H8 provides full-disk (FD) observations every 10 minutes, in 16 solar reflectance and thermal infrared (IR) bands, with spatial resolution at nadir of 0.5-1 km and 2 km, respectively. The NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) SST system, previously used with several polar-orbiting sensors, was adapted to process the AHI data. The AHI SST product is routinely validated against quality controlled in situ SSTs available from the NOAA in situ SST Quality monitor (iQuam). The product performance is monitored in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM) system. Typical validation statistics show a bias within +/-0.2 K and standard deviation of 0.4-0.6 K. The ACSPO H8 SST is also compared with the NOAA heritage SST produced at OSPO from the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2; renamed Himawari-7, or H7 after launch) and with another H8 SST produced by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). This paper describes the ACSPO AHI SST processing and results of validation and comparisons. Work is underway to generate a reduced volume ACSPO AHI SST product L2C (collated in time; e.g., 1-hr instead of current 10-min) and/or L3C (additionally gridded in space). ACSPO AHI processing chain will be applied to the data of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be flown onboard the next generation US geostationary satellite, GOES-R, scheduled for launch in October 2016.

  6. Post-Launch Assessment of Performance of the NOAA-19 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) on the NOAA-19 satellite was successfully launched on 6 February 2009. NOAA-19 is the fifth in a series of five Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) with AMSU-A that provide imaging and sounding capabilities. As it orbits the Earth, NOAA-19 will collect data about the Earth's surface and atmosphere that are vital inputs to NOAA's weather forecasts. AMSU-A is a new generation of total-power microwave radiometers which have been flown on the NOAA-15 to NOAA-18 and METOP-A Satellites since May 1998. AMSU-A is composed of two separate units. AMSU-A2 provides channels 1 and 2 at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. AMSU-A1 furnishes 12 channels in the 50.3 to 57.3 GHz oxygen band which are used for temperature sounding from the surface to about 50 km (i.e., from 1000 to 1 millbar) plus channel 15 at 89 GHz. Channels 1-3 and 15, which have weighting functions peaked near the surface, aid the retrieval of temperature sounding by providing information to correct the effect due to surface emissivity, atmospheric liquid water, and total precipitable water vapor on temperature sounding. Channels 1 and 2 also provide information on precipitation, sea ice, and snow cover. Before launch, each AMSU-A was tested and calibrated by the instrument contractor Northrop Grumman (formerly Aerojet). These pre-launch calibration data are analyzed at NOAA to derive the calibration parameters which are used in the operational calibration software to produce the AMSU-A Level 1B data sets. A systematic post-launch calibration and validation of the instrumental performances was conducted with on-orbit data. The long-term trends of the housekeeping sensors and radiometric counts from the cold space and warm targets are continuously monitored. Scan-by- scan examination of the radiometric calibration counts is employed to confirm normal functioning of the instrument and to detect any anomalous events, such as lunar contamination (LC) in the cold

  7. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  8. 2-D Visualization of Global D-region and Polar Cap Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.-H.; Choi, S.; Lee, J.; Bong, S.-C.

    2015-09-01

    We have visualized global D-region and polar cap absorption in two dimensions. We use the empirical relationship between solar x-ray flux (0.1-0.8 nm) and highest affected frequency at sub-solar point to calculate global D-region absorption. We also use the relation between the integral proton fluxes above certain energy thresholds and polar cap absorption. The calculation code was developed by C++ and refers to the result of Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) code of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in C. We also consider the relation between the angles of the geomagnetic system and the geographical one. We calculate the attenuation at 8.83 MHz because it is used in High Frequency (HF) communications by airplanes. The code needs input data such as x-ray flux, proton flux, and Kp index of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The attenuation is displayed in a world map, the Korean peninsula, and polar route.

  9. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  10. NOAA Climate Data Records Access for Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachniewicz, J. S.; Cecil, D.; Hollingshead, A.; Newport, B. J.; Wunder, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many potential uses of NOAA Climate Data Records (CDRs) for decision-making and catastrophic risk management assessment activities in the federal, state, and local government and private sectors, in addition to their traditional uses by the academic/scientific community. There is growing interest in using NOAA CDRs for such applications and straightforward access to the data is essential if these applications are to be successful. User engagement activities determine the types of data that users need, as well as the spatial and temporal subsets. This talk will present the access methods currently available and in development. Alternate representations and sources of some CDRs will also be discussed. Recent improvements include: 1. CDR information web page 2. Dataset types, sizes, growth, latency, grid/swath 3. Dataset discovery, data access, and sub-setting. 4. Knowing our users and their needs. 5. Known uses of some CDRs. 6. Migration to CLASS. 7. Other representations - GeoTIFF, Obs4MIPS 8. Cloud applications - Google, Microsoft

  11. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  12. Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2017-02-10

    Macrophage polarization refers to how macrophages have been activated at a given point in space and time. Polarization is not fixed, as macrophages are sufficiently plastic to integrate multiple signals, such as those from microbes, damaged tissues, and the normal tissue environment. Three broad pathways control polarization: epigenetic and cell survival pathways that prolong or shorten macrophage development and viability, the tissue microenvironment, and extrinsic factors, such as microbial products and cytokines released in inflammation. A plethora of advances have provided a framework for rationally purifying, describing, and manipulating macrophage polarization. Here, I assess the current state of knowledge about macrophage polarization and enumerate the major questions about how activated macrophages regulate the physiology of normal and damaged tissues.

  13. NOAA ESRL Atmospheric Research Operations in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel, B. A.; Borgeld, J.; Ives, M.; Conway, T.; Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, B.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Patrick, L. C.; Berkoff, T.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) had over two dozen operational research programs within the state of California. These diverse research missions include the Fire Weather Service and Support, the Pt Sur Debris Flow Project, and the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) regional test bed. The ESRL Global Monitoring Division had 10 atmospheric measurement programs with a common goal to understand the regional and global climate impacts in and around California. The NOAA Trinidad Head (THD) baseline observatory, run in cooperation with Humboldt State University (HSU), was recently promoted to the top-tier WMO/Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) global station in 2009. The Trinidad Head observatory was strategically located (April 2002) along the west coast to monitor the air entering the United States and is now being impacted by effluents and anthropogenic aerosols and gases from booming Asian economies. Recent forest fire seasons in CA have had dramatic effects on aerosol properties and ozone concentrations measured at the THD site. Light aircraft flights made by NOAA/ESRL as part of the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and UC Davis in the spring and summer of 2008 captured large signals indicative of urban air plumes with highly correlated CO2, CH4, CO, as well as agricultural signatures with enhanced CH4 coincident with depleted CO2. These flights also captured a large signal from the northern CA wildfires enabling the comparison of signatures from forest fires to other sources. Ozonesonde balloon flights have been done weekly at the THD site since August of 1997 and bi-monthly vertical aircraft profiles above THD for carbon cycle gases (>50 gas species) began in September of 2003. In 2008 carbon cycle flasks were added to the HSU research vessel, the Coral Sea, to obtain surface values ~20 nautical miles offshore from the THD observatory. Particular attention will be paid to the

  14. NOAA's Integrated Tsunami Database: Data for improved forecasts, warnings, research, and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, Kelly; Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; McCullough, Heather; Carignan, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility in the United States for tsunami forecast, warning, research, and supports community resiliency. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics provide a unique collection of data enabling communities to ensure preparedness and resilience to tsunami hazards. Immediately following a damaging or fatal tsunami event there is a need for authoritative data and information. The NGDC Global Historical Tsunami Database (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/) includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. The long-term data from these events, including photographs of damage, provide clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC catalogs the information on global historical tsunamis and uses these data to produce qualitative tsunami hazard assessments at regional levels. In addition to the socioeconomic effects of a tsunami, NGDC also obtains water level data from the coasts and the deep-ocean at stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and produces research-quality data to isolate seismic waves (in the case of the deep-ocean sites) and the tsunami signal. These water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC is also building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support real-time forecasts, implemented at 75 US coastal communities. After a damaging or fatal event NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include our NOAA partners, the U.S. Geological Survey, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and International Tsunami Information Center

  15. Retrieval of Fog Microphysical Parameters from NOAA AVHRR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling

    1995-01-01

    Identifying the droplet size distribution, frequency and location of land-based fog is valuable for climate studies, because of the effects on agricultural productivity projections, highway traffic safety, and urban pollution monitoring. It's especially important to the Central Valley of California, which frequently suffers lingering, heavy fog. Land-based fog plays an important role in surface radiation budgets, by blocking daytime solar heating and nocturnal long wave cooling. The droplet size distribution determines the optical depth and radiative attenuation of fog. An operational retrieval method for obtaining droplet size and optical depth has been developed for land -based fog from the multichannel NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) digital image data. The visible and near infrared images provide the reflectances of both channels, which vary with droplet microphysical characteristics. The reflectances are interpolated to radiative cloud modeling results. A new field method has been used for obtaining the measurements of land-based fog microphysical and thermodynamic parameters. A tethered balloon carries a meteorological package and a cloud droplet imaging system which transfer the images to a recording system on the ground. The results from the satellite imagery at Esparto (ESP), California are well matched with field sampling results at the same location.

  16. Detection and mapping vegetation cover based on the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm using NOAA AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoub, Houria; Belbachir, Ahmed Hafid; Benabadji, Noureddine

    2014-06-01

    Satellite data, taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been proposed and used for the detection and the cartography of vegetation cover in North Africa. The data used were acquired at the Analysis and Application of Radiation Laboratory (LAAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of 1 km spatial resolution. The Spectral Angle Mapper Algorithm (SAM) is used for the classification of many studies using high resolution satellite data. In the present paper, we propose to apply the SAM algorithm to the moderate resolution of the NOAA AVHRR sensor data for classifying the vegetation cover. This study allows also exploiting other classification methods for the low resolution. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extracted from two channels 1 and 2 of the AVHRR sensor. In order to obtain an initial density representation of vegetal formation distribution, a methodology, based on the combination between the threshold method and the decision tree, is used. This combination is carried out due to the lack of accurate data related to the thresholds that delimit each class. In a second time, and based on spectral behavior, a vegetation cover map is developed using SAM algorithm. Finally, with the use of low resolution satellite images (NOAA AVHRR) and with only two channels, it is possible to identify the most dominant species in North Africa such as: forests of the Liege oaks, other forests, cereal's cultivation, steppes and bar soil.

  17. Polar Glaciology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two fields of research on polar ice sheets are likely to be of dominant interest during the 1990s. These are: the role of polar ice sheets in the hydrological cycle ocean-atmosphere-ice sheets-oceans, especially in relation to climate change; and the study and interpretation of material in deep ice cores to provide improved knowledge of past climates and of the varying levels of atmospheric constituents such as CO2, NOx, SO2, aerosols, etc., over the past 200,000 years. Both topics require a better knowledge of ice dynamics. Many of the studies that should be undertaken in polar regions by Earth Observing System require similar instruments and techniques to those used elsewhere over oceans and inland surfaces. However to study polar regions two special requirements need to be met: Earth Observing System satellite(s) need to be in a sufficiently high inclination orbit to cover most of the polar regions. Instruments must also be adapted, often by relatively limited changes, to give satisfactory data over polar ice. The observational requirements for polar ice sheets in the 1990s are summarized.

  18. NOAA's Portfolio of Operational Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newport, B. J.; Cecil, D.; Hutchins, C.; Preston, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.; Wunder, D.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's Climate Data Record (CDR) Program was established by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) (formerly the National Climatic Data Center) in order to develop and implement a robust, sustainable, and scientifically defensible approach to producing and preserving climate records from satellite data. Since its inception in 2009 the CDR Program has transitioned 30 CDRs developed by various research groups to an initial operational state at NCEI. As a result of this transition the CDR dataset, metadata, documentation, and source code are archived by NCEI and accessible to the public, and most of the datasets are being extended by the Principal Investigator with CDR Program support. Consistency is maintained by using a formal change control process, with reprocessing and re-archiving as needed. The current portfolio of operational CDRs includes 15 Atmospheric CDRs, four Oceanic CDRs, four Terrestrial CDRs, and seven Fundamental CDRs. The main features of the portfolio will be presented, along with some potential and emerging uses.

  19. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  20. The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations from space in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Cambridge and Harvard University. Zoom through the Cosmos to SLC and site of the 2002 Winter Olympics using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Contrast the 1972 Apollo 17 "Blue Marble" image of the Earth with the latest US and International global satellite images that allow us to view our Planet from any vantage point. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, & Landsat 7, of storms & fires like Hurricane Isabel and the LNSan Diego firestorms of 2003. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we do science communication. Take the pulse of the planet on a daily, annual and 30-year time scale. See daily thunderstorms, the annual blooming of the northern hemisphere landmasses and oceans, fires in Africa, dust storms in Iraq, and carbon monoxide exhaust from global burning. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. Spectacular new global visualizations of the observed and simulated atmosphere & oceans are shown. See the currents and vortexes in the oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fishermen. See the how the ocean blooms in response to El Niiioh Niiia climate changes. The Etheater will be presented using the latest High Definition TV (HDTV) and video projection technology on a large screen. See the global city lights, and the great NE US blackout of August 2003 observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite.

  1. A new statistical tool for NOAA local climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Meyers, J. C.; Hollingshead, A.

    2011-12-01

    The National Weather Services (NWS) Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) is evolving out of a need to support and enhance the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) field offices' ability to efficiently access, manipulate, and interpret local climate data and characterize climate variability and change impacts. LCAT will enable NOAA's staff to conduct regional and local climate studies using state-of-the-art station and reanalysis gridded data and various statistical techniques for climate analysis. The analysis results will be used for climate services to guide local decision makers in weather and climate sensitive actions and to deliver information to the general public. LCAT will augment current climate reference materials with information pertinent to the local and regional levels as they apply to diverse variables appropriate to each locality. The LCAT main emphasis is to enable studies of extreme meteorological and hydrological events such as tornadoes, flood, drought, severe storms, etc. LCAT will close a very critical gap in NWS local climate services because it will allow addressing climate variables beyond average temperature and total precipitation. NWS external partners and government agencies will benefit from the LCAT outputs that could be easily incorporated into their own analysis and/or delivery systems. Presently we identified five existing requirements for local climate: (1) Local impacts of climate change; (2) Local impacts of climate variability; (3) Drought studies; (4) Attribution of severe meteorological and hydrological events; and (5) Climate studies for water resources. The methodologies for the first three requirements will be included in the LCAT first phase implementation. Local rate of climate change is defined as a slope of the mean trend estimated from the ensemble of three trend techniques: (1) hinge, (2) Optimal Climate Normals (running mean for optimal time periods), (3) exponentially

  2. Calibration of the advanced microwave sounding unit-A for NOAA-K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan

    1995-01-01

    The thermal-vacuum chamber calibration data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) for NOAA-K, which will be launched in 1996, were analyzed to evaluate the instrument performance, including calibration accuracy, nonlinearity, and temperature sensitivity. The AMSU-A on NOAA-K consists of AMSU-A2 Protoflight Model and AMSU-A1 Flight Model 1. The results show that both models meet the instrument specifications, except the AMSU-A1 antenna beamwidths, which exceed the requirement of 3.3 +/- 10%. We also studied the instrument's radiometric characterizations which will be incorporated into the operational calibration algorithm for processing the in-orbit AMSU-A data from space. Particularly, the nonlinearity parameters which will be used for correcting the nonlinear contributions from an imperfect square-law detector were determined from this data analysis. It was found that the calibration accuracies (differences between the measured scene radiances and those calculated from a linear two-point calibration formula) are polarization-dependent. Channels with vertical polarizations show little cold biases at the lowest scene target temperature 84K, while those with horizontal polarizations all have appreciable cold biases, which can be up to 0.6K. It is unknown where these polarization-dependent cold biases originate, but it is suspected that some chamber contamination of hot radiances leaked into the cold scene target area. Further investigation in this matter is required. The existence and magnitude of nonlinearity in each channel were established and a quadratic formula for modeling these nonlinear contributions was developed. The model was characterized by a single parameter u, values of which were obtained for each channel via least-squares fit to the data. Using the best-fit u values, we performed a series of simulations of the quadratic corrections which would be expected from the space data after the launch of AMSU-A on NOAA-K. In these simulations

  3. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  4. LLNL data collection during NOAA/ETL COPE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1995-09-06

    COPE is the acronym for the Coastal Ocean Probe Experiment, to be conducted by NOAA/ETL off the northern Oregon coast in September--October 1995. In general terms, ETL desires to collect data on how various types of microwave sensors including radar would respond to internal wave-induced modulations to the ocean surface, and what effects propagation through the atmosphere might have on the data collected. In COPE, ETL will field a broad suite of microwave sensors, and a variety of sea-truth and atmospheric-truth instruments. These will include a land-based, high power, X and Ka-band real aperture radar (RAR) located atop a 3,000 ft high coastal peak, various water column, surface wave, air-sea interface, and atmospheric sensors on the FLIP measurement platform to be moored approximately 15 miles offshore, various active and passive microwave devices onboard a blimp which will fly at 6,000--8,000 ft altitude, two ground-based CODARs that measure large-scale surface currents, various wind profilers, and others. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Imaging and Detection Program will take advantage of this unique site and opportunity to collect imagery with the radar that will be well ground-truthed with subsurface, surface, and above-water environmental data and possibly be compared to radar image data collected simultaneously or nearly simultaneously with another radar. Specifically, the authors are planning to conduct a short data collection with their Airborne Experimental Test Bed (AETB) jet aircraft-based X-band, HH-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a piggyback to the planned COPE operation.

  5. Are Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Future for Polar Ozone Studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Hurst, D. F.; Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Oltmans, S. J.; Vasel, B. A.; Montzka, S. A.; Fahey, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone loss studies in the polar stratosphere have benefited from the combination of ozone and other trace gas measurements (nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) to account for transport of ozone from other regions of the atmosphere. Trace gases versus ozone correlations and transport calculations have permitted the calculation of ozone loss on airborne missions during the polar stratospheric winter. NOAA/CMDL has successfully operated a combined ozone analyzer and gas chromatograph during the first phase of the NOAA UAS demonstration using the NASA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Altair (a civilian version of the military Predator B UAS). UAS, like Altair and Global Hawk, are ideal for polar studies because of their long range (7200+ km), long duration (30+ hours), and high altitude (>14 km) flying capabilities. They offer advantages over manned aircraft, most importantly safety of pilots where few airports exist and flights must be of long duration to reach the polar vortex. There are major obstacles in using UAS over Polar Regions including satellite coverage, and UAS access to civilian air space. A government/industry group, ACCESS-5 (means ACCESS to the national airspace in 5 years), is planning a mission to Hawaii to test procedures for flying in the national airspace which could be as early as May 2006. NOAA and other agencies are investigating the possibility of flying a UAS during the International Polar Year (2007-2008). Observational data will be presented from the NOAA UAS demo.

  6. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  7. Evolution of Dip-shear and Twist-shear during X-class flare in NOAA 11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosain, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    We study the evolution of dip-shear and twist shear in a region close to flaring site in NOAA 11158. This active region emerged as a complex delta active region complex with a pair of twisted rotating sunspots in the middle. The X-2.2 class flare took place near the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). We find that after the flare there was an increase in twist shear and a decrease in dip-shear close to the PIL. The results are similar to that obtained by Gosain and Venkatakrishnan (ApJ 720, L137, 2010) during X-class flare in NOAA 10930 during 13 December 2006. It seems that there is a general tendency for dip shear to increase before the flare and show a subsequent decrease after the flare and so it can be exploited as a potential flare predictor.

  8. NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools.

  9. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  10. ESTIMATING THE TRANSFER AND DEPOSITION OF DIOXIN AND ATRZINE TO THE GREAT LAKES BASIN WITH THE NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL - AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last few years, the International Joint Commission has been supporting development of a PC-based transfer model, derived from the HYSPLIT model created at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to determine, in a cost-effective way, the extent of dep...

  11. 15 CFR 911.4 - Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the NOAA Data Collection... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.4 Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) Use of the NOAA DCS will only be authorized in accordance with...

  12. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement...

  13. 15 CFR 911.4 - Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the NOAA Data Collection... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.4 Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) Use of the NOAA DCS will only be authorized in accordance with...

  14. 15 CFR 911.7 - Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the NOAA Data... REGULATIONS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.7 Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) NOAA expects to continue to operate DCS on...

  15. 15 CFR 911.4 - Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the NOAA Data Collection... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.4 Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) Use of the NOAA DCS will only be authorized in accordance with...

  16. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement...

  17. 15 CFR 911.7 - Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the NOAA Data... REGULATIONS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.7 Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) NOAA expects to continue to operate DCS on...

  18. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement...

  19. 15 CFR 911.7 - Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of the NOAA Data... REGULATIONS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.7 Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) NOAA expects to continue to operate DCS on...

  20. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement...

  1. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement...

  2. 15 CFR 911.7 - Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the NOAA Data... REGULATIONS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.7 Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) NOAA expects to continue to operate DCS on...

  3. 15 CFR 911.4 - Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the NOAA Data Collection... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.4 Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) Use of the NOAA DCS will only be authorized in accordance with...

  4. 15 CFR 911.7 - Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the NOAA Data... REGULATIONS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.7 Continuation of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) NOAA expects to continue to operate DCS on...

  5. 15 CFR 911.4 - Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the NOAA Data Collection... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.4 Use of the NOAA Data Collection Systems. (a) Use of the NOAA DCS will only be authorized in accordance with...

  6. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  7. Improved NOAA satellite scheduled for launch. [mission update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, W. J.; Mccormack, D.; Senstad, K.

    1981-01-01

    A description of the NOAA-C satellite and its Atlas launch vehicle are presented. The satellite instrumentation and data transmission systems are discussed. A flight sequence of events is given along with a listing of the mission management responsibilities.

  8. Access High Quality Imagery from the NOAA View Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisut, D.; Powell, A. M.; Loomis, T.; Goel, V.; Mills, B.; Cowan, D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA curates a vast treasure trove of environmental data, but one that is sometimes not easily accessed, especially for education, outreach, and media purposes. Traditional data portals in NOAA require extensive knowledge of the specific names of observation platforms, models, and analyses, along with nomenclature for variable outputs. A new website and web mapping service (WMS) from NOAA attempts to remedy such issues. The NOAA View data imagery portal provides a seamless entry point into data from across the agency: satellite, models, in-situ analysis, etc. The system provides the user with ability to browse, animate, and download high resolution (e.g., 4,000 x 2,000 pixel) imagery, Google Earth, and even proxy data files. The WMS architecture also allows the resources to be ingested into other software systems or applications.

  9. NOAA's GOES-West Satellite Animation Shows Seymour's Start

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Oct. 21 to early on Oct. 24 shows the development of Tropical Depression 20 and explosive growth into Hurricane S...

  10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration mapping surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, C.

    1986-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) multibeam surveys within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are providing a new data base of bathymetric information significantly superior to existing bathymetric maps compiled from prior survey information. Surveys made with the new Sea Beam and Bathymetric Swath Survey System are intended to provide 100% coverage of selected areas of the continental shelf, slope, and upper rise off the west coast of the US. During the next 2 years, surveys will expand to Hawaii and Alaska. Areas were selected through a cooperative agreement between NOAA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The intent of the program is to provide detailed bathymetry conducted in conformance with international map standards for use in making geologic interpretations and assessments in conjunction with the GLORIA image data acquired by USGS. The primary objective of the program is to provide high-resolution data to support the development and management of offshore resources, particularly within the US EEZ. Within NOAA, the data are to be used to provide new and revised map and chart products. Also, to maximize the utility of the surveys, arrangements are being sought to acquire other geophysical measurements and ancillary marine data in conjunction with the bathymetric surveys Dissemination of the NOAA data is undecided due to national security concerns. However, efforts are underway in cooperation with the Department of Defense to devise a public product of value to scientific and industrial needs without compromising national security.

  11. The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Hutchins, C.; Del Greco, S.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climate data archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and other organizations. The WCT is built on the Unidata Common Data Model and supports defined feature types such as Grid, Radial, Point, Time Series and Trajectory. Current NCDC datasets supported include NEXRAD Radar data, GOES Satellite imagery, NOMADS Model Data, Integrated Surface Data and the U.S. Drought Monitor (part of the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS)). The WCT Viewer provides tools for displaying custom data overlays, Web Map Services (WMS), animations and basic filters. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, Arc/Info ASCII Grid, VTK, NetCDF) formats. By decoding and exporting data into multiple common formats, a diverse user community can perform analysis using familiar tools such as ArcGIS, MatLAB and IDL. This brings new users to a vast array of weather and climate data at NCDC.

  12. VIIRS/J1 polarization narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; McCorkel, Joel; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McAndrew, Brendan; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Young, James B.; Fest, Eric; Butler, James; Wang, Tung R.; Monroy, Eslim O.; Turpie, Kevin; Meister, Gerhard; Thome, Kurtis J.

    2015-09-01

    The polarization sensitivity of the Visible/NearIR (VISNIR) bands in the Joint Polar Satellite Sensor 1 (J1) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was measured using a broadband source. While polarization sensitivity for bands M5-M7, I1, and I2 was less than 2.5 %, the maximum polarization sensitivity for bands M1, M2, M3, and M4 was measured to be 6.4 %, 4.4 %, 3.1 %, and 4.3 %, respectively with a polarization characterization uncertainty of less than 0.38%. A detailed polarization model indicated that the large polarization sensitivity observed in the M1 to M4 bands is mainly due to the large polarization sensitivity introduced at the leading and trailing edges of the newly manufactured VISNIR bandpass focal plane filters installed in front of the VISNIR detectors. This was confirmed by polarization measurements of bands M1 and M4 bands using monochromatic light. Discussed are the activities leading up to and including the two polarization tests, some discussion of the polarization model and the model results, the role of the focal plane filters, the polarization testing of the Aft-Optics-Assembly, the testing of the polarizers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard center and at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) facility and the use of NIST's Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) for polarization testing and associated analyses and results.

  13. Integration of Earth Remote Sensing into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthan, A.; Burks, J. E.; Camp, P.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Following the occurrence of severe weather, NOAA/NWS meteorologists are tasked with performing a storm damage survey to assess the type and severity of the weather event, primarily focused with the confirmation and assessment of tornadoes. This labor-intensive process requires meteorologists to venture into the affected area, acquire damage indicators through photos, eyewitness accounts, and other documentation, then aggregation of data in order to make a final determination of the tornado path length, width, maximum intensity, and other characteristics. Earth remote sensing from operational, polar-orbiting satellites can support the damage assessment process by helping to identify portions of damage tracks that are difficult to access due to road limitations or time constraints by applying change detection techniques. In addition, higher resolution commercial imagery can corroborate ground-based surveys by examining higher-resolution commercial imagery. As part of an ongoing collaboration, NASA and NOAA are working to integrate near real-time Earth remote sensing observations into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), a suite of applications used by meteorologists in the survey process. The DAT includes a handheld application used by meteorologists in the survey process. The team has recently developed a more streamlined approach for delivering data via a web mapping service and menu interface, allowing for caching of imagery before field deployment. Near real-time products have been developed using MODIS and VIIRS imagery and change detection for preliminary track identification, along with conduits for higher-resolution Landsat, ASTER, and commercial imagery as they become available. In addition to tornado damage assessments, the team is also investigating the use of near real-time imagery for identifying hail damage to vegetation, which also results in large swaths of damage, particularly in the central United States during the peak growing season

  14. Integration of Earth Remote Sensing into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Camp, Parks; McGrath, Kevin; Bell, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Following the occurrence of severe weather, NOAA/NWS meteorologists are tasked with performing a storm damage survey to assess the type and severity of the weather event, primarily focused with the confirmation and assessment of tornadoes. This labor-intensive process requires meteorologists to venture into the affected area, acquire damage indicators through photos, eyewitness accounts, and other documentation, then aggregation of data in order to make a final determination of the tornado path length, width, maximum intensity, and other characteristics. Earth remote sensing from operational, polar-orbiting satellites can support the damage assessment process by helping to identify portions of damage tracks that are difficult to access due to road limitations or time constraints by applying change detection techniques. In addition, higher resolution commercial imagery can corroborate ground-based surveys by examining higher-resolution commercial imagery. As part of an ongoing collaboration, NASA and NOAA are working to integrate near real-time Earth remote sensing observations into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit, a handheld application used by meteorologists in the survey process. The team has recently developed a more streamlined approach for delivering data via a web mapping service and menu interface, allowing for caching of imagery before field deployment. Near real-time products have been developed using MODIS and VIIRS imagery and change detection for preliminary track identification, along with conduits for higher-resolution Landsat, ASTER, and commercial imagery as they become available. In addition to tornado damage assessments, the team is also investigating the use of near real-time imagery for identifying hail damage to vegetation, which also results in large swaths of damage, particularly in the central United States during the peak growing season months of June, July, and August. This presentation will present an overview of recent activities

  15. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  16. Verification of a New NOAA/NSIDC Passive Microwave Sea-Ice Concentration Climate Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Walter N.; Peng, Ge; Scott, Donna J.; Savoie, Matt H.

    2014-01-01

    A new satellite-based passive microwave sea-ice concentration product developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)Climate Data Record (CDR) programme is evaluated via comparison with other passive microwave-derived estimates. The new product leverages two well-established concentration algorithms, known as the NASA Team and Bootstrap, both developed at and produced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The sea ice estimates compare well with similar GSFC products while also fulfilling all NOAA CDR initial operation capability (IOC) requirements, including (1) self describing file format, (2) ISO 19115-2 compliant collection-level metadata,(3) Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant file-level metadata, (4) grid-cell level metadata (data quality fields), (5) fully automated and reproducible processing and (6) open online access to full documentation with version control, including source code and an algorithm theoretical basic document. The primary limitations of the GSFC products are lack of metadata and use of untracked manual corrections to the output fields. Smaller differences occur from minor variations in processing methods by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (for the CDR fields) and NASA (for the GSFC fields). The CDR concentrations do have some differences from the constituent GSFC concentrations, but trends and variability are not substantially different.

  17. NOAA tsunami water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National Ocean Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-ocean, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-ocean and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep ocean and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.

  18. Polarized Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susan Resneck

    1991-01-01

    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  19. Comparison of PMC Observations From SME, Nimbus-7 SBUV, and NOAA-9 SBUV/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLand, M. T.; Shettle, E. P.; Thomas, G. E.; Olivero, J. J.

    2001-05-01

    Satellite observations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are extremely useful, because they provide wide geographic coverage unavailable to a single ground-based observer. During 1985-1986, measurements of PMCs were made by the SME UVS instrument, the Nimbus-7 SBUV instrument, and the NOAA-9 SBUV/2 instrument. The limb viewing geometry of SME, where bright clouds were viewed against a dark background, was well-suited for PMC detection. Nadir-viewing SBUV-type measurements pose a greater challenge because of the brighter terrestrial background in the mid-UV and the competing effects of geophysical ozone variability. We use a revised version of the algorithm developed by Thomas et al. [1991] to extract PMC events from SBUV and SBUV/2 data. Inter-instrument comparisons of specific PMC observations are complicated by differences in instrument sensitivity, temporal differences between the spacecraft orbits, and spatial coincidence requirements. In this paper, we examine the seasonal and latitudinal variations of PMCs as observed by SME, Nimbus-7 SBUV, and NOAA-9 SBUV/2, and show that they give a consistent picture of PMC climatology. We will be extending this analysis to the full series of SBUV and SBUV/2 measurements covering the 22+ years from November 1978 to the present. This will allow us to examine PMC variations with a single type of satellite measurement covering 2 full solar cycles.

  20. 15 CFR 904.104 - Final administrative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... filed as provided in § 904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted. (b) If...

  1. 15 CFR 904.104 - Final administrative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... filed as provided in § 904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted. (b) If...

  2. 15 CFR 904.104 - Final administrative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... filed as provided in § 904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted. (b) If...

  3. 15 CFR 904.104 - Final administrative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... filed as provided in § 904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted. (b) If...

  4. 15 CFR 904.104 - Final administrative decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... filed as provided in § 904.201(a), the NOVA becomes effective as the final administrative decision and order of NOAA 30 days after service of the NOVA or on the last day of any delay period granted. (b) If...

  5. Contracting Out. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Central Library. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, and the Judiciary, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In response to a request by the Senate Committee on Appropriations for an examination of the A-76 program of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in particular NOAA's decision to contract for the operation of its Central Library, this report describes a General Accounting Office (GAO) review which:…

  6. Flow and magnetic field properties in the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 12396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Böhm, F.; Balthasar, H.; Fischer, C. E.; Kuckein, C.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Diercke, A.; Feller, A.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pator Yabar, A.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Improved measurements of the photospheric and chromospheric three-dimensional magnetic and flow fields are crucial for a precise determination of the origin and evolution of active regions. We present an illustrative sample of multi-instrument data acquired during a two-week coordinated observing campaign in August 2015 involving, among others, the GREGOR solar telescope (imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy) and the space missions Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The observations focused on the trailing part of active region NOAA 12396 with complex polarity inversion lines and strong intrusions of opposite polarity flux. The GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) provided Stokes IQUV spectral profiles in the photospheric Si I λ1082.7 nm line, the chromospheric He I λ1083.0 nm triplet, and the photospheric Ca I λ1083.9 nm line. Carefully calibrated GRIS scans of the active region provided maps of Doppler velocity and magnetic field at different atmospheric heights. We compare quick-look maps with those obtained with the ``Stokes Inversions based on Response functions'' (SIR) code, which furnishes deeper insight into the magnetic properties of the region. We find supporting evidence that newly emerging flux and intruding opposite polarity flux are hampering the formation of penumbrae, i.e., a penumbra fully surrounding a sunspot is only expected after cessation of flux emergence in proximity to the sunspots.

  7. Polar Views of Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochu, Michel

    1983-01-01

    In August, 1981, National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched Dynamics Explorer 1 into polar orbit equipped with three cameras built to view the Northern Lights. The cameras can photograph aurora borealis' faint light without being blinded by the earth's bright dayside. Photographs taken by the satellite are provided. (JN)

  8. The use of visible-channel data from NOAA satellites to measure total ozone amount over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boime, Robert D.; Warren, Steven G.; Gruber, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    Accurate, detailed maps of total ozone were not available until the launch of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) in late 1978. However, the Scanning Radiometer (SR), an instrument on board the NOAA series satellites during the 1970s, had a visible channel that overlapped closely with the Chappuis absorption band of ozone. We are investigating whether data from the SR can be used to map Antarctic ozone prior to 1978. The method is being developed with 1980s data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which succeeded the SR on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. Visible-derived total ozone maps can then be compared able on the NOAA satellites, which precludes the use of a differential absorption technique to measure ozone. Consequently, our method works exclusively over scenes whose albedos are large and unvarying, i.e. scenes that contain ice sheets and/or uniform cloud-cover. Initial comparisons of time series for October-December 1987 at locations in East Antarctica show that the visible absorption by ozone in measurable and that the technique may be usable for the 1970s, but with much less accuracy than TOMS. This initial test assumes that clouds, snow, and ice all reflect the same percentage of visible light towards the satellite, regardless of satellite position or environmental conditions. This assumption is our greatest source of error. To improve the accuracy of ozone retrievals, realistic anisotropic reflectance factors are needed, which are strongly influenced by cloud and snow surface features.

  9. Polar Diving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free.

    Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  10. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  11. Inter-Satellite Calibration Linkages for the Visible and Near-Infrared Channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 Spacecraft. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NagarajaRao, C. R.; Chen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The post-launch degradation of the visible (channel 1: 0.58- 068 microns) and near-infrared (channel 2: approx. 0.72 - l.l microns) channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) was estimated using the south-eastern part of the Libyan Desert as a radiometrically stable calibration target. The relative annual degradation rates, in per cent, for the two channels are, respectively: 3.6 and 4.3 (NOAA-7); 5.9 and 3.5 (NOAA-9); and 1.2 and 2.0 (NOAA-11). Using the relative degradation rates thus determined, in conjunction with absolute calibrations based on congruent path aircraft/satellite radiance measurements over White Sands, New Mexico (USA), the variation in time of the absolute gain or slope of the AVHRR on NOAA-9 was evaluated. Inter-satellite calibration linkages were established, using the AVHRR on NOAA-9 as a normalization standard. Formulae for the calculation of calibrated radiances and albedos (AVHRR usage), based on these interlinkages, are given for the three AVHRRs.

  12. Presenting DSCOVR: The First NOAA Mission to Leave Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Reinard, A.; Cash, M. D.; Johnson, J.; Burek, M.; de Koning, C. A.; Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Kasper, J. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Case, A. W.; Berberich, K.; Mulligan, P.

    2015-12-01

    On February 11, 2015 the NOAA Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite was launched and is now in a Lissajous Orbit about the L1 Lagrange point. DSCOVR replaces the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as the operational Real-Time Solar Wind (RTSW) monitor at the L1 Lagrange point. This is the first NOAA operational satellite to perform this function and represents the first of many expected satellites from NOAA to maintain this essential space weather monitoring capability. In this talk, we will review basic details of the DSCOVR mission as well as the real-time space weather data being provided, including comparisons to ACE. This will include a discussion of the robust averaging algorithms (Maximum Likelihood and Hodges-Lehmann) being applied to the data to ignore outliers and noisy data. We will also show the way users can access real-time DSCOVR data from the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) website. Finally, we will present the baseline NOAA mission for the DSCOVR replacement and detail the path forward.

  13. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  14. NOAA-11 SBUV/2 measurements of solar UV variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, R. P.; Deland, M. T.; Hilsenrath, E.

    1995-01-01

    The SBUV/2 instrument onboard the NOAA-11 satellite made daily solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 160405 nm at 1.1 nm resolution between January 1989 and October 1994. These observations continued the uninterrupted series of solar measurements begun by the Nimbus-7 SBUV in 1978 and continued by NOAA-9 SBUV/2. While the measurements made by the SBUV-series instruments furnish an excellent data base for studies of solar UV variability, these instruments do not have an internal mew to evaluate and correct for long-term instrument sensitivity degradation, needed to evaluate solar cycle timescale irradiance change. During yearly Shuttle flights the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) also performs solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 200 to 400 nm with an instrument that is calibrated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Comparisons between the simultaneous NOAA-11 SBUV/2 and SSBUV solar measurements are used to identify and correct long term sensitivity changes in the satellite instrument. The NOAA-11 data will then be used to evaluate long-term solar change. We present a progress report on the above process. At this preliminary stage uncertainties in the calibration transfer between SSBUV and NOAA-11 SBUV/2 are too large to accurately evaluate long-term solar change near the A1 edge, but solar rotational activity variations can be evaluated. We find that rotational activity declined from roughly 6% peak-to-peak (p-p) near the maximum of solar cycle 22 in 1989-1991 to approximately 3% p-p in mid 1992 and 2% p-p by mid 1994. Emphasizing rotational variations, comparisons between the 200 nm data and the NOAA-11 Mg II proxy index are presented.

  15. Sensor calibration in support for NOAA's satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. Q.; Cao, C. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Sensor calibration, including its definition, purpose, traceability options, methodology, complexity, and importance, is examined in this paper in the context of supporting NOAA's satellite mission. Common understanding of sensor calibration is essential for the effective communication among sensor vendors, calibration scientists, satellite operators, program managers, and remote sensing data users, who must cooperate to ensure that a nation's strategic investment in a sophisticated operational environmental satellite system serves the nation's interest and enhances the human lives around the world. Examples of calibration activities at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA are selected to further illustrate these concepts and to demonstrate the lessons learned from the past experience.

  16. Intergrating Data From NASA Missions Into NOAAs Pacific Region Intergrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benham, L.; Chester, K.; Eisberg, A.; Iyer, S.; Lee, K.; Marra, J.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) Project is developing a number of products that will successfully promote awareness and understanding of the patterns and effects of "storminess" in the Pacific Rim. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center initiated the PRICIP Project to improve our understanding of such storm processes by creating a web portal containing both scientific and socioeconomic information about Pacific storms. Working in conjunction with partners at NOAA, students from the NASA Ames DEVELOP internship program are integrating NASA satellite imagery into the PRICIP web portal by animating eight storm systems that took place in the South Pacific Ocean between 1992 and 2005, four other anomalous high water events in the Hawaiian Islands, and annual storm tracks. The primary intended audience includes coastal disaster management decision-makers and other similarly concerned agencies. The broad access of these web-based products is also expected to reach scientists, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and media broadcasting consumers. The newly integrated and animated hindcast data will also help educate laypersons about past storms and help them for future storms.

  17. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. A Quality Control study of the distribution of NOAA MIRS Cloudy retrievals during Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Cloudy radiance present a difficult challenge to data assimilation (DA) systems, through both the radiative transfer system as well the hydrometers required to resolve the cloud and precipitation. In most DA systems the hydrometers are not control variables due to many limitations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is producing products from the NPP-ATMS satellite where the scene is cloud and precipitation affected. The test case that we present here is the life time of Hurricane and then Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. As a quality control study we shall compare the retrieved water vapor content during the lifetime of Sandy with the first guess and the analysis from the NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. The assessment involves the gross error check system against the first guess with different values for the observational error's variance to see if the difference is within three standard deviations. We shall also compare against the final analysis at the relevant cycles to see if the products which have been retrieved through a cloudy radiance are similar, given that the DA system does not assimilate cloudy radiances yet.

  19. Evolving Data System Architectures in NOAA: Perspectives from the National Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K. S.; Mesick, S.; Kowal, D.; Kearns, E. J.; Hausman, S. A.; DelGreco, S. A.; Morris, J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has operated three distinct National Data Centers to manage its large and diverse environmental data collections. These centers, the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), have collaborated over the years on various programs and projects to esnure the long term preservation and scientific stewardship of their archived data, workflows, and algorithms. In recent years, the pace of collaboration has accelerated dramatically as new observing missions have come online, as new designated communities have emerged, and as waves of consolidation have swept across NOAA, driven by technological, budgetary, and policy-oriented pressures. An update on how NODC, NGDC, and NCDC have responded to these pressures and have been evolving their data system architectures and operations to keep pace with the new requirements will be presented. Examples efforts in the areas of streamlined data ingest, improved data discoverability, and enhanced data interoperability will be provided to illustrate the Natonal Data Centers' committment to meeting the needs of their user communities and highlight the rapid evolution taking place in their science data systems.

  20. Validation of GOES-Derived Surface Radiation Using NOAA's Physical Retrieval Method

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report was part of a multiyear collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to produce high-quality, satellite-based, solar resource datasets for the United States. High-quality, solar resource assessment accelerates technology deployment by making a positive impact on decision making and reducing uncertainty in investment decisions. Satellite-based solar resource datasets are used as a primary source in solar resource assessment. This is mainly because satellites provide larger areal coverage and longer periods of record than ground-based measurements. With the advent of newer satellites with increased information content and faster computers that can process increasingly higher data volumes, methods that were considered too computationally intensive are now feasible. One class of sophisticated methods for retrieving solar resource information from satellites is a two-step, physics-based method that computes cloud properties and uses the information in a radiative transfer model to compute solar radiation. This method has the advantage of adding additional information as satellites with newer channels come on board. This report evaluates the two-step method developed at NOAA and adapted for solar resource assessment for renewable energy with the goal of identifying areas that can be improved in the future.

  1. Polar Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03577 Polar Terrains

    The region surrounding the South Polar Cap contains many different terrain types. This image shows both etched terrain and a region of 'mounds'.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 75S, Longitude 286.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Polar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  3. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  4. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  5. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Environmental Data Records: Algorithm Status and Product Maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Feeley, J.; Zhou, L.; Gottshall, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Data Processing Segment generates a number of environmental data products from measurements by sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched on October 28, 2011. The JPSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Algorithm Development and Validation teams have been carrying out detailed evaluation of the products. This work is stabilizing the EDR products and proposing the implementation of product improvements and major algorithm changes. Building on validation stages established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for their Earth Observing System program and adapted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation, the JPSS program defined program-specific algorithm maturity stages. The JPSS definitions provide the rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for algorithm validation while serving the compliance needs for product requirements verification. Based on specific algorithm readiness levels, the JPSS EDR product teams established a schedule of anticipated dates for the algorithms to achieve Beta, Provisional and Validated Stage 1, 2 and 3 statuses. These schedules account for the products' dependencies on the maturity of input Sensor Data Records (SDRs), Intermediate Products, and upstream EDRs. Declaring EDR product maturity is the result of a specific review of artifacts that document that the products meet a series of criteria defined for each maturity stage. During 2012, after the SDR products achieved Beta maturity, a number of fundamental EDRs also achieved Beta status. They are now or will shortly become available to the public through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest EDR algorithm updates and the maturity schedule going forward.

  6. Terrestrial Observations from NOAA Operational Satellites.

    PubMed

    Yates, H; Strong, A; McGinnis, D; Tarpley, D

    1986-01-31

    Important applications to oceanography, hydrology, and agriculture have been developed from operational satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and are currently expanding rapidly. Areas of interest involving the oceans include sea surface temperature, ocean currents, and ocean color. Satellites can monitor various hydrological phenomena, including regional and global snow cover, river and sea ice extent, and areas of global inundation. Agriculturally important quantities derived from operational satellite observations include precipitation, daily temperature extremes, canopy temperatures, insolation, and snow cover. This overview describes the current status of each area.

  7. Polar Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, barchan sand dunes of the north polar region of Mars. Barchan dunes are simple, rounded forms with two horns that extend downwind. Inequalities in local wind patterns may result in one horn being extended farther than the other, as is the case for several dunes in this image. The image also shows several barchans may merge to form a long dune ridge. The horns and attendant slip faces on these dunes indicate wind transport of sand from the upper left toward the lower right. The image is located near 77.6oN, 103.6oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. Rice polarization scattering characteristics and paddyfield recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuanghe; Zhang, Pingping; Li, Bingbai

    2007-09-01

    Paddy rice is a staple food in China and it's growth monitoring, acreage extraction and yield estimate are of far reaching importance. It is difficult to apply conventional remote sensing technique for obtaining precise information on paddy planting and growth, for rice bowls are mostly distributed over rainy regions in China. The radar image is unlimited by cloud, rain and fog, and could proceed all weather operation and obtain more stable data, therefore it could be used for paddy monitoring. Making use of Envisat's ASAR data and NOAA data in 2004, paddy's backward-scattering characteristics with different polarizations were studied in this paper. To combine multi-temporal radar data with one view ETM image, paddyfield of experimental area in Hongze of Jiangsu Province was classified. Results show that 1) characteristics of paddy's hh and vv polarizations vary from stage to stage and vv polarization is more sensitive. The polarization ratio hh / vv of paddy during metaphase is apparently higher than other objects'. 2) paddy's polarization ratio hh / vv and growth vigor closely relate to each other , thereof two empirical time-domain models of backward- scattering were established, wherewith to estimate number of days after transplanting and growing season. 3) hh and ratio hh / vv are both well correlated with NDVI. 4) hh polarization data could be used for information extraction of towns and water bodies, and the hh / vv image in metaphase for partition of paddy from other objects. The recognition accuracy being ninety percent over, multi-temporal and -polarization radarsat data are of predominance and potential for paddy growth and/or acreage monitoring.

  9. 75 FR 69920 - (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... meeting agenda. Place: The meeting will be held both days at Dupont Hotel, 1500 New Hampshire Ave., NW... SAB Climate Working Group; (2) Strategic Framework for the Climate Service; (3) Report on the Climate... Research; (6) NOAA Response to the Ecosystem Science and Management Working Group Recommendations on...

  10. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  11. 15 CFR 995.26 - Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to other formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to... ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and...

  12. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness...

  13. 78 FR 45604 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the combined Calendar Year (CY) 2013 and 2014 Allocation Round of... letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details... NOAA. NMTC allocation applicants that are not yet certified as Community Development Entities...

  14. 15 CFR 995.26 - Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to other formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to... ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and...

  15. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness...

  16. 15 CFR 995.26 - Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to other formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to... ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and...

  17. 77 FR 35271 - Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette... from a portion of Menominee River during the launching of the NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, on June 16... and Purpose The NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, will be launched from shore to water on June 16,...

  18. 77 FR 43418 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2012 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC... electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. NMTC allocation applicants...

  19. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness...

  20. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness...

  1. 15 CFR 995.26 - Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to other formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to... ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and...

  2. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness...

  3. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. Allocation applicants that are not...

  4. 15 CFR 995.26 - Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to other formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of NOAA ENC ® files to... ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and...

  5. Improving NOAA's NWLON Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, DeNeice C.

    2010-01-01

    This report assesses the benefit of incorporating NASA's OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission) altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) NWLON (National Water Level Observation Network) DSS (Decision Support System). This data will enhance the NWLON DSS by providing additional inforrnation because not all stations collect all meteorological parameters (sea-surface height, ocean tides, wave height, and wind speed over waves). OSTM will also provide data where NWLON stations are not present. OSTM will provide data on seasurface heights for determining sea-level rise and ocean circulation. Researchers and operational users currently use satellite altimeter data products with the GSFCOO NASA data model to obtain sea-surface height and ocean circulation inforrnation. Accurate and tirnely inforrnation concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean currents is needed to irnprove coastal tidal predictions, tsunarni and storm surge warnings, and wetland restoration.

  6. Solutions Network Formulation Report: Improving NOAA's PORTS(R) Through Enhanced Data Inputs from NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, DeNeice

    2007-01-01

    The Nation uses water-level data for a variety of practical purposes, including nautical charting, maritime navigation, hydrography, coastal engineering, and tsunami and storm surge warnings. Long-term applications include marine boundary determinations, tidal predictions, sea-level trend monitoring, oceanographic research, and climate research. Accurate and timely information concerning sea-level height, tide, and ocean current is needed to understand their impact on coastal management, disaster management, and public health. Satellite altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and to improve scientists understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) National Ocean Service has been monitoring sea-level variations for many years. NOAA s PORTS (Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System) DST (decision support tool), managed by the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, supports safe and cost-efficient navigation by providing ship masters and pilots with accurate real-time information required to avoid groundings and collisions. This report assesses the capacity of NASA s satellite altimeter data to meet societal decision support needs through incorporation into NOAA s PORTS. NASA has a long heritage of collecting data for ocean research, including its current Terra and Aqua missions. Numerous other missions provide additional important information for coastal management issues, and data collection will continue in the coming decade with such missions as the OSTM (Ocean Surface Topography Mission). OSTM will provide data on sea-surface heights for determining ocean circulation, climate change, and sea-level rise. We suggest that NASA incorporate OSTM altimeter data (C- and Ku-band) into NOAA s PORTS DST in support of NASA s Coastal Management National Application with secondary support to the

  7. Monitoring arid lands using AVHRR-observed visible reflectance and SMMR37-GHz polarization difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Visible reflectance along a transect through the Sahel and Sudan zones of Africa has been derived from observations by the AVHRR on the NOAA-7 and NOAA-9 satellites and compared with concurrent observations of the 37-GHz polarization difference by the SMMR on the Nimbus-7 satellite. The study period was January 1982 to December 1986, which included an unprecedented drought during 1984 over the Sahel zone. While spatial and temporal patterns of these two data sets are found to be highly correlated, there are also quantitative differences which need to be understood.

  8. A Statistical Correlation Between Low L-shell Electrons Measured by NOAA Satellites and Strong Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, C.

    2015-12-01

    More than 11 years of the Medium Energy Protons Electrons Detector data from the NOAA polar orbiting satellites were analyzed. Significant electron counting rate fluctuations were evidenced during geomagnetic quiet periods by using a set of adiabatic coordinates. Electron counting rates were compared to earthquakes by defining a seismic event L-shell obtained radially projecting the epicenter geographical positions to a given altitude. Counting rate fluctuations were grouped in every satellite semi-orbit together with strong seismic events and these were chosen with the L-shell coordinates close to each other. Electron data from July 1998 to December 2011 were compared for nearly 1,800 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to 6, occurring worldwide. When considering 30 - 100 keV energy channels by the vertical NOAA telescopes and earthquake epicenter projections at altitudes greater that 1,300 km, a 4 sigma correlation appeared where time of particle precipitations Tpp occurred 2 - 3 hour prior time of large seismic events Teq. This was in physical agreement with different correlation times obtained from past studies that considered particles with greater energies. The correlation suggested a 4-8 hour advance in preparedness of strong earthquakes influencing the ionosphere. Considering this strong correlation between earthquakes and electron rate fluctuations, and the hypothesis that such fluctuations originated with magnetic disturbances generated underground, a small scale experiment with low cost at ground level is advisable. Plans exists to perform one or more unconventional experiments around an earthquake affected area by private investor in Italy.

  9. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Fritz; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes and "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National and International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam and zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds. data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and bio-mass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  10. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  11. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  12. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  13. The polarization properties of a tilted polarizer.

    PubMed

    Korger, Jan; Kolb, Tobias; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2013-11-04

    Polarizers are key components in optical science and technology. Thus, understanding the action of a polarizer beyond oversimplifying approximations is crucial. In this work, we study the interaction of a polarizing interface with an obliquely incident wave experimentally. To this end, a set of Mueller matrices is acquired employing a novel procedure robust against experimental imperfections. We connect our observation to a geometric model, useful to predict the effect of polarizers on complex light fields.

  14. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  15. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  16. Polarization in Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    we refer to the linear polarization as parallel if the polarization vector is in the scattering plane or perpendicular if the polarization vector is...obvious that the different polarization states can all be represented as linear combinations of any of the independent pairs of polarization states...J.C. (1976) “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique, Applied Optics, 6, 321-330

  17. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  18. ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases

    DOE Data Explorer

    Torn, Margaret

    2008-01-15

    Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

  19. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  20. Broadband graphene polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han; Wang, Bing; Ni, Zhenhua; Lim, Candy Haley Yi Xuan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Ding Yuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-07-01

    Conventional polarizers can be classified into three main modes of operation: sheet polarizer using anisotropic absorption media, prism polarizer by refraction and Brewster-angle polarizer by reflection. These polarizing components are not easily integrated with photonic circuits. The in-line fibre polarizer, which relies on polarization-selective coupling between the evanescent field and birefringent crystal or metal, is a promising alternative because of its compatibility with most fibre-optic systems. Here, we demonstrate the operation of a broadband fibre polarizer based on graphene, an ultrathin two-dimensional carbon material. The out-coupled light in the telecommunication band shows a strong s-polarization effect with an extinction ratio of 27 dB. Unlike polarizers made from thin metal film, a graphene polarizer can support transverse-electric-mode surface wave propagation due to its linear dispersion of Dirac electrons.

  1. Impact of Scatterometer Ocean Wind Vector Data on NOAA Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenak, Z.; Chang, P.; Brennan, M. J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Near real-time measurements of ocean surface vector winds (OSVW), including both wind speed and direction from non-NOAA satellites, are being widely used in critical operational NOAA forecasting and warning activities. The scatterometer wind data data have had major operational impact in: a) determining wind warning areas for mid-latitude systems (gale, storm,hurricane force); b) determining tropical cyclone 34-knot and 50-knot wind radii. c) tracking the center location of tropical cyclones, including the initial identification of their formation. d) identifying and warning of extreme gap and jet wind events at all latitudes. e) identifying the current location of frontal systems and high and low pressure centers. f) improving coastal surf and swell forecasts Much has been learned about the importance and utility of satellite OSVW data in operational weather forecasting and warning by exploiting OSVW research satellites in near real-time. Since December 1999 when first data from QuikSCAT scatterometer became available in near real time NOAA operations have been benefiting from ASCAT scatterometer observations on MetOp-A and B, Indian OSCAT scatterometer on OceanSat-3 and lately NASA's RapidScat mission on International Space Station. With oceans comprising over 70 percent of the earth's surface, the impacts of these data have been tremendous in serving society's needs for weather and water information and in supporting the nation's commerce with information for safe, efficient, and environmentally sound transportation and coastal preparedness. The satellite OSVW experience that has been gained over the past decade by users in the operational weather community allows for realistic operational OSVW requirements to be properly stated for future missions. Successful model of transitioning research data into operation implemented by Ocean Winds Team in NOAA's NESDIS/STAR office and subsequent data impacts will be presented and discussed.

  2. Advances of NOAA Training Program in Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) has offered numerous training opportunities to NWS staff. After eight-years of development, the training program offers three instructor-led courses and roughly 25 online (distance learning) modules covering various climate topics, such as: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, and NWS national / local climate products (tools, skill, and interpretation). Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows for the delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. The emerging NOAA Climate Service (NCS) requires a well-trained, climate-literate workforce at the local level capable of delivering NOAA's climate products and services as well as providing climate-sensitive decision support. NWS Weather Forecast Offices and River Forecast Centers presently serve as local outlets for the NCS climate services. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-sound messages and amiable communication techniques are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects have been conducted by the NWS CSD this past year that apply the program's training lessons and expertise to specialized external user group training. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring instructions to the potential applications for each group of users. Training technical users identified the following critical issues: (1) knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate information; (2) leveraging

  3. EVOLUTION OF SPINNING AND BRAIDING HELICITY FLUXES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, B.; Yoshimura, Keiji; Dasso, Sergio E-mail: yosimura@solar.physics.montana.edu

    2011-12-10

    The line-of-sight magnetograms from Solar Optical Telescope Narrowband Filter Imager observations of NOAA Active Region 10930 have been used to study the evolution of spinning and braiding helicities over a period of five days starting from 2006 December 9. The north (N) polarity sunspot was the follower and the south (S) polarity sunspot was the leader. The N-polarity sunspot in the active region was rotating in the counterclockwise direction. The rate of rotation was small during the first two days of observations and it increased up to 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} on the third day of the observations. On the fourth and fifth days it remained at 4 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} with small undulations in its magnitude. The sunspot rotated about 260 Degree-Sign in the last three days. The S-polarity sunspot did not complete more than 20 Degree-Sign in five days. However, it changed its direction of rotation five times over a period of five days and injected both the positive and negative type of spin helicity fluxes into the corona. Through the five days, both the positive and negative sunspot regions injected equal amounts of spin helicity. The total injected helicity is predominantly negative in sign. However, the sign of the spin and braiding helicity fluxes computed over all the regions were reversed from negative to positive five times during the five-day period of observations. The reversal in spinning helicity flux was found before the onset of the X3.4-class flare, too. Though, the rotating sunspot has been observed in this active region, the braiding helicity has contributed more to the total accumulated helicity than the spinning helicity. The accumulated helicity is in excess of -7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} over a period of five days. Before the X3.4-class flare that occurred on 2006 December 13, the rotation speed and spin helicity flux increased in the S-polarity sunspot. Before the flare, the total injected helicity was larger than -6

  4. The NOAA GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager (SXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. M.; Pizzo, V. J.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Davis, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), planned for launch in July 2001 on NOAA's GOES-12 satellite, will provide nearly uninterrupted, full-disk, soft X-ray solar movies, with a continuous frame rate significantly exceeding that for previous similar instruments. The SXI provides images with a one-minute cadence and a single-image (adjustable) dynamic range near 100. A set of metallic thin-film filters provides a degree of temperature discrimination in the 0.6-6.0 nm bandpass. The spatial resolution of approximately 10 arcseconds FWHM is sampled with 5 arcsecond pixels. NOAA's operational space weather forecasting requirements drive the observing sequences toward long-term uniformity. This will yield an excellent standardized set of contextual data products for the historical record. Sequences can be selected or modified based on solar activity levels. Data products will be made available to the research community via NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center World Wide Web site in near real-time (minutes). Among the data products are raw and calibrated images in SolarSoft compliant FITS format. Other data products will include multiple image products such as standardized movies at fixed UT times and wide dynamic range composite images. The Web interface is designed to be user friendly, providing a range of search and preview capabilities.

  5. Data Homogenization of the NOAA Long-Term Ozonesonde Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B.; Cullis, P.; Sterling, C. W.; Jordan, A. F.; Hall, E. G.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Mcconville, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA long term balloon-borne ozonesonde sites at Boulder, Colorado; Hilo, Hawaii; and South Pole Station, Antarctica have measured weekly ozone profiles for more than 3 decades. The ozonesonde consists of an electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sensor interfaced with a weather radiosonde which transmits high resolution ozone and meteorological data during ascent from the surface to 30-35 km altitude. During this 30 year time period there have been several model changes in the commercially available ECC ozonesondes and radiosondes as well as three adjustments in the ozone sensor solution composition at NOAA. These changes were aimed at optimizing the ozonesonde performance. Organized intercomparison campaigns conducted at the environmental simulation facility at the Research Centre Juelich, Germany and international field site testing have been the primary process for assessing new designs, instruments, or sensor solution changes and developing standard operating procedures. NOAA has also performed in-house laboratory tests and launched 28 dual ozonesondes at various sites since 1994 to provide further comparison data to determine the optimum homogenized data set. The final homogenization effort involved reviewing and editing several thousand individual ozonesonde profiles followed by applying the optimum correction algorithms for changes in type of sensor solution composition. The results of improved data sets will be shown with long term trends and uncertainties at various altitude levels.

  6. Best Practices in Mentoring in NOAA Scholarship Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.; Sarvis, S.; Dancy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Through established scholarship programs, NOAA hosts 125 - 175 undergraduate students each summer to participate in internship opportunities at agency facilities. In order to host a scholar, NOAA labs and offices must designate a mentor who develops a project and oversees activities of the student throughout the summer. NOAA implements best practices in mentoring in the following ways: mentor and intern responsibilities are clearly defined in a manual; mentors are required to take an online mentor training class; mentors and scholars are matched through an online system and scholars conduct a site visit prior to beginning the internship; proposed internship projects are reviewed by scholarship program managers to assure they are sufficiently analytical and will advance the student in their future academic and career goals; and mentors are surveyed at the midpoint, allowing scholarship program managers to identify problems and intervene if possible. These practices have resulted in strong results. Students identify the mentor relationship, hands-on experience and networking with professionals as the three most important outcomes of the internship experience.

  7. The Climate Change Education Evidence Base: Lessons Learned from NOAA's Monitoring and Evaluation Framework Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.

    2012-12-01

    Federal science mission agencies are under increased pressure to ensure that their STEM education investments accomplish several objectives, including the identification and use of evidence-based approaches. Climate change education and climate literacy programs fall under these broader STEM initiatives. This paper is designed as a primer for climate change education evaluators and researchers to understand the policy context on the use of evidence. Recent initiatives, that include the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), point to a need for shared goals and measurements amongst the climate change education community. The Tri-agency Climate Change Education (CCE) collaboration, which includes NSF, NASA, and NOAA, developed the Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Common Evaluation Framework Initiative Stakeholder Statement (2012). An excerpt: From the perspective of the tri-agency collaboration, and its individual agency members, the goal of the common framework is not to build a required evaluation scheme or a set of new requirements for our funded climate change education initiatives. Rather, the collaboration would be strengthened by the development of a framework that includes tools, instruments, and/or documentation to: ● Help the agencies see and articulate the relationships between the individual pieces of the tri-agency CCE portfolio; ● Guide the agencies in reporting on the progress, lessons learned, and impacts of the collaboration between the three agencies in developing a coordinated portfolio of climate education initiatives; and ● Help the individual projects, as part of this broader portfolio, understand where they fit into a larger picture. The accomplishments of this initiative to date have been based on the collaborative nature of evaluators the climate change education community within the tri-agency portfolio. While this

  8. Integration of Visibility Sensors in NOAA PORTS® to aid in Decision Making for Safe Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenstein, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS®) provides real-time water level, currents and meteorological data for aid to navigation in twenty-three major ports and harbors. In response to PORTS® users' requests for visibility data, NOS began testing several varieties of visibility sensors for operations in a marine environment. Extensive testing resulted in the selection of the Vaisala FS11 visibility sensor. The FS11 sensor uses forward scattering technology to measure the amount of scattering in a small volume of air between the transmitter and receiver, resulting in an extrapolated visibility at a set height out to 75 km. Two sensors have been successfully operating in the Mobile Bay PORTS® at Middle Bay Port and Pinto Island since installation in 2010. The sensors are positioned at a height of 3 m above the ground, 24 km apart along the western shore of the bay in areas susceptible to fog formation. Real-time data from these sensors are disseminated on NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) PORTS® website every 6 minutes (min) and for distances up to 10 km (5.4 nm) from the instrument. This has proven to aid port pilots' decision making for safe movement of vessels in the harbor. Additionally, the Pinto Island sensor is located directly adjacent to the shipping channel - an area with high levels of atmospheric particulates of high carbon content. These particulates do not appear to have negatively affected sensor performance. This success has prompted interest in visibility sensors from other harbors with PORTS®. The ports of San Francisco, Narragansett Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Jacksonville FL, and Gulfport MS are planning or exploring the addition of visibility sensors to their PORTS® to aid in navigation. Additionally, the NOAA/COOPS Ocean System Test Evaluation Program (OSTEP) has continued with additional field testing of the FS11

  9. NOAA Introduces its First-Generation Reference Evapotranspiration Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbins, M.; Geli, H. M.; Lewis, C.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA is producing daily, gridded operational, long-term, reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the National Water Census (NWC). The NWC is a congressional mandate to provide water managers with accurate, up-to-date, scientifically defensible reporting on the national water cycle; as such, it requires a high-quality record of actual ET, which we derive as a fraction of NOAA's land-based ETo a fraction determined by remotely sensed (RS) LST and/or surface reflectance in an operational version of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop). This methodology permits mapping of ET on a routine basis with a high degree of consistency at multiple spatial scales. This presentation addresses the ETo input to this process. NOAA's ETo dataset is generated from the American Society of Civil Engineers Standardized Penman-Monteith equation driven by hourly, 0.125-degree (~12-km) data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Coverage is CONUS-wide from Jan 1, 1979, to within five days of the present. The ETo is verified against agro-meteorological stations in western CONUS networks, while a first-order, second-moment uncertainty analysis indicates when, where, and to what extent each driver contributes to ETo variability (and so potentially require the most attention). As the NWC's mandate requires a nationwide coverage, the ETo dataset must also be verified outside of the measure's traditional, agricultural/irrigated areas of application. In this presentation, we summarize the verification of the gridded ETo product and demonstrate the drivers of ETo variability in space and time across CONUS. Beyond its primary use as a component of ET in the NWC, we further explore potential uses of the ETo product as an input to drought models and as a stand-alone index of fast-developing agricultural drought, or 'flash drought.' NOAA's product is the first consistently modeled, daily, continent-wide ETo dataset that is both up-to-date and as temporally

  10. Polarized maser growth

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, D.B.; Judge, A.C.

    2004-11-01

    A polarized maser is assumed to operate in an anisotropic medium with natural modes polarized differently to the maser. It is shown that when the spatial growth rate and the generalized Faraday rotation rate are comparable, the polarization of the growing radiation is different from those of the maser and medium. In particular, for a lineary polarized maser operating in a medium with linearly polarized natural modes, the growing radiation is partially circularly polarized. This provides a previously unrecognized source of circular polarization that may be relevant to pulsar radio emission.

  11. Characterizing the Behavior of NOAA's Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Whitin, B.; Brown, J.; Fickenscher, P.; Henkel, A.; Talanki, S.; Hartman, R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s National Weather Service (NWS) is implementing the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS) across the operating areas of the 13 NWS River Forecast Centers (RFCs). As the implementation progresses, hindcasting and validation is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the HEFS and to guide its operational use. Particularly in regions such as California that encompass a broad range of elevation, temperature, and precipitation gradients, the quality of the HEFS forecasts will vary geographically, and it is important to understand the degrees and controls on forecast quality in this context. This study aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the quality of HEFS forecasts in California, with the aim of guiding and enhancing the implementation of the HEFS, as well as informing end-users about the expected quality of the HEFS forecasts. The HEFS was calibrated with temperature and precipitation forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Also, in order to determine forecast skill and to benchmark the HEFS against a simpler forecasting system, the HEFS was calibrated with a conditional ("resampled") climatology. The calibrated HEFS was used to generate retrospective forecasts of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow for a 25-year (1985-2009) period for six basins in the state. The forecast horizon was 1-14 days. The retrospective forecasts were verified conditionally on forecast lead time, magnitude, and season. Preliminary results indicate that HEFS forecasts are much more skillful when forced by inputs from the GEFS, rather than resampled climatology. However, there are noticeable differences in forecast quality among basins. These observations demonstrate the applicability of HEFS in a wide hydroclimatic gradient within California, while highlighting the difficulty in generalizing its behavior across the state.

  12. Key Features of the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pela, F.; Tsugawa, R. K.; Andreoli, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    The National Polar-Orbiting NPOESS, a tri-agency program, supports missions of the Department of Commerce (DOC)/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NPOESS provides a critical, timely, reliable, and high quality space-based sensing capability to acquire and process global and regional environmental imagery and specialized meteorological, climatic, terrestrial, oceanographic, solar-geophysical, and other data products. These products are delivered to national weather and environmental facilities operated by NOAA and DoD, to NASA, and to environmental remote sensing science community users to support civil and military functions. These data are also provided in real time to field terminals deployed worldwide. The NPOESS architecture is built on a foundation of affordability, and the three pillars of data quality, latency, availability. Affordability refers to an over-arching awareness of cost to provide the best value to the government for implementing a converged system; some dimensions of cost include the cost for system development and implementation, the balance between development costs and operation and maintenance costs, and the fiscal year expenditure plans that meet schedule commitments. Data quality is characterized in terms of the attributes associated with Environmental Data Records (EDRs), and the products that are delivered to the four US Operational Centrals and field users. These EDRs are generated by the system using raw data from the space-borne sensors and spacecraft, in conjunction with science algorithms and calibration factors. Data latency refers to the time period between the detection of energy by a space-borne sensor to the delivery of a corresponding EDR. The system was designed to minimize data latency, and hence provide users with timely data. Availability refers to both data availability and system operational availability

  13. Crossed elliptical polarization undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1997-05-01

    The first switching of polarization direction is possible by installing two identical helical undulators in series in a same straight section in a storage ring. By setting each undulator in a circular polarization mode in opposite handedness, one can obtain linearly polarized radiation with any required polarization direction depending on the modulator setting between two undulators. This scheme can be used without any major degradation of polarization degree in any low energy low emittance storage ring.

  14. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  15. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  16. Development, Implementation, and Skill Assessment of the NOAA/NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Development, implementation, and skill assessment of the NOAA /NOS Great Lakes Operational Forecast System Philip Y. Chu & John G. W. Kelley & Gregory...USA) 2011 Abstract The NOAA Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS) uses near-real-time atmospheric observa- tions and numerical weather...System (GLFS) was developed by researchers at The Ohio State University (OSU) and NOAA ′s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) in the

  17. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  18. A Data Gap Analysis and Efforts Towards Improving NOAA's Global Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. M.; Wuertz, D.; Nickl, E.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Gleason, B.; Huang, B.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Menne, M. J.; Rennie, J.; Thorne, P.; Williams, C. N., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of global surface temperature trends from some sources have indicated slowing in the rate of warming over the last decade compared to the long-term warming trend since the industrial revolution. It has been debated whether this recent slowdown is due to natural variability or a missed signal due to gaps in the global observation networks, particularly over the Arctic Region. To examine this more closely, we quantify the impact of data gaps on the global surface temperature trends in several regions of the world (e.g. Polar Regions and the Continents of African and South America), using major global datasets including NOAA's Merged Land-Ocean Temperature dataset (NOAATemp). We also study the impact of the greater observational coverage in a recently released global temperature data set as part of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI), and analyze the spatial-temporal variation patterns of the homogenization effect on NOAATemp. A summary of the progress and challenges in filling in grid boxes where observations are sparse over large areas are presented.

  19. Metasurface polarization splitter.

    PubMed

    Slovick, Brian A; Zhou, You; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason

    2017-03-28

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the twofold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  20. NOAA Climate Information and Tools for Decision Support Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Higgins, W.; Strager, C.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA is an active participant of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) contributing data, information, analytical capabilities, forecasts, and decision support services to the Climate Services Partnership (CSP). These contributions emerge from NOAA's own climate services, which have evolved to respond to the urgent and growing need for reliable, trusted, transparent, and timely climate information across all sectors of the U.S. economy. Climate services not only enhance development opportunities in many regions, but also reduce vulnerability to climate change around the world. The NOAA contribution lies within the NOAA Climate Goal mission, which is focusing its efforts on four key climate priority areas: water, extremes, coastal inundation, and marine ecosystems. In order to make progress in these areas, NOAA is exploiting its fundamental capabilities, including foundational research to advance understanding of the Earth system, observations to preserve and build the climate data record and monitor changes in climate conditions, climate models to predict and project future climate across space and time scales, and the development and delivery of decision support services focused on risk management. NOAA's National Weather Services (NWS) is moving toward provision of Decision Support Services (DSS) as a part of the Roadmap on the way to achieving a Weather Ready National (WRN) strategy. Both short-term and long-term weather, water, and climate information are critical for DSS and emergency services and have been integrated into NWS in the form of pilot projects run by National and Regional Operations Centers (NOC and ROCs respectively) as well as several local offices. Local offices with pilot projects have been focusing their efforts on provision of timely and actionable guidance for specific tasks such as DSS in support of Coastal Environments and Integrated Environmental Studies. Climate information in DSS extends the concept of climate services to

  1. Value of Undergraduate Internship Experiences at NOAA: Analysis of Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will examine survey data from over 500 undergraduates who participated in summer internships at NOAA facilities as Ernest F. Hollings Scholars and Educational Partnership Program (EPP) Undergraduate Scholars. NOAA selects over 100 students per year to receive academic support in their junior and senior years and a paid summer internship at any NOAA facility in the country. Scholars are hosted by NOAA mentors who actively oversee summer research activities. Analysis of survey results identified six thematic impacts from the internship experience (McIntosh and Baek, 2013).

  2. The NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G. K.; Toth, Z.

    2007-05-01

    To address a growing need for retrospective Global Climate Model (GCM) and NWP input and output data, the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) initiated the highly collaborative NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). NOMADS (http:nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov) provides real-time and retrospective access to model and observational data by a wide variety of users using the Internet. The NOMADS system is one of the first operational systems of its kind and filled a gap in the geosciences community for retrospective model data access. Low bandwidth users will discover the NOMADS sub-setting capability for high volume datasets particularly useful. NOMADS provides model input and output data and products and other associated data and is an inter-operable network architecture with fully integrated data access and manipulation tools using a distributed, Web-services based format independent methodology. NOMADS allows temporal, spatial, and variable sub-setting to address the ever increasing spatial resolution of models and therefore volume and varied formats of data presented for archive and access at NCDC. This paper will describe the benefits of using NOMADS, and its most recent advances including a new Ensemble probabilities interface, the Live Access Server implementation across two NOAA Line Offices (NESDIS and NMFS); the model forecast aggregation capability being developed at Unidata and now installed on the NCDC NOMADS THREDDS Data Server; and other new services and products available on the NOMADS server at NCDC. Finally, this paper will describe the new operational National Weather Service (NWS) NOMADS capability currently being developed for deployment across the U.S.

  3. NOAA SBUV(/2) Ozone Merged Cohesive Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. S.; Wild, J.; Beach, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) instrument flown on Nimbus-7 and the SBUV/2 instruments flown on the NOAA 09, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, and 19 satellites have produced a continuous record of nadir profile ozone observations from 1979 through the present (2015). NASA's latest reprocessing of the individual satellite data sets have created a version 8.6 which strives to eliminate inter-satellite biases. However, there still are differences in data quality between the instruments flown on the various satellites. Our goal is to remove the remaining differences. Adjustments are made to individual instrument records based on periods of overlap, to account for any variations in the observed annual cycle as well as an overall bias. Rather than an average of all available observations, a single satellite is chosen for each period based on the best latitudinal coverage allowing the clean retention of satellite characteristics such as time of measurement, solar zenith angle, etc. to be identified with an ozone value. Measurements from NOAA-9 are included in a short period to allow greater global coverage in the bridge from NOAA-11 to -14. Measurements from the NASA BUV on Nimbus-4 are excluded since there is no overlap with the subsequent instruments. We will present examples of the methodology to adjust overlapping satellites. We will contrast the original unadjusted data set with our final data set. We will present results from applying a piece-wise linear trend to the data set dividing the depletion period from the recovery period. These results will be shown in comparison with other trend results from other ozone profile datasets.

  4. 2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  5. NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theatre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz; Pierce, Hal; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA/AMS Earth Science Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Florida and the KSC Visitor's Center. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest International global satellite weather movies including killer hurricanes & tornadic thunderstorms. See the latest spectacular images from NASA and NOAA remote sensing missions like GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, & new Terra which will be visualized with state-of-the art tools. Shown in High Definition TV resolution (2048 x 768 pixels) are visualizations of hurricanes Lenny, Floyd, Georges, Mitch, Fran and Linda. See visualizations featured on covers of magazines like Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science and on National & International Network TV. New Digital Earth visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images including a Landsat tour of the US, with drill-downs into major cities using 1 m resolution spy-satellite technology from the Space Imaging IKONOS satellite, Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, giant whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The demonstration is interactively driven by a SGI Octane Graphics Supercomputer with dual CPUs, 5 Gigabytes of RAM and Terabyte disk using two projectors across the super sized Universe Theater panoramic screen.

  6. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, Alysha; Marble, Andrew R.; Berger, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction.NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data available to NSO and the public via the

  7. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, A.; Marble, A.; Hill, F.; Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction. NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via public internet connections for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical magnetogram data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data

  8. Operational utilization of remotely sensed data. [NOAA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The use of data from environmental satellites and other remote sensing platforms in some of NOAA's operational services are described. Topics discussed include: hurricanes; severe local storms and tornadoes; forest guidance; weather forecasting; hydrology; space program support; oceanography; search and rescue; and wildlife management. Applications which have become routine, and those which are in advanced field test are included. Some applications yield a clear cut economic benefit. In other cases, benefits -- if any -- are obscure. In yet other cases, benefits in one sector may be offset by detriments in another. Illustrative examples are given.

  9. NOAA AVHRR and its uses for rainfall and evapotranspiration monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Yann H.; Imbernon, J.; Dedieu, G.; Hautecoeur, O.; Lagouarde, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Vegetation Indices (GVI) were used during the 1986 rainy season (June-September) over Senegal to monitor rainfall. The satellite data were used in conjunction with ground-based measurements so as to derive empirical relationships between rainfall and GVI. The regression obtained was then used to map the total rainfall corresponding to the growing season, yielding good results. Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) derived from High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data were also compared with actual evapotranspiration (ET) data and proved to be closely correlated with it with a time lapse of 20 days.

  10. A User's Guide to the Tsunami Datasets at NOAA's National Data Buoy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. H.; O'Neil, K.; Grissom, K.; Garcia, M.; Bernard, L. J.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has maintained and operated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunameter network since 2003. The tsunameters employ the NOAA-developed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) technology. The technology measures the pressure and temperature every 15 seconds on the ocean floor and transforms them into equivalent water-column height observations. A complex series of subsampled observations are transmitted acoustically in real-time to a moored buoy or marine autonomous vehicle (MAV) at the ocean surface. The surface platform uses its satellite communications to relay the observations to NDBC. NDBC places the observations onto the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for relay to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) in Hawai'i and Alaska and to the international community. It takes less than three minutes to speed the observations from the ocean floor to the TWCs. NDBC can retrieve limited amounts of the 15-s measurements from the instrumentation on the ocean floor using the technology's two-way communications. NDBC recovers the full resolution 15-s measurements about every 2 years and forwards the datasets and metadata to the National Geophysical Data Center for permanent archive. Meanwhile, NDBC retains the real-time observations on its website. The type of real-time observation depends on the operating mode of the tsunameter. NDBC provides the observations in a variety of traditional and innovative methods and formats that include descriptors of the operating mode. Datasets, organized by station, are available from the NDBC website as text files and from the NDBC THREDDS server in netCDF format. The website provides alerts and lists of events that allow users to focus on the information relevant for tsunami hazard analysis. In addition, NDBC developed a basic web service to query station information and observations to support the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT

  11. NOAA/USGS Demonstration Flash-Flood and Debris-Flow Early-Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, P.; Cannon, S.; Laber, J.; Jorgensen, D.; Werner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods and debris flows are common following wildfires in southern California. On 25 December 2003, sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from basins in the San Bernardino Mountains that burned the previous fall. In an effort to reduce loss of life by floods and debris flows, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) established a prototype flash flood and debris flow early warning system for recently burned areas located in eight counties of southern California in the fall of 2005. This prototype system combines the existing NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (FFMP) system and USGS rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris flow and flash flood occurrence. Separate sets of thresholds are defined for the occurrence of debris flows and flash floods in response to storms during 1) the first winter after a fire, and 2) following a year of vegetative recovery. The FFMP was modified to identify when both flash floods and debris flows are likely to occur based on comparisons between precipitation (including radar estimates, in situ measurements, and short-term forecasts) and the rainfall intensity-duration thresholds developed specifically for burned areas. Advisory outlooks, watches, and warnings are disseminated to emergency management personnel through NOAA's Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The FFMP provides a cost-effective and efficient approach to implement a warning system on a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week basis. In 2004 the system was advanced to incorporate a web-based procedure developed by the NWS Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Oxnard, CA that provides information about each fire to forecasters, and displays hazard maps generated by the USGS that show those basins most likely to produce the largest debris flow events within recently burned areas. During four years of operation, the WFOs in Oxnard

  12. NOAA-ISRO joint science projects on Earth observation system science, technology, and applications for societal benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A.; Jayarman, V.; Kondragunta, S.; Kogan, F.; Kuligowski, R.; Maturi, E.

    2006-12-01

    India and the United States of America (U.S.A.) held a joint conference from June 21-25, 2004 in Bangalore, India to strengthen and expand cooperation in the area of space science, applications, and commerce. Following the recommendations in the joint vision statement released at the end of the conference, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Indian Space and Reconnaissance Organization (ISRO) initiated several joint science projects in the area of satellite product development and applications. This is an extraordinary step since it concentrates on improvements in the data and scientific exchange between India and the United States, consistent with a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by the two nations in 1997. With the relationship between both countries strengthening with President Bush's visit in early 2006 and new program announcements between the two countries, there is a renewed commitment at ISRO and other Indian agencies and at NOAA in the U.S. to fulfill the agreements reached on the joint science projects. The collaboration is underway with several science projects that started in 2005 providing initial results. NOAA and ISRO agreed that the projects must promote scientific understanding of the satellite data and lead to a satellite-based decision support systems for disaster and public health warnings. The projects target the following areas: --supporting a drought monitoring system for India --improving precipitation estimates over India from Kalpana-1 --increasing aerosol optical depth measurements and products over India --developing early indicators of malaria and other vector borne diseases via satellite monitoring of environmental conditions and linking them to predictive models --monitoring sea surface temperature (SST) from INSAT-3D to support improved forecasting of regional storms, monsoon onset and cyclones. The research collaborations and results from these projects will be presented and discussed in the

  13. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  14. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  15. Polarization at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.

    1995-01-01

    A highly polarized electron beam is a key feature. for the Current physics program at SLAC. An electron beam polarization of 80% can now be routinely achieved for typically 5000 hours of machine operation per year. Two main Physics programs utilize the polarized beam. Fixed target experiments in End Station A study the collision of polarized electrons with polarized nuclear targets to elucidate the spin structure of the nucleon and to provide an important test of QCD. Using the SLAC Linear Collider, collisions of polarized electrons with unpolarized positrons allow precise measurements of parity violation in the Z-fermion couplings and provide a very precise measurement of tile weak mixing angle. This paper discusses polarized beam operation at SLAC, and gives an overview of the polarized physics program.

  16. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies Including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers Of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software. tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tin) algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in

  17. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the Olympic Medals Plaza, the new Gateway Center, and the University of Utah Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through the Park City, and Snow Basin sites of the 2002 Winter Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. See the four seasons of the Wasatch Front as observed by Landsat 7 at 15m resolution and watch the trees turn color in the Fall, snow come and go in the mountains and the reservoirs freeze and melt. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC) See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vortexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in

  18. Utilization of Precipitation and Moisture Products Derived from Satellites to Support NOAA Operational Precipitation Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, R.; Zhao, L.; Kuligowski, R. J.; Kusselson, S.; Ma, L.; Kidder, S. Q.; Forsythe, J. M.; Jones, A. S.; Ebert, E. E.; Valenti, E.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA/NESDIS operates a constellation of polar and geostationary orbiting satellites to support weather forecasts and to monitor the climate. Additionally, NOAA utilizes satellite assets from other U.S. agencies like NASA and the Department of Defense, as well as those from other nations with similar weather and climate responsibilities (i.e., EUMETSAT and JMA). Over the past two decades, through joint efforts between U.S. and international government researchers, academic partners, and private sector corporations, a series of "value added" products have been developed to better serve the needs of weather forecasters and to exploit the full potential of precipitation and moisture products generated from these satellites. In this presentation, we will focus on two of these products - Ensemble Tropical Rainfall Potential (eTRaP) and Blended Total Precipitable Water (bTPW) - and provide examples on how they contribute to hydrometeorological forecasts. In terms of passive microwave satellite products, TPW perhaps is most widely used to support real-time forecasting applications, as it accurately depicts tropospheric water vapor and its movement. In particular, it has proven to be extremely useful in determining the location, timing, and duration of "atmospheric rivers" which contribute to and sustain flooding events. A multi-sensor approach has been developed and implemented at NESDIS in which passive microwave estimates from multiple satellites and sensors are merged to create a seamless, bTPW product that is more efficient for forecasters to use. Additionally, this product is being enhanced for utilization for television weather forecasters. Examples will be shown to illustrate the roll of atmospheric rivers and contribution to flooding events, and how the bTPW product was used to improve the forecast of these events. Heavy rains associated with land falling tropical cyclones (TC) frequently trigger floods that cause millions of dollars of damage and tremendous loss

  19. Dissemination of Earth Remote Sensing Data for Use in the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Camp, Parks; McGrath, Kevin; Bell, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The National Weather Service has developed the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), an application for smartphones and tablets that allows for the collection, geolocation, and aggregation of various damage indicators that are collected during storm surveys. The DAT supports the often labor-intensive process where meteorologists venture into the storm-affected area, allowing them to acquire geotagged photos of the observed damage while also assigning estimated EF-scale categories based upon their observations. Once the data are collected, the DAT infrastructure aggregates the observations into a server that allows other meteorologists to perform quality control and other analysis steps before completing their survey and making the resulting data available to the public. In addition to in-person observations, Earth remote sensing from operational, polar-orbiting satellites can support the damage assessment process by identifying portions of damage tracks that may be missed due to road limitations, access to private property, or time constraints. Products resulting from change detection techniques can identify damage to vegetation and the land surface, aiding in the survey process. In addition, higher resolution commercial imagery can corroborate ground-based surveys by examining higher-resolution commercial imagery. As part of an ongoing collaboration, NASA and NOAA are working to integrate near real-time Earth remote sensing observations into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit. This presentation will highlight recent developments in a streamlined approach for disseminating Earth remote sensing data via web mapping services and a new menu interface that has been integrated within the DAT. A review of current and future products will be provided, including products derived from MODIS and VIIRS for preliminary track identification, along with conduits for higher-resolution Landsat, ASTER, and commercial imagery as they become available. In addition to tornado damage

  20. [Dendrolimus spp. damage monitoring by using NOAA/AVHRR data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushu; Ban, Xianxiu; Chen, Pengshi; Feng, Rui; Ji, Ruipeng; Xiao, Yan

    2005-05-01

    This paper approached the feasibility of quantitatively monitoring Dendrolimus spp. damage by using NOAA/ AVHRR data. The damaged rate of needle leaf was used to represent Dendrolimus spp. harming degree, and < 30%, 30%-60% and > 60% of damaged rate was defined as low, medium and severe harming degree, respectively. The correlation equation of damaged rate and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was established, based on the ground spectrum observation. The NDVI was 0.8823 when no damage occurred. A relative NDVI value of damaged to undamaged area was used to express the remote sensing index of low, medium and severe harming degree. The index was 1 for undamaged forest, and 0.78-1, 0.57-0.78 and < 0.57 for low, medium and severe harming degrees, respectively. The mixed pixels were separated by linear addable vertical vegetation index in the monitoring, and the quantitative monitoring and analysis was accomplished for years when the three damage degrees happened. It was shown that AVHRR data could be more available in quantitatively monitoring and analyzing serious damage, while low degree damage was difficult to distinguish by AVHRR data, due to the differences of surface properties and atmospheric influences, as well as the lower space resolution of NOAA/AVHRR. The damaged area estimated by AVHRR was 12.1%-14.3% lower than that by TM.

  1. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  2. Partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A birefringent filter module comprises, in seriatum. (1) an entrance polarizer, (2) a first birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the entrance polarizer, (3) a partial polarizer responsive to optical energy exiting the first polarizer, (4) a second birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the partial polarizer, and (5) an exit polarizer. The first and second birefringent crystals have fast axes disposed + or -45 deg from the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer. Preferably, the second crystal has a length 1/2 that of the first crystal and the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer is nine times as great as the low transmitivity direction. To provide tuning, the polarizations of the energy entering the first crystal and leaving the second crystal are varied by either rotating the entrance and exit polarizers, or by sandwiching the entrance and exit polarizers between pairs of half wave plates that are rotated relative to the polarizers. A plurality of the filter modules may be cascaded.

  3. Playing with Polarizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how polarized sunglasses block glare, help spot subtle differences in surfaces, and give a clearer view under water. Information on unpolarized and polarized light is provided. The reasons causing glare to occur and how polarizers decrease glare are discussed. (KR)

  4. Silicon Raman polarizer.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Victor V; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2012-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the polarization properties of Raman amplifiers based on silicon-on-insulator waveguides, and show that it is possible to realize a waveguide Raman polarizer. The Raman polarizer is a special type of Raman amplifier with the property of producing an amplified and highly repolarized beam when it is fed by a relatively weak and unpolarized signal.

  5. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  6. Physics with Polarized Nuclei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William J.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent advances in polarization techniques, specifically those dealing with polarization of atomic nuclei, and how polarized beams and targets are produced. These techniques have greatly increased the scope of possible studies, and provided the tools for testing fundamental symmetries and the spin dependence of nuclear forces. (GA)

  7. Polar Ozone Workshop. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the proceedings of the Polar Ozone Workshop held in Snowmass, CO, on May 9 to 13, 1988 are given. Topics covered include ozone depletion, ozonometry, polar meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, remote sensing of trace gases, atmospheric chemistry and dynamical simulations.

  8. Polarity at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  9. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  10. Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) as signatures of pre-seismic activities before Nepal 2015 Earthquakes using onboard NOAA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2016-07-01

    Earthquake preparation processes start almost a month before its actual occurrence. There are various tools in detecting such processes among which Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) measurements is a significant one. We studied these signals before the devastating Nepal earthquake that occurred on 12 May, 2015 at 12:50 pm local time (07:05 UTC) with a Richter scale magnitude of M = 7.3 and depth 10 km (6.21 miles) at southeast of Kodari. To study the effects of seismic activities on OLR, we used the data archived by the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) onto two degree grids for a period of more than 27 years. For the period 2005 till date, data from NOAA18 satellite is used. The data has been chosen with a temporal coverage from 8th May to 17th May, 2015 and a spatial coverage from 20 ^{o}N to 36 ^{o}N latitudes, 78 ^{o}E to 94 ^{o}E longitudes. We followed the method of 'Eddy field calculation mean' to find anomalies in daily OLR curves. We found singularities in Eddy field around the earthquake epicentre three days prior to the earthquake day and its disappearance after the event. Such intensification of Eddy field and its fading away after the shock event can be due to the large amount of energy released before the earthquake.

  11. NOAA's winter outlook favors weak El Niño, lower-than-average precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-10-01

    Water shortages due to severe drought will continue to persist in California even if the state receives an average amount of precipitation this winter, said Kevin Werner, western regional climate services director at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Association (NOAA). This prediction came during NOAA's winter 2014-2015 outlook for U.S. precipitation and temperature, released on 16 October.

  12. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  13. 78 FR 48859 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 NOAA Engagement Survey Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... 1995. DATES: Written comments must be submitted on or before October 11, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct all... and private sectors, science institutions and households around the world. Because NOAA's information..., NOAA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) has identified a need for more effective two-way...

  14. Displaying Planetary and Geophysical Datasets on NOAAs Science On a Sphere (TM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, S. C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Himes, D.

    2005-12-01

    of Neptune's moon Triton. A map of the cosmic background radiation was produced that shows the early universe from an external perspective. Full details and credits for these maps may be viewed online at http://laps.fsl.noaa.gov/albers/sos/sos.html. Geophysical imagery recently added to SOS includes a real-time global infrared weather satellite animation of Earth. This is a 15-minute, quality controlled animation spanning the most recent month, which draws on a number of geosynchronous and polar-orbiting weather satellites for data. Other meteorological and oceanographic datasets can be displayed, such as animations depicting the three-dimensional drifting of the ARGO buoy network through the oceans. Oceanic buoy observations were overlaid on the "Blue Marble" Earth imagery displayed on Science On a Sphere(TM). A static image shows locations for five different global buoy networks. We also produced two movies that show the drift of >1000 ARGO buoys over a period of several months. The first movie shows only the horizontal buoy drift, and the second modulates the intensities to represent the timing of each buoy dive cycle. Animations in real time are also being produced for sea surface temperatures (and anomalies). These analyses are obtained from web displays provided by the DOD Fleet Numerical Operations Center. With advanced technologies, the possibilities are limitless for displaying additional global datasets on Science On a Sphere(TM) and other spherical projection screens.

  15. The Physics of Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  16. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  17. Circular Polarization in AGNs: Polarity and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Plotkin, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    Circular polarization (Stokes V) observations potentially provide information on the nature and origin of the underlying magnetic fields in AGNs. We have been systematically monitoring a group of sources with detectable circular polarization (V>0.1 percent, a level set by the instrumental polarization of our system) in all 4 Stokes parameters at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz since 2000, and also at 14.5 GHz since November 2003, with the University of Michigan prime focus paraboloid antenna. These data are compared with historical observations obtained with the same instrument at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz extending back to 1978. Specific goals are to study the temporal spectral behavior of Stokes V and its relation to variability in total flux and linear polarization, and to investigate the question of polarity stability on decade-long time scales using data obtained with the same instrumentation and at the same frequencies. The data are consistent with linear-to-circular mode conversion in partially opaque regions of the source. We find examples of polarity changes with time at one or more frequencies associated with outbursts in total flux and linear polarization, and polarity differences within the 3 frequencies at a single epoch in one case, 3C 279. Such behavior argues against the notion that the sign of Stokes V is a simple tracer of the net flow of magnetic energy from the central engine to the jet or an indicator of the direction of rotation of the spinning central black hole/accretion disk via the winding up of the initial seed magnetic field. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-0307629 and by funds from the University of Michigan.

  18. Wild Fire Emissions for the NOAA Operational HYSPLIT Smoke Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. C.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; McQueen, J.; DiMego, G.; Kondragunta, S.; Gorline, J.; Huang, J. P.; Stunder, B.; Stein, A. F.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate Matter (PM) generated from forest fires often lead to degraded visibility and unhealthy air quality in nearby and downstream areas. To provide near-real time PM information to the state and local agencies, the NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) operational HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) smoke modeling system (NWS/HYSPLIT smoke) provides the forecast of smoke concentration resulting from fire emissions driven by the NWS North American Model 12 km weather predictions. The NWS/HYSPLIT smoke incorporates the U.S. Forest Service BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework (BlueSky) to provide smoke fire emissions along with the input fire locations from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)'s Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection system. Experienced analysts inspect satellite imagery from multiple sensors onboard geostationary and orbital satellites to identify the location, size and duration of smoke emissions for the model. NWS/HYSPLIT smoke is being updated to use a newer version of USFS BlueSky. The updated BlueSky incorporates the Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 2 (FCCS2) over the continental U.S. and Alaska. FCCS2 includes a more detailed description of fuel loadings with additional plant type categories. The updated BlueSky also utilizes an improved fuel consumption model and fire emission production system. For the period of August 2014 and June 2015, NWS/HYSPLIT smoke simulations show that fire smoke emissions with updated BlueSky are stronger than the current operational BlueSky in the Northwest U.S. For the same comparisons, weaker fire smoke emissions from the updated BlueSky were observed over the middle and eastern part of the U.S. A statistical evaluation of NWS/HYSPLIT smoke predicted total column concentration compared to NOAA NESDIS GOES EAST Aerosol Smoke Product retrievals is underway. Preliminary results show that using the newer version

  19. Using NOAA AVHRR data to assess flood damage in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Watanabe, Masataka; Hayashi, Seiji; Murakami, Shogo

    2003-03-01

    The article used two NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) datasets to assess flood damage in the middle and lower reaches of China's Changjiang River (Yangtze River) in 1998. As the AVHRR is an optical sensor, it cannot penetrate the clouds that frequently cover the land during the flood season, and this technology is greatly limited in flood monitoring. However the widely used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can be used to monitor flooding, since water has a much lower NDVI value than other surface features. Though many factors other than flooding (e.g. atmospheric conditions, different sun-target-satellite angles, and cloud) can change NDVI values, inundated areas can be distinguished from other types of ground cover by changes in the NDVI value before and after the flood after eliminating the effects of other factors on NDVI. AVHRR data from 26 May and 22 August, 1998 were selected to represent the ground conditions before and after flooding. After accurate geometric correction by collecting GCPs, and atmospheric and angular corrections by using the 6S code, NDVI values for both days and their differences were calculated for cloud-free pixels. The difference in the NDVI values between these two times, together with the NDVI values and a land-use map, were used to identify inundated areas and to assess the area lost to the flood. The results show a total of 358,867 ha, with 207,556 ha of cultivated fields (paddy and non-irrigated field) inundated during the flood of 1998 in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River Catchment; comparing with the reported total of 321,000 and 197,000 ha, respectively. The discrimination accuracy of this method was tested by comparing the results from two nearly simultaneous sets of remote-sensing data (NOAA's AVHRR data from 10 September, 1998, and JERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from 11 September, 1998, with a lag of about 18.5 hr) over a representative flooded region in the

  20. Earth Radiation Budget: Results of outgoing longwave radiation from Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and ERBS satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, T.D.; Smith, G.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Eighteen months of wide field-of-view (WFOV) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft have been deconvolved to produce resolution-enhanced flux maps at the top of the atmosphere. NOAA-9 had a 0230 LST equator-crossing time, and NOAA-10 a 0730 LST equator-crossing time. Intercomparison of these results with ERBE scanner and numerical filtered WFOV results is made. Results have also been compared with corresponding months of deconvolved results from the Nimbus-7 spacecraft (1200 LST equator crossing). Comparisons have been made of zonal profile plots of OLR for the different sensors and of contour maps of differences in OLR between sensors. In general Nimbus-7 OLR results show reasonable agreement with NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 over most regions of the globe. The largest differences occur over the extratropics, noticeably over land and especially over deserts. This study suggests that long-term monitoring of OLR with WFOV sensors is feasible for globally averaged trends to an accuracy of less than 1 W m[sup [minus]2], for the global absolute mean to within 3 W m[sup [minus]2], and for regional monthly means to within 8 W m[sup [minus]2] for most of the globe. Global averages for numerical filtered and deconvolved NOAA-9 WFOV results are consistently higher than Nimbus-7 deconvolved results because NOAA-9 results over land and deserts are higher. However, the ERBE NOAA-9 scanner gives smaller values of OLR over most regions of the globe than either the NOAA-9 WFOV numerical filtered or WFOV deconvolved results. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  2. Development, Production and Validation of the NOAA Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, O.; Lean, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    A new climate data record of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI), including source code and supporting documentation is now publicly available as part of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Climate Data Record (CDR) Program. Daily and monthly averaged values of TSI and SSI, with associated time and wavelength dependent uncertainties, are estimated from 1882 to the present with yearly averaged values since 1610, updated quarterly for the foreseeable future. The new Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record, jointly developed by the University of Colorado at Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is constructed from solar irradiance models that determine the changes from quiet Sun conditions when bright faculae and dark sunspots are present on the solar disk. The magnitudes of the irradiance changes that these features produce are determined from linear regression of the proxy Mg II index and sunspot area indices against the approximately decade-long solar irradiance measurements made by instruments on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft. We describe the model formulation, uncertainty estimates, operational implementation and validation approach. Future efforts to improve the uncertainty estimates of the Solar Irradiance CDR arising from model assumptions, and augmentation of the solar irradiance reconstructions with direct measurements from the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS: launch date, July 2017) are also discussed.

  3. Glacier Fluctuation and Climate Change: the NOAA/NSIDC Glacier Photo Digitization Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, T. L.; Armstrong, R.; Machado, A.; Wang, I.; Ballagh, L.; Paserba, A.; Edwards, M.; Yohe, L.; Fetterer, F.

    2002-12-01

    The study of historic glacier photographs is an excellent source of information about climate change. Glaciers are sensitive to temperature and precipitation patterns associated with climate change. Ice cores from glaciers can provide a long-term climate record and aid current scientific research in understanding changes that have occurred over tens of thousands of years. Within recent history, a warming climate has resulted in the unfortunate retreat and disappearance of glaciers around the world. Comparisons of glacial area and mass balance over time can help scientists understand a glacier's response to climate change. The National Snow and Ice Data Center is the repository of several thousand glacier photographs taken and collected by the American Geographical Society. The dates of the photographs range from the 1880s to the 1970s and the collection consists of both aerial and terrestrial photos. The digitization of these photographs will help inform users of their existence and will provide easier access to the images. It will also be an important first step in a project to display matching images of the same glaciers over time, thus providing an instantaneous visual representation of climate change. A searchable online database is being created for several thousand photographs and their accompanying metadata. Images will be retrievable by glacier name, photographer name, state, geographic coordinates, and subject keywords. This work is being done with funding by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP), whose goal is to make major climate databases available on the web.

  4. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  5. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  6. Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory 1. NOAA global monitoring for climatic change measurements with a nondispersive infrared analyzer, 1974--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W. D.; Harris, T. B.; Waterman, L. S.; Chin, J. F. S.; Thoning, K. W.

    1989-06-20

    Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ measurements made with a nondispersive infrared analyzer during 1974--1985 at Mauna Lao Observatory, Hawaii, are described, with emphasis on the measurement methodology, calibrations, and data accuracy. Monthly mean CO/sub 2/ data, representative of global background conditions, are presented for the period of record. The monthly means were derived from an all-data base of CO/sub 2/ hourly averged archived at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) facility in Boulder, Colorado; at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and in the microfiche version of this paper. Flags in the all-data base identify CO/sub 2/ hourly averages that have been deemed unreliable because of sampling and analysis problems or that are unrepresentative of clean background air because of influences of the local environment, for example, CO/sub 2/ uptake by nearby vegetation or contamination and pollution effects. The select NOAA GMCC monthly mean data are compared with similar data obtained independently at Mauna Loa Observatory by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The averge difference of corresponding monthly mean CO/sub 2/ values for the two data sets is 0.15/plus minus/0.18 ppm, where the indicated variability is the standard deviation. Careful scrutiny of the NOAA GMCC measurement, calibration, and data processing procedures that might have caused the small bias in the data has revealed no unusual errors. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. 78 FR 35638 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the NOAA Research Vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER, 9664988

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the NOAA Research Vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER... Alternative Compliance was issued for the NOAA research vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER as required by 33 U.S.C... 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18, has been issued for the NOAA research vessel FSV-6 RUBEN...

  8. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to..., App. A Appendix A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to..., App. A Appendix A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard...

  10. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to..., App. A Appendix A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard...

  11. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard User Fees:...

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to..., App. A Appendix A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard...

  13. NOAA's Multi-Sensor Fire Detection Program Using Environmental Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. P.; Stephens, G.; Fennimore, R.; Kasheta, T.; Callsen, T.; Ruminski, M.; Ramsay, B. H.

    2002-05-01

    NOAA/NESDIS built a comprehensive fire detection program, capitalized on existing sensors on the current suite of environmental satellites, and developed an innovative method to distribute the data to the fire community and public. Current detections are incorporated into the system from GOES, AVHRR, DMSP/OLS and MODIS. Data layers are made individually from each sensor. Once a day (soon to be twice a day), a trained satellite analyst prepares an integrated product using the Hazard Mapping System. The analyst validates detects from the automated algorithms and adds detects seen on satellite imagery. Data are available to the public in GIS formats via an Internet map server. Current efforts are focused on validating each data layer, improving the integrated product, adding smoke retrievals, and including additional civil and military data sources.

  14. NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices and agriculture-meteorology processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    1992-07-01

    Enzymes controlled biochemical reactions in photosynthesis and respiration processes are affected by temperature making Growing Degree Days (GDDs) an important crop growth agromet parameter. NOAA/AVHRR Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide integrated aspect of non-linear crop-growth processes. This paper describes the inter-relationships between temporal profiles of air temperature GDDs and RVI/NDVI over Ludhiana district wherein the 94.9% of agriculture area has been under wheat. The Regression Coefficients (RC) for RVI have been lower than that for NDVI in case of mean air temperature GDDs and are significant at 99% confidence level. Similar relationship has been also observed for maximum air temperature GDDs except that regression with RVI is significant at 98% confidence level. Such relationship with minimum air temperature GDDs is significant at 99% confidence level once the regression is restricted to mid of Milking-Dough stage.

  15. NOAA's National Climate Model Portal (NCMP): NOMADS Next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G. K.; Alpert, J. C.; Swank, D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) continues to increase it's user base with 100's of TB's and millions of downloads. The user base now includes a real-time operational component in the National Weather Service; and a developing "Ocean-NOMADS". These services are expected to continue to grow with new data sets from across the community. Currently, a new NOAA project called the National Climate Model Portal (NCMP), is being designed to address higher data volumes, and climate model output and inter-comparisons in a distributed open standards approach so successful in the NOMADS collaboration. This paper will describe the current status of NOMADS, and the vision that will be it's follow-on activity the NCMP.

  16. Vegetation monitoring and classification using NOAA/AVHRR satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greegor, D. H., Jr.; Norwine, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A vegetation gradient model, based on a new surface hydrologic index and NOAA/AVHRR meteorological satellite data, has been analyzed along a 1300 km east-west transect across the state of Texas. The model was developed to test the potential usefulness of such low-resolution data for vegetation stratification and monitoring. Normalized Difference values (ratio of AVHRR bands 1 and 2, considered to be an index of greenness) were determined and evaluated against climatological and vegetation characteristics at 50 sample locations (regular intervals of 0.25 deg longitude) along the transect on five days in 1980. Statistical treatment of the data indicate that a multivariate model incorporating satellite-measured spectral greenness values and a surface hydrologic factor offer promise as a new technique for regional-scale vegetation stratification and monitoring.

  17. Monitoring tropical cyclone evolution with NOAA satellite microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, C.; Smith, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    NOAA satellite microwave soundings, which penetrate high clouds, delineate the development and dissipation of the upper tropospheric warm core associated with a tropical cyclone. The storm's 'core" may be detected from microwave imagery. Vertical cross sections reveal the intensification of the upper tropospheric warm core as the storm develops, and the downward propagation of the warm core as the storm dissipates. Excellent correlation is found between the horizontal Laplacian of an upper tropospheric temperature field and the intensity of the storm, as categorized by its surface central pressure and maximum sustained wind speed at the eye wall. The microwave monitoring of tropical cyclones is achieved in real time at the University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center through high-speed teleconnections to direct readout receiving systems at Wallops Island, Virginia and Redwood City, California.

  18. SIGN SINGULARITY AND FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriso-Valvo, L.; De Vita, G.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Krucker, S.; Welsch, B. T.; Fisher, G. H.; Primavera, L.; Servidio, S.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V.; Vecchio, A.

    2015-03-01

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares and the presence of correlation with Extreme-Ultra-Violet and X-ray flux suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small-scale properties of the current structures.

  19. Polarized Solid State Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Meyer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The polarized solid state target is an indispensable experimental tool to study single and double polarization observables at low intensity particle beams like tagged photons. It was one of the major components of the Crystal-Barrel experiment at ELSA. Besides the operation of the 'CB frozen spin target' within the experimental program of the Crystal-Barrel collaboration both collaborative groups of the D1 project, the polarized target group of the Ruhr Universität Bochum and the Bonn polarized target group, have made significant developments in the field of polarized targets within the CRC16. The Bonn polarized target group has focused its work on the development of technically challenging polarized solid target systems towards the so called '4π continuous mode polarized target' to operate them in combination with 4π-particle detection systems. In parallel, the Bochum group has developed various highly polarized deuterated target materials and high precision NMR-systems, in the meantime used for polarization experiments at CERN, JLAB and MAMI, too.

  20. Exploring new bands in modified multichannel regression SST algorithms for the next-generation infrared sensors at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kramar, M.; Kihai, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Multichannel regression algorithms are widely used to retrieve sea surface temperature (SST) from infrared observations with satellite radiometers. Their theoretical foundations were laid in the 1980s-1990s, during the era of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers which have been flown onboard NOAA satellites since 1981. Consequently, the multi-channel and non-linear SST algorithms employ the bands centered at 3.7, 11 and 12 μm, similar to available in AVHRR. More recent radiometers carry new bands located in the windows near 4 μm, 8.5 μm and 10 μm, which may also be used for SST. Involving these bands in SST retrieval requires modifications to the regression SST equations. The paper describes a general approach to constructing SST regression equations for an arbitrary number of radiometric bands and explores the benefits of using extended sets of bands available with the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) flown onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) and to be flown onboard the follow-on Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites, J1-J4, to be launched from 2017-2031; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) flown onboard Aqua and Terra satellites; and the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) flown onboard the Japanese Himawari-8 satellite (which in turn is a close proxy of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be flown onboard the future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R) planned for launch in October 2016.

  1. Environmental degradation analysis using NOAA/AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Meirelles, M. S.; Costa, G. A.; Herlin, I.; Berroir, J. P.; Silva, E. F.

    This work proposes a particular approach to assess information about soil degradation, based on a methodology to calculate soil color from NOAA/AVHRR data. As erosive processes change physical and chemical properties of the soil, altering, consequently, the superficial color, monitoring the change in color over time can help to identify and analyze those processes. The test area of the methodology is the Upper Taquari River Basin, in the central region of Brazil, where the lack of planning of agricultural land use has been causing important erosion with consequent intensification of the deposition of sediments in the water bodies, increasing the spatial and temporal significance of flood events over the Brazilian Pantanal region, a Biosphere Reserve. Based on a theoretical model, which establishes the relationship among the soil color (described in the Munsell Color System), vegetation indices, surface temperature and emissivity, the methodology has three main phases: determination of the correlation models among soil color and vegetation indices, emissivity and surface temperature; generation of digital soil color models; and statistical evaluation of the calculated color. The tests showed that the methodology is efficient in determining soil color using the NDVI, MSAVI and PAVI vegetation indices. Best results were obtained for the hue color component: comparing the calculated hue with ground truth data, the following determination coefficients (r^2) were found: 0.76 for NDVI, 0.74 for MSAVI and 0.75 for PAVI. To further test the methodology, the calculated digital color models were compared with the characteristic color of soil classes in the Upper Taquari Basin. The results of this application confirmed the methodology's capacity to determine the soil color from NOAA/AVHRR data. This type of study is quite helpful to know the erosion of soil as well as some abrupt change in soil due to natural hazards by space borne or air-borne sensors.

  2. Environmental degradation analysis using NOAA/AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Meirelles, M. S. P.; Costa, G. A.; Herlin, I.; Berroir, J. P.; Silva, E. F.

    This paper proposes a particular approach to assess information about soil degradation, based on a methodology to calculate soil color from NOAA/AVHRR data. As erosive processes change physical and chemical properties of the soil, altering, consequently, the superficial color, monitoring the change in color over time can help to identify and analyze those processes. A relationship among the soil color (described in the Munsell Color System, i.e., in terms of Hue, Value and Chroma), vegetation indices, surface temperature and emissivity has been established, which is based on the theoretical model. The methodology has three main phases: determination of the regression models among soil color and vegetation indices, emissivity and surface temperature; generation of digital soil color models; and statistical evaluation of the estimated color. The tests showed that the methodology is efficient in determining soil color using the various vegetation indices (i.e., Normalized vegetation index NDVI, Modified soil adjusted vegetation index MSAVI). One vegetation index, i.e., Purified adjusted vegetation index (PAVI) is proposed to subsidies the effect of vegetation over the soil. Best results were obtained for the Hue color component. To further test the methodology, the estimated digital color models were compared with the characteristic color of soil classes in the test area. The results of this application confirmed the methodology’s capacity to determine the soil color from NOAA/AVHRR data. This type of study is quite helpful to know the erosion of soil as well as some abrupt change in soil due to natural hazards by space borne or air-borne sensors.

  3. NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater: 90 Minutes of Spectacular Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations from space in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Ashville and the Conference Auditorium. Zoom through the Cosmos to SLC and site of the 2002 Winter Olympics using 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Contrast the 1972 Apollo 17 'Blue Marble' image of the Earth with the latest US and International global satellite images that allow us to view our Planet from any vantage point. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, & Landsat 7, of storms & fires like Hurricane Isabel and the LA/San Diego Fire Storms of 2003. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we do science communication. Take the pulse of the planet on a daily, annual and 30-year time scale. See daily thunderstorms, the annual blooming of the northern hemisphere land masses and oceans, fires in Africa, dust storms in Iraq, and carbon monoxide exhaust from global burning. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. Spectacular new global visualizations of the observed and simulated atmosphere and Oceans are shown. See the currents and vortexes in the Oceans that bring up the nutrients blooms in response to El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The Etheater will be presented using the latest High Definition TV (HDTV) and video projection technology on a large screen. See the global city lights, and the great NE US blackout of August 2003 observed by the 'night-vision' DMSP satellite.

  4. NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater: An Hour of Spectacular Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasier, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations from space in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Utah, Logan and the USU Agriculture Station. Compare zooms through the Cosmos to the sites of the 2004 Summer and 2002 Winter Olympic games using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Contrast the 1972 Apollo 17 "Blue Marble" image of the Earth with the latest US and International global satellite images that allow us to view our Planet from any vantage point. See the latest spectacular images h m NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiF!3,& Landsat 7, of storms & fires like Hurricanes Charlie & Isabel and the LA/San Diego Fire Storms of 2003. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we do science communication. Take the pulse of the planet on a daily, annual and 30-year time scale. See daily thunderstorms, the annual greening of the northern hemisphere land masses and oceans, fires in Africa, dust storms in Iraq, and carbon monoxide exhaust from global burning. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. Spectacular new global visualizations of the observed and simulated atmosphere & oceans are shown. See the currents and vortexes in the oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny plankton and draw the fish, whales and fishermen. See the how the Ocean blooms in response to El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The E-theater will be presented using the latest High Definition TV and video projection technology on a large screen. See the global city lights, and the great NE US blackout of August 2003 observed by the "night-vision" DMSP satellite.

  5. Improving Climate Literacy of NOAA Staff and Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Bair, A.; Staudenmaier, M.; Meyers, J. C.; Mayes, B.; Zdrojewski, J.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2002, NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) has offered numerous training opportunities to NWS staff. After eight-years of development, the training program offers three instructor-led courses and roughly 25 online (distance learning) modules covering various climate topics, such as: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, and NWS national / local climate products (tools, skill, and interpretation). Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows for the delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. The emerging NOAA Climate Service (NCS) requires a well-trained, climate-literate workforce at the local level capable of delivering NOAA’s climate products and services as well as providing climate-sensitive decision support. NWS Weather Forecast Offices and River Forecast Centers presently serve as local outlets for the NCS climate services. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-sound messages and amiable communication techniques are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects have been conducted by the NWS CSD this past year that apply the program’s training lessons and expertise to specialized external user group training. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring instructions to the potential applications for each group of users. Training technical users identified the following critical issues: (1) knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate information; (2

  6. Statistical Polarization Mode Dispersion/Polarization Dependent Loss Emulator for Polarization Division Multiplexing Transmission Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlicki, Krzysztof

    2010-03-01

    A low-cost statistical polarization mode dispersion/polarization dependent loss emulator is presented in this article. The emulator was constructed by concatenating 15 highly birefringence optical-fiber segments and randomly varying the mode coupling between them by rotating the polarization state. The impact of polarization effects on polarization division multiplexing transmission quality was measured. The designed polarization mode dispersion/polarization dependent loss emulator was applied to mimic the polarization effects of real optical-fiber links.

  7. June 2013 Meteotsunami Captured by NOAA/NOS Coastal Water Level Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, K.; DiVeglio, C.; Welty, A.

    2014-12-01

    On June 13, 2013, a north-south oriented, long formation of strong storms passed eastward over the New Jersey coast. Three hours later, while the weather was calm, a sudden runup of water along the New Jersey and New England coasts was witnessed despite no nearby seismic activity. Post-event analysis revealed that a rare meteotsunami impacted the East Coast of the United States. The strong pressure jump associated with the storms generated an ocean wave that became amplified when the speed of the storms reached the speed of the wave, creating resonance. The wave approached the Mid-Atlantic shelf break and reflected back, explaining the time lag between the passing storms and the incoming wave. The National Water Level Observing Network (NWLON) stations maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) measured strong water level oscillations at several stations along the eastern seaboard. The detided one-minute data show the tsunami signal with maximum amplitudes ranging from 0.16 m at Nantucket Island, MA to 0.61 m. at Newport, RI. The Narragansett Bay stations captured the meteotsunami wave propagating northward and diminishing towards the innermost part of the Bay. The Atlantic City, NJ station captured the 3.2-mb pressure jump in the six-minute barometer data from the passing storms as well as the incoming wave that hit three hours later with a maximum amplitude of 0.47 m. Along the U.S. coast, harbor shape and orientation contributed to the strength of the tsunami wave, and some stations that were in shadowed areas did not measure a strong signal despite being in an area of measurable impact. Meteotsunamis pose a threat to the U.S. coastline, and without high-resolution observations and models these events cannot be quantitatively forecasted. NOAA does not currently have an operational warning system but the June 2013 meteotsunami provides an

  8. A NASA-NOAA Update on Global Fire Monitoring Capabilities for Studying Fire-Climate Interactions: Focus on Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.; Csiszar, I.

    2012-04-01

    subject of several research projects in the NASA LCLUC program over the globe, and, in particular, in Northern Eurasia. As an operational agency, NOAA puts global fire monitoring as a priority and supports related GCOS, CEOS and GOFC-GOLD objectives. NOAA developed an operational quasi-global fire monitoring system using geostationary satellites that provides coverage over parts of Northern Eurasia. Fire products from the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) sensor on the NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) satellite, launched in October 2011, and on subsequent JPSS satellites will ensure high quality global fire monitoring and will extent the AVHRR- and MODIS-based fire data record over Northern Eurasia. This overview presents an update of NASA's and NOAA's fire monitoring capability and scientific achievements on fire-climate interactions. We will illustrate how combination of coarse spatial resolution polar orbiting satellite observations are combined with moderate spatial resolution observations to better monitor the location of fires and burned areas. While coarse resolution data have been more or less easily available, the utility of moderate resolution Landsat data has increased tremendously during the past couple of years once the data became freely available. Data fusion from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites will be discussed.

  9. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  10. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  11. Comparison of inferred and observed interplanetary magnetic field polarities, 1970-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Hedgecock, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The inferred polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field at earth using polar observations of the geomagnetic field has been compared with spacecraft observations. A list published by Svalgaard (1974) of the inferred field polarities in the period from 1970 to 1972 is found to be correct on 82% of the days. A near real-time (same day) method of inferring the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field using geomagnetic observations at Vostok and Thule is in use at the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. During 1972, this method is found to be correct on 87% of the days. A list of 'well-defined' sector boundaries at earth from 1970 to 1972 is given.

  12. Retrieval of the polarized submarine light field from above surface measurements using polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Robert; McGilloway, Anna; Ottaviani, Matteo; Carrizo, Carlos; Gilerson, Alex; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sam

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the underwater light field is fundamental to determining the health of the world's oceans and coastal regions. For decades, traditional remote sensing retrieval methods that rely solely on the spectral intensity of the water-leaving light have provided indicators of marine ecosystem health. As the demand for retrieval accuracy rises, use of the polarized nature of light as an additional remote sensing tool is becoming necessary. For two weeks in December 2015, the NOAA NPP-VIIRS Calibration/Validation cruise continuously observed the polarized radiance of the ocean and the sky using a HyperSAS-POL system. Additionally, a full Stokes imaging polarimetric camera was used to acquire images and videos of the sea surface and sky during stations at coincident angles with HyperSAS-POL. Polarized remote sensing reflectance is computed for all viewing elevations present in the polarization images, and the results are compared to vector radiative transfer calculations.

  13. A dual polarized antenna system using a meanderline polarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    Certain applications of synthetic aperture radars (e.g., aerial crop surveying) require transmission on one linear polarization and reception on two orthogonal linear polarizations for adequate characterization of the surface. To meet this requirement at minimum cost, it was desirable to use two identically polarized shaped beam antennas and to change the polarization of one of them by a polarization conversion plate. The plate was realized as a four-layer meanderline polarizer designed to convert horizontal polarization to vertical.

  14. A dual polarized antenna system using a meanderline polarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    Certain applications of synthetic aperture radars require transmitting on one linear polarization and receiving on two orthogonal linear polarizations for adequate characterization of the surface. To meet the current need at minimum cost, it was desirable to use two identical horizontally polarized shaped beam antennas and to change the polarization of one of them by a polarization conversion plate. The plate was realized as a four-layer meanderline polarizer designed to convert horizontal polarization to vertical.

  15. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  16. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  17. Polarization at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  18. A Consistent AVHRR Visible Calibration Record Based on Multiple Methods Applicable for the NOAA Degrading Orbits. Part 2 ; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelling, David R.; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Gopalan, Arun; Haney, Conor O.; Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent cross-sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) calibration coefficients are determined using desert, polar ice, and deep convective cloud (DCC) invariant Earth targets. The greatest AVHRR calibration challenge is the slow orbit degradation of the host satellite, which precesses toward a terminator orbit. This issue is solved by characterizing the invariant targets with NOAA-16 AVHRR observed radiances that have been referenced to the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) calibration using simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations. Another benefit of the NOAA-16 invariant target-modeled reflectance method is that, because of the similarities among the AVHRR spectral response functions, a smaller spectral band adjustment factor is required than when establishing calibrations relative to a non-AVHRR reference instrument. The sensor- and band-specific calibration uncertainties, with respect to the calibration reference, are, on average, 2 percent and 3 percent for channels 1 and 2, respectively. The uncertainties are smaller for sensors that are in afternoon orbits, have longer records, and spend less time in terminator conditions. The multiple invariant targets referenced to Aqua MODIS (MITRAM) AVHRR calibration coefficients are evaluated for individual target consistency, compared against Aqua MODIS/AVHRR SNOs, and selected published calibration gains. The MITRAM and SNO relative calibration biases mostly agree to within 1 percent for channels 1 and 2, respectively. The individual invariant target and MITRAM sensor relative calibration biases are mostly consistent to within 1 percent and 2 percent for channels 1 and 2, respectively. The differences between the MITRAM and other published calibrations are mostly attributed to the reference instrument calibration differences.

  19. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  20. Developing Vocabularies to Improve Understanding and Use of NOAA Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis project (NOSIA II), is an attempt to capture and tell the story of how valuable observing systems are in producing products and services that are required to fulfill the NOAA's diverse mission. NOAA's goals and mission areas cover a broad range of environmental data; a complexity exists in terms and vocabulary as applied to the creation of observing system derived products. The NOSIA data collection focused first on decomposing NOAA's goals in the creation and acceptance of Mission Service Areas (MSAs) by NOAA senior leadership. Products and services that supported the MSAs were then identified through the process of interviewing product producers across NOAA organization. Product Data inputs including models, databases and observing system were also identified. The NOSIA model contains over 20,000 nodes each representing levels in a network connecting products, datasources, users and desired outcomes. An immediate need became apparent that the complexity and variety of the data collected required data management to mature the quality and the content of the NOSIA model. The NOSIA Analysis Database (ADB) was developed initially to improve consistency of terms and data types to allow for the linkage of observing systems, products and NOAA's Goals and mission. The ADB also allowed for the prototyping of reports and product generation in an easily accessible and comprehensive format for the first time. Web based visualization of relationships between products, datasources, users, producers were generated to make the information easily understood This includes developing ontologies/vocabularies that are used for the development of users type specific products for NOAA leadership, Observing System Portfolio mangers and the users of NOAA data.

  1. How to Get Data from NOAA Environmental Satellites: An Overview of Operations, Products, Access and Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, N.; Graumann, A.; McNamara, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight access and availability of NOAA satellite data for near real time (NRT) and retrospective product users. The presentation includes an overview of the current fleet of NOAA satellites and methods of data distribution and access to hundreds of imagery and products offered by the Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In particular, emphasis on the various levels of services for current and past observations will be presented. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources. In special cases, users are authorized direct access to NESDIS data distribution systems for environmental satellite data and products. Other means of access include publicly available distribution services such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS), NOAA satellite direct broadcast services and various NOAA websites and ftp servers, including CLASS. CLASS is NOAA's information technology system designed to support long-term, secure preservation and standards-based access to environmental data collections and information. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is responsible for the ingest, quality control, stewardship, archival and access to data and science information. This work will also show the latest technology improvements, enterprise approach and future plans for distribution of exponentially increasing data volumes from future NOAA missions. A primer on access to NOAA operational satellite products and services is available at http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/About/access.html. Access to post-operational satellite data and assorted products is available at http://www.class.noaa.gov

  2. Earth radiation budget - Results of outgoing longwave radiation from Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and ERBS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. D.; Smith, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from Nimbus-7 ERB wide field-of-view instruments are compared with results from the ERBE instruments aboard the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites. Over most regions of the globe, the agreement between the two sets of OLR results is generally to within 8 W/sq m. There are larger differences at higher latitudes and regions concentrated over land and desert. Results of daytime and nighttime differences suggest that the shortwave channels may be at fault due to their different design for Nimbus-7 and NOAA-9. Some of the differences may also be related to different viewing geometry of the two satellites.

  3. VIIRS Unique Fires Compared to the NOAA Hazard Mapping System Fire Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruminski, M.; Liddick, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides radiometric measurements for automated fire detection. The baseline VIIRS Active Fire Product (AFP) is very similar to the collection 4 legacy fire detection algorithm developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft and is expected to become operational and validated in the Fall of 2014. VIIRS (imagery and the AFP) will soon be incorporated into NESDIS' operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire and smoke analysis. The HMS incorporates a wide variety of satellite data for use in fire detection, including GOES-East and GOES-West at least every 15 minutes, five NOAA and METOP polar orbiting satellites with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument and MODIS Aqua/Terra. The HMS utilizes the automated fire detections from each of the sensors which are then quality controlled by an analyst. The VIIRS AFP became available for evaluation with the HMS in the Spring of 2014. The AFP was compared with the final quality controlled HMS product over the contiguous US between 8 April and 8 June 2014, which is primarily the agricultural and prescribed fire season, in order to determine the number of VIIRS unique fires. In making the comparison, any VIIRS AFP fire that was within 4 km of an HMS fire would not be considered unique, due to navigational accuracy and the 4km nominal resolution of GOES. Any VIIRS fire that was within 2km of a power plant or a known false detect location was also not considered. Based on these criteria there were 5876 VIIRS AFP unique locations compared to 71,705 HMS detections, approximately 8 percent of the HMS total. These extra locations potentially represent additional emissions that could affect air quality. The geographic distribution resembled the burning pattern during this period with the majority over the

  4. Observational Evidence Against Mountain-Wave Generation of Ice Nuclei as a Prerequisite for the Formation of Three Solid Nitric Acid Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed in the Arctic in Early December 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, Kathy L.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Hervig, Mark E.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Browell, Edward V.; Legg, Marion J.; Foschi, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    A number of recently published papers suggest that mountain-wave activity in the stratosphere, producing ice particles when temperatures drop below the ice frost point, may be the primary source of large NAT particles. In this paper we use measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites to map out regions of ice clouds produced by stratospheric mountain-wave activity inside the Arctic vortex. Lidar observations from three DC-8 flights in early December 1999 show the presence of solid nitric acid (Type Ia or NAT) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). By using back trajectories and superimposing the position maps on the AVHRR cloud imagery products, we show that these observed NAT clouds could not have originated at locations of high-amplitude mountain-wave activity. We also show that mountain-wave PSC climatology data and Mountain Wave Forecast Model 2.0 (MWFM-2) raw hemispheric ray and grid box averaged hemispheric wave temperature amplitude hindcast data from the same time period are in agreement with the AVHRR data. Our results show that ice cloud formation in mountain waves cannot explain how at least three large scale NAT clouds were formed in the stratosphere in early December 1999.

  5. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  6. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  7. Polar Science Is Cool!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  8. Generalized mosaicing: polarization panorama.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y; Nayar, Shree K

    2005-04-01

    We present an approach to image the polarization state of object points in a wide field of view, while enhancing the radiometric dynamic range of maging systems by generalizing image mosaicing. The approach is biologically-inspired, as it emulates spatially varying polarization sensitivity of some animals. In our method, a spatially varying polarization and attenuation filter is rigidly attached to a camera. As the system moves, it senses each scene point multiple times, each time filtering it through a different filter polarizing angle, polarizance, and transmittance. Polarization is an additional dimension of the generalized mosaicing paradigm, which has recently yielded high dynamic range images and multispectral images in a wide field of view using other kinds of filters. The image acquisition is as easy as in traditional image mosaics. The computational algorithm can easily handle nonideal polarization filters (partial polarizers), variable exposures, and saturation in a single framework. The resulting mosaic represents the polarization state at each scene point. Using data acquired by this method, we demonstrate attenuation and enhancement of specular reflections and semireflection separation in an image mosaic.

  9. The Polar Insulation Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban-Rich, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation Investigation." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…

  10. Our Polar Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  11. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  12. Nomenclature of polarized light - Elliptical polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, D.

    1974-01-01

    Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of elliptical polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.

  13. Polarization of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloub, Philippe; Herman, Maurice; Parol, Frederic

    1995-12-01

    This paper reports the main results concerning polarization by clouds derived from POLDER (polarization and directionality of earth's reflectances) airborne version. These results tend to confirm the high information content in the polarization (phase, altimetry). The preliminary results of EUCREX'94 (European Cloud Radiation Experiment) evidenced the drastically different polarized signatures for ice crystals and water droplets. Here we report systematic and statistically significative observations over the whole EUCREX data set. The results show that the cirrus exhibit their own signature. Preliminary observations performed during CLEOPATRA'91 (Cloud Experiment Ober Pfaffenhofen And Transport) and EUCREX'94 campaigns have shown the feasibility of cloud altimetry using spectral information (443 nm and 865 nm) of the polarized light over liquid water droplets clouds. Altimetry technique has been generalized on ASTEX-SOFIA'92 and EUCREX'94 data sets. All these results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  15. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    PubMed Central

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813

  16. Cell polarity: mechanochemical patterning.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Nathan W; Grill, Stephan W

    2013-02-01

    Nearly every cell type exhibits some form of polarity, yet the molecular mechanisms vary widely. Here we examine what we term 'chemical systems' where cell polarization arises through biochemical interactions in signaling pathways, 'mechanical systems' where cells polarize due to forces, stresses and transport, and 'mechanochemical systems' where polarization results from interplay between mechanics and chemical signaling. To reveal potentially unifying principles, we discuss mathematical conceptualizations of several prototypical examples. We suggest that the concept of local activation and global inhibition - originally developed to explain spatial patterning in reaction-diffusion systems - provides a framework for understanding many cases of cell polarity. Importantly, we find that the core ingredients in this framework - symmetry breaking, self-amplifying feedback, and long-range inhibition - involve processes that can be chemical, mechanical, or even mechanochemical in nature.

  17. The utility of polarized heliospheric imaging for space weather monitoring.

    PubMed

    DeForest, C E; Howard, T A; Webb, D F; Davies, J A

    2016-01-01

    A polarizing heliospheric imager is a critical next generation tool for space weather monitoring and prediction. Heliospheric imagers can track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they cross the solar system, using sunlight scattered by electrons in the CME. This tracking has been demonstrated to improve the forecasting of impact probability and arrival time for Earth-directed CMEs. Polarized imaging allows locating CMEs in three dimensions from a single vantage point. Recent advances in heliospheric imaging have demonstrated that a polarized imager is feasible with current component technology.Developing this technology to a high technology readiness level is critical for space weather relevant imaging from either a near-Earth or deep-space mission. In this primarily technical review, we developpreliminary hardware requirements for a space weather polarizing heliospheric imager system and outline possible ways to flight qualify and ultimately deploy the technology operationally on upcoming specific missions. We consider deployment as an instrument on NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory follow-on near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, as a stand-alone constellation of smallsats in low Earth orbit, or as an instrument located at the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point. The critical first step is the demonstration of the technology, in either a science or prototype operational mission context.

  18. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  19. 75 FR 338 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Teacher at Sea Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... program experience in their classrooms, plus two recommendations and a NOAA Health Services Questionnaire... report detailing the events of the cruise and ideas for classroom activities based on what they...

  20. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  1. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  2. Neutron Polarizers Based on Polarized 3He

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Snow

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this work, which is a collaborative effort between Indiana University, NIST, and Hamilton College, is to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by the development and application of polarized 3He-based neutron spin filters. After the IPNS experiment which measured Zeeman sp[litting in surface scattered neutrons using a polarized 3He cell as a polarization analyzer transporterd by car from Bloomington to Chicago, the Indiana work focused on technical developments to improve the 3He polarization of the Indiana compression system. The compression system was rebuilt with a new valve system which allows gas trapped in the dead volume of the compressors at the end of the piston stroke to be exhausted and conducted back to the optical pumping cell where it can be repolarized. We also incorporated a new intermediate storage volume made at NIST from 1720 glass which will reduce polarization losses between the compressors. Furthermore, we improved the stability of the 1083 nm laser by cooling the LMA rod. We achieved 60% 3he polarization in the optical pumping cell and 87% preservation of the polarization during compression. In parallel we built a magnetically-shielded transport solenoid for use on neutron scattering instruments such as POSY which achieves a fractional field uniformity of better than 10-3 per cm. The field was mapped using an automated 3D field mapping system for in-situ measurement of magnetic field gradients Diluted magnetic semiconductors offer many exciting opportunities for investigation of spintronic effects in solids and are certain to be one of the most active areas of condensed matter physics over then next several years. These materials can act as efficient spin injectors for devices that make use of spin-dependent transport phenomena. We just (late July 2002) finished a neutron reflectivity experiment at NIST on a GaMnAs trilayer film. This material is a ferromagnetic semiconductor which is of interest

  3. Progress and Processes for Generating NOAA's Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. S.; Glance, W. J.; Bates, J. J.; Kearns, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA established a satellite Climate Data Record Program (CDRP) at its National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide a systematic reprocessing capability which will generate sustained and authoritative climate information from 30+ years of satellite data. CDRP implements a unique approach in archiving not only the data products themselves, but also the software, ancillary data, and enough documentation to allow any user with the processing power, to reproduce the data. Best practices, such as a common maturity matrix, software guidelines, and format standards, are employed to facilitate both the transition of research algorithms to operational software, and the long-term maintenance of the software. Throughout the implementation and execution of the program, CDRP seeks to adhere to production guidelines from Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and World Meteorological Organization's (WMO's) Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPE-CM activity. Elements of the CDR Adaptive Processing System (CAPS) are described, along with the system's implementation approach, performance expectations, and plans for growth to accommodate increased CDR processing. In addition, a cost model has been implemented to capture the cost of CDR generation and maintenance, considering variables such as CDR complexity, source, and maturity at the beginning of the process.

  4. Big Data Partnerships at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) was created this year as the merger of the previously distinct National Climatic Data Center, National Geophysical Data Center, and National Oceanographic Data Center. Stewarding petabytes of data from thousands of institutions and individuals around the world, from thousands of platforms and data types in a wide range of data formats, NCEI sees partnerships as an essential component of its Big Data operations. To ensure the optimal reuse of all of these data, NCEI engages partners along tiers of data stewardship from long-term preservation and basic access, to enhanced access and quality control, through value-added product development, and on to national and international services. This presentation will detail how NCEI is engaged in efforts like the Big Data Partnership Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, the Big Earth Data Initiative, national and international data exchange networks, and with partners across governmental, academic, and commercial sectors to "big data enable" its data collections and serve as the Nation's trusted and authoritative source of environmental data and information.

  5. Oscillations in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 11272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde Cuellar, S. M.; Costa, J. E. R.; Cedeño Montaña, C. E.

    2016-11-01

    We studied waves seen during the class C1.9 flare that occurred in Active Region NOAA 11272 on SOL2011-08-17. We found standing waves with periods in the 9- and 19-minute band in six extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths of the SDO/AIA instrument. We succeeded in identifying the magnetic arc where the flare started and two neighbour loops that were disturbed in sequence. The analysed standing waves spatially coincide with these observed EUV loops. To study the wave characteristics along the loops, we extrapolated field lines from the line-of-sight magnetograms using the force-free approximation in the linear regime. We used atmosphere models to determine the mass density and temperature at each height of the loop. Then, we calculated the sound and Alfvén speeds using densities 108 ≲ ni ≲ 10^{17} cm^{-3} and temperatures 103 ≲ T ≲ 107 K. The brightness asymmetry in the observed standing waves resembles the Alfvén speed distribution along the loops, but the atmospheric model we used needs higher densities to explain the observed periods.

  6. Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

  7. An Overview of the NOAA Drought Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.; Mo, K.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Wood, A.

    2012-01-01

    The charge of the NOAA Drought Task Force is to coordinate and facilitate the various MAPP-funded research efforts with the overall goal of achieving significant advances in understanding and in the ability to monitor and predict drought over North America. In order to achieve this, the task force has developed a Drought Test-bed that individual research groups can use to test/evaluate methods and ideas. Central to this is a focus on three high profile North American droughts (1998-2004 western US drought, 2006-2007 SE US drought, 2011- current Tex-Mex drought) to facilitate collaboration among projects, including the development of metrics to assess the quality of monitoring and prediction products, and the development of an experimental drought monitoring and prediction system that incorporates and assesses recent advances. This talk will review the progress and plans of the task force, including efforts to help advance official national drought products, and the development of early warning systems by the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). Coordination with other relevant national and international efforts such as the emerging NMME capabilities and the international effort to develop a Global Drought Information System (GDIS) will be discussed.

  8. Polarization at the SLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffeit, Kenneth C.

    1989-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z0 mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Mo/ller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses.

  9. NOAA View: An Exploration Tool to Simplify Data Access and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisut, D.; Loomis, T.; Goel, V.; Carroll, J.

    2014-12-01

    A normal search for data would, ideally, start with the defining a variable of interest and eventually moving down to the acquisition method or analysis type. Too often, data archives assume the users understand the complex terminology of sensors and model names, or even worse - their acronyms. Imagine a non-subject matter expert, especially an educator or hobbyist, trying to navigate this sea of data and seemingly nonsense strings of letters like AVHRR, ESM2M, CFSR, or MLOST. At the NOAA VIsualization Lab, we deal with these issues on a routine basis, and are trying to make data discovery for formal and informal educational use much easier. In this talk, we'll describe the efforts to build the NOAA View data exploration tool, which provides access to over 100 variables from a myriad of satellite, in situ, model, and analysis sources across the agency. NOAA View, a WMS and OpenLayers based web tool and data portal, not only serves data imagery, but also links back to original sources in the data archives. The current architecture as well as plans for future versions will be detailed, along with examples of uses across the geophysical sciences. In addition to the talk, please visit NOAA View at the NOAA exhibit. www.nnvl.noaa.gov/view

  10. Animated Displays IV: Linear Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that can be easily reproduced to help students understand optical polarization. Displays and supplement text include polarization by reflection; polarization by scattering; liquid crystals; optical activity; calcite; birefringent plastics; retardation plates; photoelasticity; and the "Optical Barber…

  11. Polar Code Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Unclassified 2a SECURITY CLASSiF-ICATiON AUTHORIT’Y 3 DIStRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REPORT N,A Approved for public release; 2o DECLASSIFICAIiON DOWNGRADING SCH DI...SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3 . POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL-ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...11 Structure of the Bipolar Plasma Sheath Generated by SPEAR I ... ...... 1 3 The POLAR Code Wake Model: Comparison with in Situ Observations . . 23

  12. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  13. Joint Polar Satellite System's Operational and Research Applications from Suomi NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key operational and research applications, and includes: 1) Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. 2) Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. 3) Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be discussed, including the use of CrIS and ATMS for improved weather forecasting, the use of VIIRS for environmental monitoring of sea ice, smoke, fire, floods, droughts, coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms

  14. Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings.

    PubMed

    Nersisyan, Sarik R; Tabiryan, Nelson V; Hoke, Landa; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2009-02-02

    Liquid crystal polarization gratings exhibit high diffraction efficiency (approximately 100%) in thin material layers comparable to the radiation wavelength. We demonstrate that they can be combined for polarization-insensitive imaging and optical switching applications. A pair of closely spaced, parallel oriented, cycloidal polarization gratings is capable of canceling the diffractive property of an individual grating. As a result, the phase of the beam is not distorted, and holographic images can be formed through them. An anti-parallel arrangement results in a broader effective diffraction band and doubles the diffraction angle. Broadband diffraction spanning from 480 nm to beyond 900 nm wavelengths has been obtained for a pair of gratings with 500 nm and 633 nm peak diffraction wavelengths. Liquid crystal polymer cycloidal gratings were used in the study showing 98% diffraction efficiency over a large area, and allowed for the use of laser beams expanded to 25 mm. The characteristics of combined cycloidal gratings were tested with laser beams at both UV and red wavelengths.

  15. StormReady in a Box: Enhancing NOAA's Presence in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, N. S.; Franks, C.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service StormReady Supporter program exists to give schools, companies, TV stations, and other facilities the opportunity to earn recognition for their weather preparedness and awareness. Requirements to earn StormReady Supporter status include having a facility warning point, use of NOAA Weather Radios, and weather hazard Emergency Operation Plans. Despite the increasing importance of weather preparedness in schools, only 1.2% of Minnesota schools are deemed StormReady by the National Weather Service. It was determined that the major impedance for schools becoming StormReady Supporters is the lack of time for administrators to engage in anything "extra" beyond their listed duties. As part of a 2015 Hollings Scholar project, the StormReady in a Box concept was developed to remedy this, by empowering teachers and students to take charge and complete the StormReady Supporter application for their school. StormReady in a Box is a project developed for Junior High School students to learn about weather preparedness and to help their school acquire StormReady status. The project was designed to be relevant to the Minnesota State Education Standards in Science, be simple for teachers to do with their students, and most importantly, to be enjoyable for Junior High School age students to do. The project was also designed to enhance critical thinking skills and logical reasoning abilities, as they relate to the StormReady Supporter application. This presentation will present the overall rationale for the undertaking of this project, the creation of, and the logical next steps for the StormReady in a Box project.

  16. The Long-term Performance of NOAA's Operational Open Ocean Tsunameter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, J.; Bouchard, R. H.; Petraitis, D. C.; Rutledge, T. M.; Boudreaux, T. J.; Robbie, M. D.; Yarborough, S.; Fornea, G.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has operated and maintained the full 39-station array of open ocean tsunameters since 2008 using the second generation Deep-ocean Reporting and Assessment of Tsunamis technology. The array provides real-time, ocean bottom measurements to Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) located in Hawai'i and Alaska. These measurements aid them in detecting the presence or absence of tsunamis in the open ocean and in determining the essential characteristics of a tsunami to support the TWC. Thirty-two of the stations span the Pacific Ocean, while seven are located in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The sensors are located on the ocean floor to depths of 6000 m and the system must deliver measurements from that depth to the TWCs in 3 minutes or less. These vast horizontal and vertical distances and the often extreme conditions of the open ocean raise considerable challenges in maintaining necessary and sufficient measurements to support the TWCs. To support this effort, NDBC aims to maintain and generally achieves a goal of 80% real-time data availability. Data availability is the percentage of measurements received versus the number of expected measurements. Using seven years of data we examine operational performance parameters such as real-time and retrospective data availability and tsunami detection for trends, patterns, and the factors affecting performance and reliability of the array. We will also discuss the initial results of the Field Evaluation of the 4th Generation technology.

  17. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  18. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  19. Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 march 13

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Brian J.; Pevtsov, Alexei A. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.edu

    2013-12-01

    NOAA 11429 was the source of an M7.9 X-ray flare at the western solar limb (N18° W63°) on 2012 March 13 at 17:12 UT. Observations of the line-of-sight magnetic flux and the Stokes I and V profiles from which it is derived were carried out by the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) with a 45 s cadence over the full disk, at a spatial sampling of 0.''5. During flare onset, a transient patch of negative flux can be observed in SDO/HMI magnetograms to rapidly appear within the positive polarity penumbra of NOAA 11429. We present here a detailed study of this magnetic transient and offer interpretations as to whether this highly debated phenomenon represents a 'real' change in the structure of the magnetic field at the site of the flare, or is instead a product of instrumental/algorithmic artifacts related to particular SDO/HMI data reduction techniques.

  20. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  1. Polar Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Schulteis, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    The present and projected benefits of the polar regions were reviewed and then translated into information needs in order to support the array of polar activities anticipated. These needs included measurement sensitivities for polar environmental data (ice/snow, atmosphere, and ocean data for integrated support) and the processing and delivery requirements which determine the effectiveness of environmental services. An assessment was made of how well electromagnetic signals can be converted into polar environmental information. The array of sensor developments in process or proposed were also evaluated as to the spectral diversity, aperture sizes, and swathing capabilities available to provide these measurements from spacecraft, aircraft, or in situ platforms. Global coverage and local coverage densification options were studied in terms of alternative spacecraft trajectories and aircraft flight paths.

  2. EDITORIAL: Polarization Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Jari; Friesem, Asher A.; Friberg, Ari T.

    2004-03-01

    This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which are based on presentations at the International Commission for Optics Topical Meeting on Polarization Optics, held in Polvijärvi, Finland, between 30 June and 3 July 2003. While this issue should not in any sense be considered as a `proceedings' of this meeting, the possibility of submitting papers to it was widely advertised during the meeting, which was attended by a large fraction of prominent scientists in the field of polarization optics. Thus the quality of papers in this special issue is high. In announcing both the meeting and this special issue, we emphasized that the concept of `polarization optics' should be understood in a wide sense. In fact, all contributions dealing with the vectorial nature of light were welcome. As a result, the papers included here cover a wide range of different aspects of linear and nonlinear polarization optics. Both theoretical and experimental features are discussed. We are pleased to see that the conference and this special issue both reflect the wide diversity of important and novel polarization phenomena in optics. The papers in this special issue, and other recently published works, demonstrate that even though polarization is a fundamental property of electromagnetic fields, interest in it is rapidly increasing. The fundamental relations between partial coherence and partial polarization are currently under vigorous research in electromagnetic coherence theory. In diffractive optics it has been found that the exploitation of the vectorial nature of light can be of great benefit. Fabrication of sophisticated, spatially variable polarization-control elements is becoming possible with the aid of nanolithography. Polarization singularities and the interplay of bulk properties and topology in nanoscale systems have created much enthusiasm. In nonlinear optics, the second harmonic waves generated on reflection and

  3. NOAA Surveys; Stabalizing Economy and Ecology on The U.S. Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylton, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA TEACHER AT SEA: LISHA LANDER HYLTON ONBOARD NOAA SHIP: DELAWARE II JUNE 29TH -JULY 11TH, 2008 MISSION: The mission of my trip with NOAA was to provide me (a teacher of third grade students) an extraordinary opportunity to take part in genuine-world experiences being conducted by NOAA in order for me to achieve a clearer insight into our ocean planet and a superior perceptive of NOAA-related careers. With the knowledge that I obtained on-board THE DELAWAREII - I am now able to teach the lesson plans created on my field study to my students, giving them insight as to how much power they have on their lives and this world we live in. My students are able to play a part in maritime activities as we study together, valuing the work and expertise that is required to sustain oceanic and atmospheric research. The students' enthusiasm, inquisitiveness and yearning to learn is only heightened with the hands-on, motivational activities that I gained from my research with this NOAA team. As a Part of this NOAA team, on-board we conducted clam surveys at various stations along the northeastern coast of the United States. I learned that clams are a very important part of economy and ecology in this region. Surveying clams and other marine species was performed on my field study with NOAA for the purpose of conserving marine life. NOAA realizes the importance of the fishing industry and conducts fishery surveys in order to stabilize fishery industries without destroying the marine ecosystems completely. Clams play a very important part in marine fishery; therefore these surveys are helping to maintain stability in the economy and ecology of The United States. By comparing past and present fishery surveys, our team made conclusions regarding the stability of these marine populations. After dredging, collecting, sorting, counting, measuring and weighing (clams with shells and shucked clam meat only) - the data was obtained and recorded then entered into computers filed under

  4. NASA/NOAA: Earth Science Electronic Theater 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. Fritz

    1999-01-01

    The Electronic Theater (E-theater) presents visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI-Onyx Graphics-Supercomputer are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the NASA Goddard Visualization and Analysis Laboratory (VAL/912), and Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS/930), as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the Earth Science E-Theater 1999 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris, Munich, Sydney, Melbourne, Honolulu, Washington, New York, and Dallas. The presentation Jan 11-14 at the AMS meeting in Dallas used a 4-CPU SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation with 8 GB RAM and a Terabyte Disk at 3840 X 1024 resolution with triple synchronized BarcoReality 9200 projectors on a 60ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense HyperImage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many

  5. Active polarization descattering.

    PubMed

    Treibitz, Tali; Schechner, Yoav Y

    2009-03-01

    Vision in scattering media is important but challenging. Images suffer from poor visibility due to backscattering and attenuation. Most prior methods for scene recovery use active illumination scanners (structured and gated), which can be slow and cumbersome, while natural illumination is inapplicable to dark environments. The current paper addresses the need for a non-scanning recovery method, that uses active scene irradiance. We study the formation of images under widefield artificial illumination. Based on the formation model, the paper presents an approach for recovering the object signal. It also yields rough information about the 3D scene structure. The approach can work with compact, simple hardware, having active widefield, polychromatic polarized illumination. The camera is fitted with a polarization analyzer. Two frames of the scene are taken, with different states of the analyzer or polarizer. A recovery algorithm follows the acquisition. It allows both the backscatter and the object reflection to be partially polarized. It thus unifies and generalizes prior polarization-based methods, which had assumed exclusive polarization of either of these components. The approach is limited to an effective range, due to image noise and illumination falloff. Thus, the limits and noise sensitivity are analyzed. We demonstrate the approach in underwater field experiments.

  6. Polar Warming Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  7. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  8. NOAA's Global Network of N2O Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugokencky, E. J.; Crotwell, A. M.; Crotwell, M.; Masarie, K. A.; Lang, P. M.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide has surpassed CFC-12 to become the third largest contributor to radiative forcing. When climate impacts for equal emitted masses of N2O and CO2 are integrated over 100 years, N2O impacts are about 300 times greater than those of CO2. Increasing the atmospheric burden of N2O also decreases the abundance of O3 in the stratosphere. With reductions in emissions of ODSs as a result of the Montreal Protocol, N2O now has the largest ODP-weighted emissions of all gases. Given its long lifetime of about 130 years, today's emissions will impact climate and stratospheric O3 for a long time. Because emission rates are very small and spread over enormous areas, the detailed N2O budget has large uncertainties. It also means measurement requirements on precision and accuracy are stringent, especially for the background atmosphere. The Carbon Cycle Group of NOAA ESRL's Global Monitoring Division began measuring N2O in discrete air samples collected as part of its global cooperative air sampling network in 1998. Data from about 60 air sampling sites provide important constraints on the large-scale budget of N2O and provide boundary conditions for continental and regional-scale studies. This presentation will briefly describe the procedures used to ensure the data are of sufficient quality to meet scientific demands, and describe remaining limitations. Although sampling is infrequent (weekly), the data are quite useful in N2O budget studies. Examples will be given of large scale constraints on N2O's budget, including the global burden, trends in the burden, global emissions, spatial distributions, vertical gradients, and seasonal patterns.

  9. NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices as agrometeorological growth parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the utility of NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices as agrometeorological growth parameters. The area chosen to the study was the Punjab and the Haryana states of India, both comprising districts primarily under wheat cultivation with 68-76% geographical area under agriculture and 89-96% agricultural area under wheat. Application of geometric correction to visible and near IR band images followed by computation of NDVI and RVI images yielded less error than the conventional method of correction to NDVI/RVI images. Images having far-side boundary pixel upto 38 degree scan angle did not cause significant error at district level statistics. RVI was more sensitive than NDVI from emergence to near jointing and maturity to senescence stages. Prior to jointing stage and after dough stage RVI can be transformed to NDVI, to enable its joint use with NDVI. The maximum and mean air temperatures based growing degree days (GDD) related well with the NDVI/RVI temporal profile over the entire crop growth cycle at 98-99% significance level. However, shapewise the maximum temperature based GDD was superior to mean temperature based GDD, whereas minimum temperature based GDD had statistically significant relationship only upto dough stage at 95% significance level. The integrated NDVI (INDVI) values computed for mid of late-tillering to jointing stage were significantly related to the yield (r-square = 0.867, at 99.34% significance level). When INDVI at this stage was coupled with that of mid of milking and dough - nearing maturity stages, the predictability of wheat yields increased (r-square = 0.891, at 99.32% significance level).

  10. Recurrent Jets Occurred Nearby Active Region NOAA 11931

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-kun, Hu; Zhi, Xu; Zhi-ke, Xue; Xiao-li, Yan; Yuan-deng, Shen; Ning, Wu; Jun, Lin

    2016-10-01

    According to the 171 Å observation of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) in 2013 December 25∼26, a series of homologous jets were continuously found in the southwestern area of the active region NOAA 11931, from which 12 typical jets were selected and studied in this paper. The magnetic field structures in most jets had an obviously untwisting motion in the ejection process, though a few of them didn't have. The process of some jets was divided into two phases: the slow ejection without untwisting, and the rapid untwisting ejection. Before some jets started, a bright point grew along the bottom of magnetic arcade, and extended from the end remote from the jet to the end proximate to the jet, and there were two parts of magnetic structures near the bottom of magnetic arcade untwisted simultaneously in the ejection process. During the final one jet, two magnetic arcades appeared successively in the southeastern end of the magnetic structure on the jet bottom, while a small magnetic loop emerged in the northwestern end. Compared with the line-of-sight magnetogram of SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI), in about 4 h before the first jet appeared, a pair of magnetic dipoles emerged from the bottom of magnetic structure, and continuously lifted during the whole jet event. Although overall the bottom magnetic field emerged before and after the 12 jets, but for each individual jet, the variation of the bottom magnetic field was different from one another: in some jets, the magnetic field near the magnetic arcade on the jet bottom exhibited both magnetic emergence and cancellation; but in other jets, the magnetic field near the jet bottom exhibited only an obvious emergence or cancellation.

  11. Space weather activities at NOAA s Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunches, J.

    The NOAA Space Environment Center is the focal point for real-time space weather monitoring and prediction in the United States . The Space Weather Operations (SWO) division staffs a 24-hour/day operations center, through which both in-situ and remotely sensed data and imagery flow. These diverse data streams are analyzed continuously, and that information is applied to both predictions and specifications of various aspects of the space environment. These include the behavior of the geomagnetic field, the character of the ionosphere, and the strength of the near-earth radiation environment. Models are brought to bear in each of thes e areas, as SEC has an active research-to-operations transition effort. The Rapid Prototyping Center is the venue through which pertinent models and data must pass to be brought into the operational arena. The model outputs are then made available both internally and externally. SEC is a member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES), a partnership currently consisting of eleven nations. The mission of the ISES is to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment by: the rapid exchange of space environment information; the standardization of the methodology for space environment observations and data reduction; the uniform publication of observations and statistics; and the application of standardized space environment products and services to assist users in reducing the impact of space weather on activities of human interest. An overview of the operational attributes of the SEC, and the function of the ISES, will be presented. Additional issues related to space weather customers, new data streams to be available in the near-term, and how these new data and imagery will be integrated int o operations will be discussed.

  12. Rich client data exploration and research prototyping for NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael; Gladkova, Irina; Guch, Ingrid; Alabi, Paul; Shahriar, Fazlul; Bonev, George; Aizenman, Hannah

    2009-08-01

    Data from satellites and model simulations is increasing exponentially as observations and model computing power improve rapidly. Not only is technology producing more data, but it often comes from sources all over the world. Researchers and scientists who must collaborate are also located globally. This work presents a software design and technologies which will make it possible for groups of researchers to explore large data sets visually together without the need to download these data sets locally. The design will also make it possible to exploit high performance computing remotely and transparently to analyze and explore large data sets. Computer power, high quality sensing, and data storage capacity have improved at a rate that outstrips our ability to develop software applications that exploit these resources. It is impractical for NOAA scientists to download all of the satellite and model data that may be relevant to a given problem and the computing environments available to a given researcher range from supercomputers to only a web browser. The size and volume of satellite and model data are increasing exponentially. There are at least 50 multisensor satellite platforms collecting Earth science data. On the ground and in the sea there are sensor networks, as well as networks of ground based radar stations, producing a rich real-time stream of data. This new wealth of data would have limited use were it not for the arrival of large-scale high-performance computation provided by parallel computers, clusters, grids, and clouds. With these computational resources and vast archives available, it is now possible to analyze subtle relationships which are global, multi-modal and cut across many data sources. Researchers, educators, and even the general public, need tools to access, discover, and use vast data center archives and high performance computing through a simple yet flexible interface.

  13. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  14. The Science Behind the NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. Fritz; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Details of the science stories and scientific results behind the Etheater Earth Science Visualizations from the major remote sensing institutions around the country will be explained. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Temple Square and the University of Utah Campus. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s see them contrasted with the latest US/Europe/Japan global weather data. See the latest images and image sequences from NASA & NOAA missions like Terra, GOES, NOAA, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 visualized with state-of-the art tools. A similar retrospective of numerical weather models from the 1960s will be compared with the latest "year 2002" high-resolution models. See the inner workings of a powerful hurricane as it is sliced and dissected using the University of Wisconsin Vis-5D interactive visualization system. The largest super computers are now capable of realistic modeling of the global oceans. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed phitoplankton and zooplankton as well as draw the crill fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nina climate regimes. The Internet and networks have appeared while computers and visualizations have vastly improved over the last 40 years. These advances make it possible to present the broad scope and detailed structure of the huge new observed and simulated datasets in a compelling and instructive manner. New visualization tools allow us to interactively roam & zoom through massive global images larger than 40,000 x 20,000 pixels. Powerful movie players allow us to interactively roam, zoom & loop through 4000 x 4000 pixel bigger than HDTV movies of up to 5000 frames. New 3D tools allow highly interactive manipulation of detailed perspective views of many changing model quantities. See the 1m resolution before and after

  15. Comparison of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the NOAA Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    Gamma and X- Ray Spectrometer (SSB/A)......... .. VI-14 H. Gamma and X- Ray Detector (SSB/S and SSB/X) ..... o VI-14 I. Space Environment Monitor (SEM...of importance ): -- 1.5 nmi IR, 1.5 nmi visible, 0.3 nmi IR, 0.3 nmi visible. (Centralized applications) ---- 0.3 nmi visible, 0.3 nmi IR, 1.5 nmi...balloons, are important in satellite services. Collection and relay of messages from emergency transmitters -- borne by aircraft and ships as a part of the

  16. Polarized Light Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  17. [Polar and non polar notations of refraction].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, O; Gaujoux, T; Costantini, E; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

    2010-01-01

    Refraction can be expressed by four polar notations which correspond to four different combinations of spherical or cylindrical lenses. Conventional expressions of refraction (plus and minus cylinder notation) are described by sphere, cylinder, and axis. In the plus cylinder notation, the axis visualizes the most powerful meridian. The axis usually corresponds to the bow tie axis in curvature maps. Plus cylinder notation is also valuable for all relaxing procedures (i.e., selective suture ablation, arcuate keratotomy, etc.). In the cross-cylinder notation, two orthogonal cylinders can describe (without the sphere component) the actual refraction of both the principal meridians. This notation must be made before performing the vertex calculation. Using an association of a Jackson cross-cylinder and a spherical equivalent, refraction can be broken down into two pure components: astigmatism and sphere. All polar notations of refraction may perfectly characterize a single refraction but are not suitable for statistical analysis, which requires nonpolar expression. After doubling the axis, a rectangular projection breaks down the Jackson cross-cylinder, which has a polar axis, into two Jackson cross-cylinders on the 0 degrees /90 degrees and 45 degrees /135 degrees axis. This procedure results in the loss of the directional nature of the data. Refraction can be written in a nonpolar notation by three rectangular coordinates (x,y,z), which can also represent the spherocylinder by one point in a dioptric space. These three independent (orthogonal) variables have a concrete optical significance: a spherical component, a direct/inverse (WTR/ATR) component, and an oblique component of the astigmatism. Finally, nonpolar notations are useful for statistical analysis and graphical representation of refraction.

  18. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowben, P. A.; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO2 and Cr2O3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.

  19. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Dowben, P A; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-04

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO(2) and Cr(2)O(3) illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.

  20. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  1. Using CLARREO for spectral calibration of NOAA operational satellite sensors: Lessons learned from studies with AIRS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Cao, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) Mission will provide the spectrally resolved thermal IR and reflected solar measurements with high absolute accuracy. These SI traceable measurements will provide the basis for absolute calibration for a wide range of visible and infrared (IR) Earth observing sensors. In particular, CLARREO can potentially reduce the spectral uncertainties of NOAA’s operational satellite sensors. This study explores the potential of using CLARREO measurements for on-orbit spectral calibration for future NOAA operational sensors on both polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms. Lessons learned from the on-orbit spectral calibration of current systems will be reviewed based on our studies using Atmospheric Infrared Sounders (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) as quasi on-orbit standards in assessing Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), GOES Imagers and Sounders, and High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS). The on-going effort of spectral cross-check between AIRS and IASI with simultaneous nadir observations (SNOs) will be discussed. This method will also be used to verify the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) using CLARREO measurements. Similar work is planned to verify GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) using CLARREO based on studies between IASI/AIRS and GOES Imager as proxy.

  2. Polar low dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1992-12-15

    Polar lows are intense subsynoptic-scale cyclones that form over high-latitude oceans in association with deep cumulus convection and strong ambient baroclinicity. Recent observations indicate that polar lows are generally initiated by a nonaxisymmetric interaction between a surface disturbance and an upper-level mobile trough. Extant theories of polar low formation preclude study of such a process since they either constrain their models to be axisymmetric, or do not explicitly account for his transient interaction. In this work the physics of interacting upper- and lower-level potential vorticity structures is studied as an initial-value problem using a three-dimensional nonlinear geostrophic momentum model that incorporates moist processes and includes strong baroclinic dynamics. Model results illustrate the rapid formation of an intense small-scale cyclone whose structure is consistent with observations of mature polar lows. A conceptual model of polar low development is proposed. In the first stage of development, called induced self-development, a mobile upper trough initiates a rapid low-level spinup due to the enhanced omega response in a conditionally neutral baroclinic atmosphere. A secondary development follows, called diabatic destabilization, that is associated with the production of low-level potential vorticity by diabatic processes. Diabatic destabilization represents a simple mechanism for maintaining the intensity of polar lows until they reach land. In exceptional instances of negligible upper-level forcing, the latter may also describe the gradual intensification of small-scale cyclones in regions of sustained neutrality and surface baroclinicity. Ideas regarding polar low equilibration and prospects for a unified theory of arctic and midlatitude cyclones are discussed. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  4. Spin-polarized Auger electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, H.; Semke, J.

    1990-12-01

    The spin polarization of Auger electrons will be discussed within the standard two-step model of the Auger emission process for different situations: target polarized, projectile polarized, targe and projectile unpolarized. In these three cases different interaction mechanisms are responsible for the polarization of the emitted Auger electrons. The present theoretical and experimental situation will be reviewed.

  5. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  6. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  7. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  8. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  9. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-10-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  10. Waves in polar lows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orimolade, A. P.; Furevik, B. R.; Noer, G.; Gudmestad, O. T.; Samelson, R. M.

    2016-08-01

    In a rather stationary fetch, one would not expect large waves in polar low situations. However, the picture changes when one considers a moving fetch. The significant wave heights that may be associated with the recorded polar lows on the Norwegian continental shelf from December 1999 to October 2015 are estimated using a one-dimensional parametric wave model. A comparison of the measured and the forecasted significant wave heights in two recent polar low cases in the Barents Sea is presented. The estimated significant wave heights show that the values could have been up to and above 9 m. The forecasted significant wave heights considerably underestimated the measured significant wave heights in the two recent polar low cases that are considered. Furthermore, a generalization of the fetch-limited wave equation in polar lows is proposed, which allows the wind field to vary in space and time, and is shown to give results that are consistent with the one-dimensional parametric model.

  11. A Compact Polarization Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Karl E.; Rust, David M.; Chen, Hua

    1995-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to analyze the polarization of light simultaneously at all picture elements (pixels) in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a custom-designed charge-coupled device with signal-analysis circuitry, all integrated on a silicon chip. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Other applications include environmental monitoring and robot vision. Innovations in the IDID include two interleaved 512 x 1024 pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane), large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel), simultaneous readout and display of both images at 10(exp 6) pixels per second, and on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time. When used with a lithium niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can reveal tiny differences between simultaneous images at two wavelengths.

  12. Historical Weather and Climate KML datasets at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, R.; Ansari, S.; Reid, G.; Del Greco, S.; Lott, N.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is using KML to share historical weather and climate data with the Virtual Globe community. Many diverse datasets are available as dynamic, static or custom manually created KML. The following dynamic datasets include archives delivered as REST-based KML web services: - NEXRAD Level-III point features describing general storm structure, hail, mesocyclone and tornado signatures - NOAA's National Weather Service Storm Events Database - NOAA's National Weather Service Local Storm Reports collected from storm spotters - NOAA's National Weather Service Warnings Static datasets include: - Integrated Surface Data (ISD), worldwide surface weather observations - Global Climate Observing System, a comprehensive system focused on the requirements for climate issues - Monthly Climatic Data for the World, approximately 1200 surface and 500 upper air worldwide stations In addition, the NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit provides custom KML output for NEXRAD Radar and GOES Satellite Imagery. These various access methods provide KML capability to a wide variety of historical data and enhance the interoperability, integration and usability of NCDC data.

  13. NOAA View: A Visualization Tool for Archived and Real-Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisut, D.; Powell, A. M.; Loomis, T.; Goel, V.; Cowan, D.; Mills, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wouldn't data discovery be easier if you could see the output before actually downloading it? Although data visualization provides an invaluable ability to better understand the complex processes associated with studying atmospheric and oceanic data, an enormous amount of time may be spent in the initial research phases of downloading and developing preliminary data plots. The NOAA Visualization Lab has recently released a new data portal that may help expedite the process of seeing visualizing data and comparing variables. The NOAA View portal is not a typical data portal - it is a data imagery portal. Using pre-rendered imagery of NOAA's vast data archives, the WMS-enabled website interface allows the user to easily browse historical and real-time data for over 75 variables. Though initially intended as an outreach tool, the site has proven useful to researchers, and also acts as a portal to official data distribution points in NOAA. In this presentation we will discuss the architecture and browsing capabilities of NOAA View related to its application in data discovery and exploration.

  14. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  15. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  16. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  17. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  18. Polarization imaging detection technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mo-gen; Wang, Feng; Xu, Guo-ming; Yuan, Hong-wu

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyse the polarization imaging theory and the commonly process of the polarization imaging detection. Based on this, we summarize our many years' research work especially in the mechanism, technology and system of the polarization imaging detection technology. Combined with the up-to-date development at home and abroad, this paper discusses many theory and technological problems of polarization imaging detection in detail from the view of the object polarization characteristics, key problem and key technology of polarization imaging detection, polarization imaging detection system and application, etc. The theory and technological problems include object all direction polarization characteristic retrieving, the optical electronic machinery integration designing of the polarization imaging detection system, the high precision polarization information analysis and the polarization image fast processing. Moreover, we point out the possible application direction of the polarization imaging detection technology both in martial and civilian fields. We also summarize the possible future development trend of the polarization imaging detection technology in the field of high spectrum polarization imaging. This paper can provide evident reference and guidance to promote the research and development of the polarization imaging detection technology.

  19. Depolarization in polarizing supermirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauser, Christine; Bigault, Thierry; Böni, Peter; Courtois, Pierre; Devishvili, Anton; Rebrova, Nataliya; Schneider, Michael; Soldner, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    We present data on depolarizing effects in polarizing mirrors. At typical magnetizing field strengths used in polarizing devices, depolarizations rise up to the percent level in the specular region and are shown to be successfully suppressed to 10-4 when increasing the magnetizing field. We show evidence linking a part of this depolarization to lateral correlation of the magnetization fluctuations in the ferromagnetic layers. Effects of the supermirror factor (m), wavelength and incidence angle are studied. The findings are applied to a crossed supermirror geometry and we report a neutron beam polarization of 99.97(1)% for a beam of wavelength λ = 5.3 Å, Δλ/λ = 0.1 (FWHM).

  20. North Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an exposure of finely-detailed layers in the martian north polar region. The polar ice cap, which is made up of frozen water (whereas the south polar cap is mostly frozen carbon dioxide), is underlain by a thick sequence of layers. Some have speculated that these layers may record the history of changes in martian climate during the past few hundreds of millions of years. This picture is located near 86.0oN, 30.2oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.